AUBEA 2017:Papers with Abstracts

Abstract. Students’ post-intervention perceptions of an event provide insight relative to their understanding and appreciation of the intervention, as well as the impact thereof.
Experience and anecdotal evidence indicate that Honours students experience challenges in terms of completing the academic year.
The purpose of the study reported on is to determine the impact of a one-day team building event on participants directed at, inter alia, developing their ability to manage themselves, work as a team, and interface with each other, and their ability to strategise, plan, evolve tactics, and take action, based upon a self-administered questionnaire survey conducted in a South African university. The students were surveyed after the completion of the event.
The salient findings include - the team building activities impacted on participants in many ways, contributed to an enhancement of their ability to strategise, plan, evolve tactics, and take action, and participants enjoyed and benefited from the team building activities.
It can be concluded that the one-day team building event had the desired impact in terms of the development of participants’ ability to manage themselves, work as a team, and interface with each other, and their ability to strategise, plan, evolve tactics, and take action.
It is recommended that the one-day team building event continue to be staged at the beginning of the Honours year, and that the post-event research be conducted on an annual basis.
Abstract. Contractors convert design into reality. They are presumed as a major contributor of carbon emissions from the construction development. Carbon reduction strategies were proposed in previous studies. Nevertheless, contractors were often criticised for standing aloof to adopt them. Some argued that the contractors may not have contractual leverage to challenge the decisions made by the developers and the consultants. Nonetheless, there has been a lack of research that focuses on how different construction project organisations (CPOs) may be affecting carbon reduction strategies adoption. This paper presents a study that investigates the effect of the construction project organisations have on the contactors’ adoption of carbon reduction strategies. An industry survey was conducted in Melbourne, Australia. 200 questionnaires were sent to the registered contractors. Monte Carlo simulations were conducted to examine how the priorities of strategies adoption may be affected by the CPOs. The results indicate that developers and the design consultants are influential to contractors’ decision in adopting those carbon reduction strategies that may incur additional project cost. The results indicate that decisions towards the adoption of strategies may not be swayed towards their effectiveness of achieving carbon reduction. Instead, tightening planning and building regulations might affect decisions.
Abstract. In this global era and insurgency of technology, education is seen as a first pace for every human activity. However, there seem to exist various determinants which results in difference in academic performance among students. This study was designed to examine the attribution factors affecting academic performance of construction post-graduate students of KNUST-Kumasi. Based on extensive literature review the attribution factors could be grouped into five main components. Presented are results from statistical analyses of 49 questionnaire survey responses from construction post graduate students of KNUST-Kumasi. The results validated all the 15 attribution factors of academic performance used for the survey. Personal study periods, the role played by lecturers and financial status are identified as the most attributed factor affecting academic performance of tertiary students. To analyse the data, non-parametric statistical testing using descriptive statistics, mean score index and Relative Importance Index (RII) were used through appropriate statistical package. The findings of this paper could help policy makers especially those in the Quality Assurance unit, the Central Academic office and the Ministry of Education on what policies and strategies can be employed to improve academic performance in institutions of higher learning as well as students, parents and teachers to guide them properly and as per their abilities. For further studies, it is recommended that more predictive variables be added so as to ascertain more significant predictors of academic performance of tertiary students.
Abstract. Organizational commitment is recognised as having a positive relationship with employee retention and performance, yet the nature of commitment in a project-orientated organization is unknown. Project orientated organizations are complicated by temporary teams, varying workloads and inability to guarantee future projects. To date, research in project orientated organizations treats employees as an homogenous body. Adopting a case study methodology, this research explored organizational commitment within a project organization, comparing staff within the organization. Employees were asked to complete an online instrument measuring affective, normative and continuance commitment. Analysis compared results from project managers, project staff and support staff. The research found that project managers reported stronger affective commitment; support staff reported the strongest normative and continuance commitment. The concept of self-investment by employees in the organization is explored as a possible cause of high continuance commitment amongst support staff. Project organizations can use this information to enhance their management of employees. It is important for an organization with project and non-project employees to understand and meet the needs of different roles. The research concludes that the projectification of organizations has wider human resource management and productivity implications and requires further investigation.
Abstract. Australia is on the cusp of a range of global megatrends across technology, society, the economy, and the environment which are changing the world of work for future graduates beyond current recognition. Digitisation, technology and automation are requiring new skills at a rate of exponential change. Many of these skills have traditionally been classified as skills related to STEM disciplines. But future employability is now linked to the growing demand for 21st century STEM skills beyond existing traditional understandings of STEM. It will not only be STEM graduates who will need 21st century skills of discipline literacy, adaptive thinking, proficiency in coding and technology, utilising a design mindset, complex problem-solving and analytical thinking skills. All students, including built environment graduates, will need adaptive thinking about their worlds and exposure to 21st century STEM skills and understandings. This research work by members of the OLT funded STEM Ecosystem illustrates the development of STEM skill learning opportunities for built environment students. The learning opportunities discussed in this paper are archetypes of 21st century skills and featured engagement with diverse cohorts of students, practice-oriented learning, STEM literacy, adaptive thinking and discipline-based core knowledge. The results from 46 student interviews indicate the relevance of 21st century STEM skills for built environment students, and the increased skill set of built environment students involved. The results and outcomes of this research have the capacity to provide industry with built environment graduates who are not only technically skilled but future 21st century STEM work-enabled.
Abstract. The value of interdisciplinary approaches to curriculum have been considered successful along multiple fronts; including reducing administrative burden from inter departmental collaboration, providing “intellectual” solutions to problems and breaking academic discipline boundaries. Criticism from industry often focuses on educators not preparing graduates for work in the real world. A major reason underpinning this criticism is that the students are not exposed to the requisite skills to make them work- ready. Despite the pressures to include interdisciplinary approaches from an ethical perspective, putting it into practice is difficult. This paper presents the findings of involving students from three different schools from a Victorian university in Australia: built environment, business and computer science. The project was developed as part of a state government competitive fund where industry, staff and students worked together to support each other and realize mutual benefits. The aim of the study was to develop an approach involving students in a theory-practice model of a real world project by selecting a building within the university as a case study to arm students with real world knowledge focusing on sustainability outcomes. The objective was to assist in preparing students from different disciplines for better workplace experiences, where they can bring in interdisciplinary thinking and practice into their day-day operations. The outcomes for the university, in using this building as a living laboratory, was to capture lessons learned through the process of improving future building developments from a sustainability perspective. Student involvement was successful, but true interdisciplinary engagement was not achieved.
