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08:30-11:00 Session 6A: Parallel Communications

A1 - Rationale and Paradigms of Qualitative Research

Longitudinal Qualitative Research Using Photovoice with Women Refugees
PRESENTER: Shannon McMorrow

ABSTRACT. Introduction: Longitudinal, qualitative studies offer critical evidence to improve social and cultural adaptations of public health interventions, particularly for vulnerable, marginalized populations such as refugee women. However, such studies are uncommon in public health and even less common using the participatory, qualitative method of Photovoice. Our research contributes to filling that gap. We conducted a longitudinal, qualitative study using Photovoice and interviews to understand health and integration experiences of women refugees from Democratic Republic of Congo living in the United States with data collection in 2016, 2019 and 2022. Goals and Methods: The project was initially conducted in 2016 in partnership with a refugee resettlement agency with follow up three and six years later conducted independently by the researchers. Sixteen women were recruited in 2016, ten were retained in 2019, and 9 in 2022. Photovoice meetings were recorded and conducted in community settings with interpretation from English to Swahili and Kinyarwanda. Meetings included ethics, safety, and photography training, participatory photo selection, and joint discussion-leading with participants. The project evolved into a longitudinal study as it became clear that qualitatively analyzing change over time was needed. Inductive, thematic, manual analysis is ongoing. Results: Photos and accompanying textual data illustrated multiple, emergent themes across time: nutrition and food security, social support, health care system navigation, discrimination, and cultural adaptation. Strengths such as knowledge of nutrition and favorable attitudes for health-care seeking were uncovered to counter the deficit-based approach prevalent in public health. Further, findings confirmed prior research indicating increasing experiences of discrimination over time for the participants as Black women. Conclusions: This work provides insight from experiences implementing longitudinal qualitative research using Photovoice, which we argue offers critical, participatory evidence to improve public health and other social, policy, and community interventions. The primary purpose of this presentation is to highlight lessons from our work and offer insight into conducting longitudinal, qualitative research using Photovoice.

Caught Between Epistemology and Field-Conditions: Travails of Young Qualitative Policy Researchers in India
PRESENTER: Himali Mhatre

ABSTRACT. Problem: The qualitative approach is immensely helpful in policy research as it provides a comprehensive, contextually-grounded, and nuanced understanding of policy processes and issues. It is characterized by certain epistemological imperatives that demand collection of rich, diverse data and thick description of the context. However, conducting fieldwork to collect data required to fulfil these imperatives poses diverse and stiff challenges especially for young policy researchers in the Indian context.

Goals and Methods: This paper discusses and analyzes the challenges and barriers faced by young policy researchers in conducting fieldwork for qualitative research in India. It draws from the thematic analysis of detailed documentation of experiences and observations made during fieldwork by two researchers, and one male and one female, both natives of India.

Results: The paper establishes that fieldwork challenges faced by young policy researchers in India are rooted in factors like highly divisive politics, acute disparities, and weak institutional environment through discussion of different instances of manifestation of these factors. For example, researchers’ identities—pertaining to class, caste, religion, language, location, gender, and marital status (especially of female)—posed many challenges to collecting rich and truthful data. The respondents from disadvantaged communities were not only suspicious, fearful, and reluctant to talk, but also expected researchers’ help in solving their problems. Many government functionaries were not only reluctant to share information or formal data, but often blithely provided blatantly false information. Additionally, some political functionaries tried overwhelming young researchers by assuming an overly paternalizing stance or an aura of omniscience and omnipotence. The wide prevalence of fraudulent formal data and equally wide-spread tendency to hide information made it difficult to carry out triangulation.

Conclusion: It is critically important to discuss, understand, and overcome these field-level barriers to fulfilling epistemological imperatives and to ensuring quality of qualitative policy research.

Entering the State as a “Foreign Friend:” Doing an Ethnography of the Chinese Party-State

ABSTRACT. The authoritarian state is neither an inert category nor a totalizing institution; rather it is populated by people whose interactions suffuse the central state with local power and meanings. To understand these meanings and power, one must enter state. But, how do ethnographers enter authoritarian regimes and make sense of the micro-patterns of state problematics? And, how does an ethnographer enter a foreign state, especially one that is antagonistic towards foreigners?

I spent 12 months conducting an ethnography of the meso-level state in Henan and Shanxi provinces in China, entering the state and relationships as a “foreign friend,” a racial and cultural category. Drawing on my fieldwork, I argue that ethnographers must cultivate (1) a methodological toolkit to understand relationships, interactions, and nuances within the field and (2) an ethnographic double consciousness—a reflexive epistemology and axiology of doing research that problematizes understandings and conclusions.

First, I describe the methodological toolkit and show how the tools within it are used to gain access to the field. The ethnographer’s social networks, race, background, education, language abilities, and appearance are all tools strategically used to gain access. Specifically, I argue that my foreignness, my whiteness, my status as a researcher, my masculinity, and my imperfect but passable Chinese are selective tools I used to access the Chinese state. Second, in using these tools, I show how ethnographers must reflexively understand their impact in the field and on their relationships to incorporate their own understandings and the understandings of those who are being studied. When the ethnographer uses different tools within their toolkit, they are fundamentally altering the power relationships within the field.

Reflexively understanding power and position is crucial for accessing and theorizing about the state from its local interactions, especially when the ethnographer is a cultural, racial, and/or linguistic foreigner.

Social Justice and the Public Sphere: Critical Inquiry into Social Work Professionalism

ABSTRACT. Introduction:

Social work, a key profession in the delivery of human services within Canada, holds social justice as its central and unifying value, yet, organizations that employ social workers do not frequently acknowledge or value the social justice aspect of professional social work practice. In the current human services environment, evidenced-based practice and techniques, standardization and efficiency, and cost effectiveness override values such as the pursuit of social justice.

Goals and Method

Goal: We articulate an emergent, critical inquiry research design, influenced by Charmaz’s constructivist grounded theory,  to investigate experiences and perceptions of social work professionals, among those who employ social workers in a  midsized western provinice of Canada.

Method: Critical inquiry and constructivist grounded theory are utilized to locate and interrogate historical, social and situational contexts to make visible processes, including power dynamics and discourses, that may otherwise remain undetected. Further, we examine the use of situational maps in the analysis that clarify and elucidate relationships among concepts, dominant or marginalized discourses, and helps contextualize the complex practice environments that give rise to perceptions of social work professionalism in the workplace.


We will discuss and examine Charmaz’ s methodological self-consciousness, described as deep reflexivity in the examination of one’s perspectives, privileges, and priorities, and its utility in guiding analysis and promoting diverse interpretations and perspectives. We will identify critical questions that facilitate the examination of assumptions both of the researcher and the data. Ultimately the research will provide insight into the assessment of the social work profession within human service organizations and the value of a professional code of ethics which emphasizes the pursuit of social justice.

Managing Maternal Troubled Identities in Qualitative Interviews

ABSTRACT. Introduction: A social constructionist perspective understands identity as constructed by competing discourses that are available to the individual in any given situation, including that of qualitative research interviews. People who are stigmatized by their association with a social problem, negotiate hegemonic discourses related to their stigmatized identity, in an attempt to make sense of their experiences. Specifically, qualitative studies of mothering often construct the mothers' lived experience as a social problems, and their personal identity as a non-normative troubled identity. In these instances, interviewed mothers carry "identity work” and “impression management” during qualitative research interview. Goals and Methods This presentation explores the construction of mothers' troubled identity within the setting of qualitative interviews, and its epistemological and ethical implications. The analysis is based on a series of constructivist-naturalistic qualitative social work studies of the experiences and identity construction of mothers who's mothering is associated with social problems, including "mothers who are abused women," "mothers who are in prostitution," "mothers of abused women," “non-custodial mothers,” and "mothers who are social work clients." The studies were based on in-depth semi-structured interviews. Results: Qualitative research interviews with mothers who experience a troubled identity, conducted by social workers and within an academic social work setting, constitute a discursive environment which amplifies both power-relations between the interviewer and interviewee and the presence of hegemonic discourses about motherhood. Thus, they reinforces the interviewees' efforts to construct an interview narrative which displays a normative maternal identity Conclusions: The socio-relational and contextual characteristics of the study both shape the narratives of the participating mothers, and may be experienced by them as constraining and uncomfortable. This analysis challenges us to think how can we create qualitative research setting that will facilitate the construction of diverse identities and an empowering research experience.

Protocols for Making Explicit the Research Paradigm and Research Strategy for Qualitative Research Designs

ABSTRACT. Problem: Interdisciplinary qualitative researchers from public policy, management sciences, and STS (science, technology, and society) studies, who investigate the socio-physical phenomena that straddle both social and physical realities, face difficulties in exactly identifying, articulating, and justifying the research paradigms and research strategies (i.e., phenomenology, case-study research, grounded theory, and ethnography) that they use in their research projects.

Goals and Methods: To address these difficulties, this paper traces their roots to the broad scope of qualitative research questions (RQ). Following Creswell (2009) and Miles & Huberman (1994), it suggests splitting of this broad RQ in its component or sub-RQs. Similarly, building on Creswell (2009) and Bryman (2004), the paper develops a scheme of characterization of different research strategies identifying logical linkages among the attributes of their assumptions, procedures, and utility. The paper also lays out the propositions of Critical Realistic (CR) paradigm that envisages physical or social reality as composed of three layers. 

Based on these elements, the paper presents the first protocol to identify and justify the linkages between logically-separable procedural elements of research strategies that are commensurate with each sub-RQ of the broad RQ. The second protocol helps identify and justify the layers of reality according to the CR paradigm which are commensurate with the nature of reality studied by each sub-RQ. 

Results: Using the first and second protocol mentioned before, the paper presents, for two research projects with two separate empirical research questions, a mixed bouquet of procedural elements of different research strategies and explicit and precise articulated rationale for choice of research paradigm respectively.

Conclusion: The explicit identification, precise articulation, and logical justification of the research paradigms and research strategies for given RQs in a qualitative research design will help enhance the transparency of the research design and, thus, the credibility of the research project.

A Framework for Inclusion of Historically Disadvantaged Individuals in Energy Distribution in South Africa – a Qualitative Evidence Synthesis

ABSTRACT. Introduction: The demand for energy and its associated services to support human social and economic progress, well-being, and health is rising. South Africa is one of leading emerging economies in Africa and yet, participation of Historically Disadvantaged Individuals in distribution of energy is very slow. Within the energy industry, just as in other sectors of the economy, there has been a sporadic growth with notable exclusion of HDI in the South Africa context. Goals and Methods: The goal of this research was to establish and propose a framework for inclusion of HDIs in the main stream economy of energy distribution and supply. Using a qualitative evidence synthesis (QES) the study was interested in understanding the perspectives of HDIs, Policy Makers and South African government in relation to economic participation of HDIs in energy distribution. This study used PICO (Problem, Intervention, Comparator, and Outcome) tool to conduct a search of data bases and linked repositories. Thematic analysis was used to derive meanings attached to the phenomenon under investigation. Results: The study found out that there was no framework for inclusion of previously disadvantaged individuals in energy distribution in South Africa. Further, it was further found that renewable energy is not explored, and its benefits not fully optimized in South Africa. In addition, the study found that reliance of fossil energy continues to create a problem for policymakers in energy transitions and climate change in South Africa is negatively impacted by carbon emissions emanating from the type of energy used in South Africa. Conclusion: The final outcome of this study resulted in a framework that includes HDIs in energy distribution in South Africa.

08:30-11:00 Session 6B: Parallel Communications

A1 - Rationale and Paradigms of Qualitative Research / A3 - Qualitative and Mixed Methods Research

Digital Transformation (Dx) Disruption Within the South African Rural Society: Navigating the Digital Divide

ABSTRACT. Introduction: Digital Transformation (Dx), as a multidisciplinary phenomenon, drives the reforms at all levels of society. However, the research and reflection on Dx appear to focus more on how it drives, inter alia, the business re-modelling, changes in consumer behavior and expectations, and market disruptions, but to the exclusion of the paradigm shift Dx presents to society, particularly the rural communities. The study seeks to answer the research question: How digital transformation disrupts the livelihoods of rural communities in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. This study acknowledges and takes the discussion beyond findings on the different societal groups with varying technical and literacy skills, unequal knowledge of and access to digital technologies. Aims and methods: This study’s aim is to introduce an integrated investigation of Dx as a disruptor to society. Using a multiple case study strategy within the interprivist paradigm, this study will purposively sample a mix of rural communities in the Eastern Cape Province. Data will be collected through semi-structured interviews to allow indepth exploration of experiences of digital transformation disruption. Finally data will be analysed using thematic analysis to enable the researcher to draw meanings related to the phenomenon under investigation. Significance of the study: This study is expected to contribute to existing knowledge regarding disparities experienced by rural communities in relation to Dx disruption. Expected findings: Dx disruption will be discussed from the perspective of the society’s exposure as potential victims of the vulnerabilities and cyber-threats, this exacerbated by the “digital divide”. It is expected that a new theme of Dx solutions focusing on rural communities’ inclusion within the grand scheme of things will emerge.

A Systematic Review of the Potential for Promotion of Southern Epistemologies in Educational Research: Ubuntu Phylosophy as a Research Paradigm

ABSTRACT. Introduction: The fast changing global trends, practices and ideologies have a potential to dissipate cultural identities of historically colonized nations, in favor for adoption of popularized perspectives. This problem is becoming more and more evident in South Africa due to urbanization and impact of globalization. However, this becomes a constant barrier in knowledge creation, development and management due to the fact that southern epistemologies remain pacified and under-utilized in scholarship and educational research. One such pacified epistemology in both social and educational research is Ubuntu. Aims: The aim of this study is to determine the suitable application of Ubuntu philosophy in educational research. This will be achieved by answering a theoretical question: How can Ubuntu be adopted as a paradigm for research inquiries within a southern epistemological context? Methods: The philosophy of Ubuntu is located within a subjective realist ontology. Applying non-intrusive research measures, a qualitative evidence synthesis (QES) will be used to postulate evidence for adoption and application of Ubuntu philosophy as a research paradigm. Using a search engine comprising a number of social sciences databases (AnthroSource, ASSIA, Wilson Web and CSA), articles will be appraised using the QES research protocols and analyzed using Critical Appraisal Skills Programme. The final activity for data analysis will culminate into thematic analysis, using COSTA QDA technique. Expected Results: Expected results from this study will play a crucial role in magnifying the pacified voices of cultural epistemological contexts and existential realities. Adoption of Ubuntu could help in solving many contextual problems in educational, social and business disciplines. Significance of the study: Contextualisation of educational research and scholarship.

