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08:30-11:00 Session 1A: Parallel Communications

A1 - Rationale and Paradigms of Qualitative Research

A Reflexive Look at Being Queer and Early Career Qualitative Scholars

ABSTRACT. In the last two and half years, scholars have faced multiple global events that have led to various levels of adversity. During this time, early career scholars holding marginalized identities have struggled to create meaningful communities through traditional academic avenues. This paper presents a virtual duoethnography in which four early career and queer identifying scholars, situated across multiple global sites (U.S. and Finland), work to define and sustain community while seeking to disrupt hegemonic practices in academia, including qualitative research communities. Data consist of transcripts from three virtual meetings, during which we discussed temporal notions of being as queer and early career scholars. Queering the concept of analysis, we employ multimodal representations of data to consider various negotiations between personal and professional identity encountered along our academic journeys and navigate the liminal spaces between insider and outsider in relation to geopolitics, belonging in academia, and the power of publication. Our findings trouble future goals related to geographic and academic location; our hesitations and hopes as queer academics; and how our experiences from Ph.D. student to tenure track professor have shaped our conceptions of purpose, safety, and activism. An overarching finding of this paper is how our queer identities shape these phases of our careers and our willingness to engage in practices which uphold systems and structures that contribute to our own oppression, while we simultaneously hold privileged identities including race, class, and ability. In this complex and messy space of identity and purpose, we discuss when, how, and where we can, or should, be out. Summatively, aligned with duoethnographic methodology, we invite readers (and attendees) to make their own meaning alongside ours as we open up the contested impact of our identities and positionality on our teaching, scholarship, and conceptions of qualitative research methodologies.

Research Ethics Training: Evaluating the Benefits to Researchers

ABSTRACT. Research ethics training is an important part of researcher professional development and for student methods training. The University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa, has offered certificated training in research ethics since 2019. This training comprises a 4-hour content-based workshop followed by a written assignment. Attendees are mainly staff and postgraduate students of the university. Since this training started in April 2019, 19 separate training sessions have been run, with 7 to 77 attendees in each session. In total 897 people have attended this training. Following the training, all attendees can complete a certificated assignment which comprises four compulsory short-answer essay questions based on topics discussed. If attendees pass all four questions, they receive a Certificate of Competence in Research Ethics. In the training sessions to date, 377 attendees in total have submitted their assignment and received a Certificate of Competence in Research Ethics. This study presents the results of an anonymous online survey that aims to evaluate the impacts of this ethics training on researcher professional activities. Participants of the survey are the successful attendees who had attained a Certificate of Competence. The survey asked about their experiences of and attitudes to the training and its impacts on their research and academic development. Results (n=91) showed that the majority of respondents were satisfied with the nature, format and depth of content of the training, and reported that it has a positive impact on their development as researchers. Specifically this included thinking through their project design, developing critical thinking and problem solving skills related to their projects, and considering the wider context of their research participants through ideas of vulnerability and social justice. Respondents are less happy about the nature of the written assignment, in part arising because researchers from some backgrounds have little experience in writing an essay-style answer. Overall, these results highlight the importance of research ethics training in researcher development, as well as engendering critical ethical reflection into their research activities.

Exploring School Bullying: Designing the Research Question with Young Co-Researchers
PRESENTER: Niamh O'Brien

ABSTRACT. Introduction Participatory Action Research (PAR) empowers young people to work alongside adult researchers to determine the purpose/scope of research projects. Beginning with a broad question: “What do students and staff of this co-educational school view as the core bullying issue(s), and how do they want to address this?”, we worked with secondary school students (co-researchers), to decide the focal research question. This paper reflects the process that led to relatable and appropriate research.

Methods Prior to recruiting the co-researchers, we conducted an ‘exploration study’ using a qualitative online questionnaire to the wider school population (due to Covid-19 restrictions), to ascertain the core-bullying issues. Findings highlighted complexities in recognising bullying and a lack of reporting. The PAR process provided opportunities for constant reflection on these wider views alongside the co-researchers’ individual views/lived experiences. Consequently, the determined research question focussed on an area the school community wanted to explore while the co-researchers were pivotal in its design.

Results Although the questionnaire highlighted complexities in recognising bullying, misogynistic behaviour was stressed as a particular concern. In-depth discussions with the co-researchers over several weeks gave us further insight into this issue, as well as the complexities of determining bullying/banter. Together we researched ‘misogyny’ and its relation to the bullying behaviour reported in the questionnaire and suggested that it was not only limited to girls but that boys were experiencing sexist bullying too. Our research question was determined as: “Does gender bullying happen at this school?”

Conclusions Through the questionnaire and co-researcher discussions, the research question was embedded in what the wider student body and staff team wanted us to explore. This paper contributes to the literature on hearing stakeholder views but also on actively including students in designing and developing research foundations, that is the research question, an under-explored topic in the wider literature.

Using Digital Story-Telling to Capture Untold Stories of Medical Assistance in Dying

ABSTRACT. Introduction Canada’s federal legislation on medical assistance in dying (MAiD) was enacted on June 17, 2016. To date, little is known about the experiences and beliefs of people who have supported someone throughout the process. MAiD in Canada has largely focused on legislative details including eligibility and establishment of regulatory clinical practice standards. The purpose of this research was to understand the experience of family and informal support networks (friends) that accompanied someone throughout their dying process involving MAiD in the province of Ontario. Goals and Methods: Using a social constructivist perspective to better understand the experiences of those who have been impacted by MAiD, digital stories were curated by research participants alongside members of the research team. Digital storytelling affords often untold stories the opportunity to be created and disseminated, resulting in transformational experiences for storyteller, viewer and, in this case, research team. In seeking to understand the experience of Ontarians impacted by the MAiD legislation from a holistic, constructivist perspective, phenomenology offered opportunity to provide a rich description of the phenomenon being examined (MAiD) Findings: The digital stories highlighted the value of participant voices for ongoing healthcare and policy-making practices. Two digital stories will be shared demonstrating the diversity and power in this method highlighting 2 themes “A meaningful death” and “Being in Right Relationship”.  Conclusions: As requests for MAiD increase in Canada it is essential that there is research that recognizes the family experience to provide support throughout the process and after death and inform future decision making for social policy and healthcare systems. Digital stories are a transformational method offering opportunities for knowledge translation and education on new and often hidden human experiences. The digital storytelling approach in this research received a positive reaction by the target audiences as a powerful way of providing relevant and meaningful information about experiences with MAiD.


Arts-Based Multimodal Ethnography in Researching Culturally Diverse Transnational Carers in Ontario, Canada
PRESENTER: Allison Williams

ABSTRACT. Introduction

This study explores the experiences of immigrant and Indigenous Transnational Carer-Employees (TCEs) in Ontario, Canada. TCEs are individuals who reside and work in Canada while providing informal care to adult loved ones elsewhere or in another country or reserve.

Goals and Methods

We utilized a community-based research method focused on building relationships based on mutual respect, transparency, and shared understanding. Using arts-based multimodal ethnography, we collected conversational/storytelling interview data via Zoom and in person, in either English, Arabic, or Spanish. The Indigenous research assistant couriered medicine bundles to the Indigenous participants (First Nations-Métis-Inuit), which were used to smudge on Zoom before the interview. We invited participants to submit an art piece (s), such as photographs, poetry and/or jewellery, that represented their caregiving experiences. Thematic analysis was then used to analyze both the interviews and artwork.


A collaborative and culturally validating research process helped to build trust and connection with participants. The arts-based ethnographic approach captured the unique, often juxtaposed, multi-layered, realities of TCE’s lives. The multiple modes of data collection provide a comprehensive understanding of how TCEs mediate their caregiving engagement across multiple time-space dimensions, via video calls, phone conversations, e-mail messages, and travel.


Qualitative researchers have employed innovative approaches in working with vulnerable populations. However, Western researchers are still struggling to meaningfully engage ‘hard-to-reach’ and culturally diverse populations to gather a deep, wholistic understanding of their lived experiences. The COVID-19 pandemic added another layer of complexity to recruitment and data collection. When researchers use a culturally validating partnership approach in research with diverse populations, there is a greater potential for creating new knowledge that is both contextual and mutually beneficial.

Familiar in the Unfamiliar - Integrating Childrens Perspectives and Experiences in Evaluation of Procedure-Related Anesthesia During Pediatric Cancer Treatment.

ABSTRACT. Introduction: During treatment for childhood cancer children get anesthesia numerous times, which is known to be a scarring, unsafe and a potentially traumatic experience for both children and parents. It is recommended to include children’s perspectives in pediatric oncology research as the children's perspectives tends to be left out. Goals and Methods: To explore children's, parents', and healthcare professionals', experiences of anesthesia related to pediatric oncological treatment performed at the pediatric oncology ward. A qualitative study with 11 children and 12 parents were recruited for individual or dyadic interviews. Additionally, two focus groups with a total of 12 healthcare professionals were recruited through purposeful and convenience sampling to explore how health care professionals’ experiences were on the phenomena treatment related anesthesia in pediatric cancer treatment. Results: Thematic analysis generated one main theme, the familiar in the unfamiliar, and two subthemes, the room creates an atmosphere and relational continuity. The physical environment and composition of the team positively influenced the experience of anesthesia in pediatric cancer treatment for both children, parents, and healthcare professionals. Children's perspectives were prioritized in the interviews, promoting, and encouraging the child to describe what was important for them. The interviewer spoke to the child first, and parents were invited to a supporting role for the child, to add perspectives or help the child to remember and verbalize. Conclusions:Familiarity was important for all involved and familiarity was associated with continuity related to the physical environment, as well as the relational and procedural professional continuity. Dyadic interviews with hospitalized cancer-treateted children, was possible though a flexible and strategic interview approach that prioritized the child perspective and gave the participating parent more of a supportive role. To involve children in research concerning their own potential traumatic experiences is important and calls for context-specific ethical considerations.

Is quality basic science education an attainable dream for all learners: A case of science education teaching and learning in some primary schools in South Africa

ABSTRACT. High-quality education, as the literature indicate, is in the best interests not only of every individual, but also of society. Bantwini (2018) argues that despite the consensus about the significant value of education there has been growing global concern regarding the state and quality of education received by many children in/from poor or disadvantaged communities. This concern is widely shared as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine (2019) is of the view that “Education is a critically important way for individuals to pursue their goals in life”. This paper discusses the quality of teaching and learning of science in the primary schools in a province in South Africa. The paper draws from both the classroom observations conducted during the teaching of a science education lessons and semi-structured interviews with the observed science teachers. Data coding was informed by the iterative approach. Findings reveal that though teaching and learning occurred, the employed teaching approach hardly promoted a sustainable knowledge and skills development. The employed teaching approach hardly enhanced deeper and lasting knowledge, which can later be related to the student’s environment. I argue that opportunities to provide quality basic education are still squandered, whilst learners are being promoted from one grade level to the next. The current status quo is likely to promote learners who will not be ready for the next level in their lives. In conclusion, science education teachers need to be continuously assisted with new pedagogical approaches that will enable their learners to possess a stronger foundation critical for their progression process, as most seemed to have reached their science teaching creativity.

08:30-11:00 Session 1B: Parallel Communications

A2 - Systematization of approaches with Qualitative Studies

Impact of COVID-19 Pandemic on Family Dynamics Worldwide: a Systematic Review

ABSTRACT. The COVID-19 pandemic brought about social disruption due to job loss, financial insecurity, social distancing, and confinement. Inevitably, this impacted families as there was significant change in their ability to be productive and to form meaningful relationships. Families’ dynamics have evolved as a result of a longstanding global crisis. This systematic review aims to explore and correlate existing evidence of the impact of COVID 19 pandemic on family dynamics. Qualitative and quantitative studies were identified by way of the PRISMA flow diagram, using search terms including “COVID-19 pandemic,” “family dynamics,” and “family relationship,” in research databases. A total of 31 journals were included in the study. These were appraised using CASP, the JBI critical appraisal tool, and MMAT and significant findings were synthesized by inductive approach. The COVID-19 pandemic produced the most significant effect on the process of communication in family dynamics. It was determined that punitive and neglectful parents had depressed and lonely children, whereas expressive and caring parents had more emotionally stable children. Furthermore, there seemed to be a predominance of negative impact on the families’ communication and organization processes, which focused on the following themes: mental health, financial effects, family routines and interactions, and involuntary isolation. Overall, this systematic review revealed an objective reality: there are positive and negative impacts of COVID-19 pandemic on family dynamics, specifically on the processes of communication, organization, and belief systems. A close-knit and supportive family that fosters emotional support, economic stability, connectedness, and meaning making can overcome pandemic burden. Family-based interventions are necessary to help families cope and adapt.

The Process of Developing a Theory on Post-Traumatic Growth Following Intimate Partner Violence Using Theory-Synthesis from Qualitative Studies

ABSTRACT. Introduction: Suffering intimate partner violence (IPV) is a devastating personal experience. Post-traumatic growth (PTG) is a positive, psychological change in a person, following trauma, such as IPV. When it comes to theories on PTG after surviving IPV there is a gap in the literature. Qualitative researchers have been encouraged to synthesize research results from qualitative studies. Theory synthesis is one such method presented in this paper.

Goals and Methods: The aim of the theory development was to define and explain the PTG journey of female IPV survivors from their own perspective. The method of theory synthesis involves three steps: 1) the key concepts and key statements of the synthesized theory are specified; 2) the literature is reviewed to identify factors that relate to the key concepts and key statements; 3) the key concepts and key statements are organized into an integrated description of the phenomenon under study.

Results: By using qualitative data we synthesized a theory describing the PTG journey of female survivors of IPV from their own perspective. In the presentation of the theory, we used words, tables and figures depicting, defining, and explaining their journey.

Conclusions: We conclude that a theory synthesis is a valid method to synthesize findings from qualitative studies into theories. The present theory can be useful for professionals when guiding female survivors of IPV to promote their recovery and healing. All theories must be tested and revised through concept revision and statement revision in light of new knowledge. Due to the lack of research in this field, additional research is needed to further develop this theory.

The Use of Meta-Ethnography to Synthesise the Experiences of Emotional Labour in Nursing Care

ABSTRACT. Introduction: Care is the central part of nursing, and its provision is linked to interaction with patients. Comprehensive care allows emotions to be considered as an essential part of care. However, the emotional commitment that care demands poses a challenge for the nursing staff. The above-mentioned scenario prompted the following question: What are the experiences of nurses in managing the emotional demands that care implies? Goals and Methods: An interpretive meta-ethnography was used to synthesize the available body of qualitative work regarding the experiences of registered nurses and nursing students in managing emotional demands of care. A comprehensive systematic search strategy was undertaken in 5 databases in January 2020. Original or mixed qualitative articles in English, Spanish, and Portuguese were included if they addressed the emotional labour experiences of nurses or nursing students. The Clinical Appraisal Skills Program tool was used to assess the quality of the articles. Results: A line-of-argument synthesis based on the metaphor The link between task-focused care and care beyond technique was developed. Caring beyond technique entails the emotional involvement of nurses moved by different forces. Getting involved in care meant a high personal cost for them. This led to them having difficulty coping with these demands, and patient care focused on performing tasks. The non-exposure to the suffering of patients was the strategy adopted by the staff to rebuild emotionally and thus provide comprehensive care. Conclusions: Meta-ethnography allows adopting an interpretive approach with an inductive process that gives the findings a new perspective. Contemplating these experiences could be used in the development of professional support guides. This would benefit the nursing staff in their daily clinical practice. Future lines of research should include the experiences and perspectives of patients in contrast to the experiences of nursing professionals.

