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08:30-10:00 Session 2A: Consumer Decision Making - Drivers and Inhibitors

Consumer Behavior

Alone in an Infinitely-Connected Marketplace: Insights into Consumers’ Social Isolation and Consumption

ABSTRACT. Social relationships may offer attachment, security, commitment and self-worth. When between-group variance is greater than within-group variance among any consumer population, market segments are identified and inform marketers’ resource allocation decisions. In fact, marketing and consumer psychology research extensively and empirically support how social relationships are inextricably linked to brand preference formation, retail patronage and consumption.

Conversely, the failure to be relationally valued or to build meaningful relationships may have a deleterious impact on individuals’ emotions, self-esteem and social behavior. Given the omnipresence of the Internet and the multitude of technologies that facilitate social connectedness, evidence suggests that a significant number of individuals are lonely and socially isolated. Cacioppo and Patrick (2008) find that about one of every five Americans feel “sufficiently isolated for it to be a major source of unhappiness in their lives” (p. 5). Perhaps most surprising is that Millennials – the first generation born into the Internet – indicate the strongest feelings of social isolation and loneliness among all generations of consumers. Paradoxically, more than 90% of all Millennials report active engagement with Internet-based technologies (i.e., mobile phones, personal computers).

Sip ‘N Shop: an Exploration of the Drunk Shopping Phenomenon
PRESENTER: Mohan Menon

ABSTRACT. While offline shopping while intoxicated is rarely discussed other than as entries in the police blotter, marketers are finding the online shopping behaviors to be significant with respect to purchase volume and sales. On the face of it, the idea of drunk online shopping might seem trivial, but studies have found significant amounts being spent by consumers in this manner. The paper explores the phenomenon of drunk online shopping and tries to comprehend the nature and magnitude of the issue while examining some of the consequences of the behavior on both consumers and marketers. The Fogg Behavior Model (FBM) is proposed as a framework to explain the drunken shopping behavior. According to FBM, three elements such as motivation-ability-prompt/trigger occur at the same time to encourage behavior (Fogg 2009a). The discussion section includes implications for future research.

Superstars or No Superstars on Professional Sport Team Rosters: How Teams Can Adapt to Fans with Varying Levels of Preference for Consistency
PRESENTER: James Blair

ABSTRACT. In the sport and entertainment industry, consumers can have significantly different perceptions of sports teams based on their team composition. Participants who had a superstar on their team had higher levels of excitement than those without a superstar. Additionally, a cross-over interaction effect was observed between team composition and preference for consistency on the willingness to pay for a ticket to a sporting event by consumers. When there was a superstar on the team, consumers with a low preference for consistency were willing to pay significantly more than those with a high preference for consistency. This effect reversed when there was no superstar on the team. Findings provide sport management professionals insights into roster building and the impacts on consumers within their fan base.

The Boomerang Effect of Word of Mouth in Status Consumption
PRESENTER: Sona Klucarova

ABSTRACT. Word of mouth (WOM) serves an array of different functions, including impression management. In the realm of status consumption, this translates into consumers’ tendency to share WOM about their status products with the intention to elevate their status in the eyes of other people. The current research proposes that, paradoxically, sharing WOM about consumers’ status products decreases the perception of these consumers’ status by others. This is because WOM reduces the perceived cultural capital of these consumers. While demonstrating the mediating role of cultural capital, bragging and annoyance are ruled out as alternative mechanisms. Furthermore, the negative relationship between WOM and status is attenuated for consumers of non-status and non-exclusive status products, and reversed for consumers’ predictions concerning status inferences made by others. Further investigation demonstrates that as little as one instance of WOM leads to lower perception of status. Specific downstream consequences of reduced status inferences are also explored.

08:30-10:00 Session 2B: Innovations in New Product Development

Product Development and Branding

The Role of Fear of Missing out in Consumer Preorder Remorse

ABSTRACT. Consumer preorder tendencies have been attributed to discounts offered, bonus offers, and expected product scarcity. This study expands upon the preorder literature by exploring social reasons that customers preorder products, absent any tangible incentive or sense of scarcity. Specifically, we examine the roles of fear of missing out, search effort, and excitement in influencing preorder remorse. The findings indicate that the fear of missing out can increasae consumers’ preorder remorse but effect is reversed when consumers extensively search for information about the product and are excited about the offering.

What Factors Influence Consumers' Attitudes Towards Autonomous Products?

ABSTRACT. Artificial Intelligence (AI) has become prevalent and many firms are integrating AI into their product offerings to develop autonomous intelligent products (AIPs). AIPs provide many benefits including time, labor, energy and financial efficiencies and effectiveness for consumers. Such benefits would suggest that consumers should be very interested in these products. However, although industry reports forecast a large market for AI products, managers are puzzled about the surprisingly low rate of adoption of AIPs among consumers. What is keeping consumers from adopting AIPs? This research looks at how consumers’ attitudes towards and adoption of AIPs are formed by the degree of product autonomy, perceived control, perceived risk, and consumers’ expectations. We use an experimental design to test and provide support for our proposed model.