Nursing Knowledge Network: a Collaborative International Action-Research Endeavour

ABSTRACT. Introduction: In 2021, an environmental scan with 10 countries and 42 universities launched the creation of the Nursing Knowledge Network. A second international initiative is in progress to explore priorities for nursing research and professional development for 2023-2028 targeting evidence-based practice in the expected 40 participating countries. Goals and methods: This international research assembled nursing scholars, as well as graduate and undergraduate from Europe, North-South America plus Africa regions. Methods: A participatory action research that focuses on human systems and the required learning and understanding about human interactions. Online data collection will focus on innovation in the differentiated process of teaching and conducting nursing research through new approaches, strategies, methods, and tools. Data would include indicators of innovation and their expression in the production, application, and transfer of knowledge. An original data collection tool was developed in collaboration with the international team to explore (a) perceived gaps in the stage of development of nursing research in a national/global context; (b) national nursing research priorities; (c) future initiatives to be developed by the NKN; and (d) foreseen contributions by national nursing faculty and students in the implementation of NKN plans. Four predefined themes will guide the thematic analysis: (1) Ideas for the NKN's research agenda; (2) Ideas for the NKN’s plan of work; (3) Innovation and Leadership; and (4) Collective engagement for the NKN’s future initiatives. Expected Results: Evidence will address (a) the lack of the relevant data and scientific evidence interfering with the intention of implementing evidence-based practice; (b) clear strategies to transfer nursing knowledge to support advanced practice, development of research capacity, leadership development and nursing education; (c) information about how nurses can influence both global health and global care policy; and, (d) needed areas for investment in education for access to the labour market and leadership positions.

Architecture and Methodology of CAPES Graduate Self-Evaluation. New Qualitative Indicators Enlarge the Space for Innovation?
PRESENTER: Isabel Pinho

ABSTRACT. The Brazilian quadrennial Capes evaluation of graduate studies (2017-2020) added a new dimension of self-assessment on higher education programs evaluation. Selected qualitative indicators, alongside quantitative indicators, introduce a new practice in institutions assessment. To have a better understanding of Capes evaluation process we highlight the graduate self-evaluation component as a research topic. The objective was to verify if the new evaluative measure induces innovation. Considering selected self-assessment reports there are signs of experiential mindset and sustainable innovation? Of the interaction strategic planning and self-assessment? We outlined research hypotheses that sustainable innovation will be a touchpoint of self-evaluation and will appears associated with experimental and growth mindset. To prove it we construct a research methodology beginning with a characterization of the Capes assessment context and its legal framework. This topic was synthesized in a timeline of regulatory facts and norms. After we collect data of three specific knowledge areas: Education, Teaching and Health Programs (Masters and PhDs) in public access reports at Sucupira Platform. From the literature review, fifteen categories were conveyed a priori pointing to sustainable innovation, experimental mindset, strategic planning, and self-evaluation interactions. The categories were inserted in a research protocol. Each report (n=411) was retrieved and analysed with the protocol as a guide. We have in mind to find these categories and be attentive for associated critical incidents. If we found a critical incident, it was selected and discussed by the research team to ensure its validation. This qualitative data was disposed in a matrix of three entrances forming an architecture of the self-evaluation processes developed by the system assessment practices being analysed. This work was financially supported by the Research Unit on Governance, Competitiveness and Public Policies (UIDB/04058/2020) + (UIDP/04058/2020), funded by national funds through FCT - Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia.

Patients’ Perceptions of Success After Vertebral Body Tethering

ABSTRACT. Introduction Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis is the most common pediatric spinal deformity. A posterior spinal fusion (PSF) is the gold standard for the treatment of patients with severe curves, yet this procedure is not without undesirable consequences. For some patients, vertebral body tethering (VBT) is a safe and effective alternative to PSF. This technique utilizes a child’s remaining growth to correct their deformity while maintaining spinal flexibility. The amount of curve correction and the prevention of degenerative changes to the spine are common success indicators for surgeons, but no studies have assessed patients’ perceptions of success following VBT.

Goals and Methods The purpose of this study was to explore how patients who underwent VBT three or more years ago define postoperative success. Guided by an interpretivist approach that strives to understand the world from individuals’ subjective experiences, interviews were conducted with twenty patients. Two researchers conducted a collaborative content analysis of interview data using an inductive category development approach. After coding, relationships among categories and codes were compared to generate themes.

Results The most notable indicators for postoperative success were improvements in quality of life by alleviating pain and maintaining physical function and the ability to participate in sports. Patients also described postoperative success as improving their physical appearance and getting rid of their back brace. Many also defined success as a decrease in the size of their curve as well as maintaining that correction over time so they no longer worry about it.

Conclusions Awareness of patients’ definition of success allows surgeons to appreciate which aspects of the procedure are important to the patient. Understanding how patients define success may help better support patients before surgery and may also be important for decision-making and decision support interventions.

Implications of the COVID-19 Crisis on the Well-Being of Survivors of Sexual Violence: an Israeli Study
PRESENTER: Keren Gueta

ABSTRACT. Introduction: Worldwide, the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic and associated social distancing measures introduced novel health risks and economic insecurity, leading to global health and socioeconomic crisis with immediate impact on daily life. Moreover, the disease and the associated response measures heightened psychosocial risk factors in already vulnerable populations. However, the specific ways the COVID-19 outbreak has shaped the psychosocial well-being of individuals with sexual violence (SV) backgrounds are still limited. Goals and Methods The present study aimed to improve our understanding of the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, as collective trauma, on the well-being of survivors of sexual violence. A focused ethnography design was employed in the current study. The data are based on an online qualitative survey of 39 survivors and ten in-depth interviews with service providers in Israel subjected to a thematic analysis. Results The findings portray a perplexing combination of both positive and negative implications and further add to the literature by suggesting underlying mechanisms of those pandemic impacts on survivors of SV that are grounded in the characteristics of the COVID-19 crisis as collective trauma. In addition, our findings indicated several methodological opportunities and challenges for conducting qualitative research during a pandemic. For example, during the pandemic, the qualitative online survey was a risk-free method that was flexible in terms of speed, feasibility, cost-effectiveness, and widespread coverage. Thus, this allowed us to obtain meaningful data to inform public health responses without compromising the quality of data collection. Conclusions. The results of the present study have implications for research, policy, and practice in terms of accommodation of existing SV frontline services for collective trauma preparedness and response.

A Content Analysis of the Cause of Panic at the Outbreak of Covid-19 in South Africa

ABSTRACT. Introduction: Lack of proper messaging at an outbreak of a novel disease caused panic with more serious damaging impacts on livelihoods, social-fabric of communities, economic landscapes, and political stability. Prevalent lack of knowledge and poor communication was attributed as a precursor to the skyrocketing global panic regarding the COVID-19 pandemic. Fueling this panic was the rate at which the incidence of new infections was increasing in countries outside of China, with Italy and Iran leading on a number of new infections and death cases. Aims: This study sought to answer the question, what is the cause of panic at the outbreak of a pandemic such as COVID-19? The researcher believes that the outcome of this study could help leaders and policy makers in addressing any future health-related pandemic. Methods: A Content Analysis method was used to analyze articles, media clips and social network reactions to the outbreak of COVID-19 in South Africa on the 6th of March 2020. The key to the investigation was to understand how authorities were communicating with the public on matters of national concern – regarding how they are prepared to deal and handle the outbreak. Codes to analyze texts extracted from targeted media and scientific sources and themes were generated and presented. Conclusions: Findings indicated that the general public does not have faith in government authorities, due to a lack of communication. It is perceived that lack of communication is indicative of a lack of preparedness from government leaders. This study further recommends that authorities and policy-makers use communications to educate the public far earlier at the onset of epidemic outbreaks, regardless of where it happens as the air-traffic connects global countries, resulting in the potential for disease importation.

08:30-11:00 Session 6C: Parallel Communications

A3 - Qualitative and Mixed Methods Research

Health Professionals’ Experiences with the Implementation of the Exercise-Promoting Brief Intervention ‘primaMoves’ - a Reflexive Thematic Analysis

ABSTRACT. Introduction: Brief counseling interventions for physical activity are poorly implemented in primary care. To improve implementation in Switzerland, we implemented a best-practice intervention 'primaMoves' with an implementation guide in a small scalable unit of five home care teams and two general practices. Goals and Methods: This study aims to explore how primary care health professionals experienced the implementation of primaMoves. Reflexive thematic analysis with a constructivist orientation was used to analyze data from 24 single, semi-structured interviews with primaMoves-participants from all involved teams. Data was assed three and six months after starting the intervention. The inductively developed themes were structured along the 4 dimensions of the Normalization Process Theory: coherence, cognitive participation, collective action and reflexive monitoring. Results: Four main themes were developed. Professionals from all settings started primaMoves because they ‘see the potential of activity promotion’ in respect to patient’s needs, their skill-development, and organizational procedures (coherence). The implementation work differed amongst teams and individual health professionals (cognitive participation and collective action). First, teams differed on how they ‘organize counseling processes as a team’. We identified different types of teamwork, named ‘the organizers’, ‘the individual makers’, or ‘the negotiators’. Second, professionals differed on how they started counseling patients, they ‘advance counselling based on current expertise’. We identified different foci: ‘communication-orientation’, ‘outcome-orientation’ or ‘public health-orientation’. Irrespective of differences in implementation work, participants who implemented primaMoves, assessed the changes positively (reflexive monitoring). They felt they could ‘expand capabilities in activity promotion’ in three areas: They metaphorically ‘moved their patients’, ‘moved their organization’, and ‘moved themselves’. Conclusions: Implementation processes are complex, thanks to the interpretative approach of reflexive thematic analysis, it was possible to generate new insights such as the different types of teamwork and counseling foci. These are important findings to improve the intervention implementation towards normalization and for further scaling.

Breaking Points in Contraceptive Trajectories: Identifying Levers to Deconstruct Contraceptive Burden. an Collaborative Qualitative Research Approach
PRESENTER: Sylvie Lévesque

ABSTRACT. The idea that women should take sole responsibility for contraception from the beginning of their sexually active lives until the end of their fertile years is increasingly decried (by them). The notion of contraceptive burden describes the (unpaid) work of planning and managing the risk of unwanted pregnancy. However, there may be turning points in people’s life when they question this socially assigned responsibility. What are the triggers for this turning point and how do they affect the contraceptive trajectories of the people concerned? The objective of this proposal is to document, based on the testimonies of women and men, these moments of rupture that mark a turning point in contraceptive trajectories towards a more equitable sharing of contraceptive work.

This exploratory qualitative research project is based on a collaborative praxis. We will meet in focus groups with adults between the ages of 18 and 35 who 1) believe that contraception is a shared responsibility and 2) have changed their practices as a result. Up to now, 7 focus groups have been held, and 5 more are expected to take part in the fall of 2022. The research team and the young adults, experts in their own lives, will engage in a process of co-construction to combine theoretical and empirical knowledge with experiential knowledge.

Preliminary results from the ongoing thematic analysis tend to show that most dissatisfaction breaking points initially arise from three issues: perceived unfair social circulation of ideas regarding the sharing of contraceptive responsibilities between sexes; an overflow of unpleasant bodily effects from hormonal or invasive contraceptive methods; and a change in the method chosen, that involves the partner’s participation and can thus trigger their own reflection and dissatisfaction. When asked what new topics the project should incorporate, participants had different expectations based on their gender: men emphasized expectations regarding partner involvement, while women want to know men's perspectives on what daily contraceptive work means. Participants identified many ways to raise social awareness on this issue.

Gender Equality and Happiness Amongst Young People: Fostering Agency
PRESENTER: Carmine Rustin

ABSTRACT. Introduction: In politics, gender equality and quality of life have been key priorities in post-Apartheid South Africa. These priorities led to the democratic government that came to power in 1994 to enact several measures to improve the lives of citizens and address the injustices of the past. However, there exists a paucity of studies focussing on gender equality and happiness. A mixed-methods study conducted in South Africa is one of the few studies which indicates preliminary linkages between gender equality and happiness. A key finding of the study is the role of agency in gender equality and happiness. Agency here includes the (i) freedom to choose, (ii) having voice, and (iii) having control.

Goals and Methods: The current study builds on this previous research. Recognising the enhancement of agency as a key path in addressing gender inequality and subjective well-being, the central question of the present study is two-fold: (1) What is the impact of gender equality measures on young womxn’s and men’s happiness? (2) How does agency allow them to pursue gender justice and subjective well-being? In this feminist qualitative study we employ photovoice methods. The study includes 6 groups at high school: 3 groups of young men and 3 groups of young womxn. Data was subjected to thematic analysis.

Results: Preliminary analysis suggests that gender equality and happiness are linked in complex ways. Furthermore, whilst participants indicated moments of being agentic, agency for these participants seem limited.  

Conclusions: The study holds potential value for researchers, policy-makers, activists, individuals and communities seized with questions of quality of life and gender equality.

An African-Centred Psychological Perspective on Happiness
PRESENTER: Kopano Ratele

ABSTRACT. Introduction: Happiness scholarship has gained prominence in a number of disciplines over the last few decades, including philosophy, economics and psychology. Relatively few of these studies, however, foreground qualitative methodologies. In South Africa, we have observed an uptake in happiness studies, but also mostly using quantitative methodologies. What is missing are conceptualisations of happiness from African-centred, decolonial psychological perspectives.

Goals and methods: The main objective in this presentation is to expand on an African-centred, decolonial psychological perspective on happiness building on the work of Ratele. The presentation draws on data from a qualitative study which investigated happiness amongst women. Convenience sampling was employed to recruit participants. Eleven qualitative individual interviews were conducted with key informants and three focus groups with women who shared their everyday lived experiences of happiness. Ethical clearance for the study was granted by the University of the Western Cape.