Abstract. Large and mega-events employ traditional procurement approaches, adopting an adversarial stance with contractors/suppliers. These events are often beset with problems with the contractors/suppliers. This study investigates whether early contractor involvement (ECI) is being applied to the procurement processes within the event planning and management industry and to explore the potential benefits and challenges of the application of ECI within that industry. ECI attempts to exploit the contractor/supplier's specialist knowledge and expertise to the benefit the project planning and design process to provide mutual benefits and minimise the drawbacks associated with an adversarial contract. This paper argues that an event is a particular type of project and discusses the potential benefits of ECI to the event planning and management industry. A literature review approach was used to explore the construction and infrastructure industries and the event planning and management industry to determine whether ECI is being utilized to any meaningful degree. Overall the study findings indicate that by adopting ECI the event planning and management industry could expect similar benefits to those observed in the construction and infrastructure industries.
Abstract. A series of incidents in a short period created cause for concern on a large construction project in the UK (+£500m). Incident investigations are one of the ways to learn about safety failings, so that remedial action can be put into place to avoid a recurrence. The researcher was a member of the H&S department, with the role of a participant observer during the incident investigation period. Data collection included: informal conversations with employees; attending safety and accident investigation meetings; viewing project documents; and attending the safety stand down that occurred. The case study findings revealed that a blame culture restricted information flow on the incidents; and consequently there was a focus on easily observable unsafe acts, and static unsafe conditions, providing a narrow rather than deep perspective. These acts and conditions, such as a lack of compliance with PPE, or a weather condition, were often difficult to manage. For safety understanding the project repeatedly used Heinrich’s (1931) seminal work as a foundation. However, this work is arguably outdated as it focuses on accidents on an individual rather than complex socio-technical level.
Abstract. Many industries have felt the impact of disruptive change on their profitability and established practices. Examples of disruption have been documented in industries as diverse as transportation, photography, newspapers, retailing, recorded music and computer graphics. The construction industry has mostly avoided large-scale disruption because, in spite of the globalisation evident in mega projects, most construction is locally-based and delivered within a specific national context and regulatory system. This may be about to change. The forces of digitisation, industrialisation and globalisation are combining to generate the potential for disruptive enterprises which will grab market share and shake up existing business models. As academics striving to prepare students to be employment-ready, we need to open their eyes to the potential of the new economy to support new business models that are quite different from traditional construction companies. Students will need to be entrepreneurial in seeking out opportunities and identifying market niches. In two new and developing units/subjects at an Australian university these issues are being raised. Students are challenged to identify markets and market strategies enabled by social enterprises, collaborative systems, the ‘Internet of Things’ and even ‘Brutal Innovation’. Using student feedback and reflective practice, the lessons from the first two offerings of the new units are identified and teased out. In general, students respond well to the challenge of strategic thinking which relates to their future careers. While predicting the future is always fraught with difficulty, not attempting to do so could leave us vulnerable to disruptive change.
Abstract. In Hong Kong, it is a common practice for main contractors to divide the projects into work packages by trade and sublet to sub-contractors. The interaction between sub-contractors and main contractors is an important determinant to the success of a project. However, there is an increasing complaint from sub-contractors that they cannot perform to their full capacity because of poor site-coordination by main contractors. This paper aims to identify and categorize the common site coordination problems in Hong Kong Building Projects. Thirty- eight common site-coordination problems were identified through literature and they were classified into six main categories of problems: Construction document; Site management; Site layout; Equipment support; Material support; and Preparation of site area. A questionnaire survey was conducted to analyze the frequency of occurrence (F.I.) and degree of severity (S.I.) of the problems to the projects. The aggregated importance (IMP.I.), taking into account of the frequency of occurrence and degree of severity, of problems on sub-contractors’ time performance were ranked. Frequent changes of construction works was found to be the most important site coordination problem. Most of the important problems caused the delay to subcontract works were primarily related to Construction document.
Abstract. Property market forecasting is an integral element of decision-making. It is critical that property analysts employ a wide - range of models and techniques for property forecasting. These models have one overriding aim of predicting reasonable estimates of key dependent variables (demand, supply, rent, yield, vacancy and net absorption) based on the independent variables of core economic activities. However, a broad-fronted social, economic, technical, political and ecological evolution can throw up sudden, unexpected shocks that result in a possibility of sceptical to unknown risk factors. These structural changes decrease, even eliminate predictability of property market performance. Hence, forecasting beyond econometrics is raised as the research problem in this study. This study follows a qualitative research approach, conducting semi-structured interviews with open-ended questions. The primary data were collected from 22 property stakeholders within Australia. Structural changes framework in the built environment is developed and categorised under PESTEL (Political, Economic, Social, Technological, Environmental, and Legal) factors. This framework was developed theoretically and subjected to empirical validation and improvement. Property conversions, integrated property functions in a single location, ‘Give and Take’ effect in property markets, NABERS compliance could be seen as emerging structural changes in the Australian commercial property markets. The understanding of the impact on the property market will provide a subjective overlay to improve the econometric forecasts.
Abstract. Higher education institutions (HEIs) infrastructure asset is a complex and massive investment, with high operational and management cost. The functionality of this infrastructure facility is paramount to the performance and well-being of its users. The effective and efficient operation and management of this facility required adequate knowledge and collaboration of all stakeholders. This study is a preliminary part of a research aim to adopt socioBIM for HE facilities users and facility management (FM) section, to interact with their learning environment and enhance collaborative practice to improve facility intelligence. The study method explores the advancement in building information modelling, decision support systems, and integrator networks based on grounded theory. Conceptually, the adoption of socioBIM reflects an enhancement of users' facility literacy, stakeholder’s participation and FM organisational intelligence within HEIs. These will culminate to stakeholder’s satisfaction and competitive advantage. Further study is also needful in the efficacy of socioBIM adoption.
Abstract. Knowledge Management (KM) is the collection and transfusion of the organization’s critical information, skills, experience, and identity, held by senior individuals, to successor generations for action. A great deal of the technical expertise in the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) has been departing through the retirement of the most experienced employees over the last several years and continues to do so today. Without robust technical competency, an organization as large as USACE cannot continue to perform design and construction functions effectively. This research study defines KM, reviews best practices from industry and assesses how USACE is performing at the working level. The research data obtained identified key needs and subsequent recommendations for additional efforts or improvements to existing initiatives. Data was collected through interviews of eight managers at a USACE District Office to make assessments and determine steps to be taken to ensure critical expertise is retained and mission execution continues effectively. This study found that at the working level the current KM program is primarily based on mentoring and informal communities of practice, and not in top-down information systems based approaches. USACE would benefit greatly from reconciling different approaches, eliminating redundant items, and a coordinated approach at all levels of leadership to champion processes that work.