Organizational Memory and Marketing-R&D/Engineering Integration in US Manufacturing Industry
PRESENTER: Ceyhan Kilic

ABSTRACT. The increasing level of technological advancement, consumer expectations, and domestic as well as international competitive pressures continue to reduce the product life cycle for new products. In this environment, it has become extremely important for companies to understand the critical determinants of new product success and failure and to be able to develop successful products for markets. The main objective of this research study is to explore the link between market orientation and new product performance by taking into account the mediating effects of project-level intelligence-sharing capabilities including memory level, memory dispersion, and marketing-R&D/engineering integration.

The Use of Social Media and Social Interaction in Crowdsourcing in the FFE of NPD
PRESENTER: Debika Sihi

ABSTRACT. Technological developments and tools such as online forums and social media have made it more efficient for companies to gather customer insights at a larger scale or from a “crowd.” The contribution of this research is an examination of the way ideas are collected from users and particularly to assess the impact of new media on the quality of crowdsourced ideas. It is hoped that the examination of the means of data collection will help managers to be less concerned about the efficacy of crowdsourced ideas from both lead and novice users in the FFE of NPD. The results suggest that managers might be underutilizing interactive methods of crowdsourcing, specifically online social media outlets, and particularly when soliciting ideas from novice users. Therefore, the inherent bias against crowdsourcing in the FFE can be challenged by asking managers to considered other methods of idea generation among both experts and novice users.

08:30-10:00 Session 2C: Influencing behaviors for social good. What works?

Public Policy and Macromarketing

Reflexive Doubt in Expert Systems: Mask Compliance During COVID-19

ABSTRACT. As COVID-19 progresses, expert systems such as the CDC and WHO continually disseminate information about the spread. Municipal, state, and federal leaders have vacillated in their messaging about mask-wear, a key protection measure to minimize transmission and spread. Some consumers have interpreted this lack of clarity and transparency as indecisiveness, thereby instilling distrust in expert systems. To a large extent, consumers’ misgivings and subsequent behaviors center on personal and societal rights and responsibilities. Drawing on consumer research on institutional theory, this article examines current public discourse regarding recommended and mandated mask-wear as a means of personal protection for U.S. consumers. This work contributes to the literature on expert systems and ideological structures that shape consumer choice and compliance/non-compliance in response to regulatory mandates.

Perceived Access, Fear, and Preventative Behavior: Keys to Encouraging Positive Outcomes During the COVID-19 Health Crisis
PRESENTER: Elvira Kizilova

ABSTRACT. Preventative behaviors can be critically important in managing public health crises such as COVID-19 pandemic. This research emphasizes the role of perceived access to health care services during pandemic in maintaining personal preventative health behavior, COVID-preventative behavior, and physical health. Results from three studies show that high perceived access reduces pandemic fear through its buffering effects on perceived health vulnerability and pandemic-related health system concerns, especially when individuals judge themselves susceptible to the pandemic and have sufficient mental-emotional health to process positive access information. In turn, for individuals high in perceived pandemic control, pandemic fear leads to diminished general preventative health behaviors and largely curtails any positive influence of pandemic fear on COVID-preventative behaviors.

Wear a Mask, Wash Your Hands, Stay Home: an Investigation into Personal and Situational Characteristics That Lead to Compliance or Defiance with Healthy Behaviors in the COVID-19 Pandemic
PRESENTER: Omar Woodham

ABSTRACT. The worldwide Coronavirus Pandemic has created economic chaos as well as a death toll that rivals many large regional wars. By June 30, 2020, the death toll in the U.S. was estimated to be approximately 125,000 and over 500,000 worldwide. While the death rate appears to have peaked around the April 15-22 time frame, a recent spike in new coronavirus cases has many government health officials concerned that the U.S. may be experiencing a second wave phenomena. Most of the recent uptick in new cases can be directly related to the recent opening up of the economy, to include bars and restaurants. Unlike the first deadly wave that primarily impacted the elderly and those with existing poor health conditions, the most recent spike in new cases seems to be among the young. While there is ample reason to believe that the lockdown was effective in containing the spread and bending the curve on new cases, other factors such as social distancing, wearing masks, frequent hand washing, and disinfecting bacteria prone surfaces may also have played a significant role in keeping the virus from spreading. Although the virus is far from over, a substantial percentage of the population has never fully adhered to the health community’s recommendations. The current exploratory study thus examines some of the factors the authors presented as potentially explaining why some individuals were/are willing to abide by the health care community’s recommendations while others were/are apparently unwilling. The authors present a proposed model that includes the four main factors investigated during the conduct of this study, to include Trust (in informational source), Personal factors such as LOC and individual freedom, Personal Situational factors (such as financial resources, personal health and access to health care facilities), and empathy (in this case for health care workers). The model was tested using confirmatory factor analysis. Results of our findings are presented as well as recommendations for ways to more effectively reach out to those who fail to follow community health official advice.

Exercise Behavior During the Pandemic

ABSTRACT. COVID-19 pandemic has a significant impact on individuals’ exercise behavior. This study demonstrates that individuals’ workout habits change as their extent on isolation increases. The influence of perceptions of physical activity, exercise context preferences and demographic factors on the likelihood of engaging in physical activity, participating to online exercise classes, and purchasing sports equipment are examined.