How to Develop Land Reform Beneficiaries from Subsistence Farmers to Commercial Farmers: a Multiple Case Study

ABSTRACT. Introduction: The economic and political motivation for the South African land reform programme is derived from the socio-economic imbalances that exist in the country's agrarian economy. These imbalances are the product of Apartheid-era racial inequality and injustices. The current land reform program has failed to address persistent economic inequality and poverty, as well as to address power imbalances and agricultural reform. This notwithstanding, there are cases, albeit few, where the land reform programme has produced successful black commercial farmers. Goals and Methods: This ongoing study aims to ascertain what interventions were employed to transition black subsistence farmers to successful commercial farmers. A descriptive multiple case study research methodology will be employed, empirically investigating the specific government and stakeholder initiatives used for the transition. A qualitative research design, through a descriptive multiple case study methodology is effective for determining how and why events occur. Purposive sampling will be conducted to identify participants. Data will be collected by observation, interviewing and analysis of documentary sources from relevant agencies. It examines contextual realities and allows the researcher to compare what was intended to what really transpired. A comprehensive study of complicated real-world occurrences will ensue. Some critics assert that case studies lack scientific rigor and do not allow for generalization, however, the researcher will acquire a comprehensive understanding of a particular phenomenon by utilizing a variety of sources to construct a complete picture. Results: A report will be developed of what happened with the transition of subsistence farmers to commercial farmers. The outcome of the study will allow for replication of the interventions to produce similar results in all other land reform projects. Conclusions: Land reform continues to hold the promise of unleashing the potential for a thriving, expanding, and job-creating agrarian economy while redressing the social, economic and political imbalances of Apartheid.

Social Justice in Everyday Life

ABSTRACT. INTRODUCTION The social justice is a very prolific research field, but the dominantly quantitative studies provide partial picture of the phenomenon that is highly deliberative and context dependent. The increasing partiality and complexity are visible in proliferation of dimensions of justice (from distributive, procedural, restorative, retributive, transitional, interactional to name a few). This obscures some important aspects, such as concepts of justice people hold, its role and centrality in everyday life, and the meaning they attribute to justice. GOALS AND METHODS This research shows how combining narrative approach with frame analysis can provide more comprehensive view on social justice. Frame approach is used for analysis of justice concepts, rules and goods in gathered data. Narratives are present in questions about experience and lessons. Second part of interview design uses vignettes that prompt participants to think about the distribution of social good between different recipients. The choices are carefully framed to invoke distinct rules, and to provide a narrative explanation of the decision. Interview data is gathered on students law and social work. Narrative data are analysed for themes and plots. Frames are constructed from content and themes. Research uses standard text processor (MS Word) for initial analysis of narratives in combination with Dedoose. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS Presented narratives are expected to vary in regard to plot and topics. Differences in framing are expected between older students, which may reflect better capacity for deliberation, as well as professional differences. Vignette responses are analysed as combinations of narratives and frames. Differences in framing distributional issues and underlying explanations are expected between students of social work and law, particularly between older groups. In this case they would not be reflections of better capabilities, but of professional and cultural context.

Role of Nurses in Maternal and New Born Care at Rural and Tribal Community Health Centers of Madhya Pradesh ,India.
PRESENTER: Dr.Mamta Verma

ABSTRACT. Abstract Introduction The maternal and newborn care at Community Health Centres (CHCs) is different from that at primary and tertiary level health facilities due to various structural factors Understanding participant's world through their lived experience provides a better understanding of the phenomena. Hence it is crucial to observe and understand maternal and newborn care provided by nurses in remote areas. Goals and methods The study is an attempt to observe maternal and newborn care provided by nurses at CHCs, understand their experiences and what barriers and facilitators they encountered. The study was carried out at two rural and two tribal CHCs. Convergent mixed method research approach was used. Observational method was adopted to observe maternal and new born care. Phenomenology method was followed to understand experience, barriers and facilitators. Results Descriptive data analysis reveals that nurses are providing comprehensive antenatal, intra natal and newborn care however certain important post-natal nursing care were missing. Iterative Qualitative analysis through ATLAS.ti has captured themes of experiences about challenging night shifts, safety threats, inter and intra professional hierarchal issues, multitasking, professional issues and social isolation. Results of the study identified barriers related to human resources, inadequate basic facilities, nurses related, cultural related, interproffessional issues. Facilitators consist of nurses’ skills and competencies, good facilities and labour room.

Conclusion Maternal and new born care was performed by nurses however few gaps were identified. Nurses have variety of interconnected experiences in rendering maternal and newborn care at CHCs. Nurses encounter several barriers and facilitators in maternal care.

08:30-11:00 Session 1C: Parallel Communications

A3 - Qualitative and Mixed Methods Research

'Listen to Me! I’M a Survivor': a Phenomenological Inquiry of Unfounded Sexual Assault.

ABSTRACT. Introduction: Sexual assault is defined as any type of forced or coerced sexual contact or behavior that happens without consent. Women seeking justice and safety may report their assaults to the police. Police officers are often deemed “gatekeepers” to justice, however, one in five reported sexual assaults are deemed false or baseless and therefore coded as "unfounded." Evidence suggests that sexual assault cases viewed as legitimate by police rest on perceptions of the seriousness of the crime and the credibility of the victim. Goals/Methods: The purpose of this research was to gain a deeper understanding of the experiences of women who have had their sexual assault deemed unfounded by the police. A descriptive phenomenological research design was used to explore the first-hand accounts of women’s experiences with the police when their sexual assault was unfounded. Through face-to-face interviews with twenty-three sexual assault survivors, the research represents a first step towards filling knowledge gaps regarding women’s experience when their reports are disbelieved by the institutions designed to protect them. Interviews were audio recorded, transcribed verbatim, and entered into NVIVO for analysis. Consistent with descriptive phenomenology, Colaizzi’s method of analysis was used to develop the themes. Results: The findings revealed four themes: a) vulnerability, b) drug and alcohol use during the assault, c) police insensitivity, and d) police process. The women who reported a sexual assault to police sought justice for victimization and instead were faced with insensitivity, blame, lack of investigation, and lack of follow-up. This resulted in further trauma and revictimization, numerous health and social outcomes, mistrust of the police, and increased vulnerability to future violence. Conclusion: The research informs discussions among service providers in mental health, law enforcement, and health sectors to develop strategies to provide enhanced support to survivors following sexual victimization that will better meet their needs.

Constructing the Cult of the Self: on White, Working-Class Males and the Neoliberalisation of Identities – an Autoethnographic Study

ABSTRACT. This paper offers a reflective and reflexive examination of the lived experience of a group of young, white, working-class males engaging in secondary-education in England, at a time when this population is widely recognised as the lowest attaining ethnic group within British schools. The aim of the paper is an exploration as to how white, working-class, male identities are constructed and performed, in their intersection with an increasingly neoliberalised education system, in the context of an emerging political, cultural and ideological conflict between identity conservatism and liberalism.

The intersection of social-class, gender, ethnic and national identities is considered, as well as the process through which socially constructed narratives inform identities, values and aspirations. Employing evocative autoethnography as the study's methodological framework, participant and non-participant observations were conducted, alongside semi-structured interviews, to offer reflections on working-class habitus and, in particular, the classed and gendered codes that underpin expectations of manhood in post-industrial culture, within an education system which seemingly requires the abandonment of aspects of a working-class background.

Aspects of constructivist grounded theory informed the analysis of data, wherein initial and focused coding established the emergence of a culture of hyper-individualisation amongst white, working-class males in schools and a belief in the meritocratic ideologies of the New Right. In turn, the conclusions of the study identify the breakdown of the social contract, including notions of political and civic responsibility, coupled with the symbolic violence perpetrated against working-class culture and solidarity in British schools. All of which have informed the construction of a working-class masculinity which values the individual entrepreneur over the collective and depoliticises students to an extent where a focus on the spectacle and performances of success have replaced individual and collective investment in community. 

“They Didn’T Believe I Was Sexually Assaulted”: Women’S Voices on the Social and Health Impacts
PRESENTER: Karen McQueen

ABSTRACT. Introduction: Sexual assault is a prevalent crime against women globally, with known adverse effects on health. Police are essential to survivors seeking justice; however, media reports and research have criticized the police response to sexual assault and identified that many reports are not believed by police and are coded as unfounded. Furthermore, negative disclosure experiences can adversely affect survivors’ well-being and delay access to much-needed support services. Women’s first-hand accounts of being sexually assaulted and not believed by the police have been missing from the sexual assault disclosure discourse. Goals and Methods: Using descriptive phenomenology, we conducted a study with 23 female sexual assault survivors in Ontario, Canada, to explore their experiences of not being believed by the police (after sexual assault) and their perceived impacts on their health. Collaizzi’s (1978) analytic method was used to analyze the data from the semi-structured face-to-face interviews with survivors. This included extensive reading of the transcripts, extraction of significant phrases, a constant comparative method, and a comprehensive thematic description of the participant accounts. Results: Three salient themes were identified including 1) Broken Expectations which resulted in a loss of trust and secondary victimization, 2) Loss of Self, and 3) Cumulative Health and Social Effects. Conclusions: Reporting a sexual assault and not being believed by the police resulted in additional mental and social burdens beyond that of the sexual assault. Many survivors reported feeling re-victimized by police at a time when they needed support. Improving the disclosure experience for survivors is necessary to mitigate the negative health and social impacts and promote healing. These findings are important for police, health, and social service providers who receive sexual assault disclosures and may positively influence the reporting experience and overall health of survivors.

Understanding, Addressing, and Meeting the Complex Needs of People Living with Long Term Physical and Mental Health Conditions: a Qualitative Study
PRESENTER: Leire Ambrosio

ABSTRACT. Introduction. At least 30% of all adults with long term physical conditions also have mental health problems. Healthcare professionals find it difficult to deliver fully integrated care for these populations, partly due to systematic barriers and the fragmentation of health and social services. The advent of social prescribing link workers as a priority provides an opportunity to address some of these hardships and needs. However, approaches to implement social prescribing link worker roles are variable, and there is unclear guidance for primary care networks about how to integrate this novel workforce into efforts to address and meet the complex needs of people living with long term physical and mental conditions.

Goals and Methods. To determine the barriers and facilitators to successful implementation of the social prescribing link workers role in primary care for individuals living with physical and mental conditions. A study with qualitative design using the framework method will be conducted. Firstly, 15-20 semi-structured interviews will be undertaken with people living with physical and mental health conditions. Subsequently, 4 focus groups will be held to explore the range of provider perspectives. The project will be undertaken in primary care networks and local organizations.

Expected results. Findings would provide a depth understanding of the complex needs of people with physical and mental health conditions including those living within deprived areas. Also, findings will explain the perceptions and experiences of users and health providers of social prescribing link workers role.

Conclusions. A comprehensive and tailored programme that will help meet the real and complex needs of those living with long term physical and mental health conditions including those living within deprived areas. Plans for its implementation will be explored involving key stakeholders from integrated Care System, Primary care Networks, Local Authorities and any other organizations/sectors that may benefit from the findings.

Exploring Participants-Produced Podcasts in Participatory Research
PRESENTER: Olivier Ferlatte

ABSTRACT. Introduction: Podcasting remained unexplored as an art-based participatory method despite its increasing popularity in mainstream culture and as a form of self-expression. In this presentation, we will share some reflections from a participatory research project centered around the creation of podcasts by gay, bisexual and queer men (GBQM) who engage in chemsex (sexualized drug use). Goal and methods: Working in collaboration with community activists, health promoters, researchers, and an expert in podcasting, we developed a new participatory method centered around the production of podcasts by community members. We designed a workshop series that includes 3 sessions covering topics such as the ethics of podcasting, storytelling, and podcast production and diffusion. We piloted our workshops with 10 GBQM in Montreal with a history of chemsex use. Each participant was invited to produce a podcast to share his experiences and perspectives.

Results: Podcasting can be an effective method to engage and empower participants through its reflective and creative process. The workshops facilitated interactions and connections between participants and researchers, leading to rich discussions about the topics of chemsex, stigma and the importance of sharing stories. The workshops and the process of podcast production enabled participants to self-reflect and gain new and important insights about their experiences. The participants produced podcasts discused many themes absent from the literature, highlighting the potential of podcasting to build new knowledge.  However, recording and editing a podcast was challenging for some participants who struggled with the technology and felt overwhelmed by the task. Others had difficulty finding the right way to share their stories. In the context of substance use, podcasting brought up some important ethical issues related to confidentiality.

Conclusions While more work is needed methodologically and theoretically to advance podcasting as a participatory method, our experiences revealed that podcasting can be an innovative tool to engage community members to share their perspectives and stories.

Capturing Subtle but Transformative Change Through Qualitative Methods for Women Experiencing Severe and Multiple Disadvantage
PRESENTER: Melanie Boyce

ABSTRACT. Introduction Women involved in prostitution often experience multiple and severe disadvantages with homelessness, mental health problems and substance misuse. These experiences intersect and further compound each other. Statutory services focusing on single issues often fail to meet these women’s needs. However, outreach services delivered by women’s organisations provide vital support, yet remain underexplored with traditional approaches to research failing to capture their impact in supporting women involved in prostitution to rebuild their lives.

Goals and Methods Underpinned by the principles of feminist research, our mixed-methods study evaluated the delivery and impact of an outreach service provided by a women’s organisation that supports women involved in or at risk of prostitution in the South of England. Research methods included a quantitative questionnaire adapted from the Space For Action Scale completed by 22 women engaged with the outreach service at T1 and seven women at T2. Qualitative interviews were also conducted with 12 women, 10 outreach staff, and 6 key partners. Descriptive statistics were applied to the quantitative data while thematic analysis was conducted on the qualitative data. The study was reviewed and approved by Anglia Ruskin University School of Education and Social Care Ethics Committee.

Results Due to the transient nature of the women’s lives capturing and evidencing positive change through quantitative methods was found to be limited. Instead, the qualitative methods provided a rich and detailed context. Firstly, in relation to the realities of the women’s lives and secondly as to how the outreach service contributed to rebuilding their lives. The qualitative interviews made visible the subtle but transformative ways the outreach service helped to rebuild the women’s lives which the questionnaires failed to illuminate.

Conclusions Traditionally measuring value and impact has been aligned to quantitative methods. Yet for those who are marginalised positive change often takes time and does not follow a linear pathway. It is only through sensitive, qualitative methods that these subtle but transformative shifts can be captured.

Remote Learning Widened Educational Inequalities Among Teenage Mothers in Rural Areas of South Africa

ABSTRACT. Introduction: Scientists globally acknowledged that coronavirus is a new phenomenon which necessitated strict non-medical measures to be contained and save lives through lockdowns. Globally, there are reports on the impact of lockdown on teaching and learning from both developed and developing countries. The emergency school closures perpetuated inequalities among teenage mothers in rural communities. Goals and Methods: The aim of this study is to share the harsh realities of challenges experienced by teenage mothers in managing remote learning during the lockdown in South Africa. The study employed participatory art-based action research to enhance the free expression of experiences and meaning through drawings, poems, narrations and voice notes. The study population was teenage mothers residing in one rural village who were enrolled for learning between the 2020 and 2022 academic years. A total of 12 teenage mothers assented to participate in the study. The study was couched by a bricolage theoretical framework to avail multiple research methods, and paradigms to explore and describe contextual solutions with co-researchers. Data were generation methods included drawings, poems, personal journaling, and reflections. Data analysis was concurrently done with co-researchers through the cyclic process of plan, action, and reflection for contextual ownership of findings. Researchers conducted a qualitative thematic analysis of data was conducted to identify predominant and important themes from participants’ transcripts. Results: Findings revealed that teenage mothers missed some lessons because virtual lessons did not cover all subjects, and limited support from teachers and parents to seek clarity on lessons shared through the radio, television and notes posted through whatsup messages platforms. Conclusion: Conclusions are that the emergency shift to remote learning led to ineffective teaching and learning characterised by missed lessons among teenage mothers.