Results: The interviews and focus group discussion material were subjected to an adapted, theoretically driven thematic analysis informed by African-centred decolonial psychological interpretations. We followed Braun and Clarke’s thinking on thematic analysis, embedding it in Ratele’s work on African-centred decolonial psychology. We report and discuss four key findings of the study, namely: happiness as inter-connectedness (which includes being connected to other individuals as well as broader society, happiness as maintaining a balanced life, happiness as achievement, and happiness as positive emotion (specifically joy).

Conclusion: Whereas some of the findings such as happiness as interconnectedness are readily explicable, the study also offers an opportunity to unpack a finding such as happiness as achievement from the perspective we adopt in this presentation. Potential directions for further contextual and transnational qualitative studies on happiness that incorporate African-centred decolonial perspectives are offered.  

Caring Touch in ICU Nursing; the Communicating Body
PRESENTER: Lise Sandnes

ABSTRACT. Introduction Intensive Care Unit (ICU) nurses may touch the patient`s skin during practical procedures, however, also as part of the caring dimension, not connected to procedures. Touch like stroking the patient`s cheek or holding hands is part of the daily communication but is not yet an established concept. Earlier it is mentioned non-necessary and non-procedural touch. A gentle touch most often feels pleasant and soothing for the patient but can bring back unpleasant memories of threat and abuse and thus be a threat to the patient`s dignity. Goals and Methods To describe ICU-nurses` experiences of caring touch when communicating with critical ill patients. Research question: “What does ICU-nurses communicate through caring touch?” This qualitative and hermeneutically based study used data collected in two intensive care units at two Norwegian hospitals. Eight ICU-nurses shared their experiences through individual, qualitative semi-structured interviews, re-analyzed using a phenomenological-hermeneutic method, based on Ricoeur. Results The main theme Empathy with the patient`s situation is based on four sub-themes Amplified presence. Natural interpersonal care. Creating and confirming relationship. Open for a deeper conversation. By caring touch, ICU-nurses communicates in a deeper sense, when words are not accessible for the critical ill patient. A carefully given touch is presented as a proposal after assessing the patient`s needs, using senses, professional expertise and experiences. The patient`s responses are always assessed before touching even more. Conclusion Individual qualitative semi-structured interviews were suitable for eliciting rich material from the ICU-nurses experiences. Caring touch seems to be an important aspect of everyday ICU-nursing as it is a silent language for communicating with critical ill patients. The ICU-nurses communicate support, care and relationship to the patient, and caring touch therefore represents an important human and ethical factor in the high-technological environment of the ICU.

Community Engagement, Intervention Behavior and the Prevention of Gas Leaks in New York City

ABSTRACT. Introduction: Gas leaks are heavily under-reported; yet, there are hundreds of gas leaks simultaneously occurring at any time in New York City. This study evaluates emergency gas odor campaign concepts to determine what “call to action” would motivate intervention behavior from residents in New York City. Encouraging public intervention behavior in reporting of potential gas odors remains a challenging environmental health issue. We explore the degree to which effective messaging and community trust could motivate New Yorkers to act when they suspect a gas leak. Greater public engagement can occur if effective messaging is combined with better outreach from emergency services.


Methods: Twenty-seven New York City residents participated in four focus groups held on Zoom. Participants responded to campaign concepts and reflected on their attitudes about effective outreach strategies to better understand gas odor protocols. We explored the degree to which participants experienced trust in New York City agencies and whether emergency services were perceived as delayed in underserved neighborhoods. Inter-rater reliability methods were used to code and analyze the data. 


Results: Participants did not find most campaign messaging a motivating factor for learning more about gas leak procedures; instead, they relied on family and neighbors for emergency information. There is a need for educational initiatives throughout the City.  When experiencing emergencies, only a few City agencies and news outlets were identified as trustworthy sources. Participants claimed neighborhoods with lower household incomes faced delays in emergency services.


Conclusion: To elicit public involvement and better target populations across age and socio-economic levels, utility companies need to diversify messaging on different media platforms. To accomplish this, educating the public and equipping them with verifiable sources on emergency procedures, greater outreach is necessary. Disseminating awareness and clear procedures on how to act during a gas leak, can be life-saving in certain emergency situations.

08:30-11:00 Session 6D: Parallel Communications - Online (synchronous session)

A1 - Rationale and Paradigms of Qualitative Research / B1 - Data Analysis Types / B4 - Qualitative Analysis with Support of Specific Software / A3 - Qualitative and Mixed Methods Research

Value of Lived Experience

ABSTRACT. Introduction: In 2019, all my sons and I were diagnosed with a degenerative and incurable illness. We found very few supports to assist with our new way of being. To bring meaning to this emotional situation, I decided to undertake a thesis in the hope of, inter alia, developing supports for other families facing similar outcomes.

Goals and Methods: I considered my situation a lived experience and decided upon a hermeneutic phenomenological study. To ensure my perceived position was not borne from an emotional response to the evaluative property of the situation I found myself in, I wanted to explore my lived experience from an applied scientific ontological perspective. I found that many studies where the term lived experience had been incorporated brought into question the individual properties of emotion. That is not to presume that one person’s lived experience is less than another person’s lived experience. Rather, a person’s emotions are responsive to the unique value of the experience, meaning there is no applied scientific ontology for a lived experience. My objective then became to ensure that my own experience met the rigor required of what is expected of current ontological knowledge.

Results: Considering my diagnosis, I could accept my circumstance as a fact. However, I also considered my emotional values associated with the different aspects of the situation, which brought into question the multi-layered aspects of my lived experience and, by extension, all constructs of lived experience.

Conclusion: The formal diagnoses of my family have validated my lived experience as fact. However, there is a multitude of auxiliary issues that may not provide value from a lived experience perspective. Consequently, future projects stemming from this research, including developing resources for families facing similar diagnoses, must incorporate the rigorous application of current ontological knowledge.

Perception of the Situation and Adherence to Recommendations During COVID-19 Among Older Adults in Sweden - a Qualitative Interview Study Using Health Belief Model as Analytical Framework

ABSTRACT. Introduction The COVID-19 pandemic exceeds many previous crises in scale and duration and thus offering a unique possibility to broaden the understanding of people’s reactions to a global crisis. Early on, it was clear that older adults were severely affected by the virus and that the actions of this age group would be crucial to the outcome. This study should be viewed in relation to Sweden’s voluntary restrictions. 

Goals and Methods. In April-May 2020, a convenience sample from a pensioners organization of 41 adults aged 70–85 completed an unstructured phone interview with the objective to investigate older adults' perception of the COVID-19 pandemic and the conditions for adherence to recommendations using the constructs of the Health Belief Model (HBM) as an analytical framework. The results were analysed with content analyses

Results. Participants perceived COVID-19 as a severe threat to health and society, however, fear was not taking over. For some, perceived susceptibility to the disease was the main reason to adhere to the Swedish national recommendations. They expressed not being overly worried, but at the same time, they were taking substantial precautions. Trust in the authorities and requests from family members increased adherence to recommendations. Adherence to recommendations also contributed to feelings of safety. On the other hand, potential barriers to adhering to recommendations included missing loved ones and frustration on somewhat inconclusive information from authorities.

Conclusions. The results indicate that older adult are willing to adhere to voluntary restrictions during a global pandemic. For future work, relatives of older people are a resource to communicate information regarding safety and health messages, a message that preferably is thorough and consistent.  

Measuring Social Diversity on the Housing Market? a Discussion of Findings from a Qualitative Delphi Survey
PRESENTER: Ulrike Fettke

ABSTRACT. In Germany, rising housing prices, associated supply gaps and displacement processes have revived the "housing question" (Egner et al. 2021) and driven some social groups into social exclusion due to high competition in the housing market (Somerville 2010). At the same time, housing vacancy is considered a symptom of a tense market (Beran/Nuissl 2019: 18). The participatory action research study (von Unger 2012, Zuber-Skerritt 2015) "Wohnungsleerstand wandeln!” - Transforming Housing Vacancies addresses the problem of coexistence of housing scarcity and abundance in a district of the Munich metropolitan region with a mixed-method design to tailor solutions for the local communities including a two-stage qualitative Delphi Survey. Based on their assesments of the social diversity on the district's housing market, the Delphi experts who were selected with the help of local mayors to cover the market's facets (Rink/Egner 2020) agreed that there is a gradual reduction of diversity. The presentation will discuss the approach and results of measuring social diversity. Using qualitative content analysis (Mayring 2000), the experts' assessments were discussed and evaluated. International research on housing and exclusion (Lukes et al. 2018) supports the survey’s insight that (private) landlords decide on tenant selection based on social desirability and similarity. With the local move-in pressure, well-off metropolitan families "win the race" turning local access to housing into a question of social similarity (Robbins and Judge 2018) more exclusice than documented. We conclude that transforming housing can mean "vacancy" is (re)utilized, but also that collective decisions bring "overlooked" groups back "into the game".

Autoethnograhical Discourse Analysis on Digital Transformation in Art Education Fields

ABSTRACT. This study began with the question of how human beings have been applied educationally to the values created by human emotions and ideas within time continuity in the future AI technology environment, and how these educational practices can be transformed into digital technology revolutions. The purpose of this study is to provide critical reflection on how the meaning of teaching traditional art and posthuman art including painting, sculputure and design should be changed for the contemporary art teachers by critically analyzing autoethnographical narratives for the digital transformation in the art education fields as a dilemma for future arts education. Therefore, this study discusses how to look at changes in external situations, which are the absolute conditions of posthuman life, and how human ability to cope with these situations can be cultivated through art education within the sociocultural context of digital transformation. I have collected the data from interviews with the selected five Korean art educators and analyzes their perspectives of teaching and learning art on the digital transformation within the Korean sociocultural context. The interviewees were selected by their different educational experiences depending on their workplaces in large cities and provinces according to their careers. The interview data contains their autobiographical narratives and ethnographical reflection on teaching art during the digital transition period. The data are analyzed in terms of art education dilemmas how to enable artistic imagination in the digital transition era. The results of data analysis provide a critical perspective that can expand the horizon of human understanding as the autoethnographical discourses toward future arts ecucation in terms of the meaning and purpose as well as the teaching methods of the wider arts fields. In conclusion, this study implies that rather than excessive concerns and worries about the unclear future in the digital transformation era, the methodology of teaching and learning art that connects the future with digital educational space and people should be drawn together with an expanded concept of art to constantly imagine and prepare for a positive future.

“Could You Help Me Die?”: on the Ethics of Researcher-Participant Relationship and the Limitations of Qualitative Research

ABSTRACT. Qualitative research is beneficial for researchers, for society, and for participants themselves. Yet, end-of-life qualitative research also entails unique challenges given the sensitive topic and questions relayed to the participants, and the participants’ requests of the researchers. This paper was written following ethical issues that arose while conducting in-depth interviews with Israeli members of the Swiss Dignitas Organization in 2019. The interviews enabled participants to air their thoughts on assisted suicide and gather information about related plans that were not available to the public due to various issues. Yet, during these interviews, I also found myself dealing with significant ethical dilemmas that I had not previously encountered, such as participants asking me to lie for them, or accompany them to Switzerland to fulfil their wishes. While the interviews served as a safe environment in which the participants could air their thoughts on the topic, they led me to reexamine the ethical limitations of qualitative research and the researcher-participant relationship (within and outside the research context). By analyzing three of these interviews, I attempted to answer the following research question: What do the ethics of qualitative research entail with regards to researcher-participant boundaries, as established in sensitive situations and that involve vulnerable populations in end-of-life situations? The analysis was conducted in line with the ethical mindfulness framework and combined theoretical analysis of the literature. My analysis indicates that while qualitative research encourages the establishing of a researcher-participant relationship through trust and rapport – especially on sensitive topics that involve vulnerable populations – the researcher must also ensure both participant and researcher safety, by establishing and maintaining boundaries, even post-research. Introspective ethical inquiry, triggered by participants, requires the researcher to be vulnerable, potentially resulting in emotional discomfort. It also mandates re-engaging with the participants on ethical meanings that stem from this process.

My Body is the Temple of God: An Investigation into The Role of Religiosity in Influencing Students’ Attitudes Toward sex and Identity Management Strategies After Engaging in Sex

ABSTRACT. Some extant studies have identified religiosity as an important factor influencing health seeking behaviors. However, few studies have examined how religiosity explains health seeking behaviors among college students.

Guided by the social identity theory, this study examines how religiosity influences college students’ perceptions of sex. The study utilizes a case study approach based on experiences of students in two universities in Kenya and USA. Upon approval of the study by the Institutional Review Board (IRB), data were collected over the summer of 2019 through face-to-face interviews with 43 undergraduate students in a Kenyan university and a Midwestern university, USA, who identified themselves as religious. The participants were recruited using snowball sampling in both institutions. The interviews lasted between 20 to 60 minutes.

Data were analyzed using thematic analysis, where only the emerging themes relevant to the research questions were considered. The themes from the transcripts were made up of words or phrases that described identification and participants’ views concerning sex, and those that directly addressed the research questions. There were two broad themes that were developed from the concepts and categories that emerged from the interviews: religiosity and sex, and identity management.

The findings revealed that religiosity and desire to maintain social connectedness influenced students’ attitudes toward sex. Therefore, the students resulted to minimizing, normalizing, and seeking forgiveness from God to maintain their religious identities in case they engaged in premarital sex.

These findings highlight the importance of considering religion in research targeting the health and wellbeing of religious students as it is a factor that influences their health seeking behaviors and identities. The findings of this study are only limited to religious students, thus do not explain perceptions of sex among non-religious students.

Exploring the Dichotomized Perspectives of Leadership and Management
PRESENTER: Doreen Kosi

ABSTRACT. Introduction: Leadership is one of the most studied phenomena, and the intrinsic relationship between Leadership and Management has been topical over time. Various studies highlight the dynamic interplay between them. However, this question continues to linger: Are leadership and Management the same thing?

Methods: We addressed this question by conducting a Qualitative Evidence Synthesis on the dichotomised perspectives of Leadership and Management, using Leadership and Management Theories as a basis. The research followed the ENTREQ reporting guidelines for Qualitative Synthesis Studies. The data collection was conducted through purposively selected articles using PRISMA and critically appraised them using CASP. Thematic analysis was applied using the webQDA to transform raw data.