08:30-10:00 Session 2D: Cause-Related Marketing and Corporate Image

Ethics, Corporate Social Responsibility, and Religion

The Altruistic Brand: a National Study on the Antecedents and Consequences of Cause-Related Marketing Campaigns

ABSTRACT. Over the past decade we have seen increased turmoil and division around the World.In such times, we are seeing more and more examples of businesses engaging in social marketing campaigns. From changing logos, to campaigns supporting social issues, and even launching products that are aimed at social issues we are seeing more businesses actively participating in modern social conversations. One way that businesses are getting involved is through the use of cause-related marketing campaigns. Cause-related marketing can be conceptualized as the pairing of a firm with a charity in a marketing effort (Basil & Harr, 2006). CRM has been shown to enhance product choice (Lichtenstein Drumwright & Braig, 2004), attitudes toward the firm as well as attitudes associated with the charity (Basil & Herr, 2006; Lafferty, Goldsmith, & Hult, 2004). Furthermore, CRM can positively impact a companies’ brand equity, brand loyalty and purchase price premium (Nejati, 2014). The current study looked to test a theoretical model explaining potential antecedents and consequences of cause-related marketing programs.

The Effectiveness of Corporate Remedy Strategies to Product Versus Ethics Misdeeds Between Current and Potential Consumers

ABSTRACT. Firms take various approaches to mitigate the negative impacts from the misdeeds and repair the damages of the consequences. The current study examines the moderation role of two types of misdeed, business ethics or product performance related, in the relationship between three major crisis remedy strategies and the purchase intentions for both current and potential consumers. The results from 440 participants suggest that a promptness apology is important for current consumers but not for potential consumers. More importantly, the response plan has less impact on the current consumers when a misdeed is business ethics related than product performance related while the correction plan is more important when a misdeed is product performance related compared with business ethics related misdeeds; for the potential consumer, on the contrary, the response plan has less impact when a misdeed is product performance related than business ethics related. These findings have extended the holistic versus analytic thinking literature to the domain of existing and potential consumers in the context of business misdeeds.

Appearing Genuine Can Backfire: Firms’ Expected CSR Benefits and the Role of Perceived Corporate Hypocrisy

ABSTRACT. There has been much research on firm CSR behaviors where the firm motivation for CSR plays a role in how consumers evaluate the firm as well as research on the origins and implications of corporate hypocrisy. However, it is still unknown what happens when firms that signal genuine CSR motivation later display disingenuous behavior through CSR related fraud. Past research on CSR motivation has found that the amount of salient benefits from the CSR activities influence perceptions of sincerity with low benefits resulting in beliefs of more sincere CSR motivations. Additionally, it has also been found that consumers perceive firms as hypocritical when statements do not match behaviors. This study shows that when firms signal sincere CSR motivations through low expected benefits and then later engage in fraud or wrongdoing, that consumers will more harshly judge a firm than if they had signaled profit-driven expectations from CSR activities and also later engaged in fraud or wrongdoing. Thus, we show how firms may inadvertently demonstrate corporate hypocrisy through their signaled intents. This research not only adds to what is already known about CSR motivations and corporate hypocrisy, but also provides evidence of how financially signaled motivations are a type of CSR statement and can give consumers indicators about CSR motivations. When signaled intent is later met with inconsistent behavior, consumers infer corporate hypocrisy and worse judgements on a firm than if the firm had just signaled from the beginning that they were engaging in a CSR activity with the hopes of obtaining high expected financial benefits.

Influencer Marketing and Firm Value: an Event Study Analysis
PRESENTER: Rebecca Vanmeter

ABSTRACT. The vast majority of marketing professionals have positioned influencer marketing as a critical piece to their marketing strategy, with corporate expenditures reaching nearly $10 billion on this novel and innovative form of co-branding. Only recently, however, has influencer marketing’s popularity been qualified by reports about its effect on various consumer-based metrics, while its impact on financial performance metrics remains unexplored. To address this gap, the authors utilize event study methodology to examine the effects of influencer marketing on shareholder value using a sample of 380 posts made by Instagram’s top 50 paid influencers. The results reveal that influencer marketing posts result in a significant increase in shareholder value. Next, the authors examine how post design factors such as disclosure type, tagging the brand, and product placement impact changes in shareholder value arising from influencer marketing posts. Results show that post design attributes are capable of both dampening and increasing the effectiveness of influencer marketing on shareholder value.

08:30-10:00 Session 2E: Advertising and Promotion with Social Message

Advertising, Promotion, & IMC

Pride or Promotion? an Exploration of Rainbow Flag Washing
PRESENTER: Samuel Doss

ABSTRACT. The Rainbow Flag image has become synonymous with LGBTQ+ pride. This research takes the first steps of examining consumers’ views of corporations utilizing the rainbow flag in packaging as part of their cause-related marketing (CRM). Criticism by members of the LGBTQ+ community on companies appropriating the rainbow flag image for profit are becoming more evident. This exploratory research will utilize consumers’ perceptions of companies using the rainbow flag on their utilitarian, low-involvement products. Constructs to be used include attitudes toward the brand and several of its related components, the perception of brand trust, and the consumer viewpoint of a company’s corporate social responsibility (CSR) and generosity.