08:30-11:00 Session 1D: Parallel Communications

B1 - Data Analysis Types

Location: Marina I + II
'I Put Myself in Their Hands': Case Study Exploring Trust in Healthcare Professionals

ABSTRACT. Introduction: Trust is belief that our good will be taken care of. Trust is particularly important in the context of chronic illness due to increased patient fragility, vulnerability, uncertainty about outcomes, and increased dependence on health care providers over extended periods of time. Interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA) provides an opportunity to understand how people experience trust in patient-healthcare professional relationship. Goals and Methods: The aim of the case study was to add to our understanding of trust in patient-healthcare professional relationship from the perspective of a young woman with chronic gastrointestinal tract disease. The semi-structured interview with an 18-year-old woman was analysed using interpretative phenomenological analysis. Results: Four interconnected personal experiential themes were identified: Active and humane approach of healthcare professionals; Past experience and reliance on health professionals; Disrespect for the patient's identity; Expertise of healthcare professionals. The participant considered trust in healthcare professionals to be important in supporting her cooperation and hope that her health condition will improve. She understood trust as putting herself in the hands of healthcare professionals and relying on them. It was trustworthy for her when they actively and professionally provided care, treated her with respect and precisely informed about treatment and care. In opposite, it was untrustworthy for her when healthcare workers did not respect her identity, individuality, autonomy, safety, and privacy. Conclusions: The case study offered an in-depth understanding of trust as fundamental pillar of patient-healthcare relationships. It showed how young woman experienced trust and how important role trust played for her personal way of coping with chronical illness. The case study is a part of qualitative research project supported by grant VEGA No. 1/0276/21: Trust in the relationship between patients with chronic illness and healthcare professionals approved by faculty ethical committee.

Professionalism in the Slovak Sociocultural Context: Nurse Managers´ Perspective

ABSTRACT. Introduction: Professionalism is understood as a multidimensional construct. Professionalism in nursing faces several challenges, i.e., changes in nursing practice and the healthcare system, a global nurse shortage, and the lack of recognition of nurses in society. The interpretation of professionalism and challenges has a sociocultural dimension that needs to be explored. Goals and Methods: The study investigated how nurse managers understand professionalism in the sociocultural context of Slovakia. Data collection was carried out between November 2021 and July 2022. Data were collected until saturation using semistructured face-to-face interviews with seven nurse managers from standard care units of one teaching hospital. The reflexive thematic analysis was conducted. Data were analysed in Atlas.ti. 9. The study was approved by the ethics committee. Results: The professionalism was reflected through six main themes: Building and maintaining professionalism; Challenges and problems of professionalism in nursing; Being a professional; Social status of nurses; Teamwork; Violation of professionalism. Nurse managers have an important role to play in the development, maintenance, and promotion of the professionalism of bedside nurses. They are aware that professionalism is violated mainly due to a lack of interest and respect for the nursing profession and nurses´ unprofessional behaviour and communication. Conclusions: Together with other healthcare managers, nurse managers should continuously support and guide novice nurses and nursing students, share knowledge and skills, overcome stereotypes, support teamwork through strengthening nurse-patient collaboration or building collegian relationships and improve the social status and recognition of nurses in society. The study was supported by KEGA grant No.008UK-4/202: Professionalism and ethics in nursing.

How Can Feminist Phenomenology Inform Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis Research into the Lived (Embodied) Experiences of Women Entrepreneurs?

ABSTRACT. Introduction: Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA) is a systematic inductive qualitative methodology with roots in phenomenology, hermeneutics, and idiography. While recognising that lived experiences are embodied, it focuses mostly on the reflective (cognitive) aspects of major experiences as articulated through language. However, by emphasising the cognitive dimension of language, it dismisses the importance of embodiment as a critical element in meaning-making.

Goals/Approach: The objectives of this paper are two-fold. Firstly, it discusses the relevance of embodiment within feminist phenomenology, presenting a holistic view of embodied consciousness in contrast to the dualistic conception of mind-body. Secondly, it introduces the underpinnings of IPA, investigating their epistemological alignment with feminist phenomenology, particularly regarding the application of the concept of language as embodied. The paper takes an interdisciplinary approach based on a re-positioning of works of classical phenomenologists, such as Husserl, Heidegger, and Merleau-Ponty, and contemporary feminist phenomenologists as applied to women’s entrepreneurship research.

Results: The current paper presents a working example based on an exploration of the lived experiences of women entrepreneurs, illustrating how to apply IPA, step-by-step. It proposes that by employing language as embodied, a first-person reflective account of experience may reveal something about their positioning in and orientation towards the lifeworld. As such, a double-hermeneutics could facilitate an understanding of how individuals’ embodied perceptions orient their actions towards the world in terms of intentionality (e.g. possibility for action).

Conclusions/Implications: The paper demonstrates that feminist phenomenology’s focus on embodiment could strengthen IPA, broadening its current scope to encompass the cognitive and embodied dimensions of language.

Without Any of the Preconceived Notions of Who I Was: Transgender and Gender Expansive Students’ Experiences of Navigating Gender While Studying Abroad
PRESENTER: Amanda Kracen

ABSTRACT. Introduction

Gender is a complex phenomenon that encompasses a deeply internal experience of self and an expression of the gendered self to the world. Transgender and gender expansive (TGE) individuals have gender identities that do not align with their sex assigned at birth. TGE individuals are marginalized and experience disproportionate rates of discrimination and violence. Simultaneously, TGE identities can provide individuals unique access to joy, community, and peace. As gender is socially constructed, experiences are highly influenced and complicated by sociocultural context, including when students study abroad in international settings.

Goals and Methods

Our research explores the study abroad experiences of TGE undergraduates to elucidate nuanced interactions between identity and culture. 15 TGE study abroad alumni were interviewed. Consensual Qualitative Research (CQR), a rigorous methodology emphasizing consensus and bias minimization, was used to analyze interviews. Our international research team consists of five individuals with a variety of racial/ethnic identities, genders, and ages. CQR’s systematic nature allows the team to achieve consensus at each stage of analysis, honor the complexity of gender and culture, and strive to reflect participants’ perspectives.


Results from the domain, Reflecting on Identity and Personal Growth During Study Abroad, will be presented. In this domain, participants discuss making decisions about identity disclosure; feeling (in)visible, (dis)empowered, and (un)safe in their identities; and shifting identity salience. They share how they navigate experiencing and expressing gender, as well as their other intersectional identities. Participants also describe personal growth and internal change resulting from studying in another country.


This study contributes to the scarce research literature on TGE students’ experiences in education, including during study abroad. Findings will enrich scholarly understandings of TGE lived experiences and inform recommendations to enhance TGE access to safety, joy, community, and cultural enrichment during study abroad.

Down Memory Lane: Eliciting Affective Geographies and Sites of Memory Through Participatory Mobile Biosensing. the UrBio Experimental Project.
PRESENTER: Ana Gonçalves

ABSTRACT. Introduction

This presentation will analyse how participatory mobile biosensing can help identify affective geographies and sites of memory and inform urban and tourism planners about citizens’ emotional responses to the urban environment, hence contributing to the creation of spaces that increase people’s satisfaction, emotional engagement and well-being in cities.

Goals and Methods

We will present and address the findings of UrBio – Making urban planning and design smarter with participatory mobile biosensing, an experimental project whose main goal is to develop and test participatory mixed methodologies that use biosensor data to plan and design tourism, consumption, and leisure areas following healthier, more convivial, and more sustainable perspectives. UrBio has included citizens from three different cities – Lisbon (Portugal), Warsaw (Poland), and Cuiabá (Brazil) – in the research process and has used wearable biosensor data in individual and pair transect walks to allow citizens to reflect upon the impact of the urban environment on their everyday experiences.


By looking at the results of these transect walks and post-walk interviews, we will analyse how biosensing technologies provide insight into the emotional engagement of citizens with the urban environment through the identification of specific affective geographies and sites of memory, thus exploring how data provided by wearable biosensors can be used to enhance qualitative research on the experience of affective urban atmospheres. The results of this project show, indeed, that allowing subjects to interpret biosensing data creates moments of ‘bounded interference’ where individuals rethink their own experiences, yet retain an ‘agential super-position’ over the meanings of the data.


UrBio provides an innovative perspective on the advantages of biosensing as a mixed-method research tool. We show how the elicitation of biosensors in interviews can spark in-depth reflection and discussions about aspects of the urban experience that often go unnoticed in conventional qualitative methods.

Silencing, Omission, and “Appropriate” Meaning Attribution: Identifying Different Narrative Silences

ABSTRACT. Introduction: Discussions on narrative silence, although quite extensive, are mostly theoretical. How to identify empirically the unsaid in stories, is still under-developed. As a result, most narrative analyses focus on the overt content in stories, disregarding what is left out. When the unsaid is nevertheless addressed, it is typically treated as a unified absence, without distinguishing among its nuances. Goals and Methods: To expand researchers’ toolkit for identifying diverse forms of silence in actual stories, I suggest three mechanisms of selection, that form part of the model for narrative analysis I had previously developed. This model premises that tellers weave narratives by selecting from an immense repertoire of materials, including facts, events, periods, and people. The process of creating a story is conducted via six mechanisms of selection. Inclusion, sharpening, and flattening, refer to what is reported in the narrative. The other three mechanisms refer to what is not reported in the narrative. Silencing and omission refer to the non-representing of facts, periods, and events in the narrative. In the first case, silencing, this is because these facts are opposite to the story’s end-point – its overall message. In the second case, omission, this is because they are irrelevant to the end-point, thus making their representation redundant. The last mechanism – “appropriate” meaning attribution – refers to highlighting a particular significance of an event/period, thus obscuring other or alternative significances. I will explain how these mechanisms serve different functions in the process of narrative selection and illustrate them through demonstrative stories. Conclusion: The three mechanisms of narrative selection can assist researchers to identify the unsaid in stories. Since each mechanism represents a different type of narrative silence, identifying them in actual texts can help researchers distinguish between diverse performances of narrative silence, thus achieving a more complete understanding of stories.

Qualitative Methods in Exploring Refugee Mothers’ Experience in Child Feeding
PRESENTER: Ilana Chertok

ABSTRACT. Introduction: The recent conflict in Ukraine has disrupted daily life and displaced families, especially mothers and children. Thousands of mothers and children have escaped the conflict and sought asylum as refugees in countries around the world. Being a refugee implies an unexpected displacement, which may negatively impact health, wellness, and access to resources. With the increasing and continued displacement of Ukrainian refugee mothers and their children, it is important to understand the influence of displacement, relocation, and disruption on their lives, while considering culture. These perceived experiences are sensitive and particular to personal circumstances and resilience. As such, a qualitative method of inquiry is appropriate to learn about refugee mothers’ experiences. Goals and methods: The project will employ phenomenological interviewing by culturally relatable and linguistically compatible interviewers who identify with the participants’ culture, to facilitate trust and openness. The interviews will explore refugee mothers’ experiences and perceived barriers and facilitators of child feeding since the onset of the conflict, during escape from the region, and following relocation from Ukraine. Interviews will be conducted in person, by telephone, or conference call, facilitating accessibility. Findings from thematic analysis will elucidate the influence of the conflict and displacement on maternal perception of child feeding. Results: Through sharing their experiences, we expect to hear about challenges in seeking food for children along with expressions of maternal stress in the process of procuring food. Additionally, based on cultural perception, we expect that mothers who had breastfed will report the inability to continue breastfeeding related to the perceived negative effect of stress on milk production and quality. Conclusions: The qualitative method is appropriate in approaching participants on potentially sensitive topics. Themes that emerge from the interviews will be used to inform healthcare professionals of sensitive and therapeutic means of communication and care of refugee families.

08:30-11:00 Session 1E: Parallel Communications - Online (synchronous session)

A3 - Qualitative and Mixed Methods Research / B3 - Qualitative Research in Web Context / B4 - Qualitative Analysis with Support of Specific Software

Kaupapa Māori and Potential Development of a Robust Sensitive Research Framework

ABSTRACT. Research into sexual abuse, family violence, & childhood trauma is particularly sensitive. This research deployed Kaupapa Māori methodology to investigate experiences of relatedness for survivors of familial childhood sexual abuse. Kaupapa Māori is a theoretical framework & subsequent methodology assuming a Māori (Indigenous people of Aotearoa, NZ) ontology & epistemology. Kaupapa Māori requires research design & protocols to reflect Māori principles of care, consideration, respect & honour, & self-determination. Thus, requirements of sensitive research are met & extended by Kaupapa Māori. Third party, targeted recruitment method was used. Researcher met with counsellors/psychologists & provided invitation packs. These were passed onto clients whom counsellors/psychologists assessed to be eligible to participate. This method provided access to a hidden population; professional assessment of safety prior to an extension of an invitation; no need to administer culturally traumatic assessment tools upon which they may need to be rejected. This yielded 17 contributors. All were accepted as eligibility was satisfied prior to invitation. Data was collected via audio recorded semi-structured interviews. Kaupapa Māori interview protocols promoted rapport, psychological safety & rich data elicitation. Pūrākau (narrative based) analysis was used to privilege indigenous knowledge. A combination of transcript & audial coding techniques were used for initial analysis. Analysis aligned narratives along a progression of victim-survivor-leader, as experienced by contributors in their families. Contributor narratives foregrounded a need for discernment between harmful & protective family practices. As result, this project suggests & explores whanaungatanga hē & whanaungatanga iho. Collaborative knowledge production between researcher & contributor prior to publication ensured contributor consent to analytic conclusions. As a result of this Kaupapa Māori determined methodology, contributors came away from engaging with this project finding the experience therapeutic. Kaupapa Māori could well provide direction for a framework to deliver more effective & safe sensitive research regardless of ontological/epistemological foundation.

When Physical Meets Digital – a Qualitative Study of the Factors Influencing Use of Digital Solutions to Promote Active and Healthy Lifestyles in an Asian Population

ABSTRACT. Introduction: Government responses to managing the COVID-19 pandemic may have impacted the way individuals are able to engage in healthy lifestyle practices in previously routine ways. Digital technology is a promising alternative to support activity levels. There is an urgent need to examine how technology can help people engage and maintain active lifestyles despite such life disruptions. Although general determinants of technology use are well studied, much less is known about how these factors impact technology use behaviour in a multicultural, multiethnic Asian population. We use social exchange theory to enrich our cross-cultural understanding of the adoption of digital technology in Singapore. Goals and Methods: Data were collected through thirty semi-structured interviews. We conducted twenty interviews in English, and ten additional interviews in local languages (Chinese, Malay and Tamil). Eligible participants were 18 years and older, citizens and permanent residents, and had no formal diagnosis of diabetes. Non-residents and those who were living outside the country or institutionalized during the study period were excluded. The selection of potential interviewees was based on maximum variation sampling. After data saturation was reached, inductive thematic analysis drew out major themes. Results: We identified five themes for the use of digital technology. For most, use was hampered by credibility and data privacy concerns. Poor quality and affordances of technologies also contributed to disengagement. Challenges included limited digital literacy; fear or avoidance; and language barriers. Yet, some overcame these barriers with family/social support. Conclusions: Despite disruptions to routines, technologies play an essential role in supporting healthy lifestyle practices. Our findings also highlight that extensive guidance further motivates people to embrace technology. This study provides insights to enhance the adoption of digital technologies and inform policy-making due to its alignment with current government initiatives.