Findings: Overall, the study found the importance of Leadership and Management attributes. Specifically, it also found these key differences: a) Leaders create value, and Managers count value; b) Leaders create circles of influence and Managers create circles of power; c) Leaders manage people instead of managing work; and d) Influence and inspiration separate Leaders from Managers, and not necessarily power and control. Contribution of the Study: We contribute to the body of knowledge in that there is no denying of the intertwined relationship between them. It is noteworthy that while Leadership and Management have convergences, some distinct features can still be observed and are more pronounced and nuanced in their application. The implication for Practitioners and Policy Makers is to know when one or both Leadership and Management matter to transform and sustain Organizations and society.

11:30-13:00 Session 7A: Workshop

Exploring Uncertainty in Qualitative Research

Robert Meckin, School of Social Sciences, University of Manchester (UK) and National Centre for Research Methods (NCRM), Southampton, Manchester & Edinburgh (UK)

Methodological uncertainties in qualitative research have changed in the wake in of recent pandemics, wars and political shifts. Social and physical restrictions surrounding the COVID-19 pandemic meant researchers changed methods by moving data generation online, changing foci, or pausing or stopping projects, all of which affect qualitative research in different ways partly depending on the stage a project is in. Methodological uncertainties include, among others, epistemological, ontological, affective, spatio-temporal and relational dimensions. The workshop draws on three phases of a research project called: Changing Research Practices: Methodological adaptations to the COVID-19 pandemic. The workshop is aimed at introducing different perspectives on uncertainty and articulating concepts and ideas with the experiences and projects of workshop participants… 


11:30-13:00 Session 7B: Workshop

DiscoverText - Humans and Machines Learning Together

Stuart Shulman, Texifter, LLC (USA)

DiscoverText is multilingual-capable platform designed for collecting, cleaning up, and categorizing text data. It is free for academics. This highly interactive workshop teaches participants how to use DiscoverText to build custom machine classifiers for sifting Twitter data, free text, emails, survey responses, RSS feeds, or any other digitized text and metadata. (…) By the end of this workshop, participants will be able to present valid, legal, defensible Twitter research based on qualitative, quantitative, mixed, and machine-learning methods without having to learn software coding, Python, or R…


11:30-13:00 Session 7C: Workshop

Qualitative Data Analysis with ATLAS.ti: Gather Insights Quickly and Easily

Neringa Kalpokas and Ivana Radivojevic, ATLAS.ti Scientific Software Development GmbH (DE)

ATLAS.ti is a powerful computer-assisted qualitative data analysis software (CAQDAS) that facilitates the analysis of unstructured and semi-structured data in any discipline. This workshop will present a global overview of ATLAS.ti Windows/Mac and Web, including the fundamental procedures related to creating a project, segmenting the data, coding, analysis, and obtaining results. The objective of this session is to provide a practical introduction of ATLAS.ti so that participants will know how to use the software in their own research projects, across any discipline and qualitative methodology…


11:30-13:00 Session 7D: Workshop (online)

Qualitative Data Analysis Using NVivo

Luís Manuel da Silva Martins -  Nvivo Certified Trainer (PT)

This workshop aims to provide a practical experience for participants interested in discovering new ways of analyzing qualitative data using the software NVivo. The workshop will provide an introduction to the software’s features and capabilities, with a focus on hands-on learning through various activities and discussions…


14:30-16:30 Session 8A: Parallel Communications

A3 - Qualitative and Mixed Methods Research

Teaching Qualitative Research in Psychology: a Look at the Portuguese Reality

ABSTRACT. Introduction: Today, psychologists and Psychology researchers are receptive to consulting and conducting qualitative research. Thus, APA has recently published the standard quality criteria for studies using this research methodology. Goals and Methods: The main goal of this paper is to describe and analyse the current qualitative teaching practices in the field of Psychology in the Portuguese higher education. So, a documentary analysis was made. The data collection was conducted through an online search on the website of the General Directorate of Higher Education and, after it, on the online sites of each of the Portuguese universities where the first cycle of Psychology is taught. The collected information was organised in a grid so the comparison between data and respective analysis could be done. A content analysis was made by one coder and the main topics of analysis were related, in a first step, to the presence of a qualitative research curricular unit in the study plan, and, in a second step, to the syllabus of the curricular units found. Results: The search revealed the existence of 32 undergraduate courses at 31 Portuguese teaching institutions and organic teaching units (12 undergraduate courses at 12 public universities organic teaching units, and 20 undergraduate courses at 19 private universities organic teaching units). The collected data showed diversity in the study plans of the universities also concerning the presence of qualitative research/methodology on them. Most of the undergraduate study plans contemplate the teaching of qualitative research methodology. However, were registered differences in the designation of the curricular unit, in the academic year in which it is taught, in the number of ECTS, as well as in the formulated objectives and syllabus. Conclusions. Despite qualitative research is being assumed in the Portuguese Psychology students training, heterogeneity of teaching objectives and different syllabus were observed.

Triangulating Mixed-Methods Data to Assess the Efficacy of a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit Redesign from Open-Bay to Single Family Rooms

ABSTRACT. Introduction. Neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) care for sick and premature neonates. Although NICUs began as open-bays with multiple neonates admitted to large rooms of variable size, a growing trend in NICU design is single-family rooms with one neonate admitted per room and accommodations for a parent to stay with the neonate. 

Goals and Methods. Our research assessed the efficacy of a NICU redesign from open-bay to single family rooms in the U.S. context, a nation-state lacking universal health care and maternity leave. Data sources include a systematic literature review, qualitative semi-structured interviews with NICU stakeholders, electronic health record data compiled from NICU patients, and self-reported satisfaction surveys for patients and employees. The study followed a concurrent, mixed-methods design that began with analyzing findings before vs. after the NICU redesign for each data source separately and then triangulating results across all data sources. 

Results. We describe case examples illustrating the utility of triangulation. Sometimes, we found diverging results when comparing and contrasting results across data sources. We share our process for identifying and interpreting inconsistencies. For example, the quantitative showed some racial health inequities such as longer length of stay for Black neonates (23 days) than white neonates (19 days) across the study period. When explicitly asked about racial health inequities in interviews, nurses generally reported no differences in quality of care or health outcomes by race. One nurse stated: “I don’t think that [race] plays any part in how we take care of the babies.” Yet, racial bias became apparent when the same nurse stated: “Little Black girls do great. They are probably the ones that do the best, and then you got your wimpy white boys that struggle.”

Conclusions. Triangulating mixed-methods data sources can deepen our understanding about mechanisms that may reproduce health inequities such as colorblind racism.

Resistance Among Survivors of Domestic Abuse: a Creative Qualitative Exploration.

ABSTRACT. Introduction: Domestic Violence and Abuse (DVA) is a serious, global problem that affects approximately one in four women in her life-time. There has been a great deal of media and research interest in tackling DVA over the past few years, particularly following the reported rise in cases as a result of COVID-19. While there is a mounting body of qualitative literature on survivors’ lived experiences of DVA, an angle that remains unexplored is how women use a range of strategies to honour resistance, manage the risk, avoid the abuse and cope with the pain, all whilst living under a regime of power and control. Goal and methods: This qualitative study explored how women used a range of strategies to survive DVA. Art-based methodology was used whereby participants co-designed and become co-researchers by developing creative medium/s (for example; pictures, poetry, jewellery). Focus groups were used to elicit responses to the research question and document survivors’ resistance to DVA through discussion about their artwork. Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis approaches were used. Findings: Seven strategies were employed by the women in order to survive DVA: Apparent compliance; Maintaining a sense of self; Knowing boundaries; Keeping hope in sight; Imagining freedom; Degrees of rebellion; Denial. In this presentation we show how these qualitative findings have been used to inform a conceptual model for understanding DVA survivorship (The SEED Model). Conclusion: Women employ a mixture of covert and/or overt strategies to survive domestic abuse. This study shows that art, in its many guises, can detail how employment of the strategies can lead women to three outcomes of DVA survival: emotional healing; reclaiming self; and empowerment.

Qualitative Evaluation of the Reality of ‘Doing’ Co-Research and Its Potential to Build the Knowledge Base for Undertaking Effective Survivor-Research

ABSTRACT. Introduction: There has been a long-standing problem in research of survivors of sexual violence and abuse being marginalised and excluded, resulting in a disparity as regards how survivors are represented and how their experiences can be best understood. Furthermore, little is known about best to support survivor-researchers to collect and analyse learning relating to their experiences.

Through a creative, participatory autoethnographic approach, co-researchers on violence and abuse study explored the impacts of both being a co-researcher and doing co-research, supported by an additional external survivor-researcher acting as a facilitator for the project.

Goals and method: This research addresses two key questions: 1) What skills and experience are required to effectively facilitate creative autoethnographic research? 2) What impacts are there of working in a facilitator role on co-research projects relating to violence and abuse? Using autoethnographic reflections from the facilitator and co-researchers, this study has been about co-researching the process of co-research. Co-research signifies active involvement, emphasising research with and by, rather than on participants. It ensures lived experience is heard, reflected, and infused in research; subsequently resulting in research (processes, methodology and materials) that can accurately respond to and meet the needs of participants (including reducing re-traumatisation, conducting research sensitively, minimising power differentials and ensuring participants’ safety and wellbeing).

Results: This presentation critically evaluates the reality of ‘doing’ co-research and its potential to build the knowledge base for undertaking effective survivor-research. We focus on power, ethics, co-researcher safety and re-traumatisation for co-researchers and those supporting them.

Conclusion: We share a framework for future engagement with a particular emphasis on how best to facilitate creative autoethnographic research, and wellbeing and support for those engaging with this type of complex, qualitative research.

The Challenges of Cross-Cultural and Multi-Language Research: Reflections from a Qualitative Study Focused on Female Genital Mutilation
PRESENTER: Laura Jones

ABSTRACT. Introduction: Female genital mutilation (FGM) involves injury to the female genitalia without medical reason and is associated with lifelong consequences. Deinfibulation (surgical opening) may improve health and wellbeing for type 3 survivors; however, there is no consensus on timing and current care provision is patchy.

Goals and Methods: This paper reflects on the challenges that we faced in undertaking cross-cultural and multi-language sensitive qualitative research and how we should manage these as researchers. We explored the views of survivors, men, and professionals around deinfibulation and FGM care provision. We talked to 141 participants in four languages to ensure we heard diverse experiences. Data were analysed using a hybrid framework method. From study inception we had a survivor advisory group who were critical in guiding our research. They advised us of the potential FGM stigma and so professional interpreters were employed to support data collection. We undertook specialised training with them. All but one of the large research team were outsiders to FGM practice.

Results: (1) Some HCPs lacked cultural knowledge, ‘sensationalising’ FGM, and seeing survivors as victims. (2) HCPs often focussed on the legality of FGM and not the survivors’ needs. (3) Despite careful preparation, our interpreters did not always offer conceptual equivalence but a rigid literal word for word translation. (4) Whilst offering the study in multiple languages, we were unable to offer languages of all FGM affected communities. (5) UK FGM research is small, with some unanticipated tensions. (6) There were potential power imbalances between researchers and participants.

Conclusions: Sensitive research invariably has challenges for the team, many of which can be mitigated through careful planning and support from a participant advisory group. However, there will still be issues requiring flexibility and cultural humility. The research team, arguably as much as the participants, need protection and care.

An Exploratory Study on Choreographic Emergence and the Phenomenon of Togetherness: a Transformative Mixed Methods Approach

ABSTRACT. Transposing the concept of generative art: art whose artistic result comes from the artist's use of a set of rules that constitute a system, to dance, we can consider that, when it comes to generative dance, the choreographer creates and defines the functioning of a system of dancers, where the choreographic result emerges from the set of inter-participant relationships. Generative dance follows a contemporary dance logic based on collective composition by organizational principles, proposing a choreographic organization that overlaps with the chaining of dance steps. With it, we aim to study how compositionally we can find a synergistic and structural balance and generate emergent collective behaviors. To this end, we propose a relational ontology where participants, by applying a relational rule – Agent-based-model with a concentric emergent group pattern of fractal appearance – adjust their actions and movements in order to understand how the generative dance influences the feeling of inter-participant "togetherness". For this exploratory study, still in process, we used a mixed-methods transformative type methodology, where the procedures combine an implicit quantitative study with an explicit qualitative focus on data interpretation. With this article, we propose to expose and substantiate the methodological procedures applied and relate them to the objectives of this exploratory study, contributing to the knowledge of the subjective experience of space-time sharing – togetherness phenomenon – experienced in generative dance.

14:30-16:30 Session 8B: Parallel Communications

A1 - Rationale and Paradigms of Qualitative Research / A3 - Qualitative and Mixed Methods Research / B2 - Innovative processes of Qualitative Data Analysis

The Role of Education Infrastructure and School Safety in Learning and Development in Gauteng Provincial Schools
PRESENTER: Albert Chanee

ABSTRACT. Introduction: Around the world, governments and society work to enhance their educational systems and make sure that all children and youth have the chance to attend school and gain the information and skills necessary to lead healthy and fruitful lives. The quality of education is aided by important components of the educational system, including curricula, instructors, and education infrastructure. The context of this study is in Gauteng Provincial Department of Education and its schools which are characterized by overcrowding and safety challenges. The study is targeting education planners, educators and learners. Methods: Using a mixed methods approach, with a proclivity to the QUAL-quan simultaneous design, the study will use a case study approach to postulate the importance of infrastructure and safety in Gauteng Provincial schools. The Qualitative dimension of this study will inform the core component of the research, while the quantitative dimension will simply be used for understanding the generalized impact. The sample will be made up of 30 individuals, selected through purposive sampling within a case study while the quantitative aspect will use perception surveys. The study will be analyzed using thematic analysis for the qualitative dimension and correlation analysis for the quantitative aspect. Expected Results: The study is expected to help the Provincial Government to understand the impact of education infrastructure and school safety on educational outcomes. The expected results should be considered as a contribution to holistic school improvement creating an enabling environment for teaching and learning . Conclusion: This is an ongoing study and the initial results should be available by March 2023. This study is conducted whilst most of the Gauteng Education public schools are characterized by overcrowding and unsafe teaching and learning environment.