Time-Based Deals: How Non-Monetary Discounts Can Reduce the Post-Promotion Dip
PRESENTER: Myungjin Chung

ABSTRACT. Consumers often fail to act on objectively beneficial deals, if they have previously encountered better discounts. This causes the post-promotion dip. Across three experiments, we demonstrate that offering “temporal-deals” (e.g. lower time costs, faster shipping), instead of traditional "price deals", elicit lower "pain-of-payment" thereby causing reduced post-promotion dip.

Influence of Interracial Advertising on Consumer Attitudes
PRESENTER: Diana Haytko

ABSTRACT. Drawing from advertising literature, this paper develops an experiment capturing the influence of interracial advertising on consumer attitudes. The results form a student sample show that advertisements using actors of different races negatively affected attitudes toward advertising. In terms of an interacting effect, the advertisement featuring interracial coworkers (couples) will have lower (higher) attitudes toward the advertisement.

Consumer Perceptions of Front of Package Food Health Claims
PRESENTER: Nicole Waldo

ABSTRACT. Marketers often highlight specific health claims or key ingredients to entice consumers to purchase packaged food products. For example, the package of a nutrition bar may promote its fruit content or boast about a lack of added sugar. When such information is presented on the front of a packaged food product, it is broadly referred to as a front of package health claim. One such display choice marketers may make regarding front of package health claims relates to the Delboeuf illusion; an optical illusion based on the relative size of displayed objects. We predict that when health claims or key ingredients are highlighted with a small callout box (a background place behind text), it will make the health claims or key ingredients appear relatively large, as compared to when the same front of package health claims or key ingredients are highlighted with a large callout box.

08:30-10:00 Session 2F: Service Segmentation


Theorized Effects of Sustainability Marketing of Group Packaged Tour on Consumer Purchasing Intention

ABSTRACT. The study of sustainable development in tourism can be dated back to the 1980s and attracts an increasing number of researchers, scholars, and policymakers in recent years with the globally growing awareness of the importance of environmental sustainability. Among the enormous studies around sustainability in tourism, there is little research working on the effects of the adoption of sustainability in group packaged tours (GPT) on the buyers’ purchasing intention. As a type of tourism product that represents 50% of leisure traveling globally, GPT is worth being discussed to improve the social and ecological impact of overall tourism. This study theorizes how marketing the sustainable elements in GPT influences potential tourists’ purchasing intention using an extended model of TPB (Theory of Planned Behavior), which provides insights for tour planners to design better products and advertisements that meet the overall environmental requirement and gain positive market responses simultaneously.

Aging Consumers and Their Brands: the Perspective of Customer Journey Theory

ABSTRACT. With the increased numbers of the elderly people, the aging segment represents a potential huge market. While this trend is obvious, still little literature has its focus on this group. This study thus fills up this gap to explore them. Furthermore, while literature has paid attention on customer journey from the perspective, e.g., service blueprint, this study examines this from the customer journey theory (Lemon & Verhoef, 2016). This study collects its data using interview and analyzes via. the grounded theory method. Two aging brands (i.e., age-denial and age-adaptive) are investigated (Moody & Sood, 2010). This study in total interviews 14 elderly consumers, 10 of whom have regular experiences in sports gym (i.e., age-denial brand), and the other four in hospital services (i.e., age-adaptive brand). Results find that: 1) Rational antecedents for both age-denial and age-adaptive brands, include those factors, e.g., price, location, environment, service quality, and personal factors. Social connectedness and word-of-moth are important emotional antecedents in driving age-denial and –adaptive brands, respectively; 2) Consequences of the aging customer journeys include satisfaction, loyalty, word-of-mouth, and recommendation; 3) This study finds the mediators, i.e., sense of identification, attachment, customization, for these two brands, with an exception of diversification and mutual interaction for the age-denial brand, and cost/performance and routine for the age-adaptive brand.

A Proposed Model to Test the Effectiveness of External Influence in Changing Consumption Habits
PRESENTER: Ashley Hass

ABSTRACT. Changing consumption patterns is an elusive task as it involves altering one’s beliefs. However, a conducive environment that promotes sustainability is argued to be influential in changing habits and establishing new norms. This study addresses this issue by proposing a conceptual model that integrates the theoretical perspective stemming from Social Cognitive Theory and Value-Beliefs-Norms. For a change to be successful there is a need to nurture the core beliefs of individuals. Based on an eco-friendly institution, this study aims to examine how environmental influences stemming from advertisements, media, and green campaigns may stimulate a change in young consumers’ beliefs towards adopting pro-environmental behavior.