Abstract. Research in the realm of projects is increasingly turning its focus on governance. Much has been written on the importance of good governance and the clear link between good governance and project success. However, few have delved into delineating the core functions of governance that is central to good governance. In this conceptual paper, we examine existing research ideas and concepts of project governance to develop a framework to add to the knowledge base of this subject. This paper proposes six core functions of project governance. They include (1) determining the objective, (2) determining the ethics, (3) creating the culture, (4) designing and implementing the governance structure, (5) ensuring accountability by management and (6) ensuring compliance. The framework described in this paper can provide guidance to organizations in the development of effective project governance to optimize the management of projects.
Abstract. The valuation profession faces significant challenges as more valuation processes become automated, and the role of the valuer becomes more one of data handling than an economic analyst. To respond to industry needs, the role of the valuer must change. It follows that there is a need for universities to re-evaluate their existing property curricula, modifying them where necessary, to prepare their graduates better for a changing workforce. Employing a series of focus group discussions with valuation practitioners, this study examined specific industry expectations from valuation graduates and provides recommendations to strategically align Australian property curricula with industry expectations in order to maintain the relevance of property education.

The study identified personal, technical and business-related skills that are essential for graduates to possess. The roles of the professional bodies, industry/employers and educators to meet the changing demand on the profession are identified. Changes are required to degree programme content in respect of digital technologies and statistical knowledge and skills. Whilst the universities offer a set curriculum that adheres to the accreditation requirements of the professional bodies, there is also a need to incorporate specialised knowledge and skills with set pathways. The need for students to have practical experience is apparent and undertaking placements with some assessment that could be credited as part of the degree is recommended. The study highlights the need for a careful analysis of student learning experience to ensure that graduate skills meet the industry expectations, and that graduates themselves are able to adapt to future changes.
Abstract. Increased competitiveness in the Australian building and construction industry has led to reduced profits for builders particularly for tier 1 builders offering essentially undifferentiated offerings. An analysis of the profitability of a sample of large commercial builders based in Victoria have confirmed that net profit margins for these companies are 2 and 3 percentage points of total revenues – wafer thin. The aims of this paper are to characterise the profitability of these commercial builders by examining a range of profitability measures, and to investigate this loss of value across the construction supply chain. The findings indicate that the average net profit margin has nearly halved from 3.2% in 2006 to 1.7% in 2015. Companies with large revenues, those exceeding $500 million annually, exhibit a generally lower profitability than smaller companies. Despite this lower profitability, return for shareholders remains reasonable with an average return on equity of 20% reflecting a shift to higher leverage, lower risk, asset light business model. Like all businesses, construction companies must demonstrate their financial viability by turning a profit and providing a convincing risk- adjusted return to their investors. Empirical evidence suggests that companies reporting low profitability are at increased risk of insolvency. Failure to acknowledge this may lead to serious financial implications for the industry and the economy.
Abstract. New Zealand housing shortage requires effective approaches to address the increasing demand over the next twenty years. Given the current situation of the New Zealand’s housing crisis, it is almost impossible to meet that demand by using the traditional methods of construction. Offsite manufacturing system can help improve housing supply capability in New Zealand. With timber being a very sustainable resource and abundant in New Zealand, timber prefab system offers the most economically and environmentally feasible solution to the housing supply challenges in New Zealand. This research aims to investigate a method that New Zealand construction industry can adopt in the offsite manufacturing system at a national scale to improve the residential housing crisis. Ten interviews and ten questionnaires were conducted with clients, designers, prefabricators, and suppliers to identify the risks and required actions in order to achieve successful application of the system. The impacts of several factors on the system such as barriers, enablers and sustainability aspects of using the timber prefab system were studied as part the research objectives. The results reveal the most sustainable method of residential housing supply in the New Zealand within the acceptable risks, productivity and having a secure government investment support.
Abstract. In 2015 a first tier New Zealand commercial construction company approached the Department of Construction at Unitec regarding the company’s management development training programme. The programme’s primary aim is to focus on introducing a more collaborative best practice approach in a competitive construction environment to some 300 middle management onsite construction staff over a 4-5 year period. The company was seeking a partnership with an innovative tertiary provider to offer specific professional development expertise, and give effect to the strategy for ongoing and accelerated growth. The delivery approach needed to have the greatest possible impact on staff in terms of engagement and knowledge transfer. How was this partnership built? in this first part of the research the philosophical and practical approaches including timelines applied by both parties and the steps of how the partnership was developed is discussed, from the initial interviews through to the developed successful partnership. The engagement to prepare and deliver this practically based real-time bespoke programme alongside the learnings will be described in later stages of the research as a series of publications
Abstract. This research focuses on determining the significance of foreign investment in the Australian residential property market subsequent to the Global Financial Crisis 2008. Quantitative models built on secondary data were tested on two residential property markets comprising Metropolitan Melbourne and a key suburb in the Victoria State, Australia. The relationship between the house price performances and various leading offshore and local Australian economic indicators were assessed. As a result of the increasing relevance of globalisation and Asia Pacific private wealth in the Australia, foreign real estate investment has impacted significantly the Melbourne residential property market performance. The result of this study provides a better understanding on the relationship between the Australian residential property market performance and the emerging significance of the foreign investment drivers. A better understanding of these foreign investment determinants will assist policy makers to effectively manage the Australian residential property market without compromising the steady flow of foreign real estate investment. The result of this study is believed to yield findings that can assist the researcher, property market operators and investors in the evaluation of foreign investments in the Australia residential housing market.
Abstract. Peer to peer mentoring is well established in the literature as providing an effective mechanism to foster student’s sense of belonging and to support their resilience and academic progress. This paper reports on a peer mentoring model that was established within a Built Environment School in 2015. The mentoring program was designed to provide peer mentoring support for Chinese students who were articulating into the third year of a Construction Management program delivered at a Melbourne university. The Chinese students had successfully completed two years of a Building Science program at the China University of Mining & Technology (CUMT). To support the Mentees to transition into year three of the Construction Management program three teaching academics from the Construction Management program partnered with their School’s Academic Developer. The project team was formed to design and implement a mentoring program that sought to deliver reciprocal learning for local Melbourne based mentors and the newly arrived Chinese mentees. The program was designed to support Mentees to transition into the Construction Management program and living in Melbourne by providing study support and opportunities for social engagement. In this paper the authors reflect on their experiences of designing and implementing the peer mentoring program and report anecdotal evidence which suggests that peer to peer mentoring can provide an effective mechanism through which students are better prepared and supported to deal positively with the process of transition and the many complex challenges this can entail.