Seriously-Injured Rugby Players Perspectives on Patient and Public Involvement (PPI) in Preclinical Spinal Cord Research: an Interview Study
PRESENTER: Pádraig Carroll

ABSTRACT. Introduction: Involving patients and the public (PPI) in research holds numerous benefits for research, such as improved relevance to people affected by its outcomes. While PPI has a significant evidence base in ‘clinical’ research involving human participants, the use of PPI in ‘preclinical’, or lab-based research remains limited. This may be a result of the apparent distance between work conducted in a laboratory and the day-to-day experiences of patients’ lives. Therefore, developing PPI for preclinical science may help researchers stay connected to the priorities and needs of those living with serious conditions. Goals and Methods: This study aimed to gather the perspectives of seriously injured rugby players living with spinal cord injury (SCI) on PPI for preclinical spinal cord research. 11 participants were recruited using convenience sampling via a charitable organisation that supports seriously injured rugby players. Semi-structured interviews were carried out via telephone. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed thematically. A PPI advisory panel comprising seriously injured rugby players, clinicians, preclinical researchers, and PPI facilitators collaborated as co-authors, contributing to the conceptualisation, development of study materials including participant information leaflets and consent forms, and the writing and editing of the manuscript. Results : Seven themes and three subthemes were identified and organised under the following framework: (i) knowledge and views of PPI (ii) PPI for preclinical spinal cord research, and (iii) patient and public engagement (PPE). Participants explored the potential benefits of PPI for preclinical SCI research and indicated their desire for further involvement in the identifying priorities and dissemination stages of the research cycle. Conclusion: Though the evidence base for PPI in preclinical research remains limited, opportunities exist in the research cycle to involve patients and the public. Further exploration of PPI in preclinical research may hold benefits in terms of quality and relevance.

Sexual Assault Disclosure Among Sexual and Gender Minorities

ABSTRACT. Introduction: Individuals who identify as a sexual or gender minority are sexually assaulted at a rate three times higher than the heterosexual population. Yet, research on sexual assault has typically been conducted through a heteronormative lens. Additionally, sexual orientation and gender identity are often omitted from research on sexual violence or aggregated in data collection, thereby minimizing the unique experience of each orientation or identity (ie. lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender). Sexual assault is grossly under-reported and the stigmatized identity of sexual and gender minorities makes disclosure to formal support providers complex. Disclosure is important as the response survivors receive from their environment is critical for healing. The purpose of our study is to explore the unique experiences of individuals who identify as a sexual or gender minority and have experienced sexual assault and disclosed to a formal support provider.

Goals/Methods: Informed by sexual and gender script theory, descriptive phenomenology will be used to explore the sexual assault disclosure experiences of participants. The method includes the implementation of a community advisory committee to inform the research and a recruitment strategy that ensures representation of the unique experiences of each orientation/identity. Face-to-face and virtual semi-structured interviews will be conducted with approximately 15-20 participants from each group. Interviews will be audio recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed in NVIVO using Colaizzi’s analytic method. A second step in the analytic process includes collating findings from each group through a meta-synthesis of themes.

Results: We anticipate that the findings from this study will improve understanding of the unique disclosure experiences of each group and assist in challenging heteronormative assumptions about sexual assault. An improved understanding of the needs and barriers to disclosure may assist in creating safe spaces and improved support.

Conclusion: This research may assist in improving the disclosure experience for sexual and gender minorities.

Safety First Means Safety Fits: a Mixed Methods Analysis of Gender and Personal Protective Equipment Hackathon
PRESENTER: Kylie Parrotta

ABSTRACT. Introduction Our Safety VEST Hackathon was inspired by a student’s senior project, which explored the fit of safety vests for construction workers, discovering women were disproportionately impacted by improperly fitting personal protective equipment (PPE). Goals and Methods The goal was to improve the fit of PPE for varying body types by gaining insights from teams of industry workers to better address the needs of the construction community’s increasingly diverse workforce. We hosted a 2-day event where 6 teams redesigned vests, cut apart and constructed prototypes which were then presented to industry workers and vest manufacturers for feedback. Faculty and student researchers took fieldnotes and interviewed (N=16) hackathon participants. Quantitative and qualitative data, including team design books and journals, were collected and analyzed to conceive of new design and safety features to better adapt to different body types and wearer needs. Results Survey (N=263) results showed that safety vests were improperly fitting workers, especially women, who identified shoulders, underarm openings, waist, and hips as too loose, long, or wide. Survey respondents and women interviewed disclosed that improper fitting safety equipment, like vests, yield unsafe situations where workers are distracted or caught on objects, resulting in injury. Women stated poor PPE negatively impacted their confidence on the job site, especially their sense of presence and authority, and that improper equipment was a physical daily reminder about their lack of industry belongingness. Improvements to the redesigned vest included the creation of synching cords, hoods, water bladders, identification holder pocket, length, reflective material, pocket changes, and ergonomic features to support posture and to redistribute weight and tools. Conclusions Authors discuss implications for industry, including recommended protocols for industry standards that apply to safety vests and the need to create greater awareness for people who bulk order safety vests for their crews.

Navigating Qualitative Research in Inclusive Education: Perspectives from Novice Researchers
PRESENTER: Danielle Lane

ABSTRACT. Entering academia is a daunting task for young, recent graduates of a Ph.D. program. There are applications to submit, interviews to be conducted, teaching to be figured out, and shortly after securing a position the dreaded “publish or perish” comes knocking at your door. When the doorbell rings, there are choices to be made and a research agenda to secure. In that moment, novice researchers must make decisions related to what (what will I research?), where (where will I research?), when (when will I conduct research?), why (why am I conducting the research?), and how (how will I conduct research?). Through the analysis of ongoing virtual dialogic meetings and review of electronic communications, which aimed to provide peer support during the early years as an academic, we address the intricacies of these questions as well as experiences of novice researchers in the field of inclusive education. We highlight the decision-making processes that novice researchers must engage with when building a research agenda in the early stages of a career in academia. We also examine the importance of collaboration as a means to creating and maintaining a meaningful research agenda. Additional focus is made to lessons learned related to ethical considerations and power dynamics while conducting qualitative research in a teacher education program. Ultimately, we aim to provide an insider’s perspective to the barriers (narrowing a research focus, resources, time management, and building collaborative relationships) and successes (mentorship, dissemination of research opportunities, and networking) experienced when beginning the research journey as novice qualitative researchers.

Individual Vulnerability and Collective Emotional Experiences of Brazilians Living in Canada During the Pandemic

ABSTRACT. Introduction-The COVID-19 pandemic has had a tremendous impact on the lives of Canadians resulting in anxiety, uncertainty, stress, financial and employment concerns. Emotional distress was distinctively present within ethnocultural communities and in particular, the growing Brazilian community composed of professionals, students, temporary workers, immigrants and refugees. Goals and Methods- A qualitative, exploratory descriptive research approach was conducted using individual interviews in an online platform guided by an original semi-structured interview guide. The research aimed to uncover the narratives of the emotional experiences of Brazilians living in Canada during the pandemic. Seventy interviews were conducted with Brazilians living throughout Canada (in 8 out of 10 provinces) whose verbatim were transcribed and submitted to thematic analysis. Results- Contributing factors that significantly impacted participants' mental health included social isolation, lack of available linguistically appropriate psychological support and being away from family in a different country. Social isolation played a significant role in the development of emotional disturbances and exacerbation of pre-existing mental illness and emotional instability. Participants disclosed seeking mental health support but were challenged due to the limited linguistically appropriate services available in Portuguese. However, many found a way around this and reported reconnecting with health professionals in Brazil for remote psychotherapy, counselling, and psychiatric support, which was imperative for ensuring their personal safety in the presence of new and worsening mental health symptoms. Many participants expressed concern due to the lack of guidance from the Brazilian government in managing the pandemic which further enhanced participants' feelings of worry, powerlessness, and fear of losing their loved ones who are high-risk and immunocompromised. Conclusions- Exposed vulnerability, uncertainty of life and impossibility to control events associated with incongruent, daunting news triggered a rumination of negative thoughts leading to high emotional suffering.

14:30-16:30 Session 8C: Parallel Communications

A3 - Qualitative and Mixed Methods Research / B2 - Innovative processes of Qualitative Data Analysis / B3 - Qualitative Research in Web Context 

"Tell Me": Understanding Sexual Abuse Disclosure Within the Israeli LGBTQ Community on Social Media
PRESENTER: Dafna Tener

ABSTRACT. Introduction: The purpose of this study was  to explore the disclosure of sexual abuse within the LGBTQ+ community through the systematic analysis of posts containing sexual abuse disclosure on an Israeli Instagram page called Torenu, which the media has described as the Israeli “Me Too” and which has encouraged LGBTQ+ survivors of sexual abuse to tell their stories.

Goals and methods: In this study, 65 posts of the Torenu Instagram page were selected and analyzed using thematic analysis. Through the analysis of these posts, we aimed to gain a better understanding of the unique characteristics and dynamics of sexual abuse within this community. The analysis aimed at identifying patterns of meaning in a data set and at highlighting the most salient constellations of meanings present in it. Ethical considerations were taken into account during analysis in order to protect the confidentiality and anonymity of the participants.

Results: Our analysis yielded two major themes: (1) the representations of perpetrator and survivor figures, and (2) the attributes of the abuse, which included: (1) publicness (abuse that occurred in visible public places where an audience was present); (2) normalization (perpetrators presented the abuse as part of generally accepted norms); (3) numbness of the senses (resulting from the use of drugs or alcohol before and during the abuse); (4) escalation (sexual relations that were initially reciprocal but became one-sided and abusive).

Conclusions: Our study highlight the complexity of disclosing sexual abuse within this community and the tendency for normalization and the blurring of boundaries between consensual sexuality and harmful and abusive sexual acts. The presentation will focus on both substance-related and methodological issues.

A Case Study on the Roadmap of a Start-up Research University in the Philippines
PRESENTER: Elias Olapane

ABSTRACT. Research University (RUs) are the governments’ arms to boost the knowledge-based economy and achieve greater prosperity in the society. The lack of explicit policy and absence of distinguished functional RU in the Philippines necessitated the conduct of a qualitative case study to gain an in-depth understanding on the current and future initiatives of the West Visayas State University (WVSU) in its quest to become a research university. Recognizing that people are meaning-making agents, the present study sought to unravel how these seven (7) universities purposively chosen key officials constructively resemble the so-called RU based on available empirical evidence and at the same time immensely capture their collective efforts towards this case through the conduct of a face-to-face Focused Group Discussion (FGD) on October 3, 2022. Thematic analysis was carried out with the aid of NVivo 12 Plus. The data analysis was audited by two external experts in qualitative research to ensure the scientific rigor of the study. Interestingly, the analyses reveal the significant contributions of buddy system and mentoring program in sustaining the research and publication interests of the University faculty-researchers. This was further reinvigorated with the implementation of 18-unit faculty workload and research load credits which afforded better position for faculty-researchers to perform their triadic functions – research, knowledge, and service. The participants of the study likewise reveal the relevance of fortifying the ground works of a start-up research university in addition to functional and targeted benchmarking with the established RUs in Southeast Asia, United States of America, and United Kingdom. The qualitative lens adopted from Sharan Merriam thereby provide essential and immense understanding on the journey of a start-up research university in the Philippines.

Experiences of Adolescents with Selective Mutism and Their Caretakers

ABSTRACT. Introduction: Children with Selective Mutism are unable to speak in certain social contexts. They talk for example at home, but they don’t talk at school, and this can have a serious impact on their life. Research often focuses on Selective Mutism in the preschool to middle childhood period. However, adolescents can also be hampered by Selective Mutism. Caretakers (parents and teachers), are often struggling with how to support them, because no information is available about this developmental stage in which more independency is expected.

Goals and method: In this study we want to understand the experiences of adolescents with Selective Mutism and their caretakers. The study consists of three parts. First, we will collect social media post of adolescents with selective mutism and perform a qualitative content analysis on a random selection of posts. Second, we will conduct an a-synchronous online focus group in a chat environment with adolescents with Selective Mutism. From previous research we know that communicating online is not easy, yet doable for these adolescents. Third, we have started conducting online, video-based synchronous focus groups with parents and teachers. The data of step 2 and 3 will be analyzed with thematic analyses.

Expected results: Adolescents, parents and teachers can give us valuable new insights in the way the disorder is experienced, and they can come up with very helpful tips for adolescents with Selective Mutism, as well as the people that are related to them and the professionals that work with them.

Conclusion: We will gain insight in the disorder Selective Mutism from the point of view of the people involved. We can bring together and share suggestions for handling difficult situations and contribute to improving the lives of adolescents with Selective Mutism.

Focus Groups About Patients’ Perceptions of the Bariatric Surgery Process: a Contribution to Design New Interventions

ABSTRACT. Introduction: Bariatric surgery is the surgical treatment for obesity with the highest success. However, patients’ and professionals’ perceptions and expectations are many times misaligned, contributing to poorer surgery outcomes. Thus, the aim of this study was to identify patients’ expectations and perceptions of the bariatric surgery process. Methods: The study, aligned with the COREQ statement, was conducted in a bariatric surgery center in south Portugal. Sixteen individual patients participated in one of 3 focus groups: one with patients before surgery (n=7), one with after surgery patients with weight regain (n=4) and another with patients without weight regain (n=5). Questions addressed motivations, experiences with the process and lifestyle. The script had 11 open main questions with follow-up questions to probe for more information. Each focus group was audio-recorded and had a mean duration of 45 minutes. Records were transcript verbatim before inductive thematic analysis. Results: Three major codes were identified: (1) motivations; (2) follow-up process and (3) main contributions to avoid weight regain. Within “motivations”, three main categories emerged: motivation for change, motivation for surgery and expectations with surgery’s results, supported by themes such as incapacity to lose weight, infertility, bullying or longing for a lifestyle change. In “follow-up process”, the perspective of time (short vs. long-term support), group sessions, frequency of consultations, use of technologies and the skill mix of the health team were mentioned. Here, the need to include physical activity specialists in the team was found as a major theme, since it also underpins the strategies identified in the code “to avoid weight regain”. Conclusion: Bariatric surgery patients can have a proactive contribution in the design of new interventions addressed at maintaining surgery’s outcomes. These new interventions should incorporate a diverse health team supporting patient in the long-term, with special attention to physical activity programs and psychological support.