The Examination of the 8 Ps Marketing Mix, Buyer Decision-Making Process and Demographics
PRESENTER: Lucinda Parmer

ABSTRACT. This research used chi-square analysis to examine relationships with the 8 Ps marketing mix and buyer decision-making process variables. Demographic variables were likewise assessed. The 8 Ps marketing mix focuses on the marketing of service-oriented products for example, getting a haircut, an oil change or going out to eat at a restaurant. The 8 Ps marketing mix consists of (1) service product, (2) price, (3) place, (4) promotion, (5) people, (6) process, (7) physical evidence, and (8) productivity (Booms & Bitner, 1980; 1981). The buyer decision-making process consists of five buying stages to include  (1) need recognition, (2) information search, (3) evaluation of alternatives, (4) purchase decision, and (5) post-purchase evaluation (Dewey, 1910; Engel, et al., 1978; 1986). The sample consisted of 426 participants (n = 426). The chi-square analysis indicated there were significant relationships (p = 0.020) with the 8 Ps marketing mix and the buyer decision-making process variables. The 8 Ps marketing mix elements most important to the immediate needers, those participants in the first stage of the buyer decision-making process, was the service product, the price of the service, the person performing the service, and the quality of the service being performed.  It was significantly found that younger participants (18 – 39 years old) felt all elements of the 8 Ps marketing mix were important (p = 0.045). Females. (p = 0.001), higher earners (p = 0.001),  and higher degree obtainers ((p = 0.026) were also more impacted by the  8 Ps marketing mix over males, lower earners and lower degree holders.


10:30-12:00 Session 3A: Salesperson Role and Interactions with Customers

Personnel Selling & Sales Management

Communication Alignment in Sales: the Role of Emotional Intelligence
PRESENTER: Amanda Ledet

ABSTRACT. Due to the current global COVID-19 pandemic, salespeople are increasingly reliant on technology to navigate the sales process because of restrictions on travel and in-person meetings. The success of the sales encounter is dependent upon the salesperson’s ability to effectively select the appropriate communication platform. While literature surrounding task-technology fit has explored the degree to which technology supports the ability to accomplish a task, there has been little focus on whether salespeople are effectively adapting their technology usage to align with their customers’ communication preferences. Not using the customers' preferred communication platform can lead to customer displeasure and alienation, ultimately causing a decrease in customer loyalty. In this manuscript, we propose a study that examines the relationship between a salesperson’s emotional intelligence and the ability to select an appropriate communication platform that best aligns to the customers’ needs. Expanding upon existing theoretical groundings in adaptive selling and task-technology fit, we propose that the ability of salespeople to recognize the need to adapt the communication platform used, based on customers’ preferences, positively impacts customer loyalty and the B2B relationship.

Are There Differences Between Inside and Outside Sales? a Multi-Group Analysis of Position Type
PRESENTER: Diane Edmondson

ABSTRACT. This study investigates the differences between inside and outside salespeople using multi-group PLS-SEM. Although prior research has highlighted a need to compare inside and outside salespeople, limited research exists that examines these two distinct sales positions. A sample of 210 business-to-business salespeople were used. Results indicated four of six significant differences based on position. Specifically, positivity had a significant impact on emotional exhaustion for outside salespeople only. For extrinsic motivation, inside salespeople exhibited a stronger impact on emotional exhaustion. While the impact of emotional exhaustion on turnover intentions was greater for outside salespeople. The impact of job satisfaction on turnover intentions was greater for inside salespeople. This research highlights the need for analyzing sales data by position. Practical management guidelines are provided.

You Shouldn’T Talk About That: a Conceptual View of Religious Messaging in Sales Interactions
PRESENTER: David Fleming

ABSTRACT. The power of religious values and religious organizations remains relevant as an active stream in the marketing literature. From the buyers’ perspective, religiosity, and its impact on consumption, has long been the focus of researchers. Unfortunately, the seller aspect in the buyer-seller dyad has not been addressed. Sales research has not paid attention to religiosity expressed by the seller. Salespeople are part of the direct and indirect channels in a marketing context; sellers are the face of the organization while developing a relationship with the buyer. Thus, this paper looks to conceptually explore whether the Christian identities adopted by buyers might impact the buyer-seller relationship as it is in this relationship where sellers’ messages, attitudes, and behaviors have an impact on the trust, satisfaction, loyalty, and word of mouth in the buyer.

Workgroup’S Structure: a Conceptual Model of the Influence of Workgroup Structure on Employee Voice and in-Role Performance Among Salespeople
PRESENTER: April Rowsey

ABSTRACT. For sales based organizations to grow and maintain relevance in hyper competitive environments, a better understanding is necessary of the mechanisms and relationships that either inhibit or encourage salespeople to fulfill the responsibilities required of them, exert their employee voice, and to engage in extra-role behaviors to benefit the organization. This paper seeks to develop a more thorough understanding of the role that work regulatory focus plays as a mediator on the relationship between workgroup initiating structure and both in-role and extra-role behaviors among salespeople.