Double Jeopardy: Researching Femininities and Masculinities Within the Family by Doing Narrative Interviews
PRESENTER: Marija Šarić

ABSTRACT. Stemming from symbolic interactionism and ethnomethodology, the doing gender theory is prominently used as a lens for studying the gendering of persons in interactions. Its theoretical scope has lately been re-examined to encompass insights about different levels of reality, from identity to structure, while retaining its processual focus. The modifications of theoretical scope are accompanied by the introduction of new methods of research. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate how the doing gender theory was applied for the study of femininities and masculinities within the family. Through literature review of the doing gender theory and its application, two main problem areas were identified during conceptualization with several ramifications for the research process. First, there is the question of how to encompass the processual nature of doing gender, in a post hoc manner, when examining situations that occur over a period of time; and second, there is the challenge of how to overcome a disaccord between the researcher’s immediate observations of situations and the participants’ interpretations of situations as the main source of data. Some of these challenges were circumvented by the choice of method, namely the narrative interview. Due to its exploratory nature, the method allows for the exploration of femininities and masculinities rather than imposing specific understandings of these categories. This was strengthened with the structure of the interview guide which aimed to elicit an array of both transformative and everyday situations in which gender comes to the fore within familial relationships. Through prolonged accounts on parenthood, family, and household obligations, such structure of narrative interviews facilitated the reconstruction of femininities and masculinities of researched parents, thus avoiding the jeopardy of misunderstanding or misrepresenting the interviewees experiences.

Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA) as an Empirical Method for Human Rights Law in China

ABSTRACT. As the Chinese government promotes the rule of law in China and the goal of a trial-centred courtroom, transparency in judicial practice in China is progressively improving. However, there are multiple factors that prevent the establishment of a strong human rights protection system to anti-torture and corruption. The report submitted to the 20th National Congress of the Communist Party of China on 16 October 2022 was made public, with "rule of law" and "anti-corruption" and "zero tolerance" repeatedly mentioned. Moreover, the causal link between torture and corruption was elaborated in the Report of the Special Rapporteur of the Human Rights Council Fortieth session (A/HRC/40/59). This issue leads to the main research question of the article: what factors influence the protection of human rights in China to achieve anti-torture and corruption? This project uses fuzzy set (fs)/ qualitative comparative analysis (QCA), to explore how the configurations of multiple factors influence the establishment of a strong human rights protection system, to achieve effective anti-torture and corruption in China. This project will focus on 112 cases in which the cause of action was torture and corruption that have been made public in China (2011-2021). When considering how to build a strong human rights protection system to achieve anti-torture and corruption, the project ultimately concludes that (1) the configuration of conditions for anti-corruption and torture is derived through fs/QCA analysis. (2) the necessary condition to establish a strong anti-torture and corruption case were identified. (3) the types of configurations also provide solutions for future policy and decision-makers in China. This study contributes to demonstrates the benefits of fs/QCA in testing the complementarity of judicial practice and provides conceptual and empirical evidence for previously understudied factors.

Methodological Dilemmas of Virtual Ethnography in the Field of Health Research

ABSTRACT. Context. In the context of Health 4.0, cutting-edge healthcare technologies are being developed and implemented. Global pandemic has further highlighted the importance of virtual communication and online knowledge sharing. This context creates the need to study patients' behavior in virtual environments One of the most common approaches to study individuals operating in virtual reality is virtual ethnography. Researching sensitive and often confidential health-related topics in a virtual context poses methodological dilemmas that require informed choices by the researcher.

Goals and Methods. The purpose of the paper is to identify the methodological dilemmas that arise in the construction of a virtual ethnographic research study in the case of online health communities.The implementation process of virtual ethnography proposed by Kozinets (2002) was taken as the basis, and methodological decisions, specifically important in the subject area of online health community research, were made. In order to achieve the purpose of the study, the design of a virtual ethnography study, which aimed to understand the knowledge sharing behavior of patients operating in online health communities, and the methodological dilemmas that arose during its construction are presented.

Results. During the construction of the design of virtual ethnography research, the following fundamental methodological dilemmas arose: Who should give informed consent in the case of the mentioned communities: group administrators or group members? What role should the researcher choose during the observation: stay away or engage in the community discussion? When to depersonalize qualitative data: during the data collection process or after the study?

Conclusions. The conducted research and the author's reflection on the construction and implementation of virtual ethnography research design in health-related topics reveal the "hotspots" of virtual ethnography research design, which in their essence are closely related to ensuring the ethical principles of virtual ethnography research when researching health-related topics.

Acknowledgement. This  research  is  funded  by  the  European  Social  Fund  under  the  No  09.3.3-LMT-K-712  “Development  of  Competences of Scientists, other Researchers and Students through Practical Research Activities” measure.

Strategies for Establishing and Sustaining Dialogues with Diverse Communities: an Example of Cocreation with Young Fathers and the Professional Workforce

ABSTRACT. This presentation draws out learning from two innovative case studies from research in the UK that advance understanding of the value of co-creating practice-relevant knowledge for professionals engaged with young fathers. Both case studies, that will be introduced in this presentation, have been developed for a UK Research and Innovation funded Future Leaders Fellowship study called ‘Following Young Fathers Further (FYFF, 2020-24). Establishing the Grimsby Dads Collective has involved the implementation of an effective, evidence-based model of good practice that promotes gender transformative practice. Via creative collaboration with four national partners, we have worked in partnership to advocate for a practice and policy environment that recognises men’s family participation and promotes family well-being. The second, ‘Diverse Dads’ utilised co-creation methodology to identify and address gaps in service provision for young minoritised dads in the North East of England, and to promote cross-sector conversations concerning inclusive support for young dads from diverse communities. While distinctive in their own right, both studies uniquely involve the generation and promotion of practice-informed research and research-based practice through a qualitative longitudinal impact process (Neale, 2021). The presentation concludes with reflection on the value, possibilities and challenges of co-creation for addressing pressing societal concerns through extended, qualitative longitudinal dialogues and research. Notably, co-creation has the flexibility and adaptability required to work diplomatically and democratically through the effective balancing of diverse stakeholder perspectives, and to implement social change throughout research processes, rather than as an ‘add-on’ at the end of a study.

“Live or Monetize?” Real Estate Advertising in Pandemic Times: Evidence from an Exploratory Study in Lisbon and Porto, Portugal

ABSTRACT. Introduction: Housing as a financial investment was prevailing in the main Portuguese cities at the beginning of 2020. In these cities, housing was increasingly used as a means for obtaining high profitability through short-term rental, mainly to tourists and students, or selling. This use aggravated socio-territorial inequalities in access to housing and housing conditions constituting an unrelenting socio-economic and political problem. The COVID-19 pandemic abruptly affected this model of real estate profitability and made more visible social inequalities in health and well-being as confinement at home was required to face the virus.

Goals and Methods: This communication aims to analyze the impact of the Covid-19 pandemic on real estate advertising through a comparative analysis between the discourses on the potential uses of residential buildings in the cities of Lisbon and Porto in 2019 and 2020. For this purpose, first, the qualitative descriptions of 1280 advertisements of residential properties located in the cities of Lisbon and Porto extracted in August 2020 from the online site of a national reference real estate were analyzed with the software IRAMUTEQ. Then, the content of the extracted classes of words was compared with the results of a study conducted with the same methodology in June 2019.

Results: The results of the textual analysis using IRAMUTEQ show that, like the results of the pre-pandemic study, residential properties are promoted as an investment and this discourse is associated with territories with particular characteristics, namely central location, proximity to services, public transport, educational establishments, and places of tourist interest.

Conclusions: It is concluded that the model of promotion of housing as a financial investment was not altered by the COVID-19 pandemic. The consequences of this model or urban development for the (re)production of socio-territorial inequalities and vulnerabilities in times of crisis are discussed.

11:30-13:00 Session 2A: Panel Discussion

Towards a pedagogical culture of teaching research methodologies in education: challenges, answers and ambitions

João Filipe Matos, Elsa Estrela, Carla Galego, João Piedade, André Freitas - Interdisciplinary Research Centre for Education and Development, Lusofona University (Portugal) / Education and Training Research and Development Research Unit, Lisboa University (Portugal)

The literature on teaching-learning research methodologies in education reflects a number of controversies regarding students’ methodological understanding of research (Nind et al., 2019) and pedagogical challenges experienced by teachers (Ross & Call-Cummings, 2020). This scenario consolidates the need for investment in the search for adequate knowledge to constitute a framework to organise the teaching of research methodologies in education. This panel aims to reveal the results from the field mapping (theoretical and empirical) of the ReMASE project in three parts: the challenges that led to this project; the results already gathered; and the ambitions for the near future…


11:30-13:00 Session 2B: Panel Discussion

Closeness and distance in Qualitative Research

Eli Buchbinder , Rivka A. Eisikivits, Zvi Eisikovits, & Guy EnoshSchool of Social Work, University of Haifa (Israel) /Faculty of Education, University of Haifa (Israel)

One of the most crucial and perplexing issues in qualitative research is being a part of the phenomenon studied vs. being apart from the phenomenon. This has been dubbed the “etic vs. emic” positions. The panel aims to present the reflective processes involved in the researcher/participants relationships in various areas of inquiry. Closeness and distance are essential in all stages of the research process: the choice of the topic, entering the field, the relationship with participants, the ways of data collection, data analysis and ethical considerations…



11:30-13:00 Session 2C: Panel Discussion (Online)

Ethical Issues for Qualitative Research in the Digital Age

Arceli Rosario, Pavel Zubkov, David Lumowa, Gracel Ann Saban, Jasmin Tuapin

Adventist University of the Philippines, Silang, Cavite, Philippines; Adventist International Institute of Advanced Studies, Silang, Cavite, Philippines

In this digital age, researchers have options other than traditional data collection methods. Data collection through online modalities, which brings advantages such as sample diversity, cost and time reduction, and wide geographical reach, has become an alternative. When the COVID-19 pandemic hit, human interactions became limited; in-person conversations and on-site presence were impossible in some areas. Hence, researchers opted for Internet-mediated research activities. Even after the pandemic, conducting research online will continue to be an attractive modality…


14:30-14:45 Session 3: Welcome WCQR2023

Hugo Mártires (ESEC University of Algarve) and António Lacerda (Diretor ESEC University of Algarve)

14:45-15:45 Session 4: Plenary Conference

What is creative about creative methods? 

Sophie Woodward - University of Manchester (UK)

Creative methods are becoming more widely used within qualitative social science research, and this talk addresses the question of creativity specifically to think through creativity as both the use of creative practices (such as arts based methods) in research as well as the more subtle creativities of adapting existing methods (such as how we do interviews or ask questions of the data in our analysis). I take material methods (Woodward, 2019) as a case study to explore these questions to consider them as creative approaches in terms of adaptations of established methods (such as object interviews or ‘material’ ethnography) as well as the use of arts based and design-based methods to widen the repertoire of social science methods (for e.g. cultural probes or other arts-based methods such as collage). By taking the example of my fieldwork into dormant things (things people keep in attics, wardrobes and cupboards that they are no longer using), the talk will consider how these methods allow us to ask new questions of our research and data.

16:05-18:05 Session 5A: Parallel Communications

B1 - Data Analysis Types / B2 - Innovative processes of Qualitative Data Analysis

Exploring Trust in Healthcare Professionals of Older Woman: an Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis

ABSTRACT. Introduction: Trust is recognized as a vital value and key ingredient in the patient-healthcare professional relationship. Trust is commonly defined as optimistic acceptance of a vulnerable situation. Older people with chronic diseases are especially at risk of vulnerability due to their increased dependence on healthcare professionals. Goals and Methods: The objective of the idiographic study was to examine the trust experience in the relationship between the patient and healthcare professionals of a woman with chronic heart disease. An in-depth interview with an 80-year-old woman was conducted. The updated version of the interpretative phenomenological approach was used in the data analysis. Data were managed in ATLAS.ti. The study is part of larger research focused on trust in healthcare approved by the local ethics committee. Results: Three personal experiential themes: Authentic interest - openness and reliance; Impersonal approach, unwillingness, and blaming - loss of trust and helplessness; Expertise and responsibility - loss of worry clustered nine experiential statements. The participant intuitively felt whom she could trust, open up and rely on. For her trust was important when the healthcare professionals behave kindly, listened to her, were interested, and willingly solved her problems. Contrary, standoffish communication and loss of patience contributed to her distrust. When she trusted, her worries and fears were reduced. In this view, it was extremely important to her that healthcare professionals are experts, have self-confidence, and are responsible. Conclusions: The case study showed the importance of trust for an older woman and identified what supports and threatens her trust in healthcare professionals. It is also an example of how trust can reduce concerns, contribute to open communication and reduce vulnerability. The study was supported by grant VEGA No. 1/0276/21: Trust in the relationship between patients with chronic illness and healthcare professionals.

Using Gioia Methodology to Investigate Inductively the New Role of the Sales Profession in BtoB Contexts
PRESENTER: Michel Klein

ABSTRACT. The role of the sales profession has evolved in depth over a short period of time. The COVID-19 pandemic has brought severe changes for B2B sales forces and has critically impacted sales practices in BtoB selling. It is of utmost importance for sales managers to be aware of new trends and challenges as well as to understand the keys to fostering customer relationship and customer experience management in BtoB contexts. We aim at identifying and understanding the new role of the sales profession in the area of BtoB selling using an inductive perspective based on the Gioia methodology. In contrast to other methods for analysis, the use of the Gioia methodology brings qualitative rigor to the conduct and presentation of inductive research. This approach is based on both a 1st order analysis (i.e., an analysis using informant-centric terms to formulate codes) and a 2nd order analysis (i.e., one using researcher-centric concepts to formulate themes and overarching dimensions). In addition, the Gioia methodology encourages the presentation of the research findings in a way that demonstrates the connections among data, the emerging concepts and the resulting theory. We collected 129 open-ended questionnaires and conducted 29 semi-structured interviews with BtoB salespeople in charge of key or large accounts, in several industries (e.g., banking, insurance, real estate, IT, food processing). The expected result is a framework of the new role of the sales profession concerning the use of IT solutions and digital tools, as well as customer relationship and customer experience management, taking into account the new trends and challenges, in BtoB contexts. Key practical and managerial implications will be suggested to sales managers with regard to BtoB selling.

Interventions for Informal Caregivers of People with Advanced Chronic Illness: a Systematic Review
PRESENTER: Karen McGuigan

ABSTRACT. Background End-stage or advanced chronic illness can impact negatively on patients and their informal caregivers. Informal carers are often family members or friends who provide support and care to the patient. Informal carers experience many challenges associated with their caring role, which can impact their own psychological and emotional wellbeing. However, in spite of the awareness of the impact on carers; guidance on supporting informal caregivers of patients with advanced, non-malignant, chronic conditions is scant. As such, there is little evidence available to inform development of effective psychosocial interventions for these carers.

Goals and Methods To explore efficacy of existing psychosocial interventions for informal caregivers of people with advanced or end-stage chronic, non-malignant illness. Electronic databases: Medline, CINAHL, EMBASE, PsycINFO, were searched up to December 2021, with studies assessed against inclusion criteria.

Results 4317 articles were screened, identifying 11 studies for inclusion. Data were extracted regarding study setting, design, methods, intervention components, and outcomes. The overall sample comprised 1317 caregivers. Narrative synthesis revealed mixed results. Six studies highlighted significant improvements in psychosocial outcomes including caregiver burden, depression, anxiety and quality of life. Differences in outcomes were related to intervention type, design, duration and delivery.