Children’S View on Positive Health
PRESENTER: Lisa Tessensohn

ABSTRACT. Introduction Being healthy is a rather individual and multi-interpretable concept which depends on context and the characteristics of people that are considered. Especially when it comes to children, little is known about the way they interpret health and promotion of their health. Previous research has shown that children are generally well able to talk about health but that their voice is still not heard enough. Children are active owners of their body and mind and consequently should not only be considered as targets of health promotions, but also as a source. Therefore, qualitative studies with children themselves are needed. The concept of Positive Health can be a good starting point for listening to children’s ideas on health. Positive Health focuses on “the ability to adapt and to self-manage, in the face of social, physical, and emotional challenges” and makes talking about daily life health issues and thinking about solutions very natural. Goals and method This study focusses on children’s experiences with their Positive Health and aims to generate important themes and advices that are associated with the way they perceive health, becoming healthy and staying healthy. To explore their ideas about Positive Health and their suggestions for improving it, thirteen online focus groups were conducted with 76 Dutch children aged 10-12 years, using a newly constructed topic guide. Expected results Based on a thematic inductive analysis of the transcribed conversations we expect to extract important characteristics of children’s health promoting behavior. Conclusion The results of this study could contribute to our understanding of the concept of health from the perspective of children. This information could also be used in development of new interventions targeting health promotion among children.

14:30-16:30 Session 8D: Parallel Communications

A3 - Qualitative and Mixed Methods Research / B3 - Qualitative Research in Web Context / B4 - Qualitative Analysis with Support of Specific Software

Location: Marina I + II
Digital Presence and Identity Among Digital Scholars: a Thematic Analysis.

ABSTRACT. In today's post-digital society, the public presence of academics on the web and the consequent affirmation of a given identity or of a multidimensional identity, imply a much more complex and multifaceted management of their image than when we were dealing with a teacher whose identity was affirmed in circumscribed spaces and times. In this work we seek to analyse the positioning of the subjects about their "digital footprint", the importance they attribute to their online presence and the ways in which they express the multiple facets of the construction of their personal and professional identities.

We adopted a Thematic Analysis approach to qualitative research and used NVivo to analyse the data collected through semi-structured interviews to 13 subjects from a purposive sample of digital scholars.

Five major sub-themes were identified within the theme of Digital Presence and Identity: Awareness of Digital Identity; Strategic Online Presence; Authenticity; Privacy; Personal Presence and Professional Presence.

Overall, subjects clearly express the awareness of the need to build a presence in the network, emphasizing in general that this construction is increasingly made in the confluence between the offline and the online world. While there is a general concern to preserve a certain authenticity, intimacy and privacy on the web, there seems to be some heterogeneity in the experiencing of these processes. For some participants the distinction between public and private, between personal and professional should be clearly marked, while for others the necessarily hybrid nature of identity should be assumed, arguing that it is no longer possible to make a clear separation between offline and online world or between public and private. This work thus shows different shades in the way academics construct their presence on the web and how they assume several of the constitutive dimensions of their identities.

Autoethnography of an Online Distance Education Teacher

ABSTRACT. As a fusion between autobiography and ethnography, autoethnography assumes the researcher and his/her own reflexivity as a source of valid data in a research, simultaneously articulating auto (self), ethno (the cultural connection) and graphy (writing as a research process). Autoethnographers tend to vary in their emphasis on the self dimension or on the ethno dimension producing autoethnographies with either a more evocative or a more analytical slant. Despite the variety of emphasis, autoethnographers have a common principle: to give meaning to their lived experiences by narrating and analysing what they are, what they feel, what they do and what they know, articulating it with the analysis of their socio-cultural and socio-technical environment.

I have been working in Distance Education since 1989 and I have been a teacher of online courses since 2001. I am at this moment a teacher who faces Online Distance Education based on principles of Dialogic Education, on an Ethics of Care and oriented to Social Justice. But how did I become the teacher I am? What enthusiasms, difficulties and upsets have crossed my path? What validity and usefulness for others can a personal testimony of this nature have? The present autoethnographic work intends to describe and interpret a teaching journey of more than 20 years in online education. Using memory, writing, diaries, documents, course records, interviews with students and colleagues as sources, I try to show that online distance education can constitute a humanised, relational, empathic and transformative formative process.

Coherence Between Research Methodology, Research Question and a Sensitive Dialogue

ABSTRACT. Introduction

In high standard qualitative research it is crucial to demonstrate coherence between the research elements of epistemology, methodology, method and resonance with the research objectives, questions and theory. Heidegger’s philosophy shapes the research design and offers a methodological foundation to ensure a mentally shelter is built for a person to dwell in. Dwelling promotes thinking and the ability to unfold the language in situations where two lifeworlds meet and facilitates a sensitive mode of acting.

Goals and methods

We aim to frame the significance of a strong methodology and sensitivity to the informant’s situation in the development of solid research findings. Illustrated by empirical research studies, we discuss the preparation of a strong methodology and combine it with critical appraisal tools by the Joanna Briggs Institute.


The methodology of interview studies is questioned in terms of congruity between research methodology, data collection and analysis. The congruity is contrasted by the researcher’s theoretical understanding of the lifeworld and its existentials.  A framework on wellbeing and suffering adds aspects about informants’ dignity and dwelling-mobility. From these perspectives (epistemological and ontological) a sensitive data collection and an existential based analysis is made. Findings is understood through the informants use of language: asking what is addressed, what is being talked about and what do they refer to.


The three analytic steps: address, talk and refer is used to guide data collection. The methodologically well-prepared researcher aiming to act sensitively in a qualitative interview is assisted in language and dialogue by this framework in the search for stories, actions or phenomena that the informant address, by questioning the informant what they want to talk about, how they address this and how this refer to situations from their life.

Is Diversity in the Clouds? Multimodal Analysis of University Websites That Use the Term Diversity

ABSTRACT. Introduction. Today education in universities requires inclusive policies that focus on diversity. Research shows different orientations and approaches, so the conceptual and programmatic understanding of these approaches can benefit from a comparative study. University websites have become a space for cultural expressions of specific geographic and sociocultural environments and tend to reflect the values each institution wants to project.

Objectives and Method. The goal is to analyze the term diversity through the identification and multimodal analysis of the websites of the institutional structures dealing with diversity. After applying selection criteria, the sample has 70 universities (25 Spanish and 45 from the State of Massachusetts, USA).

The multimodal analysis allows us to examine: interactive functions, access routes, and location within the university websites; the verbal system as text of the main interface of university services; the graphic system, particularly images; and the combination of text and image.

Results. The two spaces differ in their understanding of diversity: the Spanish context considers diversity as a differential category, while American universities present diversity as recognition and with a certain programmatic educational value.

(1) In Massachusetts, USA, 63% of the universities have diversity offices, whereas in Spain this number is only 29%; (2) It is easier and faster to find these services on university websites in the USA than in Spain. In the USA diversity is linked to the educational model, and in Spain to difference. (3) In the USA diversity refers to group identities and their intersection, while in Spain the main focus is on functional diversity.

Conclusions. It is imperative to reflect on how university administrations make use of diversity policies. Properly analyzed, their websites provide a good indication of their practices and priorities.

Working with Automated Transcripts: Three Approaches to Enhancement of Immersion, Focus or Scale of Qualitative Research

ABSTRACT. The recent development and availability of accurate, automated text-to-speech recognition and creation of automated subtitles and transcripts has the potential to transform what can be achieved with qualitative analysis of spoken language. However, the adoption of automated transcription continues to be dogged by concerns about the potential loss of immersion. The focus of this project was to develop a teaching dataset to address these concerns by explaining and demonstrating how to harness these recent developments in software services through integration with Computer Assisted Qualitative Data Analysis Software (CAQDAS) packages. A guiding project principle was that reflection, rather than efficiency, should be the focus for developing teaching materials and practice guides. The project used open-access qualitative data and set out: how to create automated transcripts, how to prepare and import these into two key CAQDAS packages (ATLAS.ti and NVivo), and how to work with the synchronised media and transcript to enhance analysis. Three options are outlined: The first enhances immersion through close listening and sequential correction of transcripts along with making reflective notes. Having immediate and ongoing access to synchronised audio creates the potential for a deeper level of analytic engagement drawing on the nuances available from the tone, tenor and tempo of speech and the meanings these carry. A second approach is selected focus based on listening to audio while reading the transcript and marking analytically interesting segments for closer attention and detailed transcription (up to Jeffersonian levels of detail). Finally, a third approach is to substantially expand the scale of research. Depth of engagement is intentionally traded for a substantial increase in the breadth and scope of working with larger corpora of automated transcripts enabling text mining, with synchronised audio providing added detail and checks for accuracy. The dataset and approaches will be demonstrated in a practically focussed session.

14:30-16:50 Session 8E: Parallel Communications - Online (synchronous session)

A1 - Rationale and Paradigms of Qualitative Research / A2 - Systematization of approaches with Qualitative Studies / A3 - Qualitative and Mixed Methods Research / B1 - Data Analysis Types / B3 - Qualitative Research in Web Context

A Safe Space for Black/Afro-Poles: a Virtual Ethnography

ABSTRACT. Introduction


With the murder of George Floyd, scholars on racism have been reenergized to look at anti-blackness movements in the United States and abroad. Poland, which seen as homogenous has a longstanding black diaspora actively involved in combatting local currents of antiblackness. Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, sociologists (and other researchers in various disciplines) have been forced to rethink some of the more traditional ways of conducting qualitative research on anti-blackness and ways to counter it in Poland and elsewhere. 


Goals and Methods


This project is a virtual ethnography/content analysis of a Facebook group whose purpose is to increase dialogue among minority groups in Poland and their "allies" to help foster understanding and community to fight anti-blackness in Poland.  Facebook posts and interactions were analyzed from June 2020 to March of 2022.




Over 300 Facebook postings and comment threads were manually reviewed and coded.  Three themes pertaining to the group were identified, discussed, and analyzed in the broader context of sociological understandings of issues pertaining to Afro/Black Polish citizens.  The three themes were 1. Lack of awareness where people who were not really aware of the lived conditions of discrimination experienced by Afro/Black Poles; 2. Site as a source of education where people not only discuss their lived experiences but provide sources and resources for people in the group to learn more about the lived discrimination experienced by Black/Afro Poles; and 3. Site as a safe space for people of color where they can honestly and without fear of physical or mental harm or injury discuss their lived experiences.




This provides an understudied case of how black communities in Eastern Europe organize and commensurate with one another when in person interactions and organizing were not possible.

Understanding Strengths and Barriers in Health Literacy Competencies Among PALOP Migrant Communities from Lisbon Metropolitan Area: a Qualitative Study Protocol

ABSTRACT. Introduction: Since the beginning of the 1980s, in Portugal, the migration of citizens from PALOP (African Countries with Portuguese as the Official Language) has been a continuous demographic reality, becoming in 2021 the second most expressive migrant community, particularly in Lisbon Metropolitan Area (LMA). The migration phenomenon is often considered a challenge in public health, requiring the adoption of necessary conditions for the health of migrants. Understanding the factors which enhance or limit the health literacy competencies of migrants suggests an opportunity to promote their health and well-being.

Goal: Understand the factors that enhance or difficult the development of health literacy competencies by migrants from PALOP countries living in LMA, considering their perspective and that of health professionals and community stakeholders.

Methods: A qualitative study will be conducted with a convenience sample in three phases: 1) conducting 15 semi-structured interviews with migrants from PALOP countries, 2) conducting two focus groups with healthcare professionals, and 3) conducting one focus group with community stakeholders. Two researchers will conduct a content analysis of the interviews and focus groups using MaxQDA® analysis software. The themes and codes of analysis of the factors that enhance or hinder the acquisition of health literacy skills by migrants will be defined. The ethics committee of the Nova Medical School approved the study.

Results: The results will express strengths and limitations that influence the acquisition and development of health literacy skills among migrants from their perspective, health professionals, and community stakeholders. In addition, we intend to identify proposals for continuous improvement in the design and implementation of health literacy interventions for migrants.

Conclusions: This study protocol will be crucial to understanding the acquisition and application of health literacy skills. It will assist other researchers in designing qualitative studies to understand what aspects influence health literacy in migrant populations.

Communication Gaps and Management of Information During Cervical Cancer Prevention

ABSTRACT. Introduction: Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is one of the most common sexually transmitted infections worldwide and is the cause of cervical cancer. Cervical cancer prevention is based on vaccination against HPV infection and screening for the early detection of precancerous cervical lesions, known as cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). Women diagnosed with CIN lack knowledge about their disease, which limits their ability to take responsibility for self-care and creates negative psychosocial effects. Goals and Methods: A generic qualitative study was carried out in a Spanish gynecology unit, to: (a) investigate how women with CIN perceive the communication and management of information by healthcare professionals at different moments of their healthcare, and (b) identify women's informational needs. A total of 21 women diagnosed with CIN were recruited through purposive sampling. Semistructured interviews were recorded and transcribed. A thematic analysis was carried out, including triangulation of researchers for analysis verification. Results: Communication gaps were identified in the diagnosis and management of information in primary and specialized healthcare. These gaps occurred in four moments of the healthcare process: in the cervical cancer screening in primary care, during the waiting time until referral to specialized care, in the first consultation in specialized care, and after consultation in specialized care. The doubts and informational needs of women during their healthcare process were related to HPV infection transmission, symptoms and consequences, and CIN treatment and follow-up. Conclusions: Women diagnosed with CIN describe informational needs that have implications for their wellbeing. Healthcare professionals should consider the different moments of the process when providing information to women, as needs differ from the time of cervical screening in primary care to CIN follow-up and treatment in specialized care.