Abstract. Autism Spectrum Conditions (ASC) are neurological disorders which make inclusion in society very difficult for the affected individuals. The main challenges that people with autism face are related to sensory processing disorders, communication difficulties and restricted repetitive patterns of behaviour. Current methods for integrating people with autism focus primarily on equipping autistic individuals with the tools to tolerate circumstances that they might find uncomfortable in social day-to-day situations. The society’s response on accommodating the condition is usually restricted to improving access to selected spaces which often have limited functionality and give the autistic narrow margins for physical and intellectual development. The paper shows the preliminary results of a qualitative meta-analysis of the extant literature relating to the balance between the cost that society needs to pay for the inclusion of people with autism versus the benefits that it can receive in the economical, social and human rights context. Also, employing the same methodology, the study explores the way in which built environment can have a contribution to the integration of people with autism and the degree to which inclusive physical space represents a positive factor to an autistic individual’s subjective wellbeing and quality of life.
Abstract. Student work readiness relates to the acquisition of relevant skills and knowledge which enable students to make meaningful contributions to industry, and assist them in their transition from student to practitioner. An individual’s smooth transition into the workforce translates into higher levels of interactions in their workplace, ensuing in benefits for both the employee and the employer. In the built environment, employees are known to experience high levels of work-related stress, exacerbating the need for built environment professionals to be well prepared for the workforce. While work readiness is typically reserved for graduates who have completed their program of study, there has been a notable increase in built environment undergraduates combining work and study prior to graduation. This trend challenges universities to consider that these students need to be work ready prior to completion of their studies. Research notes that student work readiness can be attained through collaboration between universities, students and industry. This study uses the newly conceptualised work readiness model, known as The Life Buoy model, to explore the ways in which one Australian university collaborates with industry to i.) foster the development of work ready characteristics in built environment students; and, ii.) apply university-based initiatives to underpin the development of work ready characteristics. Analysis of course-related documents classified work readiness initiatives at the university into the eight components of the Life Buoy model, suggesting that it may be a useful framework to guide universities to better work with industry in designing and assessing their work ready initiatives.
Abstract. This article is a first step in a longitudinal research in New Zealand context to identify what impact national education approaches have on uptake of BIM education in individual tertiary institutes. Although BIM and BIM education as research topics are on rise, there is limited research on national approaches and their impact on width and depth of BIM education and through that graduate capabilities and BIM adoption by the industry. Case study approach has been selected to investigate first the challenges encountered by the tertiary institutes, how these can be addressed at national level and in later stages what the impact has been to the width and depth of BIM education and graduate outcomes. Only a limited number of countries such as UK have introduced national approaches to BIM education. In New Zealand National BIM Education Working Group (NBEWG) was established in December 2014. The group has representatives from seven tertiary institutes who have strong interest in including BIM as part of their programmes. NBEWG promotes integration of BIM into all architectural, engineering and construction programmes in New Zealand by providing national curriculum guidelines and guidance in adopting BIM curriculum. A survey was conducted among the institutes to identify the key challenges encountered in BIM integration. Among these were knowledge and skill gaps among faculty, crowded curricula, and limited time for development work.
Abstract. Does the structural configuration of tall buildings affect the quality of apartment design? The architecture of tall buildings relies strongly on quantitative inputs. Yields of development, overturning moments, dynamic responses and lift-waiting periods are, for instance, items numerically measurable. The built form of tall buildings has to work within these strict and seemingly unchallengeable constraints. Yet, these same parameters should not be an impediment for spatial quality. Four case studies, taken from the recently proliferating stock of high rise apartment towers in Melbourne, are used to highlight the missed opportunities that follow from a partial application of performance-based design, where façade concepts, structural and construction inputs prevail over those of an overarching spatial integration. The mandate of performance- based design, if driven chiefly by mono-disciplinary concerns, remains incomplete, unless qualitative concerns, able to discern broader criteria for end-users, integrate as a high-level priority in the design process. A sample of apartments currently under construction in Melbourne’s CBD indicates that the emphasis on marketing, structural and construction demands is a key driver of the current built outcomes, relegating spatial quality and functionality of the dwellings produced to a third rank of priority. Some recently introduced built form controls with public benefit provisions make Melbourne an ideal environment to test, evaluate and discuss within the industry a new range of typologies. However, such guidelines should start by acknowledging a broader and more evidence-based concept of innovation, design quality and performance in design.
Abstract. The construction and engineering industry remains to be one of the most male dominated industries in the world, with between 10 and 25 percent of its employees being female. It is believed that only 62% of women who pursued engineering stayed within the industry. Research suggests that the biggest hurdle the industry needs to overcome is changing the culture within the industry. For engineering and construction organisations gender diversity adds to the opportunity to engage a more diverse range of skills and ideas, with gender diverse organisations being 15% more likely to outperform their respective industry median. It also enables organisations to match the projected more gender diverse client teams and reflect the stakeholders in the communities they serve. The aim of the study is to provide a better understanding of how do we attract and retain female professionals within the construction industry and ensure gender diversity within senior leadership teams. An exploratory qualitative study was conducted with 3 females and 1 male working within the construction and engineering industry. The results suggest that the majority of interviewees joined the construction industry due to the encouragement of a family member and all agreed that having a gender diverse team was important as it creates for more diverse communication with the clients and stakeholders. However the difficult workplace culture and stereo typing still exists particularly around the need to have to work long hours which creates difficulties when trying to balance family and career.
Abstract. There is a continual need to modify the way tertiary institutions do business to meet the needs of a changing society. The focus has been on success and retention whereas the new strategy in New Zealand supports wider economic growth and prosperity. There is a need for tertiary organisations to think about existing models and means of delivery, inclusive of new and emerging technologies as well as a continued expectation of the ability for tertiary institutions to deliver content via time and cost efficient means. Traditional scheduling involves concurrent enrolment in numerous courses with less contact time over a 16- week timeframe, whereas compressed scheduling focusses on 2 courses per 8 weeks with more instructional time per week. This paper evaluates the use of compressed scheduling methods for first and second year courses on an undergraduate programme in construction in New Zealand. The quantitative study compares end of course exam results, gender, age enrolment and residency status of 2 first year courses and 3 second year courses for the students from 2011 to 2016. The outcomes are consistent with the literature and support the proposition that a similar student learning experience can be achieved in traditional and compressed courses. The findings of the study suggest that concerns associated with offering courses or providing alternative teaching pedagogies associated with traditional and compressed scheduling are unfounded. Interestingly the females in the study performed better in a compressed schedule as compared to a traditional schedule and warrants further research.