Conclusions The findings highlight interventions for this cohort should be: evidence-based, psychosocial, developed within an appropriate psychological framework, delivered at home, involve patient-carer dyad, and capture appropriate psychosocial caregiver outcomes using reliable and valid measures. This systematic review, to our knowledge, is the first to explore effectiveness of psychosocial interventions for caregivers of those with advanced, non-malignant, chronic conditions. The review will serve to inform the development of a psychosocial intervention for this cohort of carers.

Education for Sustainability in PortugueseTeacher Education Programmes

ABSTRACT. Being Quality Education one of the 17 SDGs, it is not possible to think the achievement of the 2030 Agenda without considering the importance of teacher education. The present study intended to identify and characterize offers on Education for Sustainability (EduS) in teacher education programs in Portugal. To address this aim, a qualitative study framed in an interpretative paradigm was conducted. The study assumed a descriptive-interpretative strategy of an exploratory nature. The search for teacher education programmes on EduS was carried out on the Scientific-Pedagogical Council of Continuing Education (SPCCE) website and on the websites of each of the 11 public HEI offering teacher education courses. In terms of results, and with regard to initial teacher education, in the 11 Portuguese public HEI, there is no specific degree or master in EduS, nor in education for sustainable development (ESD). However, it is possible to find separate Curricular Units (CU) in the programmes of some initial teacher education courses as, for example, those proposed by the: i) University of Aveiro - Education for Sustainability; ii) University of Porto – Education, Environment and Sustainability and iii) Open University – Education for Sustainability. Regarding post-graduation, in particular PhD, there are 4 PhD programmes available that are related to EduS. On the SPCCE website it is possible to find an offer of 17 teacher education courses in EduS with active certification. These courses are addressed to teachers of different educational levels and different teaching groups. The conducted study showed that, In Portugal, in terms of initial teacher education, there is no master's degree in EduS or ESD. Some masters have, in their programs, CU related with EduS. As far as in-service training is concerned, although there is more on offer, both in HEI and in teacher training centres, the EduS is still very limited.

First and Second Order Accounts in Discourse-Based Interviews: Negotiating Expertise in Situated Encounters

ABSTRACT. Introduction: In qualitative approaches the research interview is considered a main tool in highlighting participant common sense views (first order) as well as the complexity of building theoretical accounts around it (second order). However, the well discussed binary of first/second order accounts cannot capture the complexity of meaning negotiation between interviewer and participant, both of whom are iteratively involved in the observation and interpretation of the data. In this paper, by drawing on our ongoing and completed work, we look at the way expertise is negotiated between participant and researcher accounts. Goal and method: Our goal is to explore the interplay between first and second order accounts in a particular category of events, the discourse-based interview. We adopt an interactional analytic perspective and look at how expertise negotiation and exchange of first and second order accounts are actively done between the interviewer and the participant, in the context of a research project on formality in the workplace. Results: The analysis of the interview shows the way the two parties orient by reflexively doing and negotiating actively their expertise as they shift between situated, pre-existing and social roles. This process enables a dynamic co-construction of first and second order accounts of two parties who are involved in the observation and interpretation of the data as collaborators and challenges the static binary of researcher vs. participant interpretation. Conclusion: This paper highlights the importance of collaborative framing of the interpretation of and theorization from data in which the participants are co-creators; We shift from static and essentialistic understandings of the interviewer and participant to looking into, in this case, the interview as an interactional domain of activity that can better capture the complexity of the lived experience.

The Role of Information and Technology in Improving the Digital Economy in the Sultanate of Oman
PRESENTER: Nabhan Alharrasi

ABSTRACT. Introduction: Digital transformation has significantly altered the world economy leading to a significant transformation in business models. It created a new information society called the digital economy. According to the Organisation of Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) report, the digital economy has transformed the way societies work and play. Organizations can now use digital tools to revolutionize production processes and offer goods and services globally, providing considerable benefits to customers through increased choice and lower prices. Furthermore, "data" have become the new oil required by many business models in the digital economy, resulting in a proliferation of "free" services being offered to customers.

Goals and Methods: This research aims to understand to what extent the data related to skills, competencies, modern technology, and legalizations are available to facilitate the digital economy in Oman A qualitative method based on interviews and document analysis will be adapted for this research. This research methodology is appropriate for the issue of the digital economy in Oman as it is a new phenomenon. The qualitative method ensures a deep understanding of the different viewpoints of stakeholders. In this research, documents such as "Oman Vision 2040", "Digital transformation program," and "National Digital Economy Program Summary (2021)" will be reviewed and analyzed. These documents provide information about the development of digital transformation.

Results: Hopefully, this research will lead to a clear understanding of the situation in Oman regarding establishing the digital economy. Moreover, the research will assess the relationship between the digital economy and the country's direction towards a knowledge-based economy.

16:05-18:05 Session 5B: Parallel Communications

A1 - Rationale and Paradigms of Qualitative Research / B2 - Innovative processes of Qualitative Data Analysis


Feminist Qualitative Research into the Lived Experiences of Young Women Living with Anxiety

ABSTRACT. Introduction: Young women are consistently overrepresented in prevalence rates for anxiety. Research tends to focus on gender differences, while mainstream approaches for responding to anxiety are ostensibly gender neutral. The lived experiences of young women with anxiety provide valuable insight but are largely overlooked.

Goals and Methods: My doctoral research explored how young women understand and manage their lived experiences of anxiety; results presented focus on managing. A feminist social constructionist approach (Stoppard, 2000; Gergen, 2001) enabled critical reflection on the roles of language, power, and context in determining responses to young women’s anxiety. Feminist qualitative methodology (Sprague, 2016) was used with twelve self-identified young women with anxiety, aged 18-30. Participants kept qualitative reflective diaries over four weeks, with the opportunity to reflect creatively, followed by online semi-structured interviews. Reflexive thematic analysis (Braun and Clarke, 2013, 2019) was conducted on the data with the additional innovation of inviting participants to discuss initial findings in a reflective workshop. These reflections were incorporated and invaluable in shaping the final interpretations of the data.

Results: The notion of living with anxiety – rather than managing anxiety – better captured participant narratives around moving towards acceptance and empowerment. Key themes for living with anxiety included: professional approaches to anxiety; writing and creativity; self-care and self-compassion; mindfulness, meditation, and spirituality; and support from people and work. Importantly, participants blended professional with experiential and community strategies to develop their own personalised approach that resonated with their experiences and everyday lives.

Conclusions: The feminist qualitative approach to data collection and analysis resulted in rich findings that went beyond mainstream approaches for responding to anxiety. This demonstrated the value of researching young women’s lived experiences of anxiety with research, policy, and practice implications for improved support.

Analyzing Qualitative Data for Research on Street-Level Bureaucracy: New Protocols Combining Thematic Analysis with Display Analysis
PRESENTER: Arpit Arora

ABSTRACT. Problem: The research on the social phenomenon (SP) of ‘coping actions by street-level bureaucrats (SLBs) dealing with work stresses' carries three important features: (i) SP has multiple occurrences even for one participant, (ii) SP has potential for varying manifestations across different occurrences, (iii) research is interested in understanding these variations in manifestations. Such research requires that occurrence-level granularity in data is maintained while conducting data analysis, which is not possible when using the conventional Thematic Analysis (TA).

Goal and Methods: This paper proposes and illustrates a combined protocol (CP), combining TA and Display Analysis (DA) (Miles and Huberman 1994) techniques, which fulfils this specific requirement of the research.

This CP involves conducting TA of qualitative data about each occurrence of SP separately and organizing generated Open Codes in separate rows of a table. Open Codes in one column representing a concept are then abstracted using TA to evolve answers to descriptive research questions pertaining to the concept, while maintaining granularity in other parameters.  The tabulation of Open Codes of data about separate occurrences in separate rows allows nuanced comparative and contextual analysis of variations in manifestations of SP in differing contexts across different occurrences.

Results: Open Codes abstracted from data on 55 occurrences of ‘coping with work stresses’ collected from one Covid SLB are organized in a table with one row for one occurrence and with separate columns for parameters such as: Temporal Details, Spatial Details, Work Stresses, and Coping Action. Open Codes for Work Stresses and Coping Actions are separately abstracted to answer the descriptive research questions pertaining to these concepts. The granulated Open Codes also allow contextual comparison of Coping Actions by the SLB in different temporal and/or spatial contexts.

Conclusion: This CP can be used to carry out research on different SPs with the same three features.

Crafting a Foucauldian Approach for a Critical Analysis of Curriculum-as-Discourse

ABSTRACT. Introduction South Africa has a colonial and apartheid past of social injustice, epistemological oppression, and exclusion. These mechanisms are historically inscribed in higher education's designs, practices, and content. Also in the occupational therapy curriculum, shaping current forms of knowledge: everyday ways of thinking, speaking, doing, and being. Foucauldian theory explains that when a formal body of knowledge attains the status of science, it carries with it, the markers of the historical discriminators, e.g. race, gender, and class. If these historical markers are not consciously interrogated, patterns of reproduction are reified along the fault lines that already exist in society. Goals and Methods A Foucauldian Discourse Analysis approach for archaeology and genealogy analyses was systematically crafted from foundational Foucauldian theory. Data sources for the archaeology analysis included commemorative documents of universities on the origin of their programs; historical regulatory documents; and the South African Journal of Occupational Therapy archive from 1953-1994. In the genealogy analysis, the lens of ‘layers of the curriculum’ is employed: the formal, the informal, the hidden, and the negated curriculum. Results Within the archaeology analysis, eight main themes and eight subthemes were excavated. Examples of the main themes, include ‘the occupational therapist as a white female’ and ‘white exceptionalism’. In the genealogy, the critical analysis e.g. shows the reification of the negation of political clarification; the rationalization of mono-cultural epistemologies, with epistemic silence that may lead to epistemic injustice. Conclusions By viewing curriculum-as-discourse, a curriculum may be reconceptualized so that it is built on epistemic freedom. A thorough, non-authoritarian self-reflexivity about the contextual, historical origins of (a profession’s) ways of thinking, speaking, and doing, together with the ability to ideate new narratives, are essential aspects in achieving self-determinacy and epistemological liberation.

An In-Depth Exploration of Thai–English Interpreters' Tacit Usage of Intercultural Communication via Creative Qualitative Methods

ABSTRACT. Introduction

Interpreting Studies is a predominantly quantitative field that focuses on interpretation technologies and interpreters’ cognitive performance. Nevertheless, there is growing recognition of the importance of in-depth qualitative explorations, especially with regard to the social component of interpreting and the importance of intercultural competencies. However, despite a general acknowledgement of the need for more fine-grained analysis, qualitative methods have still been somewhat restricted to the use of more traditional data collection tools (e.g., reflective interviews or observations).


I will highlight how an ethnographically-oriented approach, which draws on more non-traditional techniques such as vignettes and river of experience drawings in addition to semi-structured interviews and document analysis, can be beneficial for interpreting studies. Moreover, because of the reflective nature of such techniques, I argue that interpreters engaged in such research can reflect on their own practices and make better-informed decisions. I will also highlight an approach to thematic analysis that uses a tripartite lens of translator visibility, intercultural communicative competence, and cultural dimensionality.


Being dialogic and dynamic with the data instruments and analysis allowed my interpretation of the findings to emerge inductively—e.g., unveiling personal intercultural experiences in creative drawings. The process directed the participants to contemplate their relationships with intercultural communication. The data suggests some key findings. First, intercultural communicative competence is a vitally integral interpretation mechanism. Second, interpreters often shift their roles, visible or invisible, due to the contrasts between the expected meanings and norms of two or more cultures. Third, interpreters’ prospective fundamental thinking and communicative patterns of the clients are guided by cultural dimensionality.


The creative qualitative approach provided enriching channels for accessing untapped data and unravelling in-depth, complex, and personal phenomena and perspectives. This was despite the practical challenges posed by such an in-depth exploration (i.e., impeded objectivity, increased time consumption, and decreased generalisability).

The Geography of Intersectionality : a Methodological Approach to Stigma on the Lives of Women with Hiv in Mexico

ABSTRACT. INTRODUCTION: Although 20% of people with HIV in Mexico are women, and masculinity ratio decreased from 12 to 1 (1987) to 6 (2022), they are not considered a “key population”. Apart from epidemiological quantitative studies, social research has not focused enough on women’s experiences in the HIV epidemic. While scarce qualitative studies rely on gender as an axis of social inequality, they often fail to explore the interaction between it and other markers of social positionality. METHODS: We explored the heuristic potential of feminist theories of intersectionality for understanding ciswomen’s subjective experience of living with HIV. We selected the state of Chiapas since its HIV epidemic among women is rapidly growing. In-depth interviews with 32 women currently in antiretroviral treatment were conducted in five state clinics. We used Relief Maps (Rodó-Zárate, 2021) for each of the narratives, in order to graph women’s experience regarding HIV diagnosis along four axes of inequality: serostatus, sex-gender (carework, economic dependency, reproductive essentialism), class and rurality. According to such geography of intersectionality, emotional discomfort is an indicator of social inequalities that materialize in places and locate people in ranges of oppression and/or privilege. RESULTS: Relief Maps showed that positive serostatus interacts with other axes of inequality producing feedback loops where previous economic and subjective precarity, violence, violation of rights and social exclusion were intensified by HIV stigma. Places where women expressed a range of discomfort, relief or contradiction were their husbands’ family household, their rural community of residence, their workplace and HIV clinics. CONCLUSION: Constant of systemic and systematic discomfort intensified by HIV stigma was experienced by women, while HIV clinics appeared as places of relief. The geography of intersectionality proved to be a powerful analytical method to map women’s HIV’s specific and should be used to produce relevant information for activism and public policy.

Action research as a process of social empowerment: structures, contexts and actors

ABSTRACT. Introduction This paper is the result of an international research project (RISE-Roma Inclusive School Education) funded by the European Commission and involving three countries: Portugal, Italy and Slovenia and lasted two years. The project aimed to promote a more welcoming and inclusive school for Roma children aged between 6 and 14 years of age, which would ensure their educational success in the regular official curriculum; to counteract discrimination and racism in education; to develop strategies for the production and sharing of best practices based on active, meaningful, inclusive pedagogical approaches; and to foster positive, stable relationships between Roma families, the various educational agents, and the wider community. The research work carried out within the scope of the RISE Project was based on the socio-critical paradigm, concerned with the reduction of social inequalities and injustices that impact socio-cultural groups in a situation of structural subordination. In this sense, the research method used was action research. Action research is a reference method when one seeks to change the social and power relations of certain minorities present in society and in the school system, as is the case of the Roma minority. The arguments supporting this methodological option made by the RISE Project gravitated around a set of principles rooted in a certain vision of society, of social science and, consequently, of knowledge production that aims at building less unfair societies, contributing to its humanization. Research techniques and instruments Research techniques: document analysis, semi-structured interviews, direct observation, and content analysis. Instruments: interview guide, observation categories, pre-structured categories and interpretative categories that emerged from the data collected during the interviews and also from the document analysis. Results As far as Portugal is concerned, the pedagogical devices built (in which students were the main actors), the strengthening of the school-family-community relationship and the participation of parents in the school, strongly contribute to positive academic results.

16:05-18:05 Session 5C: Parallel Communications

B3 - Qualitative Research in Web Context / B4 - Qualitative Analysis with Support of Specific Software

Blogging About Being Agile: an Original Source to Study Managers' Identity

ABSTRACT. Introduction: Agility is a buzzword in organizations; in all sectors, there is a movement towards agility, particularly to adapt to rapid changes. Despite this popularity, we still know little about how managers deal with agility and what it implies in their daily work.