Undergraduate and Graduate Students’ Challenges: a Qualitative Study with ONDAS Framework Across Multiple Disciplines and Innovative Research Methodologies

ABSTRACT. The integration levels among research methods, management, research tools, and psychology could guide the development of ONDAS Framework toward the secrets of knowledge. The research grounds on Undergraduate and Graduate Students’ Challenges, with particular emphasis on the lack of writing critical literature reviews and weakness in identifying benchmark studies to extract the research gap and the main research question, resulting in most fresh graduate students not graduating on time. Some master students write doctoral theses, and vice versa, confusing their identified research approach. The study utilizes desk documents to identify the main problems that most students experienced during their research and to determine the knowledge structure through the analysis of benchmark studies, to achieve the framework’s development foundation. As result, it proposes ONDAS Framework characteristics, procedures, and rules to be applied in different fields, through data triangulation. Aiming to help the research process, focusing on the study from its very beginning, until the viva voice discussion, this framework decreases the time of writing and preparation, guiding the research and strategy processes and promoting a set of tools to help with the analysis and elaboration of the final theses. Results were achieved by a qualitative approach, using the case study method that includes 40 participants in a semi-structured questionnaire on their experiences with the ONDAS Framework. Most participants showed higher control and motivation while being able to finish on time and conduct their research with a high level of precision and focus, establishing the integration of four main levels that aid in developing ONDAS Framework across multiple disciplines and innovative research methodologies. Specifically, it is useful for scientific research community in academic-industry liaisons. The authors admit that this study is the first of its kind to assess participants' attitudes, especially their research journey that serves as the primary ways of adoption.

Discourses of Family Caregivers on Continuity of Safe Care for Children with Tracheostomy in School: a Qualitative Study

ABSTRACT. Background: The Brazilian school healthcare model develops coordinated childcare centered on the family and community, not on school. This model limits the safety of children with special health care needs (CSHCN) who live with tracheostomy due to the absence of a school nurse. Goal: To analyze the female caregiver's speeches on the limitations and possibilities of including those children in school in the south-eastern region of Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. Method: This is a descriptive and exploratory study based on art-based research to access the family caregivers of CSHCN discourse through the Creative and Sensitive Method (CSM). Participants were eight mothers of children with a tracheostomy who were spokespersons for 17 family caregivers. A group dynamic was conducted in three meetings. Data were analyzed through the discourse analysis technique. Results: The conditions for the women's discourse revealed the intertextuality of inclusive schools for those children to attend early childhood education. Limitations involved access to the schooling process and school maintenance, and possibilities of maintaining imply a trained professional and logistical adjustments of the school environment. Furthermore, Schools alone cannot provide adequate support for children with special health needs. There is a need for collaboration between the school and a consistent set of services (social, educational, transportation, health) and family professionals to provide continuous and complex care. Conclusion: The said and unsaid mothers' discourses revealed an intertextual legal regulation that not helped to include children with a tracheostomy at school. Moreover, it indicated that life maintenance care for children with a tracheostomy is the most affected by schools without logistical and technical competence. As implications for practice, initiatives with the potential to be addressed by the school health team stand out in the interaction and socialization of CSHCN with tracheostomy in their relationship with peers.

Data Analysis and Reflections on Using Narrative Inquiry to Explore the Experiences of Living with Chronic Pain in Emerging Adult Women
PRESENTER: Jenise Finlay

ABSTRACT. Introduction: The stories of those experiencing pain, illness, or disability are often not heard without alteration or fragmentation by researchers. Women are disproportionately affected by chronic pain and an increasing prevalence in chronic pain has been observed across all age groups in Canada, most notably among those aged 20 to 29 with no other health conditions. However, few qualitative studies examine chronic pain exclusively in women under 30.

Goals and Methods: Clandinin and Connelly’s form of narrative inquiry was used to explore the lived and told stories of two emerging adult women (aged 18 to 29) living with chronic pain. Data were generated through composition of field texts that included in-depth conversational interviews and field journal writing. Participant artwork, poetry, and writing were also used for data generation and data analysis. Clandinin and Connelly’s conceptual framework of the three-dimensional narrative inquiry space was used to examine how participants’ identities have evolved over time in the context of place, social interaction, and social landscapes.

Results: Narrative threads that resonated across narrative accounts include: silenced, invisible, and locating self with pain; pain experiences storied through relationships; and resisting the singular stories of people living with chronic pain. Operationalizing this narrative analysis revealed both challenges and profound reflexivity around the participant-researcher relationship, relational ethics, and the personal, practical, and social significance of the work.

Conclusions: Through stories, the narrative identity of participants can be understood without dissection. Clandinin and Connelly’s three-dimensional narrative inquiry space should be considered during narrative analysis to understand how experiences have been shaped, particularly when researching a complex health topic with a significant affective-emotional aspect. In this study, valuable insights emerged from inquiring into the experiences of chronic pain in emerging adult women, revealing implications for nursing practice, health education, research, and policy.

An Analysis of South Africa Public Entity Performance Using Biomatrix Systems Thinking Theory: a Case of South African Water Boards

ABSTRACT. Introduction Water has always been a natural resource that has shaped the evolution of humankind and economic development (1). The role of South African water boards is not only limited to the above-mentioned, but it also contributes towards meeting the South African Constitution’s imperatives, the Bill of Rights. The aim of the study was to evaluate South African public entity performance in terms of systems thinking-based analysis and strategy development for the South African water boards. Goals and methods There are nine national water boards in the country. They are established in terms of the Water Services Act, Number 108 of 1997. They are defined by the Public Finance Management Act as business enterprises. They are entities reporting to the national Minister of Water and Sanitation. The role of water boards is complex and at times fall short of operating in the system of complexity. Hence, employing biomatrix systems thinking theory was chosen to analyze water boards’ performance. Qualitative research method was used to gather, analyze, and make findings. It was a case study of uMgeni Water, Amatola Water and Overberg Water. The study relied on-site focus groups answering a set of five main questions. They were supported by a further five sub-questions for each main question. The main questions of the study were translated to a thematic layout: performance, systems thinking perspective, interrelations & inter-connectedness, strategy innovation and governance. Results The study confirmed that good governance, systems thinking, good performance model, appropriate financial model, infrastructure investment and human resources are necessary in water services provision. Conclusion In conclusion, water boards operate in a complex system that compels them to work in a collaborative, integrative and interrelated approach. Biomatrix systems thinking theory has shown that activity and entity systems work in an integrative approach towards water services supply and management.

14:30-16:50 Session 8F: Parallel Communications - Online (synchronous session)

A2 - Systematization of approaches with Qualitative Studies / A3 - Qualitative and Mixed Methods Research / B1 - Data Analysis Types / B2 - Innovative processes of Qualitative Data Analysis / B4 - Qualitative Analysis with Support of Specific Software

“I Don’T Recognize Myself”. Women with Gynecological Cancer Tell Their Stories Through an Art-Informed Narrative Research

ABSTRACT. Introduction This narrative research, anchored in feminist values explores the experience of women dealing with gynecological cancer, as their bodies marked by illness are treated by medicine, impacting their sexual functioning and expression sexuality. Narrative identity (Reissman, 2008), embodied identity (Le Breton, 2016) and sexual identity (Dillon et al., 2011) are used to conceptualize women's identity construction, the experience of the body when altered by illness and its treatments, and consequently, their sense of sexual identity. Methodology The narrative methodology, including life-storytelling (Atkinson, 2007; Bertaux, 2005) informed by the creation of art (Cole and Knowles, 2008) used in this project invites the expression and representation of multiple facets of a lived experience. The individual stories of the four participants were gathered through in-depth non-directive interviews. In addition, the participants created a self-portrait using life casting, painting and collage as expressive art forms, and told the story of their self-portrait. Three levels of narrative analysis were used with these stories: thematic, structural and dialogic/performance (Reissman, 2008). Results The thematic analysis identifies three main themes: the possibility of death, life in the moment, and the burden of treatments. The structural narrative analysis presents how, as a result of treatment, the women no longer recognize themselves in their bodies and their sexual identity. Invisibility, social stigma, multiple losses and the pressures of heterosexual societal norms where penetration (penis-in-vagina) is the privileged mode of sexual expression in couple’s relationship are all factors resulting in a biographical rupture that forces a transformation of their identity. The dialogic/performance narrative analysis focuses on my perspective as a critical and reflexive researcher. Conclusion Focusing on the structural narrative analysis, this presentation will conclude with a conceptualization of the ruptured biographical and sexual identity trajectory of these women as they engage in their personal and intimate life after cancer.

Toward a Participatory Critical Ethnography: Engaging Research Participants in Critical Discourse Analysis of Ethnographic Texts
PRESENTER: Marina Mikhail

ABSTRACT. Introduction: Nurses are often in the forefront when working with people within mental health systems, and their understanding of mental health impacts how they work with psychiatric survivors. A close examination of mental health nursing education and policy guidelines in Ontario elucidates how the material reinforces social stigmas in its training. Policy analysts and researchers often lack the lived experience to create meaningful education material, and policy guidelines for psychiatric survivors. Survivors are typically excluded when the writing happens.

Goal and Methods: The goal is to inject lived experiences into mental health nursing education and policy guidelines. This research brings the most influential mental health nursing education texts to psychiatric survivors to conduct critical discourse analysis (CDA). This study uses critical theory, institutional ethnography, and critical discourse analysis in participatory action research. 23 survivors participated in virtual or in-person focus groups with up to 5 people in each group. Excerpts were preselected from mental health nursing policies and guidelines, including nursing educational videos related to the texts. Groups analyzed 2 - 3 excepts using CDA methods, guided by facilitators.

Results: Findings show that survivors can successfully conduct CDA as co-researchers and co-analysts. Their analyses on how to augment the texts would radically alter the understanding of mental health and more closely balance the discursive landscape of mental health nursing education. For example, replacing the word “reorienting” to “validating” has the potential to deescalate a traumatic situation without pathologizing people’s experiences; or, recognizing that arbitrary insertions of the term ‘Indigenous’ without any cultural context in the texts tokenizes Indigenous peoples and continues the trauma they experience when seeking treatment and care.

Conclusion: Survivor-led critical analyses disrupt power dynamics in mental health research and help transfer power to the people most affected by mental health practice and discourses. The result co-creates knowledge that can be meaningful. Survivors are experts, with lived experience, and can analyze complex policies, putting forward interventions on both discursive and practice levels.

Just Energy? – Exploring the Intersection of Right-Wing Populism and Energy Transitions in Portuguese Media Discourses

ABSTRACT. Climate change,the energy transition and the implementation of renewable energy infrastructures(RET)are at the forefront of contemporary societal debates,frequently involving polarized viewpoints.Some social sciences approaches have explained this because RET are still often deployed in a top-down,centralized way,resulting in socio-environmental injustices.The rise of right-wing populist discourse has also increased public scrutiny of certain elites'power and relationship with'the people', but if and how there is a relationship between centralized energy transitions and the rise of right-wing support has not been much explored yet,despite its importance to increased sustainability. We followed a qualitative design and used NVivo to perform a thematic analysis in a sample of newspaper articles to explore,through both an inductive and deductive approach,whether and how right-wing populist discourses and discourses about the deployment of RET in Portugal are related,discussing the implications for the green energy transition. We used ten keywords(deemed relevant in the literature and related to the study’s goals)to collect a sample of 465newspaper articles from the Público,Observador and Correio da Manhã.The sample was restricted to 2020-2021,because it comprised the latest Portuguese presidential elections,which saw a surge in support for the right-wing populist party among rural communities,where large-scale RET have been recently implemented or planned. The idea that Portugal is(and will continue to be)at the forefront of the low-carbon energy transition;that RET implementation processes are dominated by powerful lobbies;and,the importance of promoting energy justice(but with little action taken to achieve it yet),are among the key findings.These themes highlight the conspiratorial tone of the discussion about RET,climate change and energy transition, reinforcing the opposition between ‘the pure people’ vs. the corrupt elite,anti-establishment and anti-corruption stances,all hallmarks of the right-wing populist rhetoric. Overall,the present study highlights the importance of using qualitative methods to analyze media discourses and communication to understand people’s ideas and practices about energy transitions and their ideological underpinnings.

‘A Rich Man’S Sickness’: Understanding the Impact of Contextual and Structural Factors on the Everyday Experience of Liberians Living with Diabetes
PRESENTER: Paulina Bleah

ABSTRACT. Introduction: Diabetes is a serious public health threat in Liberia, where an estimated 5.6% of the population are living with the disease. The challenges with diabetes in Liberia are enormous. Diabetes places immense socioeconomic pressure on individuals and their families and burdens an already overstretched healthcare system, still recovering from the destructive effects of the 14-year civil war. While efforts towards rebuilding the healthcare system in Liberia are ongoing, people with diabetes experience significant challenges regarding accessing social, economic, and healthcare resources to manage their illness. Goals and Methods: The purpose of this research study is to critically explore what is it like to live with diabetes in Liberia. Critical hermeneutics is the methodological approach that is being used to interpret participants’ experiences of living with diabetes. Through purposeful sampling, 10 adults with diabetes were recruited from a publicly funded hospital in Monrovia, Liberia. Data was collected using photovoice method, wherein participants photographed their everyday experiences of living with diabetes. Findings: At this stage in the data analysis phase, there are two major preliminary themes revealed. (1) Food insecurity – participants voiced a constant worry about food, limited food options, and widespread exploitation by the local food industry; (2) Inequitable access to healthcare services – participants described a general perception of neglect regarding health services for people with diabetes, compared to other chronic illnesses. Conclusions: The findings from this study will be used to provide guidance to local and global health policy makers on how to address the social and health needs of individuals with diabetes in the Liberian context. Health policies that reflect the influence of a myriad of contextual and structural factors on health outcomes for people with diabetes can improve diabetes care and enhance quality of life of individuals living with diabetes in Liberia.

Transfer or Translate? Trainer Reflections on Learning a New QDAS

ABSTRACT. Introduction: While many QDAS companies support users by disseminating knowledge and best practices through forums, workshops, and newsletters, the information is platform specific. Translating experience from one QDAS to another requires valuable time and effort from the users, which contributes to the hesitancy of implementing QDAS more systematically in their research. This, in turn, creates a barrier to comprehensive QDAS learning and communication. With these challenges in mind, versatility in multiple QDAS can be methodologically beneficial to researchers and trainers alike.

Goals, Methods & Results: In this paper, we, two certified ATLAS.ti trainers, reflect upon our experience learning to use NVivo and MAXQDA for qualitative research projects. We chose NVivo and MAXQDA due to their popularity and accessibility in the U.S. Following four principles of reflexivity, we share our experiences of transferring and translating our knowledge of ATLAS.ti into the context of two different platforms. Based on our findings, we provide recommendations that emphasize the purposeful implementation of QDAS and present versatile pathways that incorporate various QDAS platforms to inform overarching methodological strategies.