Abstract. Currently residential aged care (RAC) provides a solution to address ageing populations in many developed countries. Demand for RAC is predicted to increase as populations continue to age with the recurrent costs posing an increasing burden on society. The contribution the built environment can play to mitigate this potential burden is becoming increasingly important in the design and construction of RAC facilities. The theories of environmental psychology rationalise the relationship between the physical environment and the individual and impacts work stress/satisfaction. Work stress/satisfaction in RAC facilities has a direct influence on quality of care and can directly affect the residents’ quality of life. This paper reports on a two stage study of design influences with the potential to impact upon the care team’s work stress/satisfaction in RAC where the benefits of consultative design are indentified. When compared to other facilities in the study the facility utilising a consultative design approach demonstrated more positive and less negative results for the design influences included. The consultative design approach reduced the potential for designers to copy and adapt a previous design, afforded universal ownership of the facility and optimised the building’s impact on work stress/satisfaction. The approach formed the basis of an overarching process to ensure the necessary elements of the design influences framework can be appropriately incorporated into the built environment.
Abstract. Successful urban open spaces can largely contribute to the enhancement of human’s day to day life. Among the determinants of the quality of outdoor environments, high priority is given to ambient climatic conditions. Therefore, this study aimed to understand the usage pattern of outdoor spaces in an educational precinct and discover its linkage to thermal conditions. The target population was the users of three open spaces of an educational precinct selected as the case study in Melbourne, Australia Three types of data collection methods including questionnaire survey, field observation and on-site measurements were employed to collect information about determinants and characteristics of usage pattern in the three consecutive seasons (spring 2014, summer 2015 and autumn 2015). The results shed lights on the seasonal usage pattern in the precinct and revealed the association between thermal conditions and the number of attendees in the study sites. The research findings are expected to inform guidelines on managing outdoor spaces, particularly within university campuses.
Abstract. Currently in many developed countries populations are ageing due to a number and combination of circumstances. Residential aged care (RAC) provides a role in addressing the associated need to care for ageing people but the potential for increased demand means RAC providers must look to further efficiencies for sustainability. The care team provides hands on care in RAC and work stress/satisfaction within the care team can be affected the quality of care and directly impacts the resident’s quality of life. The work stress/satisfaction within the care team is can also be affected by the built environment. Appropriate design of the built environment can optimise work stress/satisfaction and this paper will propose that maintenance of that environment can also have an impact. This paper will report on a study comprising semi structured interviews with care team members and management representatives from three facilities. Content analysis was carried out on interview scripts. The study revealed building maintenance was not only important to preserve an asset and reduce hazards, it also revealed building maintenance to have a bearing on a number of factors which impacted the care team’s work stress/satisfaction. This paper will suggest that strategies to improve perceived control of building maintenance may increase a view of self-worth and go towards optimisation of work stress/satisfaction amongst the care team thus promoting a level of social sustainability.
Abstract. RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) has recently gained significant attention in various industries, whereby a common application of the technology is to gather and transmit real-time information related to inventory control and logistics. This paper develops the case for the use of RFID in the prefabricated timber industry by first examining its application in other industries. From there, the paper presents a framework for the adoption and testing of RFID within the prefabricated timber industry as a method to automate inventory control, logistics, and document control, while optimizing construction duration. The paper presents the methodology for field trials designed to determine potential for RFID applications in the prefabricated timber structure supply chain from raw material production to panel fabrication to shipping and onsite logistics and finally through to construction installation. The methodology will be tested in collaboration with industry partners and Forest and Wood Products Australia.
Abstract. The construction industry increasingly embraces Building Information Models (BIM) in an attempt to enhance work practices and overcome difficulties inherent in complex construction projects. However, widespread use of BIM in small projects, specifically in the residential housing sector, is rarely evident. In an attempt to address BIM’s lack of uptake amongst residential housing contractors, a study was initiated to better understand their information/technology needs and the site planning process requirements. The premise is that a construction- orientated BIM tailored to the specific needs of those residential housing contractors can offer better value and possibly contribute to the uptake of BIM technology in that sector. In the current phase of this study, pilot interviews were conducted with housing construction professionals in Victoria, Australia, to investigate some of the existing site and resource management procedures as well as the technology context. The paper reports on selected findings of these pilot interviews particularly the technology support and potential use of BIM in housing projects. The preliminary findings suggest that the technologies actually being used for construction management are quite simple with main focus on managing administrative functions such as procurement rather than undertaking a sophisticated onsite planning process. Furthermore, while the interviewees seem to be positive towards the adoption of new technologies such as BIM, they had concerns about the lack of understanding of BIM technology and the uncertainty about its impact on changing the existing work practices.
Abstract. Constructing residential houses with cold-formed steel in Australia dates back to the 1940’s when there was a shortage of timber for use in the industry. Subsequently, this led to the formation of the National Association of Steel-Framed Housing (NASH) in 1982 with the objective of promoting the use of cold-formed steel in the construction industry, in particular for application to construction of low-rise residential houses. Over the last few decades, NASH has made significant progress in promoting steel and has led to the inclusion of steel-framed housing in the BCA and the development of a standard on residential and low-rise steel framing. Conventional detached housing is the largest single form of residential construction in Australia with approximately 120,000 built in 2015 (ABS, 2015). Therefore, the safety, durability, performance and long-term low operational costs over the 50-year design life of a typical residential house are of significance. Constructed residential houses satisfying these requirements would not only translate to significant savings to homeowners personally but also to the nation. This paper discusses the benefits of using cold-formed steel for constructing low-rise residential structures. Based on a full-scale experimental study that was undertaken to assess the overall performance of a brick veneer steel-framed structure, the performance-based requirements of residential houses built of cold-formed steel framing are evaluated and discussed
Abstract. This study focuses on enhancement of job opportunities in international and national markets for construction management students by providing global construction industry experience (IE) placement. There is an increasing trend towards globalisation in the construction industry. This sort of construction training in the international context also improves student’s learning experience and global connections. The Australian Government’s New Colombo Plan scholarship provides funding for work and study experience for Australian students travelling to the Indo-Pacific region to further their education. All Australian universities welcome significant numbers of inbound international students as well as increasingly encouraging outbound student mobility. This paper reports on the experiences of a number of outbound students who are involved in studying construction management. Through case study research, it was found that international work placements broadened the knowledge of students highlighting similarities and differences when working in an overseas country. Students made useful contacts and were able to improve their employability in both the local and international construction management sector. Their industrial placement was facilitated by the Australian Institute of Building and Hong Kong Institute of Project Managers through professional networks. This study also recommends that this sort of industrial placement and student exchange programs can enhance their communication skills and understanding of the global construction industry practices
Abstract. New digital technologies have the potential to monitor the environmental footprint, mainly Carbon emissions due to massive material consumption, earth-moving equipment. However, the construction projects slowly adopt such technologies only for monitoring the footprint and other sustainability purposes. Despite the government’s policies and external pushes, the adoption decision for sustainability innovations largely depends on different stakeholders’ behaviour including developers, consultants, and contractors. This paper presents a novel conceptual model for green technology adoption regarding sustainability in construction industry. This model is developed based on six main constructs organizational facilitating conditions, expected performance, expected efforts, innovativeness, optimism, and user performance.