10:30-12:00 Session 3B: Social Media Behaviors

Digital and Social Media 

The Evanescence of “I Do”: Exploring Consumers’ Regulatory Focus in Mobile App Engagement

ABSTRACT. The overarching challenge confronting mobile application (hereafter, app) marketers is customer churn. In the mobile app market, customer churn is a dismal reality: nearly 80% of consumers who download mobile apps will uninstall the mobile app after one month. Perhaps, there is no easier acquisition process than mobile downloads: with a mobile phone and any app search engine, there is essentially no upfront cost. While customer churn rate is an important metric, mobile app marketers are largely focused on maximizing customer attainment. Firms use ASOs to optimize prospect traffic, but the factors that motivate the initial download decision warrant increased research attention. This research explores how consumers’ regulatory focus relates to their download propensity. Adapting the unified theory of acceptance and use of technology (UTAUT), we critically explore the psychological mechanisms that impact consumers’ download propensity for a foreign language self-learning app. Our analysis is based on archival data from a U.S. mobile app developer. There is unprecedented growth in the $55 billion global language services industry; however, it is highly competitive. Accordingly, mobile app marketers want a better understanding of what attracts and retains customers. One of the overarching assumptions in the industry is that consumers’ intrinsic learning motivation is part of the attraction. Intrinsic motivation is likely a catalyst goal-seeking behavior. Since learning a new language is a goal, people can view this goal as hopes, aspirations and ideals (Higgins, 1997). Regulatory focus theory offers a framework categorized into promotion-focused and prevention-focused goals. These two regulatory focus orientations can be influenced by individual traits, goals or situational characteristics. It is often a powerful source of influence in the goal-oriented decision-making process. Regulatory focus is not only be a state which can influence consumers’ situational decision-making processes; it is also a trait that may influence expectancy and the attitudes (Higgins, 1997; Higgins, 1998; Keller and Bless, 2007). When consumers download, does chronic regulatory focus influence expectancy from the learning apps? Based on UTAUT (Venkatesh et al. 2003), we develop a conceptual model to assess empirically whether (1) promotion-focused consumers are more optimistic (Ju et al., 2017) and perceive lower risk, (2) prevention-focused consumers are less optimistic and more sensitive to risks and (3) regulatory focus influences the download propensity of the learning apps. Next, we investigate whether the UTAUT factors influence download propensity. We further assess the moderation effects of the mobile app rating on the four dimensions of UTAUT. The hypothesized relationships and directionality are summarized in Figure 1. Please Insert Figure 1

Please Insert Table 1

Consistent with the UTAUT model, empirical results show a direct positive relationship between download propensity and UTAUT anchors including performance expectancy, social influence, and facilitating conditions. Risk perception and performance expectancy are sequential mediators between prevention focus and download propensity. Moreover, risk perception and facilitating conditions also sequentially mediate the relationship between prevention focus and download propensity. Good app ratings can amplify the effect of performance expectancy, effort expectancy, and facilitating conditions on consumers’ download propensity. This study contributes to existing research by distinguishing the psychological mechanisms that underpin regulatory focus dimensions and app download propensity.

Figure 1 Conceptual Model and Hypothesized Relationships

  Table 1 SEM Results

SEM Main Effects

Dependent RP PE EE SI FC DP Main Effects Promotion Focus -.117* Prevention Focus .108***

Mediators RP -.067*** -.042(ns) -.025(ns) -.063*** PE .409*** SI .235*** FC .105***

*p<.1 ***p<.01

Notes: Model fit: χ2= 1190.659; df = 293; p-value= .000; GFI=.948; AGFI=.933; CFI=.972: NFI=.964; RMR=.120; RMSEA=.043.   References in Abstract Higgins, E.T. (1997), “Beyond pleasure and pain,” American Psychologist, 52(12), 1280- 1300. Higgins, E. T. (1998), “Promotion and prevention: Regulatory focus as a motivational principle,” Advances in experimental social psychology30, 1-46.

Ju, C., Ji, M., Lan, J., & You, X. (2017), “Narcissistic personality and risk perception among Chinese aviators: The mediating role of promotion focus,” International journal of psychology, 52, 1-8.

Keller, J. and Bless, H. (2008), “When positive and negative expectancies disrupt performance: Regulatory focus as a catalyst”, European Journal of Social Psychology, 38(2), 187-212.

Venkatesh, V., Morris, M. G., Davis, G. B., and Davis, F. D. (2003), “User acceptance of information technology: Toward a unified view,” MIS quarterly,. 425-478.

Venkatesh, V., Thong, J. Y., Chan, F. K., Hu, P. J. H., and Brown, S. A. (2011), “Extending the two‐stage information systems continuance model: Incorporating UTAUT predictors and the role of context,” Information Systems Journal, 21(6), 527-555.

Instagram Engagement Rate During a Global Pandemic

ABSTRACT. Digital channel usage has skyrocketing through the pandemic while Internet access is evolving into a necessity as people scramble to work, learn, shop and exist from home.Social media platforms allow research to quantify the behavioral component of customer engagement and examine this engagement rate construct within research. The study gathered posts from the Instagram API for 37 companies. The study compared engagement rate before and after the 15 days to slow the spread announcement was made. Results of a paired samples t-test indicated that engagement rate was higher during the pandemic than before. A second study looked at the content of the hashtags in the post but found no significant difference in engagement rate.

Satisfaction, Investment, and Altruism as Motivation (SIAM) Model: a Conceptual Framework for Social Media Complimenting Behavior

ABSTRACT. Consumers readily use social media to complain when they have unmet expectations from a brand. Their dissatisfaction can be expressed publicly via a brand’s social media page or privately posting only to the consumer’s personal account. To a much lesser degree, consumers also post positive sentiments. Consumers have various motivations to engage in social media complimenting. The SIAM Model proposes that consumer altruism, investment, and satisfaction act as motivators for social media public and private complimenting. Empirical testing of the model will help brands engage in more efficient spending on online branding to maximize consumer social media complimenting.