Conclusions: How to, or even whether to, choose QDAS to facilitate qualitative research projects is a question many novice, and some experienced, researchers have. More so, with a rise in the examples of how to use QDAS in varying projects ranging in ways to teach QDAS from methodological illustrations to practical applications, it is important not to limit the potential of research. Therefore, we will report the possibilities that come with learning multiple platforms and an integrated approach that may enhance qualitative research.

The Intersectionality of Race and Female Gender on STEM Career Ascendance

ABSTRACT. Introduction-The purpose of this research was to explore the barriers and successful strategies of African American, Asian, and Hispanic female executives who have risen to the top in their respective STEM fields. Previous research has focused on programs that increase minority representation in educational programs.

Goals and Methods-A qualitative, transcendental, phenomenological research approach was implemented. This research was conducted in the United States, using interviews from 15 female minorities in executive level positions within STEM. The interviews were analyzed inductively and the themes evolved deductively.

Results-The key themes to emerge from this research showed that female minorities in STEM are encapsulated by a 360-Degree Gender Sphere, the sub themes that emerged created more complex barriers. 73% of the participants stated that barriers came from Direct Managers, while sub themes such as cultural stereotyping (40%), cultural insensitivity (33%), and cultural microaggressions (26%) were experienced. Family (46%) was the second theme. The sub theme of lack of STEM or advanced education within families, was 20%. Gendered Structures emerged by 60% as a theme, while human resources (93%) and cultural isolation (73%) were subthemes. Self was a theme (27%), whilst cultural doubt (20%) and cultural naivety (20%) were sub themes. Peers' Cultural Aggression and Micro Aggressions emerged (40%); while, the last theme to emerge was Societal Norms (27%) with cultural perceptions (40%) and geographical cultural aggression (20%) were experienced.

The results uncovered four primary coping strategies that were leveraged to overcome their obstacles. They included cultural awareness and adaptation; development; pivoting, flexibility and risk taking; and lastly support.

Conclusion-The research participants experienced an outer layer of obstacles called the 360-Degree Intersectionality Sphere. This complex sphere presents additional barriers for female minorities seeking STEM careers. Coping strategies were shown to create resilience to overcome these inequities.

Jean Claude Abric'S Structural Model in Social Representations in People with Kidney Disease.

ABSTRACT. Introduction: Jean Claude Abric developed the structural approach to social representations (SR). From this perspective, every representation has its specific structure, whose central characteristic is configured around a nucleus, which determines its organization and significance, and has peripheral elements organized around the central nucleus. Goals and Methods This research aimed to understand the SR of renal patients on dialysis from Abric's structural approach. The participants were 18 people on hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis in Chile. Nine women and nine men over 18 years old. An in-depth interview was used as a data collection technique. Grounded theory was used for the analysis. Results: In the results emerged the model in which the core of SR is configured by resignation and the desire to survive, On the other hand, the peripheral elements, protective of the core, are the understanding of the disease, the consequences of the disease, and social support networks. Conclusions: The core of the social representation of CKD corresponds to the theoretical characteristics of resistance to change; the user struggles to continue to live. The core could be modified only if the user could not continue fighting against kidney disease and, therefore, against death, in which hopelessness would prevail over the imperative need to survive. From this perspective, it is not possible to modify the nucleus since it is based on instinctive characteristics unless the patient himself decides to change it; the peripheral elements present have the functions of concreteness, regulation, and defense: the understanding of the disease takes into account the knowledge acquired and the causes identified by the person. Among the psychosocial consequences are discrimination, abandonment, economic costs, nutritional and labor restrictions, better use of free time, and modification of the life project. The physical consequences include infections, death, and a change in their conception of corporeality.

14:30-16:30 Session 8G: Parallel Communications - Online (synchronous session)

A3 - Qualitative and Mixed Methods Research / B3 - Qualitative Research in Web Context

A Conceptual Framework for Pediatric Asthma Self-Management in an Andean City in Ecuador

ABSTRACT. Background: Poor asthma management is associated with costly symptoms, including multiple hospitalizations and emergency/outpatient visits. Asthma symptoms can often be controlled through proper self-management, medication adherence, and trigger avoidance.

Objective: to explore the life experiences of the factors that might influence pediatric asthma self-management according to children/adolescents, caretakers, and health staff.

Methods: A phenomenological study was performed (February-April 2021). We undertook 18 in-depth interviews with asthmatic children/adolescents (5-17 years), 18 caregivers, and six health professionals (nurses, pharmacists, and physicians) from private and public hospitals. An open-ended questioning route was constructed after a literature review to guide the interviews. Asthma self-management influential factors comprised modifiable (i.e., attitudes, self-education, health care seeking, crisis trigger management) and non-modifiable (i.e., health system, school/community support). The interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed, and analyzed by two independent reviewers.

Results: Children accept their disease but do not practice self-education. Caregivers deny disease occurrence; however, they seek information on no official web pages. Most children rely on their parents for asthma management, but caregivers are critical in disease management, given that some adolescents have trouble taking responsibility. The health staff perceived a lack of compliance with recommendations and poor responsibility by the caregivers; however, they acknowledged that solving doubts could improve management. The health staff reported that patients replace physicians regularly, losing treatment continuity. Patients explain physician replacement due to difficulties accessing the health system, lack of therapeutic response, and poor school and community support. The most common motivation to seek healthcare is a crisis; however, several misunderstandings regarding its triggers exist.

Conclusion: Our analysis highlights the need for programs focused on providing reliable information on asthma management to caregivers, improving information by healthcare personnel, and educating caregivers to overcome misunderstandings. Future asthma self-management research focused on promoting ideal self-management, and optimal healthcare use for pediatric asthma is needed.

(Un)Deserving of Equal Education: How Experts Shape the Framing of Immigrants in US Newspapers
PRESENTER: Allan Colbern

ABSTRACT. In 1982, Plyler v. Doe made K-12 education a Constitutional right regardless of legal immigration status, yet immigrants’ right to college, university or other forms of postsecondary education remains deeply contested. This paper contributes to scholarship on immigration, media, communication, and public policy, by exploring the experts that news reporters rely on when framing immigrants in the United States as either deserving or undeserving of equal education. 150,000 news articles were collected from ProQuest and NexisUni, from 20 national, state, and university sources between 1996 to 2022. First, we apply Name Entity Recognition in Python to create a list of salient people, organizations, agencies, and institutions referenced as experts in the corpus, and we classify these entities on their background: immigrant rights work; immigration enforcement work; elected officials; political party leadership; education field; legal field; academic field. Second, we use MAXQDA to identify all relevant paragraphs containing experts in our dictionary near specific references to immigrants and education, which we qualitatively code to capture un-deserving or deserving frames in the news. Finally, through network analysis, we show that progressive and conservative news outlets rely mostly on Democratic and Republican elected officials as experts, and that these elected partisan experts are more likely than other experts to actively frame immigrants as either deserving or undeserving. Our paper compliments current work in immigration federalism on partisanship by showing how reporters and partisan officials as experts have tied the framing of education for immigrants to the contentious debate over federal immigration reform and who is deserving of a pathway to citizenship.

Having That Conversation: a Constructivist Grounded Theory Exploring the Role of Nurses in Kidney Supportive Care in Dialysis in Canada
PRESENTER: Jovina Bachynski

ABSTRACT. Introduction: Treatment for kidney failure, such as dialysis (hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis), can exact a tremendously high physical and psychosocial symptom burden. Kidney supportive care, encompassing advance care planning, is an approach to care that improves the quality of life for people receiving dialysis through early identification and treatment of symptoms. Advance care planning is underutilized and often initiated late in this population. The delay or lack of engagement by dialysis nurses in supportive care until close to the end of life may result in people dying without receiving optimal palliative care services. Goals and Methods: Using Charmaz’s constructivist grounded theory, the purpose of this study is to develop a substantive theory that explains the process of engagement in supportive care by nurses in dialysis in Canada. Through initial purposeful and subsequent theoretical sampling, 23 nurses with current or recent work experience in outpatient hemodialysis, home hemodialysis, and peritoneal dialysis settings drawn from across Canada, were recruited to participate in two intensive interviews each using the Zoom© teleconferencing platform. Concurrent data collection and analysis were undertaken. Results: Data analysis is at the focused coding stage of the research study. Preliminary categories include focusing on biomedical care, multi-dimensional challenges to having the conversation, connecting and setting boundaries with patients, difficulty articulating kidney supportive care, and unwittingly practising kidney supportive care. Conclusions: This study will help to determine the factors impeding nurse engagement in supportive care in dialysis, to effect change that would normalize advance care planning conversations in the clinical setting.

Reflections of Unease: Researcher Emotionality in the Context of Longitudinal Qualitative Research in Higher Education

ABSTRACT. Introduction: This paper sets out to explore the personal impact that a panel study collecting data through a series of in-depth interviews over an extended period time of had on the researcher. The emotional impact of research on participants is commonly the subject of discussion and the participant rightly protected through frameworks of ethical understanding. However, the emotionality of the researcher in response to their involvement in qualitative research is less often acknowledged outside of the researcher impact on the data and the respondents, and / or the value of reflexivity to the data itself. Goals and Methods: The study prompting the reflective analysis was a qualitative study using in-depth semi-structured interviews. These detailed the experiences and post graduate trajectories of seven individuals at two points in time- initially during their final year of undergraduate study at a South African university, and again four years later. Results: The study uncovered narratives of difficulty and disconnection, as well as attempts at integration -both in the context of their university and postgraduate working life. The human centered focus of qualitative research and the commodification of rapport inherent in qualitative data gathering creates an inherent tension. The intensity of the participants experiences, and the in-depth and comprehensive nature of the study in this case led to a researcher attachment to the participants and their narratives. However, such connection must, for the sake of bias eradication, be minimized. But the connection cannot be erased completely for the sake of the richness of data. Conclusion: The positioning of the researcher in the difficult nexus of emotion and distance, of empathy and neutrality, is fraught and needs to be recognized.

Supports for Refugee Women’S Education: “Then We'Ll Go Together”
PRESENTER: Melissa Garza

ABSTRACT. Introduction: Our study found that refugee women who pursued postsecondary education often relied upon supports for their educational directions anchored in things beyond schooling. This research study focused on the continuity and changes in their cultural contexts before, during, and after the participants had to geographically relocate their schooling as refugees. Our guiding research question was how did women refugees experience supports to pursue postsecondary education?

Goals and Methods: This qualitative case study pulled from interviews and artifacts from 11 participants from an all-women mentoring program located in two large, urban cities in the United States. University participants were all refugee women who had completed the mentoring program that started in high school and continued through their first year of college. The researchers qualitatively analyzed data through coding, theme development, and revision. The researcher-created interview protocol had three topic domains aligned to postsecondary academic transitions and mentoring. The research was approved by the researchers’ Institutional Review Board. All participants spoke with high school level or higher English proficiency and completed the interview and the informed consent process in English.

Results: The results indicated two trends in how the refugee women received educational supports. The first trend included constants and continuity in supports from their home country through their destination. These continuous supports derived from family, culture, faith, and “freedom dream” origins. The second trend included changes in educational supports. Shifts in support aligned to their citizenship, naming of things including their home countries, geographies, schooling, and experiences with peace versus war. These results remained consistent across all participants.

Conclusions: Schooling systems can better support women refugees' transitions into postsecondary education by reflecting, affirming, and including cultural and familial supports. This would increase areas of continuity as they enter and gain traction in postsecondary settings. 

Successes and Failures in the Implementation of Design Research for the Development of an Educational Innovation in Biology

ABSTRACT. The results of a design research, of the development study type, whose main objective was to identify design principles of a didactic sequence for the learning of thermoregulation in terrestrial vertebrates by modeling the phenomenon as a biological mechanism, are presented. Three central stages were followed: preliminary research, prototyping and retrospective evaluation. The intervention, i.e., the didactic sequence, in its first prototype was designed in a collaborative group of practicing teachers and according to eight principles, then it was applied and reformulated iteratively (two cycles) according to the proposed educational objective. In the preliminary research, the stage of which results are presented in this paper, the justification criteria and objectives of the sequence were defined, and substantive and procedural aspects of nine design principles for the sequence were identified. During this process, the relevance of design research as a methodological reference was reflected upon, and from this, it was identified that the collaborative participation of practicing secondary school teachers is central in the development of this type of educational innovations and constitutes a central element to reduce the gaps between the community of specialists, the results of research and classroom practice. It was also recognized that the collection of extensive records generates a wide variety of observable aspects that limits the analysis and may affect the achievement of the educational and research objective. It is suggested to develop the first prototyping phase in this type of study with smaller groups of people as a case study to delimit the attributes to be analyzed according to the educational objective.

Make the Most of Your Qualitative Research Findings

ABSTRACT. Qualitative research can shed light on new phenomena and offer rich details in any study area. Still, if qualitative researchers fail to convey their findings succinctly, clearly, and easy to understand, it is unlikely that this research will ever reach relevant audiences. Effectively communicating research findings is crucial for academic and practitioner audiences because this is how researchers can convince journal editors to publish their manuscripts and practitioners to pay attention to and apply their findings.

The present research describes different methods for presenting qualitative findings from content analyses. Although qualitative data is rich and detailed, studies that are published in top journals tend to rely on traditional kinds of displays. We consider the effectiveness of different displays for conveying specific kinds of messages and we explain how these different kinds of data displays can be created in the computer-assisted qualitative data analysis software ATLAS.ti.

Ultimately, the kind of data display depends on the message the researcher wishes to communicate. Even within content analyses, researchers have a range of possibilities that they could use to display their different findings and illustrate the main points that they want to convey. Qualitative researchers face the challenge of condensing rich text data into relatively few impacting points, which makes it essential to strike a balance between text and numbers while conveying the main message.

We wish to inspire researchers to think more creatively about how they can display their qualitative findings to convey transparency, illustrate the global picture, and reach audiences even beyond academia. Presenting findings in visual displays is one of the most compelling ways to communicate research to others. Sharing the knowledge gained from research with audiences that benefit from it is a crucial goal of all academic research.