In order to develop the model, factors affecting the green technology adoption process are identified, a questionnaire is designed, and an empirical investigation is conducted to collect data from construction companies. Regression analysis is utilized to analyse the data using SPSS. The findings show the importance of a series of factors influencing sustainable technology adoption. Based on the extensive review on the relevant literature, few empirical studies have been conducted to examine the proposed constructs sustainable technology. The results are also provide a guidance to broaden understanding of users’ adoption behaviour within this context and thereby increasing the chances for successful adoption of sustainable technology and develop activity-level.
Abstract. Collaboration on Building Information Models (BIMs) requires iterative and distributed processes that make maximum reuse of the information being exchanged directly between models in a platform independent model collaboration environment. BIMs are subject to constant evolution where information is created, coordinated and exchanged concurrently, allowing multiple users to manipulate information whilst requiring the data to be synchronized in a shared data repository. As the information in a BIM grows during an iterative design and production process and even beyond into maintenance, a critical issue is how to manage the iterative changes because of the collaboration operations and workflows that involves various project participants and heterogeneous applications. This paper highlights the overall problem of managing iterative changes in BIMs and discusses various issues and challenges involved in controlling the collaboration transactions on a BIM data repository in a multi-model collaboration environment. This positional paper describes that model matching and comparison strategies are the key to solve the problem of iterative change management, which may have better solutions in other knowledge domain such as software engineering. The future research is exploring Software Source Control (SSC) strategies to devise a signature-based model comparison approach for IFC models that can lead to potential solutions for effective management of collaboration operations with BIMs.
Abstract. Risk management is important for contemporary construction organisations and is a vital constituent of project management education. Before learning about the processes of systematic risk management, construction and project management students need to better understand risk concepts and their own attitudes towards risk. Risk is a psycho- social construct experienced and perceived by individuals. In the Risk in Construction subject offered in the Master of Construction Management programme at the University of Melbourne, students were first invited to respond to a simple questionnaire that measured their own risk attitudes from a task, team and individual risk perspective. This self-knowledge discovery was then applied in their subsequent individual and group assignment work for the subject. The risk profiles were also used in a novel approach to assignment group formation. Students valued the opportunity to explore the alignment between formal project risk management and their own risk attitudes, and used their newly-found understanding in other management-related subjects. Future research will explore cultural and gender influences in these student journeys of self-understanding.
Abstract. Increased internet penetration rate has made internet marketing an integral part of real estate industry. This may result in an inefficient process for the buyers and sellers due to the need for physical inspection. The aim of this study is to present key factors influencing the users’ decision to use a web-based technology for real estate purposes. This is an ongoing study including two phases: developing a framework based on a case study, and conducting a survey to measure customer perception on incorporating online visualization techniques. The paper presents the result of the first phase evaluating real estate marketing platforms as case studies in Pakistan and Australia. While the initial results show that physical inspections are still required before deciding on property transaction, it was found that the number of inspections can be reduced by incorporating a 3D model of the property to the listing platform. In addition, it was observed that clarity of search results and provision of a 3D model are some of the key factors influencing the user preference to use the website again. This reinforces the idea that advanced visualization techniques can improve the current reliability issues faced by customers and may also streamline the transactions. This study will be extended by conducting the designed survey in two target countries one a developed country and the other one a developing country to compare the most popular features to international customers.
Abstract. Public Private Partnerships (PPPs) have become an increasingly popular choice for the delivery of infrastructure facilities in the recent years. With the involvement of multiple numbers of stakeholders in a PPP project, stakeholder management (SM) plays a decisive role in project success. However, many issues in the recent PPP projects in Australia as well as around the world can be directly or indirectly related to the SM concerns of a project. The correct selection of SM strategies and a proper framework will help to solve most of the current SM related issues in PPP projects. In an attempt to understand these preemptive SM strategies and their links to SM management related issues in PPP projects, a hierarchical structural model was established. Subsequently, by employing the structural equation modelling technique, the model adapts a total of 34 SM strategies and 12 SM related issues. Based on the survey data collected across the industry experts who have exposure to a various number of PPP projects in Australia the results of the model confirmed that the stakeholder engagement is a key to minimize the SM related issues in the PPP projects. Further, interestingly stakeholder monitoring and SM related issues has a positive significant relationship suggesting that more the stakeholder monitoring might lead to more issues. Finally, the relationships between the main tasks of SM were confirmed via the model. With a clear understanding of the significance of these SM strategies in PPP projects the findings could potentially contribute to the PPP project success.
Abstract. The construction industry has played a significant role in supporting the steady growth of Indian economy over the past. Second only to agriculture, the construction industry constitutes 6% of GDP. With the rapid rate of urbanisation and increasing liberalisation of the economy, the growth in the housing market is also substantial. Under a single national scheme “Pradhan Mantri Gramin Awaas Yojana (PMGAY)” the Government of India is committing to building over 30 million homes by 2022. To support the growth in the construction industry, an appropriate regulatory framework is crucial.
India is a country with a population of 1.3 billion, residing in 29 States and seven Union territories. Total GDP is over two trillion US dollars, growing at more than 7% per annum. No single regulatory framework is currently in place. There is a high degree of fragmentation of policies, which therefore does not support standardised practices or quality in construction.
There are many causes of poor construction quality India. Resolving these causes requires an extensive national effort. That effort is made unnecessarily more difficulty by the lack of common national regulations or standards.
The University of Melbourne is engaged in a Smart Villages research project to build capacity in construction management in Assam, one of the North-eastern states of India. This research will report on a comparative analysis between the regulatory frameworks of Australia and India. Based on the comparative reviews of the regulatory policies, and comparing the scale and operating environments of both countries, the presentation will highlight regulatory gaps to be filled, and enforcement practices to be created, if India is to overcome the challenges described above.