Goals and Methods: To understand managers' experiences with agility, our research will collect data through various methods, including organizational documents, semi-structured interviews, and focus groups. As a first step, we will analyze blogs about agility, i.e. websites produced by managers who regularly post their thoughts and feelings in a free narrative form. Drawing on an interpretive approach, we will conduct a content analysis, focusing on the challenges that managers face during agile transformation and how they deal with them.

Results: As spaces for communication and personal expression, which include narratives and images, blogs are a rich medium for accessing managers’ subjectivity. Our preliminary content analysis suggests that agility calls on managers to revisit their roles, responsibilities, and even their identity. Indeed, bloggers reveal that they face an “existential crisis” as their position evolves to leave more room for the team.

Conclusions: Although some authors recognize the merits of blogs, they remain an insufficiently exploited data source in many disciplines. In our research, blogs will help us understand more deeply the human experience of managers. This lived experience is difficult to capture with traditional qualitative methods. Diaries may be a productive data source but writing them is frequently seen as time consuming. Blogs, however, provide content by self-motivated writers who wish to express, create and reflect on material that academics can use for phenomenon-driven research. We argue that blogs have huge untapped potential. In order to use them properly, ethical dilemmas should be discussed, e.g. the public/private nature of data and the need to obtain bloggers’ permission.

Sales and Marketing of Cage-Free Eggs in China: a Multi-Case Study

ABSTRACT. Housing systems directly impact animal welfare, for example, well-managed cage-free housing offer hens the potential to express natural behaviours and experience higher welfare. As the world’s largest consumer and producer of eggs (with 3.3 billion layer hens in 2020), small changes in China can impact large numbers of hens. Despite consumer preference for free-range eggs in China, only 10% of eggs are produced in cage-free systems (1% being indoor systems; 9% being outdoor, free-range systems).

Using a multi-case study design, our aim was to examine 6 companies sourcing cage-free eggs in China to understand: 1) why these companies sell cage-free eggs and 2) how these eggs are marketed. We purposively sampled 6 companies (2 using indoor systems, 4 using outdoor, free-range systems) and within each company we selected 1-3 participants involved in marketing, resulting in a sample of 10 managers, salespeople, and marketing specialists. For each participant, we conducted 1-3 semi-structured, audio-recorded, virtual interviews on the Chinese social media platform WeChat and recorded the participant’s WeChat chatlogs (including text, photos, videos). For each company, we collected relevant public online documents (including text and photos from news articles, online shops, social media content). We wrote field notes about observations and reflections made during data collection. We compiled all data (transcripts, chatlogs, public documents, fieldnotes) in the software NVivo and we used Template Analysis to generate key themes.

Preliminary results suggest the rationale for selling eggs from indoor and outdoor cage-free systems includes: 1) producing high-quality eggs, 2) meeting existing demands for free-range products, and 3) testing consumer acceptance of eggs from indoor systems. Marketing strategies included identifying target audiences (e.g. high-income earners), using appealing concepts (e.g. ‘indigenous chicken egg’ for free-range, ‘edible raw egg’ for indoor systems), and establishing trusting relationships with consumers (e.g. welcoming consumers to visit the farms). Though improving sales of cage-free eggs may promote cage-free production, further research and policy efforts are required to help ensure high animal welfare conditions on these cage-free farms.

Acceptance of an Internet-Based Campaign to Promote Healthy Eating and Physical Activity Among Children and Adolescents in Ecuador*

ABSTRACT. Background Poor diet and physical inactivity during childhood are risk factors for non-communicable diseases. Although Internet-based interventions are promising strategies to promote health, little is known about their acceptance in low-and-middle-income countries.

Methods Phenomenological research was implemented from February to April 2022 to analyse the acceptance, accessibility and usability of the Internet-based version of the COMEAVENTURAS campaign. COMEAVENTURAS was launched by UNICEF–Ecuador during the COVID-19 pandemic (https://aquiporti.ec/comeaventuras/) and consisted of animated tales, stories, infographics and podcasts with content to promote dietary intake, physical activity and healthy sleep. COMEAVENTURAS was intended to be implemented at schools but was delivered through social networks because of COVID. We invited 12 caretakers, 12 children and eight schoolteachers living in Ecuador's Andean and Coastal region to revise pre-selected material, including all the available formats. In-depth interviews were performed, audio-recorded, transcribed and analysed by two researchers.

Results The campaign was well accepted. Nevertheless, an Internet-based campaign might be more appropriate for young school-age children and may not be culturally relevant for low-income rural populations with poor digital literacy. Videos and stories were the preferred formats, especially the ones where the characters were children. Teachers perceived that the material could be applied in classrooms if: (i) integrated into the curriculum and (ii) DVDs were provided to schools without access to the Internet. Teachers and children considered that parents' lack of time and motivation could be a limitation; parents believe that the strategy should be implemented in schools.

Conclusion Communities from a middle-income country like Ecuador would not be ready to receive Internet-based interventions. Schools are still the preferred setting for delivering interventions among youths. COMEAVENTURAS should be implemented at schools according to the original plan. The results provide tools for developing multimedia materials. UNICEF Ecuador funded this research and had no role in data collection/analysis/interpretation.

Black TikTok Counterpublic: Black Content Creators' Use of TikTok to Construct and Disseminate Alternative American Political Epistemologies
PRESENTER: Marya T. Mtshali

ABSTRACT. INTRODUCTION The recent significant growth of TikTok has been accompanied by an increase in videos where users of the platform critically engage with hegemonic ideologies of how power and privilege operate in American society. With the rise of social media, Black people have been disproportionately fast adopters of these platforms, as has been evidenced by the concept of Black Twitter (Brock 2012), and have utilized them for various reasons, including political discourse and social justice organizing. They have used these spaces to resist white supremacist heteropatriarchal ideologies (Brocker 2012, Bailey 2021) and share “alternative epistemologies” (Mills 1998) of how power operates in the U.S.

GOALS AND METHODS This project involves using critical digital discourse analysis (Recuber 2017) to analyze TikTok videos with U.S.-focused political content posted by Black creators within the six months (May-November) prior to the 2022 midterm elections. Of particular interest are videos where the creator is critically engaging – supporting, nuancing, debunking – with political messages and ideologies from American political institutions, such as major political parties, politicians, news media, and federal/state/local governments. Informed by the work of Mack H. Jones (2015), this project seeks to understand how Black creators of political content negotiate hegemonic and Black political epistemologies in their videos. More specifically, how do they use the platform and its features to create a Black cyber “counterpublic” (Fraser 1990) where they can deconstruct dominant ways of knowing and to construct and disseminate an “epistemology of the oppressed”?

EXPECTED RESULTS & CONCLUSION Given TikTok’s multi-media characteristics (i.e., video, greenscreen, captions, music, viewer comments), it is a digital space that may allow allows creators to more clearly and dynamically critique the hegemony. This would suggest that multimedia features of TikTok may make it a more powerful tool than Twitter has been as an agent of social change.

Understanding the Impact of COVID-19 on Physical Activity and Mental Health in Individuals with Multimorbidity: an Explanatory Sequential Mixed Method Study
PRESENTER: Leire Ambrosio

ABSTRACT. Introduction. Long term conditions (LTCs) can be effectively managed by medication, treatments and/or healthy behaviours, like physical activity (PA). PA is beneficial for managing LTCs symptoms while improving mental health and well-being. Understanding barriers and facilitators to PA and availability and adequacy of resources to support PA participation for individuals with LTCs is paramount, especially when considering COVID-19 restrictions.

Goals and Methods. To understand the impact of COVID-19 restrictions on PA and mental health and well-being in individuals with LTCs. A sequential, explanatory mixed-method study with two phases was undertaken. Phase 1: quantitative phase with online survey, across the UK. Socio-demographic information and self-reported measures of PA (including walking, moderate and vigorous intensity activity), impact of health on everyday life, well-being, and depression and anxiety were assessed. Phase 2: qualitative phase with in-depth, semi-structured interviews, conducted online with a subsample of participants from the previous survey (n=50, data saturation). Purposeful-maximum variation sampling was used, considering location, demographics, LTCs, and change in PA and mental health.

Results. 368 participants completed the survey, where 85.6% were >50 years, retired (59.8%) and of white ethnicity (98.1%). People with one LTC were significantly more physically active and spent less time sitting, than those with two or more LTCs, presenting with significantly higher well-being (p<0.0001), and lower rates of anxiety (p<0.01), and depression (p<0.0001). Interviews were conducted with 26 people, aged 38-79 years. Three themes were identified: 1) LTCs: Changeability, Consequences and Coping; 2) COVID-19 and PA: Losses, opportunities and adapting to new formats; and 3) Micro, meso, and macro contexts: creating the right conditions for PA support in future pandemics.

Conclusions. Policy recommendations will be developed that capture strategies to sustain PA and optimise resources and communication to support individuals with LTCs to remain physically active.

16:05-18:05 Session 5D: Parallel Communications

B4 - Qualitative Analysis with Support of Specific Software / A1 - Rationale and Paradigms of Qualitative Research

Location: Marina I + II
A Model to Develop Middle Management Women in the Limpopo Public Service

ABSTRACT. Introduction:In Limpopo Public Service, very few women are occupying management positions, even though laws promoting women's advancement level the playing field, several obstacles tend to undermine such legislation's noble intentions. There is no clear plan regarding the development of middle management women as contributors in service delivery. Goals and Method:The purpose of this study was to identify potential barriers that need to be overcome for women to be promoted to management positions. The study developed a Model of empowering middle management women. A qualitative method was followed, and interpretivism was the applied philosophy/paradigm with a single case study method. A purposive sampling method was used to select twenty (20) women middle managers at Municipalities and Provincial departments. Interviews were conducted on zoom with semi-structured questions as the data collection strategy, substantiated with archival information. Data was triangulated to ensure rigor. The web-QDA software was used to transmit data and analyzed using a thematic analysis. Existing problems were investigated and discussed. Emphasis of investigation was in line with the public service policy framework. The researcher ensured that ethical guidelines of participants consent and clearance forms, interview guides and permission from workplaces were observed.

Findings: Women representation is very low since appointments are not based on ability and requirements due to Political interferences. Programs and strategies for developing women at middle management do not exist and they are not assessed for leadership positions. There are no emotional support structures to induct, mentor and support women middle managers. The ROSA MODEL was developed with pillars of: Review, Organizational perspectives, Support and Assessment of impact. This study provided solutions, which were culminated in the developed Model. The Model is underpinned by theories of Networking,Glass ceiling and Self-perception.

Conclusion:Effective implementation of the developed Model will benefit middle management women.

CAQDA-Compatible Procedures for Monitoring the Reproducibility of Coding in Qualitative Research
PRESENTER: Nina Fárová

ABSTRACT. The development of existing software for qualitative data analysis focuses primarily on expandingits analytical capabilities. Another avenue for increasing the quality of qualitative research, which has received much less attention so far, is designing computer-assisted strategies to increase the reproducibility of analysis, particularly the coding by a research team. In our paper, we want to introduce and discuss several reproducibility-enhancing procedures: 1. constant logging of all operations and the analytic use of the logging protocol; 2. pre-registering characteristics of coders (e.g., gender, position in the team, age) and tracking differences in coding between categories of coders; 3. iterative graphical and numerical monitoring of coder agreement. The aim of such procedures is not to standardize coding but to improve it by increasing the analytic reflexivity of researchers. Preliminary results of testing these strategies on the real data revealed enormous complexity of sense-making in the coding process, its epistemological depth (lay/expert understanding), and potential limits for controlling reproducibility in qualitative research. Therefore, we designed a sequence of analytical steps within the CAQDA, making it possible to cope with these challenges. Our presentation will include a demonstration of our CAQDA software called reQual (https://github.com/RE-QDA/requal), in the context of discussion on the possibilities and limits of transparency and reproducibility in qualitative research. Additionaly, when developing reQual, we also adhered to the principles of inclusive design. Inclusive design embraces accessibility, ensuring that users are not excluded because of their abilities; it extends that same effort and intention to the needs of users who are often excluded for other reasons (gender, age, background, disability etc.). We used a number of techniques that was employed to remove some of these barriers.

Exploring the Research Practices of the Faculty in a Start-up Research University in the Philippines
PRESENTER: Elias Olapane

ABSTRACT. Most of the Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) faculty around the world has long-standing trifocal functions, namely: instruction, research, and extension. Over the years, there is a growing appreciation of research in many universities across the globe and begun transforming into a Research Universities (RUs). As one of the countries in Southeast Asia without an established functional research university, the Philippines has been supportive in the transition of teaching university into RU like the West Visayas State University (WVSU). Owing that people are meaning-making agent, this qualitative case study was conducted to gain in-depth understanding on the research practices of the faculty members in the WVSU System during the Academic Year 2021-2022. Nine (9) faculty-researchers had participated the virtual Focused Group Discussion (FGD) on July 21, 2021. With the conceptual support of NVivo 12 Plus, this thematic analysis was deployed using the principles of Sharan Merriam. The data analysis was reviewed and audited by two external experts in qualitative research to ensure the scientific rigor of the study. Notably, most of the motivations of WVSU faculty-researchers include NBC 461 promotions, eureka and euphoric moments, gain friends and future collaborators, and create social value from research. However, many faculty-participants have decreased research productivity due to heavy workload, multiple designations and committee works, budgetary constraints caused by paradoxical national and institutional policies, and COVID-19 pandemic. Nevertheless, most faculty-participants have conquered their struggles by having right attitude, research collaboration and time management. The use of case study in this study does not intend to generalize the population but rather provide authentic representation and true meaning of experiences as perceived and lived out by the participants.

Feminist Perspectives on the Critical and Retrospective Reflexivity of Domestic Violence Research During the Doctoral Training

ABSTRACT. Introduction. As qualitative doctoral students working on domestic violence, we are exposed to many stories of violence, which may generate particular needs related to the research process. The general objective is to explore alternative and complementary practices to enhance the training in qualitative research of doctoral students who work on domestic violence. Goals and Methods. This presentation aims to 1) identify the ethical and methodological issues encountered regarding the frequent exposure to stories of domestic violence; 2) explore the (in)formal strategies in place to meet these issues. In a shared critical reflection and through feminist standpoint theory, we reflect on our experience as member of research teams working on domestic violence. Results. The results are presented in three parts. First, our training and professionalization contexts influence our positionality as researchers, which allows for a conscious subjectivity that favors the exploration of power relationships in the narratives, but also in the research process (e.g., unbalanced relationship between researcher and participant). Second, the strengths of the training received are numerous: training in ethics, training in research practice, diverse team research experiences. However, various elements remain absent from the research training and constitute limitations: tensions between time and productivity, potential competitiveness, and the effects of exposure to stories of violence on the researcher's emotional availability and rigor during the analysis and interpretation stages. Finally, to address the limitations of qualitative research training, there is a need to invest, among students, spaces of (re)socialization, self-training and co-training. Conclusions. This presentation highlights the importance of developing a mindful and informed research practice from the beginning of the doctoral training, especially in domestic violence research. (In)Formal spaces of collaboration, care, and solidarity seem to be the key to improve doctoral training. There is a feminist relevance to place "care" at the heart of becoming a researcher.