I Want What You Post: How Purchase-Centered UGC Influences Audience’S Purchase Intention

ABSTRACT. This paper examines the consequences of viewing others’ purchase-centered UGC on social media. Three studies have been conducted to reveal the relations between audience’s feeling of excitement, envy, and purchase intention towards the posted purchases. Findings suggest that envy mediates the effect of excitement on purchase intention. Specifically, when viewing a positive purchase posted by their social network, people would feel excited which positively influences the feeling of envy towards the buyer; envy then results in purchase intention towards the posted purchase.

10:30-12:00 Session 3C: PANEL: Online Experiential Learning: Methods, Advantages and Challenges


Panel: Online Experiential Learning: Methods, Advantages and Challenges
PRESENTER: James Blair

ABSTRACT. Due to the uncertain environment, courses going online or utilizing a hybrid format where many students are learning outside of the traditional classroom, marketing educators have a need to share best practices for implementing experiential learning activities in this new environment. During this panel session, panelists will discuss methods, activities, and assignments that can be implemented in this new environment. Additionally, panelists will discuss advantages and challenges to implementing experiential learning opportunities in this new educational landscape.

10:30-12:00 Session 3D: Online and Consuming Behaviors in International Context


Classifying High-Tech Products Based on Consumers Demographic Variables: a Comparative Analysis Between U.S. and Kuwait
PRESENTER: Ramendra Thakur

ABSTRACT. Accurate understanding of users need has been near-essential to the development of commercially successful high-technology products. High technology products are those technologies that are considered to be nearer to the leading edge or the state of the art of a particular field. Though, adoption of high-tech products is important from consumers' point of view. However, research related to the consumer demographic variables (such as age, education, earning, and gender) that impact the adoption of these products is not well documented in the literature. This study tries to fill that gap in the literature. It also showcases the impact of these high-tech products (either utilitarian or hedonic products) on innovativeness.

There are three key objectives of this study: 1) Identify the customer demographics that impact the adoption of high-tech (hedonic and utilitarian) products, 2) Identify the key benefits of high-technology products on innovativeness, and 3) Identify the impact of gender on technological innovativeness.

To answer the above objectives, this research will use a survey methodology approach for data collection from people who are knowledgeable about high-tech products. Data will be collected from two countries (U.S. and Kuwait). Structural equation modeling (SEM) will be used to test the proposed model. To ensure that the results are not specific only to the sample data and can be generalized to the population in both Kuwait and U.S., model validation will be carried out. Finally, the study will conclude with valuable information and new insights for scholars and practitioners.

Featuring Employees in Facebook Advertising to Improve Attitude Toward the Company: a Case of Foreign Direct Investment in the United States

ABSTRACT. The United States both receives and invests the largest amount of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) of any nation. The southeastern U.S. has particularly experienced significant growth in majority foreign-owned automobile manufacturing facilities and their component part suppliers through FDI, creating thousands of related jobs. This trend is not without controversy, as some critics believe both insourcing and outsourcing FDI harms the domestic economy in various ways. To help determine if a foreign company engaged in automobile production in the southeastern U.S. can effectively influence consumer perceptions of its value to the domestic economy, this study empirically tests two sets of Facebook advertisements. The first treatment features an automobile produced by Hyundai Motor Manufacturing of Alabama, and the second treatment features employees of that firm. Results indicate that test ads with images of employees significantly improved Attitude toward the Company (ACOM) versus the set featuring images of the automobile brand.

LOST ACTION HERO: an Examination of Masculinity and Consumption Among Chinese Migrant Workers

ABSTRACT. Past literature has examined the differences between Western and Chinese masculinity. For instance, scholars have investigated the male models’ view on the presentation of masculinity in media and found that the “thinner look” rather than a traditional “macho” appeal is more predominant in China. However, few studies have focused on how the bottom of the pyramid consumers perceives masculinity in emerging societies. Therefore, this study aims to examine masculinity among Chinese migrant workers and how they construct such thorough consumption practices.

Customer Attitude Formation Towards Online Shopping in India Vs Nepal
PRESENTER: Bindu Tiwari

ABSTRACT. Paper is a part of large study that tends to see the role of perceived benefit and perceived risk in forming customer attitude towards online shopping in two different countries. Nepal and India are neighboring countries with very close relation since so long back connected culturally, religiously, historically and a lot more. this paper tries to compare the results of two different context under same constructs. the result will be beneficial foe marketers of both countries in designing marketing mix in a precise way to address customers concern. SPSS 26 and AMOS is used to run factor analysis and multiple correlation to achieve objectives.