Abstract. Change plays a significant role in the implementation of any building information modelling (BIM) initiative. For owners transitioning from a traditional asset management (AM) and/ or facilities management (FM) approach to one supported by BIM, change management is required due to the technological and organizational transformation involved. Yet little is known about the characteristics of change and how it can be more effectively managed. Based on a case study, this paper provides an example of a change strategy employed by a university’s project delivery and operations teams to support the integration of BIM and FM. It describes a ‘niche project’ change management strategy and its key attributes during the early stages of a tertiary education owner/operator’s transition to a model-based approach to asset and facilities management, providing a single point of truth for data storage, and supporting 3D visualisation, digital work order processing, and mobility in the field.
Abstract. The paper presents a performance-based design method that combines building and urban objectives for the control of winds impacting on tall buildings at the pedestrian, podium and upper levels. The performance-based method accounts for wind flow and wind load in a form optimization technique that considers a variety of criteria defining urban microclimates, defined by high-density, multi-level building forms subject to acute variations in seasonal wind conditions. The approach is based on the theoretical foundations of ‘designing for urban resilience; and highlights the different objectives of this approach relative to existing (tall) building design standards and urban city planning guidelines.
Abstract. Over 69% of Indian population that live across 0.6 million villages represent a significant part of Indian Society. However, little has been planned and invested in villages as compared to the urban areas. The fact that villages share only a little less than a quarter of the India’s GDP tells us about the lost potential. The sheer numbers are enough to hold as a good argument for planning and dedicated research and investment in this sector. In an effort to empower these rural communities for living with their potentials and contributing positively to the national economy, the creation of the smart villages would not only affect the future of settlements but also force significant changes in the lifestyle in the rural areas. Investigating the elements of the character of the villages and sense of belongingness to the community, this research aims to develop a framework for providing necessary education on the impacts on the vernacular characters of the place while promoting development, sustainability and affordability in the hills of Assam. The next few pages would briefly explain the essential and interdependent components that are part of a smart village, before elaborating on a typical rural house and its cultural elements that are architecturally displayed in the layout and use of spaces by the occupants. This research is only part of understanding the role and significance of culture and community as essential factors for developing rural and remote areas that would be socially acceptable.
Abstract. The housing Pattern of North Eastern part of India can be categorized in three different types. The old primitive type of housing known as Assam type houses are predominant in the North-eastern region. These are mostly residential houses maximum upto single story. The house is generally made of timber. The vertical Post, roofing are made of wood, bamboo supported biomass wall cladding for wall panels are used. With the passage of time this unique method of construction gained importance and newer technology with the use of brick masonry, R.C coloumn and timber roof are being adopted by the local people. This transfer of technology from generation after generation led to the present housing scenario which can be termed as non engineered houses mainly modular and non modular type of construction and R.C.C structures. These non engineered houses have very low vulnerability and poor comfort. The construction type for these houses are dependent on weathering conditions. Therefore there is an urgent need to provide housing with basic facilities for improving living standards without disturbing the natural resources and creating employment opportunities for the local communities. This research aims to investigate the modernisation of the physical structure, construction processes, use of prefabricated components, composite materials, affordability and sustainability of the housing types in Assam.
Abstract. Green Supply Chain Management (GSCM) is considered as one of the main efforts, which aim to integrate environmental parameters within the supply chain management. It helps to reduce carbon emissions and improve environmental performances of organisations. As a result of that GSCM has been integrated into the strategic planning of most of the construction organisations. As in case of all radical innovations, barriers or challenges are also expected to be present in the implementation process of GSCM in construction organisations. Hence, it is essential for organisations to identify any barriers that they may face and establish approaches for successful implementation of GSCM in their organisations. Thus, this research aims to develop a conceptual framework by conducting a comprehensive literature review on GSCM practices to address the above-mentioned issues. According to the research findings, the main barriers to implementing GSCM can be categorised into five main categories such as technology, knowledge, finances, outsourcing and management. Furthermore, the strategies to improve GSCM practices in construction organisations include: commitment of top management; changes in existing policies and technologies; improve the awareness of environmental issues; training and education; and implementation of efficient materials and waste management systems. The suggested framework can be applied in construction organisations to identify the key components of GSCM and self-assessment of barriers and strategies to successfully implement GSCM in construction organisations.
Abstract. Recession is considered as a major threat to the economy as it slows down economic activities. The property development sector is extremely responsive to these economic conditions. Thus, it is crucial to understand causes, effects and strategies for property developers to survive in a recession without any ill effects. Thus, this research aimed to develop a framework for property developers to identify appropriate survival strategies in recession. A comprehensive literature review was conducted in this research to achieve the above mentioned aim. The results of this study indicated that recession prompts negative impacts on property development sector resulting in unemployment, lower demand, production and revenue, decline in resources and high level of competition. According to the results, the survival strategies were classified into short-term and long-term strategies. The short term strategies include: implementing management tactics, cut down of operating costs, keeping financing lines set up, timely repayment of debts, setting vital new objectives for the future, undertaking shorter time span developments, specialisation in favoured market, renegotiating deals and contracts. The long-term strategies include retrenchment, restructuring, investment and ambidextrous strategies. Similarly, attention should be paid to predict any changes in the economic environment that can influence property development activities and it is necessary to carefully evaluate investment activities to increase sales, profits and market shares of property developers. Preparing for a crisis is doubtlessly the ideal approach as it can facilitate both survival and growth. Thus, the property developers can implement these suggested strategies in their businesses to enhance their practices.
Abstract. Buildability has been a perennial issue in the Architecture, Engineering and Construction (AEC) industry, with advocates arguing for positive benefits related to cost, time, quality and safety in project development. Evidently, buildability has been seen to offer broader industry gains and efficiencies, and its assessment has been encouraged as a criterion in the regulatory approval process of some countries. If buildability offers positive outcomes in project development, how can these be introduced, measured and assessed in the project development process? In the absence of mandated buildability appraisal systems, does the industry develop its market mechanism to leverage the gains that its consideration offers? Detailed coverage is systematically reviewed with the aim to identify the current trends in buildability. Based on a comparative analysis of existing assessment models of buildability, this paper reviews the suitability of this model, by highlighting the potential difficulties of its adoption, against the current deregulated and highly performance-based context of the Australian construction industry. The outcome of this paper is to provide a research methodology to develop a buildability assessment tool for Australia.
Abstract. At the core of the review is the critique that the extant theoretical approach to the study of building accidents does not sufficiently address societal level influences of vulnerability for such phenomena. Using the collapse of buildings in urban settings as reference point, the review makes a case for why the omission is fatal.