Abductive Analysis, Assemblage Theory, and Qualitative Research

ABSTRACT. In this paper, I conjoin work on abductive analysis (AA) in qualitative inquiry with assemblage theory (AT). AA is a methodological approach emphasizing a logic of inference that stands as the basis of theory construction; it follows a Peircean approach that involves a logical inference and a flash of insight which produces a hypothesis that is worth pursuing. Such an approach is linked to multiple theories to stimulate insights about further innovative theoretical contributions and avoids the automatic coupling that happens between symbolic interactionism and grounded theory. A further technique within AA is defamiliarization, whereby the researcher takes an object that is taken for granted in terms of meaning and problematizes its signification, turning it into a problem that requires a creative solution. Taking the invitation to engage with alternative theories, I conjoin defamiliarization within AA with AT, an approach that emphasizes breaking down the fixity of reality. Within AT, assemblages denote an arrangement of disparate, heterogeneous content and expressive parts. Assemblages combine material non-discursive multiplicities and expressive, discursive multiplicities. Assemblages comprise our everyday lives but appear as natural. AT has been utilized in relation to manifold studies to challenge how the material and discursive fit together and denaturalize such phenomenon as elements of everyday life. The conjoining of AA and AT is justifiable and fruitful on the grounds that it allows social researchers to defamiliarize that which appears to naturally fit together. Drawing on a qualitative study of homeless males in Chicago and Winnipeg, I demonstrate how AA and AT can be used together to defamiliarize the familiar in relation to causes of homelessness. I detail how I use these approaches in tandem to challenge existing research on homelessness in Western societies. I conclude by outlining principles for using AA and AT in qualitative research.

Engaging Patients and Caregivers to Develop a Patient-Centered Research Agenda for Biologic and Artificial Knee Surgery Research

ABSTRACT. Introduction Patient-centered outcomes research (PCOR) and comparative effectiveness research (CER) methodologies require engaging patients and caregivers in the research process. This methodology enables generation of research questions based on individuals’ lived experiences that are often not prioritized by researchers. Established in 2022 through a Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute (PCORI) Eugene Washington Engagement Award, the purpose of the Patient AdvisoR Team iN Orthopaedic ReSearch (PARTNORS) program is to build infrastructure for meaningful patient engagement in research by involving and collaborating with patient and caregiver partners.

Goals and Methods A key objective for the PARTNORS program is to define patient-centered research priorities for comparative effectiveness studies on biologic versus artificial knee surgery for middle-aged adults. To fulfill this objective, PARTNORS adapted the Stakeholder Engagement in quEstion Development (SEED) method that combines engagement with a review of available evidence to generate research questions that are important to patients and caregivers. Steps in the process include: 1) identify and recruit partners; 2) orient, train, and engage partners; 3) develop a conceptual model; 4) develop research questions; and 5) prioritize research questions.

Results The PARTNORS Patient Advisor Team includes twelve diverse patient and caregiver partners who have a shared experience of complex knee problems. The team meets regularly and has been involved in the SEED method since April 2022. They completed Step 3 in October 2022 and developed a conceptual model that organizes information and shows cause and effect relationships that influence decision-making between biologic and artificial surgical options. In November 2022, the team will move to Step 4 and use the conceptual model to generate and prioritize research questions.

Conclusions The research questions developed through the SEED process can directly inform and guide patient-centered research that will translate to evidence-based patient care in orthopaedic practice.

16:05-18:05 Session 5E: Parallel Communications - Online (synchronous session)

A1 - Rationale and Paradigms of Qualitative Research / A3 - Qualitative and Mixed Methods Research

Ziyyarah: Ethical and Inter-Active Space for Conducting Interviews

ABSTRACT. Introduction When conducting research with my Muslim American participants, who have non-Western roots and are still bound to their cultural, linguistic, and religious practices that might not be similar to the Western values or norms, the prescribed, Eurocentric, and power-laden interviewing practices appear to be unfit and essentializing. In this methodological paper, I extend the argument to de/colonize research practices to create realities or onto-epistemologies that break free from the colonialist language and discourse. I share how I constructed Ziyyarah, that is inclusive of participants' ways of knowing and culture and resists the reproduction of colonial subjugation traditional interviewing inscribes on Muslim American participants. Goals and Methods Ziyyarah draws from postcolonial theory, Deleuze and Guattari’s concept of the nomadic subject, and Barad’s idea of entanglement to account for more than the narratives of the subject. Ziyyarah aims at creating an ethical methodological space that embodies the participants’ cultural practice and embraces the intra-action between family members, conversations, and space (i.e., smooth). In this paper, I share three conventions or practices that guided the (re)construction of the Ziyyarah: unstructured and conversational interview, (un)settling the “I”, and ways of knowing and world views. Thinking with interviews with these conventions informed the ethics and practices the interviews to make space for different modes for knowledge creation. Results Ziyyarah interview creates fertile grounds for producing knowledge about the Other by accounting for the participants' culture and space. It also.situates the participants' narratives within the larger socio-historical and sociopolitical contexts and accounts for the researcher's role in the meaning-making process. Conclusions Ziyyarah underscored an essential element of conducting research with the Other, which was establishing connections and trust between the researcher and the participants to ensure their participation in this methodological practice. It transformed the power intensities between the researcher and the researched to become more of a dynamical flow of power instead of the static and one-directional form.

Aging Well in the Post-Migration Context Amongst Older Brazilian Women

ABSTRACT. Introduction: The aging population in Canada has been increasing steadily over the past 40 years, however, there is limited information about the meaning of aging amongst older Brazilian women. In order to understand a person’s meaning of aging well, an individual’s culture needs to be taken into consideration since aging is culture specific. A person’s cultural background affects individuals’ lives including attitudes in relation to health, beliefs, language, behaviors, and family structures. Therefore, the influences of culture on health reinforces the importance of understanding immigrant experiences in order to generate knowledge to enhance immigrant health amongst older adults. Methods: This study aimed to understand the meaning of aging well amongst older Brazilian women in the post-migration context living in the Greater Toronto Area (GTA) in Ontario, Canada. The methodology and framework used to guide the study was Heideggerian interpretive phenomenology. Results: Eight older Brazilian women residing in the GTA were recruited through purposive and snowball sampling and participated in individual face-to-face interviews. Data analysis was guided by the work of van Manen, in addition to the incorporation of Heidegger’s four existentials of human existence, the themes that unfolded were (a) Embracing being part of a mosaic, (b) Aging with grace, (c) Chasing your dreams, and (d) Being a bridge and not a fence. The overarching theme was: Finding the silver lining: Aging well amongst older Brazilian women. Conclusion: This study reinforces the importance of understanding the influence of a person’s culture in their perception of aging and the importance of maintaining connection to a person’s culture in order to age well. This study has implications for nursing and policy to support the aging experience of our aging population.

Therapeutic Relationships and the Role of Habitus in Nurse-Driven Injectable Opioid Agonist Treatment Programs.
PRESENTER: Sarah Blawatt

ABSTRACT. Intro: Injectable opioid agonist treatment (iOAT) is an evidence-based, nurse-driven treatment that serves an important minority of people with opioid use disorder. This life-saving treatment is offered in highly regulated environments that necessitate client interaction with site staff up to three times per day to receive their optimum daily dose. To date, no study has presented a theoretical conceptualization of the critical social processes that shape the dynamics of nurse identities and nurse-client relationships. Methods: This secondary analysis of a grounded theory study on nurse-client therapeutic relationships in iOAT explores the following: 1) What influences the formation of iOAT nurse identities?; and 2) How do nurses merge their personal and professional identities to address nurse-client power imbalances in iOAT settings? The data were taken from semi-structured interviews with registered iOAT nurses (n=24) from January 2020 to June 2022, including two small breaks due to COVID-19. Collected data were explored through open, axial and selective coding, assessed using a constant comparative analysis, and organized into themes reflective of Bourdieu’s social theory of habitus. Results: Therapeutic interventions for iOAT clients necessitate a reflexive separation from standardized task-based nursing roles in other settings to facilitate opportunities to connect. Informed by personal and professional experiences, nurses collectively challenge institutional barriers to promote individualized client-care through a series of social agreements. Attempting to bridge service gaps, nurses leverage their social positions to navigate systems governing client access to treatment capital (e.g., prescriptions, services), advocate for client needs and foster a sense of shared-belonging by creating a unique culture of care. Conclusions: Therapeutic relationships are an integral part of building and maintaining trust with populations often precariously engaged with healthcare. Nurses in iOAT illustrate the transformative potential of habitus to address systemic incongruencies in care and reimagine ways to support those providing and receiving addiction services.

The Power of Language in Qualitative Research: a PhD Nursing Student’s Journey of Unlearning Through Critical Self-Reflection and Writing

ABSTRACT. Introduction: Evolving from the process of writing my doctoral thesis proposal, I present my personal experience as a settler PhD, Nursing student using narrative inquiry to understand the experiences of Mi’kmaq women and Two-Spirit survivors of sexual assault. More specifically, I will present my interim thoughts and reflections about what it has been like as a PhD student to unlearn habits of thinking and writing about social justice issues such as sexual assault, white supremacy, and colonialism. A process that has been liberating and transformational for me.

Goals: This paper aims to contribute to discussions about methodological rigour within qualitative inquiry by exemplifying the significance and power of language used by qualitative researchers.

Methods: I have engaged in a continuous process of reflexivity through critical self-reflection and writing to navigate the foreseeable challenges of conducting qualitative research in partnership with Mi’kmaq women and Two-Spirit survivors of sexual assault.

Results: I will share how this process of reflexivity has ensured I am situating myself within my research, extending an authentic view of my identities, positionality, and unearned privileges, and validating the nuanced and context-dependent experiences of the survivor-participants who chose to participate in this study. I will demonstrate the implications of language and critical self-reflection on transparency, subjectivity, and validity. I will also present how this journey has liberated me as a novice researcher and academic.

Conclusion: Language is powerful, and the words researchers use to label or describe experiences and phenomena is particularly important in qualitative inquiry. I aim to highlight how reflexivity through critical self-reflection and writing is imperative to the methodological rigour and trustworthiness of qualitative research and contribute to findings that lead to transformational and equitable change. 

Qualitative Research in the Organizational Analysis of the Family Business

ABSTRACT. Introduction. Management studies have favored the use of quantitative methodology with a functionalist approach stemming from their intentions to improve organizational performance through efficiency and effectiveness in the work process through cuts of reality superimposed on analytical frameworks that they configure universal laws with a pragmatic and functionalist vision. In contrast to this position, critical management studies show the need to observe, through an interpretive epistemological position, what they are and thus understand the complex nature of the family business. In this sense, qualitative research exposes human nature in organizational dynamics, recognizing the singularity and uniqueness of management anchored in historical, cultural, economic, and social contexts. Objectives and Methods This study seeks to expose the use of qualitative methodology in management studies from a critical perspective based on a case study in a family business, using non-participant observation and semi-structured interviews. Results. The approach to the case study from the framework of the symbolic universe exhibits the specific worldview of the family; of what they share and identify them demarcated in a family habitus intermingled in the specific fields that define it as a family and as a company. The performance of relatives is not only built by instrumental rationality, but by the definition of codes, values, and norms that have been introjected since their upbringing. Conclusions. The operation of the family business is unique due to the intersection of the institutional logics of the family and the company. Representations, symbolisms, beliefs, and value judgments (family habitus) support management through the forms and uses of the family, what the company should be in terms of efficiency and effectiveness. Family identity is interrelated with organizational performance, which shows a latent conflict. The management of the family business presupposes unique and specific references of its nature.

16:05-18:05 Session 5F: Parallel Communications - Online (synchronous session)

A2 - Systematization of approaches with Qualitative Studies / A3 - Qualitative and Mixed Methods Research / B2 - Innovative processes of Qualitative Data Analysis

Knowledge-to-Action in the Transition of Children with Clinical and Complex Care Demands from Hospital to Home

ABSTRACT. Background: The safe transition from hospital-home care of children with special health needs with clinically complex continuous demands of care (CSHCN-CCC) is challenging for health professionals and family caregivers. Goals: Produce and evaluate short videos about CSHCN-CCC with the participation of experts (visual production and health professionals) and family caregivers residing in the cities of Rio de Janeiro (capital); systematize the best scientific evidence that supports care activities and incorporate them into the production of short videos on tracheostomy and gastrostomy care; assess applicability (function, use, and effectiveness) in three rounds with an interval of one month; to discuss the validity and applicability of videos in solving the demands of family caregivers of CSHCN-CCC. Method: The research project has been developed with a participatory qualitative approach implemented with nurses from the family health strategy (FHS) in Rio de Janeiro city; groups of families of children assisted in hospital care during the process of hospital-home transition (narrative content of the video, production, and validation); systematic reviews (for building the scientific content of the video); and the experts in the areas of visual communication (film language production and video validation). The production of the videos will include family narratives, scientific evidence, staging of care situations in the concrete creativity and sensitivity dynamics of the creative and sensitive method, filming with actors, editing images of short videos (2 to 6 minutes), blog, almanac, and podcasts. For the internal evaluation, the videos will be available to five nurses, who will watch them and answer the AGREE-HS questions, an instrument to evaluate the quality of the tool for being applied in the health system.

Integrating Implementation Science Frameworks with Qualitative Research: Lessons from the Field
PRESENTER: Ksenia Gorbenko

ABSTRACT. Introduction. The value of qualitative approaches has received recognition in health research. In the U.S., the National Institutes of Health routinely include qualitative experts in their review panels, ensuring studies using rigorous qualitative methods receive priority funding. Qualitative researchers have been part of the multidisciplinary teams that identify needs, develop, and evaluate clinical and behavioral interventions to improve population health. Implementation science (IS), a field that focuses on translating evidence-based research into policy and practice, has developed a number of IS frameworks that help design and evaluate interventions. IS frameworks appear deductive in nature because they use pre-determined domains to apply to specific contexts or problems. Little is known about best practices in integrating deductive IS frameworks and inductive qualitative research to maximize benefits of both. Goals and Methods. This paper describes the process our team of qualitative researchers used to select an implementation framework, incorporate the Exploration, Preparation, Implementation, Sustainment (EPIS) framework into the analysis process and report findings in the context of a national qualitative project studying implementation of a new payment model, Hospital-at-Home (HaH). Results. We describe the process of selecting and refining an appropriate IS framework; cross-walking data collection and framework domains; reviewing the data to identify fit with the model; and integrating the selected framework into qualitative data reporting. We identify key benefits for integrating IS frameworks and qualitative research, among them: increased external validity due to ability to compare results across similar domains; improved ability to interpret the data; and capacity for developing recommendations for clinical champions. Conclusions. Applying IS frameworks in an inductive way can help improve fit of IS frameworks to specific problems. Qualitative researchers, trained in stakeholder engagement and participatory approaches, may be ideal for including on IS teams, and can themselves benefit from these collaborations through increased external validity.

Social Representations on Death and Dying in the Voluntary Termination of Pregnancy Due to Fetal Non-Viability in Chile (Fondecyt Regular 1200374 )

ABSTRACT. Introduction In 2017, Chilean legislation allowed voluntary termination of pregnancy on three grounds; vital risk of the pregnant person, fetal non-viability, and rape. Five years after its implementation, the present study collects the social representations of the health team of direct care of cases of death and dying during pregnancy interruption due to fetal non-viability. Goals and Methods This research is qualitative research under the post-positivist paradigm. The objective of this research was to understand the social representations of healthcare personnel about death and dying in the termination of pregnancy due to fetal non-viability. Fifty healthcare workers, technicians, and professionals participated. The data collection technique was the semi-structured interview. An inductive content analysis was performed, in which codes emerged and were grouped into categories. Results They derive from the Fondecyt Regular 1200374 project. With the support of the Atlas ti software, the categories Rituals of loss were identified with the associated codes embrace the child, dress the child, and symbolic objects. Funeral rites with the codes: removal of the body, memorial in the cemetery. Feelings and emotions with the codes associated with sadness, guilt, bond with the child, vulnerability of the woman, liberation and empathy and the category Rights of pregnant women, whose codes were the right to health care, co-responsibility for care, the right to decide, the right not to be judged, to continue with their life project, to be accompanied and to have privacy. Conclusion Death and dying are complex processes in which cognitive, affective, and action aspects are combined. Health personnel is an essential actor in the care of pregnant person who interrupts their pregnancies due to fetal non-viability, in which the assumption of advocating for women's rights stands out.