Abstract. The authors are engaged in a three-year project, funded by the State of Assam, India, to develop new postgraduate qualification in construction management for Assam, and to research housing and infrastructure strategies aimed at improving rural life. The collaboration between the University of Melbourne and the State mirrors a common arrangement in international development assistance in which an institution from the Global North is invited to assist an institution from the Global South in improving the wealth and welfare of certain constituencies of the latter. However, the historical relationships between the North and South, and the way in which they play out in such arrangements has been critiqued from multiple perspectives. Those critiques suggest that the North-South divide is rooted in colonial history, is based on a privileging of the North over/against the South, and works to place the South at a perpetual disadvantage. It is important in undertaking this work for Assam that such critiques be acknowledged, and that educational products developed be as free as possible of such biases. This paper outlines the process by which the Project seeks to identify Assamese problems interests, source useful examples globally, and collect and synthesise them to create products that are tailored to Assam. The key findings: standard professional education is Eurocentric and does not relate to the construction needs of Assam's population, helps drive rural-urban and South-North brain drain, but that models are available to counter these tendencies, and can be used to create Assam-centric construction management education.
Abstract. The construction and built environment sector is dynamic. It is made up of professionals who are knowledgeable about design, planning, construction and cost estimation. Design is one of several courses undertaken by construction students. Assessing design drawings is demanding for tutors as the assessment criteria need careful consideration. Assessment results may encourage or discourage students. Their morale may be affected if they feel their efforts have not been rewarded. Achieving a balance between the tutors’ decisions and students’ satisfaction is therefore important. This research sought to identify factors affecting students’ satisfaction with grades in design courses. The study was undertaken among year 3 and 4 architecture students in a Nigerian university. One hundred and twenty students were invited to reply to an online questionnaire. Their responses revealed that most of them were not satisfied with their tutors. They felt that marking was inconsistent. This study identified a range of ways students felt assessment could be improved. Chief amongst these was a suggestion that the same tutors assessed the work of all students (rather than for several tutors to be involved). Based on these issues, the paper suggests ways to balance tutors’ assessments and students’ satisfaction.
Abstract. The use of Building Information Modelling (BIM) in the construction industry has been growing steadily during the last decade, yet there is a continues resistance to its adoption, due to some users’ unawareness of BIM benefits. BIM adoption is associated with an individual’s willingness towards using it which is driven by individual beliefs and expectations of BIM use consequences. Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) identified perceived usefulness (PE) and perceived ease of use PEOU as variables to inform us with user’s mind-set and intentions towards the use of technology. This research proposes a conceptual framework for exploring and measuring individual willingness level for adopting BIM, based on individual beliefs and expectations of BIM use consequences in construction industry. The research conducted literature review on technology acceptance and use theories from IS mainstream to identify the individual beliefs and expectations variables, then conducted a literature review on case studies researches that directly applied TAM, to contextualize the variables into BIM in construction environment. The research outcome identified the individual willingness constructs to accept and use BIM: performance expectancy, effort expectancy, social conditions, facilitating conditions, and attitude towards using.
Abstract. Employee training is delivered as a part of most human resource development programs because organizations expect training courses will enhance their employees’ performance. However, training may not lead to improved work performance if training transfer does not occur. The lack of training transfer in practice has long been considered as a critical problem. Also, previous theoretical models of training transfer cannot fully explain this phenomenon. As an attempt to solve the training transfer problem, this paper provides a literature review on training transfer and proposes a conceptual model grounded on the Theory of Planned Behaviour.
Abstract. Construction Management (CM) programmes generally build on principles in traditional science and social-science disciplines, creatively applied to the construction sector. In the last two decades, there has been significant growth in the number of universities in Australia and UK, offering construction management programmes. Despite these trend, there has been dearth of studies that investigate the alignment of the curriculum content with assessment requirements in construction management subjects.
This study appraises the issues pertaining to constructive alignment in construction management programmes delivered in the higher education sector. This work provides an ethnographic insight on the perceived benefits of Constructive Alignment in relation to academic performance, student experience, and student-satisfaction in the UK. Future work will compare outcomes in constructively-aligned courses in other academic institution. This work also suggest best practices for implementing constructive-alignment in the delivery of built environment courses.
Abstract. Digital technologies are increasingly used to support safety management in the construction industry. Previous efforts were made to identify digital technologies for safety in the construction industry. However, limited research has been done to conceptualize the roles played by digital technologies in safety management and accident prevention. This paper surveys state-of-the-art research between 2000 and 2016 in order to categorize digital technologies for construction safety, identify research trend, and analyse their roles in accident prevention. The research employs a systematic process to review the existing literature on digital technologies in the area of construction safety. Five academic databases, Science Direct, Taylor & Francis, the ASCE Library, Engineering village, and Web of Science, were selected for the survey due to the comprehensive coverage of relevant academic papers. The survey identified 15 digital technologies: real-time location system and proximity warning, building information modelling, augmented reality, virtual reality, game technology, e-safety-management-system, case-based reasoning, rule-based reasoning, motion sensor, action/object recognition, laser scanning, physiological status monitoring, virtual prototyping, geographical information system, and ubiquitous sensor network. Three emerging safety functions claimed and/or promoted by DTs were discussed: enhanced safety planning, real-time hazard management, and safety knowledge engineering. It is concluded that DTs have great potential to improve safety performance by engineering resilience and adaptiveness at the individual level, while how DTs embody safety values and how safety values in turn influence the adoption of DTs remain an open question.
Abstract. Learning analytics is an emerging field that has been gaining momentum in higher education. Learning analytics is the analysis and reporting of learner related data. Research has examined the benefits of learning analytics in higher education but there has been limited research conducted about the impact of showing students their own learning data. The aim of this study was to provide students with their own learner data, obtain feedback about the usefulness of this information and investigate if providing learning data leads to an increase in self-efficacy and self-reflection. The sample consisted of 78 students studying construction management, project management, and property and valuation. Students were provided with weekly learner reports that included data about their behaviour in a learning management system, their level of interaction in lectures, and their performance on assessments. A suggested target was provided toward an individualised behaviour goal, as well as comparison with both the contemporary class average and previous class averages. Students completed measures of self-efficacy and self-reflection pre and post intervention and feedback about the reports was obtained through surveys and a focus group. Results showed no significant change in self-efficacy and self-reflection, however, students reported finding the learning analytics reports helpful, believed it helped them reflect on their own learning and wanted to see more analytics in other subjects. Results support the use of learning analytics in the classroom and suggest that they may enhance the student experience.