Intimacy Awakened: Summer Reunion of Left-Behind Children and Their Migrant Parents in Cities

ABSTRACT. Introduction: With abundant literature on migration, our knowledge of permanent migration or a long-term move has gradually matured. However, circular migration, referring to repeated migration experiences between an origin and destination, has received insufficient attention.

Goals and methods: To better understand the temporary reunion of migrants and their left-behind family members in the process of circulation, this study examines domestic migration in China where parents are often forced to leave their children behind in rural hometowns and work in cities alone. Particularly, this study investigates children’s visit to the city where their parents work during summer vacation and explores how the parent-child relation changes as they reunite and separate. This study interviews left-behind children in a city in the less developed inland of China. Interviewees come from a larger mixed-methods project about left-behind children that entails multistage cluster sampling in compliance with the IRB requirement. Those who are purposively invited for interview are a subgroup who have visited their parents in cities over the summer. Interview responses in Chinese will be translated into English if quoted, and pseudonyms will be assigned to protect the confidentiality of the interviewees.

Results: Using the framework of social bond theory, this study hypothesizes reuniting with their migrant parents in the city will enhance left-behind children’s identification with both urban values and their families, promoting their intimacy and relationship with parents.

Conclusions: This project has both practical and theoretical implications. Practically, China’s large population of rural-to-urban migrants and their children left behind warrants further research. Theoretically, this project would add to the limited literature on circular migration, particularly connections within separated migrant families, regardless of transnational or domestic mobility. Furthermore, these intrafamily dynamics will shed light on how individuals remain interconnected and bonded in our current hypermobile and disintegrating world.

Prevalence of Burnout Syndrome in Newly Graduated Physicians and Narratives of Performance During the COVID 19 Pandemic in 2020
PRESENTER: Raquel Pedroso

ABSTRACT. Physicians are highly vulnerable to Burnout Syndrome (BS), as they constantly deal with stressors. Worldwide, for every two doctors, one has BS; and an accentuation of symptoms was noticed amid the COVID-19 global disaster. The objective is to assess the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the physical, mental and emotional health of a sample of newly graduated physicians. ​​It is a mixed method study, involving quantitative and qualitative research. The instrument for measuring the quantitative part was the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) and the 5 point likert scale. Then, the qualitative part was carried out through narrative interviews and analysis in the ATLAS.ti with the participation of a randomly selected sample containing 10 physicians. The control of sampling bias was done by drawing lots and voluntary participation. Using as a characterization criterion exhaustion scores >= 26, disbelief >= 6, and personal fulfillment <= 33 in the MBI showed that 59.26% of the participants could have Burnout. Demographic variables and course completion date showed a low association with meeting this criterion (V < 0.3). The results of the qualitative study demonstrates the challenges of being a recent graduate working in a Pandemic.  Among the interviewees, all showed weakness in professional safety due to lack of information and risk of contamination, 40% had difficulty reconciling professional and personal life, 80% had problems with the medical residency-pandemic relationship and the weight of medical work (both in terms of lack of self-care), presence of Burnout and exhaustion was cited by 80% and lack of a support network was a complaint for half of the sample. It is concluded that newly graduated physicians working on the front line of covid-19 have indicators similar to those of physicians with longer professional practice, bringing as a relevant result the anticipation of experiencing BS.

A Phenomenographic Examination of Work Motivation to Perform at the Municipal Corporation of Bangladesh.

ABSTRACT. The explorative purpose of this study is to investigate and analyse the work motivational conceptions of employees, to expand a better understanding of work motivation in the municipal corporation of Bangladesh. The municipal corporation is one of the key administrative bodies of Bangladesh’s local government. Work motivation has been defined as a result of interaction between the individual and the environment. Local government studies indicate the work environment of the municipal corporation is unique because of its key colonial and political history, several reform attempts, non-western social perspectives, job functions, and traditional governance. Twenty-two semi-structured online interviews were conducted in this study. Phenomenographic research methodology has been adopted to describe the limited number of qualitatively different ways of experiencing work motivation. During the analysis of the semi-structured interview transcripts, the focus was on the second-order employee perspective to explore and analyse the conceptions. Based on the participants' collective experiences and dimensions of variation across the different ways of experiencing, six conceptions of employee work motivation to perform at the municipal corporation were identified in this study. Besides, six dimensions of critical variations have emerged within and between the conceptions. In the outcome space, the relationships between conceptions, and dimensions of critical variations are presented in a logical structure. The findings of this research study show significance to expand the understanding of work motivation and the research context of phenomenography. The findings of this research will contribute to the ongoing attention of contextual work motivational understanding from a Bangladeshi perspective and phenomenographic research conceptions in organisational behaviour studies.

The Art of Self-Leadership During Times of Unprecedented Global Change

ABSTRACT. The Art of Self-Leadership during times of unprecedented global change

Mdhluli, MA* & Ngcetane-Vika, T* * Prof MA Mdhuli is a Leadership Expert and Education Senior Specialist. Dr Thelela Ngcetane-Vika specializes in Corporate Governance, Leadership and Legal Studies. Abstract Introduction: Self-leadership has become as important as leading others, and subsequently, it has added an interesting dimension to the study of leadership. Scholars and practitioners have studied the whole notion of self-mastery, especially those concerned with human behaviour and leadership. There is evidence that the ability to lead oneself ought to take precedence over leading others. It is against that background that this study, therefore, examines the art of self-leadership during times of unprecedented global change, where uncertainty abounds. Leadership theories posit that great leaders are influenced by several factors and circumstances. Accordingly, both the conceptual and theoretical frameworks argue that the most critical tool in the exercise of leadership is the leader. Interestingly, empirical evidence reveals that leaders have enormous power to shape and redirect the course of history, and that begins with their ability to lead themselves first, then others. Methods: The study will employ a qualitative and exploratory approach, using non-intrusive case studies. The data will be analysed through an intepretivist lens, applying phenomenology to get a better understanding of Self-leadership as a construct. In addition, the study will be using in-depth interviews and will also include thematic analysis. Expected Findings and Conclusion: The study, therefore, seeks to contribute to the broader understanding of the concept of self-leadership. Its findings will provide relevant insights into the art of self-leadership and may inspire future research. The results could equip leaders and individuals to better use the power within to transform themselves and societies.

16:05-18:05 Session 5G: Parallel Communications - Online (synchronous session)

A2 - Systematization of approaches with Qualitative Studies / A3 - Qualitative and Mixed Methods Research / B1 - Data Analysis Types / B4 - Qualitative Analysis with Support of Specific Software

Development of Social and Emotional Skills in a Music School: Review of Teachers' and Students' Experience

ABSTRACT. Research problem. Majority of parents, teachers, members of society accept musical education as the preparing musically gifted children for the profession of a musician, ignoring the importance of musical education to holistic personal development including social-emotional education. Lithuanian music schools that organize complementory non-formal or formal education have all the conditions for overall personality development, but the ways of developing social-emotional abilities are not enough researched. Research object. The experience of the development of social-emotional skills in a music school. The aim. Highlight the experience of students and teachers of the non-formal education institution (music school) in the areas of social-emotional skills development (self-awareness, self-control, social awareness, mutual relations, responsible decision-making). Research methods: semi-structured interview method, group discussion. Data analysis methods: qualitative content analysis. Research results. After conducting a study of the experience of teachers in the music school in the development of social-emotional abilities, 6 main themes emerged: the possibilities of personality formation in the music school; recognition and regulation of emotions in musical education; ability to set and implement educational goals; the importance of following the rules and agreements; creating mutual relations; responsible decisions made while studying at a music school. During the second stage of empirical research, students' experiences in the areas of self-awareness, expression of emotions and creation of interpersonal relationships were analyzed. Conclusions. Positive changes in the field of SEE can be seen in Lithuanian formal education institutions. The increasing emphasis on the importance of the harmony between formal and informal education reveals the influence of musical education on the social and emotional maturation of a person. Empirical research has shown that social and emotional abilities are developed to a large extent in a music school, still there is mentioned a lack of teachers' deeper knowledge in the field of social and emotional education.

Phenomen Based Learning in Teaching a Foreign Language: Experience of Lithuanian Teachers

ABSTRACT. Research context and problem. The application of the phenomenon-based method is widely studied in majority of European countries, especially when the research data state that phenomen based learning (PhenoBL) provide more effective learning, higher student achievement results, greater interest in science and even influences a high happiness index. It was really reasonable that PhenoBL was included in Finnish curriculum in 2016. However, there is sparse data about the educational practice of this method in Lithuania. Research object. Phenomen based learning (PhenoBL) in teaching a foreign language Research aim. To analyze the preparation and experience of Lithuanian foreign language teachers to incorporate a PhenoBL in a foreign language teaching. Research methods. Qualitative research. Data collection methods: semi-structured interview. Data analysis method: qualitative content analysis. Research results. Teachers revealed the major aspects that are important for the successful PhenoBL implementation into foreign language teaching. The aspects are grouped into major qualitative themes and categories. They are: perception of a student centered teaching, development of subject integration competencies, team work development competencies, research planning skills, positioning of personal responsibilities and duties, foreign language usage emancipation thesaurus.

Using Phenomenographic Interviews in Health-Related Research: Reflections from a Study on Nurse Practitioner Capability
PRESENTER: Martha Whitfield

ABSTRACT. Introduction: Both the United States and Canada are experiencing an opioid overdose crisis. Nurse practitioners (NPs) in both countries gained prescriptive authority for medications used to treat opioid use disorder within the past five years. In this presentation, we reflect on the use of phenomenographic interviewing for a study exploring capability development by NPs treating opioid use disorder in North America.

Phenomenography focuses on identifying the qualitatively different ways in which participants experience a phenomenon, often using semi-structured interviews. The goal of phenomenographic interviewing is to allow participants the space and freedom to share and reflect deeply. Researchers analyze the collective interview transcripts to identify hierarchical categories of description about the experience of the chosen phenomenon.

Goals and Methods: We detail methods used to recruit 21 nurse practitioners from Canada and the United States; describe demographic data collected to ensure variation in our study sample; and outline the interview process. We discuss rigour and trustworthiness within the context of the phenomenographic approach and consider the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, including the challenges and benefits of using online technology for interviewing and initial transcription.

Results: For this presentation, we focus on the potential benefits of phenomenographic interviewing in health-related research, using examples from our interview data. At the time of abstract submission, analysis of the phenomenographic interview data is in progress.  Relevant portions of the interview data will be identified and collected into a pool of meanings, from which we will identify the qualitatively different ways in which participating NPs experienced the development of capability.

Conclusions: Phenomenography allows and encourages the inclusion of diverse voices and points of view, often elicited through in-depth interviews. We propose that the use of phenomenographic interviews is especially relevant in healthcare settings, where practitioners work within complex and unpredictable practice settings.

Developing Theory of Experience Through Meta-Analysis

ABSTRACT. A meta-analysis was conducted on the findings of ten qualitative research projects completed (during 2017-2022) in large factories in Turkey on Occupational Health and Safety (OHS). The data consisted of the transcripted text of 145 focus group interviews. The aim of each project was to identify the main themes that shape the OHS experience. All the projects were analyzed by the same researcher using several QDA software (ATLAS.ti, MAXQDA, NVivo) and the Grounded Theory (GT) approach was used in all of them. In the meta-analysis process, the projects were merged and the selective-coding process was used to develop a systemic theory of experience. Meta-analysis enabled us to focus on the moments that have an impact on the organization of the OHS experience. While specific to OHS, through meta-analysis we have discovered significant moments in the organizing processes of workplace experience. There are anchoring moments that move the experience in the desired 'good' direction. On the other hand, moments that are not anchored with the desired meaning are the source of the disorganization process. In other words, every 'moment' at work is interactive and constructive. The moments that organized the experience in the desired direction appeared in four dimensions: Policy/Narrative, Special Moments, Bonding Moments, and Critical Moments. The more coherent the flow of these dimensions, the stronger the experience in the desired direction. The common themes that stand out in each of these dimensions are presented in this article. From a holistic perspective, these dimensions are the building blocks of the employee experience.

I Just Wish You Would Listen to What I'M Saying, Not What You Want Me to Say: How Women Living on a Low Income Describe Access to Services

ABSTRACT. Introduction Many women in Canada are living below the poverty line. Systemic barriers to access health and social services mainly affect specific subgroups of women who are more likely to live below the poverty line, such as those who are Indigenous, members of visible minorities, older women, and single mothers. Researchers recognize socioeconomic status, employment, housing, gender, and social and health services access are associated with health and well-being. Yet, little is known about how these social determinants of health (SDH) interact and bring about inequities for women living on a low income.

Goals To describe how income and gender, as SDH, affect access to health and social services for women living on a low income.

Methods In collaboration with a non-profit organization, we investigated access to services for women living on a low income in Kingston, Canada. We used a participatory research approach. Methods of data collection included interviews, photovoice and a focus group. This paper will be the results of a focus group activity with participants (n=5). Thematic analysis was undertaken based on the conceptual framework of Loppie-Reading and Wien’s SDH.

Results Participants — most recipients of the Ontario Disability Support Program (ODSP) — described issues related to services and access to adequate living conditions, housing, and fresh food, which in turn heightened hardships regarding their access to social services. These challenging experiences of access caused immense frustration and feelings of isolation and despair, yet hope and perseverance remained.

Conclusion Social deprivation and poverty are the root cause of food and housing insecurity. Therefore, without understanding the SDH as a whole, it is impossible to co-create solutions for positive change. Our findings indicate significant system improvements are necessary; we are encouraged by and can learn from the participants’ tenacity and resilience in facing hardships in life.

There'S This Horrible Desperation—It Was Completely Unsustainable What We Were Doing: the Experiences of Frontline Providers Caring for Residents with Disabilities During a COVID-19 Outbreak.

ABSTRACT. Introduction During the pandemic, we have become highly aware of the significance of frontline providers, who are typically invisible outside hospitals and community care settings. As such, researchers have rightly focused on the experiences of frontline workers in hospitals and other acute care settings. Yet, there remains a dearth of evidence regarding the experience of frontline providers caring for individuals with disabilities in group home settings during a pandemic outbreak; this information is also urgently needed.

Goals To better understand the experience of frontline providers caring for residents with disabilities in a group home setting during a COVID-19 outbreak.

Methods Partnered with a group home setting, we are exploring the experiences of frontline providers during a COVID-19 outbreak. We use art-based, case-study and interpretive methodologies. Data collection methods included a creative art-making process, interviews, and focus groups. A purposive sample is being recruited. Thematic analysis is being conducted following van Manen’s interpretive approach.

Results In preliminary findings, participants describe the arrival of the pandemic as abrupt; infections dramatically increased daily, and they were with contradictory guidelines from public authorities, creating chaos and a sense of not knowing what to do. Participants detail how they (courageously) stepped forward when there was no one to take care of residents, sometimes working three days in a row without prioritizing their well-being. The exhaustive and intensive work was common in the stories of participants, who felt overwhelmed due to a staff shortage and increased responsibilities which were sometimes beyond their scope.

Conclusion Our study provides initial evidence of the unique role of frontline providers who care for vulnerable groups in community settings, providing a critical spotlight on the effects of the pandemic within this context, as well as insight into potential strategies for building resilience and disaster preparedness at local and provincial levels.