10:30-12:00 Session 3E: Marketing as a Force for Social Change and Solutions

Public Policy & Macromarketing

Designer Babies, Genetic Engineering for Health Vs. Cosmetic Reasons: How to Market This Innovation
PRESENTER: Rebecca Vanmeter

ABSTRACT. With new advances in genetic modification and the evolving socio-cultural, legal, and regulatory environments, the cultural impact of manipulating the genetic code to customize babies moves from science fiction to reality. Across two samples, the attitude toward the use of genetic technologies is measured for participants who reside in the United States and those who live elsewhere. The results show that attitudes differ based on the reason for the procedure (health vs. cosmetic) and location of respondents (the US vs. other countries). Regardless of country, participants were more accepting of genetic manipulation if it was for health reasons compared to cosmetic reasons; however, this distinction was more prominent for those who live in the USA. Interestingly, when the cosmetic procedure was described after the health procedure, participants were significantly more favorable to the cosmetic procedure suggesting that the market could be ready for a stark change that is consistent with Schumpeter’s Creative-Destruction Innovation. The marketing and public policy implications of these findings are specifically discussed.

Can Marketing Aid in Fighting Wild Life Crime?

ABSTRACT. Much effort has been dedicated to fighting wildlife crime with modest results. Despite legislative and enforcement efforts, there has been little integration of marketing techniques to curtail wildlife crime. In this paper, we focus on marine wildlife crime, which suffers from a certain level of neglect due to a common terrestrial bias. For this reason, we set out to study current issues surrounding marine wildlife crime by conducting interviews with three experts in areas of aquatic education, research, and legislation to provide an overview of the threats to marine wildlife, develop a taxonomy of marine wildlife crime, and provide suggestions as to what marketing actions may be useful to reduce it.

Global Sex and Labor Trafficking Participation Modes: Strategic Implications
PRESENTER: Vernon Murray

ABSTRACT. We analyzed the participation modes for sex trafficking (n = 19,000) and labor trafficking (n = 9,900) victims from twenty-five nations. Results indicate that most labor (49%) and sex (38%) trafficking victims are “Willing Assimilators.” Thus, they voluntarily (i.e. no interpersonal coercion) enter trafficking situations driven by economic desperation, and leave the job at will. A third (32%) of sex trafficking victims, but only 14% of labor trafficking victims are “Trapped and Robbed” (i.e. abductees and minors). Thus, anti-trafficking messages should focus slightly more on sex trafficking victims, and promote economic development for Willing Assimilators.

Sponsorship of Negative Political Advertising: a Study About Nonpartisans

ABSTRACT. Compared with candidate sponsorship, independent sponsorship has quite a few advantages in persuading voters through negative advertising, but empirical evidence on the superiority of independent sponsorship over candidate sponsorship is rather inconclusive, and there is also substantial misunderstanding about nonpartisans. The purpose of this study is therefore to reassess nonpartisans’ responses to negative advertising sponsorship. The results of this study indicate that there is considerable variance in nonpartisans’ political engagement and the effects of sponsorship are moderated by their political engagement. These findings thus refute the prevalent view that nonpartisans are inherently lowly engaged or involved with politics and are particularly susceptible to message cues such as sponsorship.

10:30-11:30 Session 3F: Publishing in Academic Journals: Tips to Help You Succeed

In the presentation, publisher Taylor & Francis' Laura Raines will cover the basics of the publishing process, with a bit of extra emphasis on publication ethics.

13:00-14:30 Session 5A: Consumer Decision Making - Perceptions, Values, and Outcomes

Consumer Behavior

Do Early Adopters Walk the Opinion Leadership Talk? a Meta-Analysis

ABSTRACT. Early adopters are the first to adopt innovative products and to encourage adoption by others. Research has found that early adopters are indeed influential, yet, the chasm theory posits that there is a communication break between early adopters and other consumers. This research presents a meta-analysis of early adopters, and specifically examines whether they are opinion leaders. The results suggest that, being innovation enthusiasts, early adopters may overestimate their role as opinion leaders. Yet, when they have actually adopted a high-risk innovation, they can correctly estimate that their influence on others may not be as high.

Perception of Innovation: How to Attract Non-Early Adopters to Adopt Earlier
PRESENTER: Sarit Moldovan

ABSTRACT. We present evidence that reducing the perceived innovativeness of the product, by presenting consumers with a much more innovative product, may encourage non-early adopters to adopt the innovation while maintaining early adopters’ adoption intentions.

Loss or Gain Saving Mr. Nature: Impact of Normative Framing on Consumer Efficacy and Subsequent Pro-Environmental Adoption

ABSTRACT. Research within message framing domain produces mixed and inconsistent results for the persuasion of loss-versus gain-framed appeal on encouraging prosocial behavioral change, suggesting that the effectiveness of message framing be context-dependent. In this study, we incorporate social norms into message framing to create the so-called normative framing and we draw upon the prospect-theoretic reasoning to argue that normative gain is more effective than normative loss because green engagement should be categorized as a low-risk behavior in the specific context of pro-environmental adoption. Furthermore, this superior persuasion of normative gain to normative loss is explained by the psychological serial chain from collective efficacy to self-efficacy as the underlying mechanism. Also, we find that anthropomorphism is the boundary condition, thereby the green effect would be strengthened when normative gain-framed message being paired with happy-faced expression of the earth due to the alignment between happiness and positive state of gain framing. This study provides managerial implications to sustainable practitioners.

The Gift That Keeps on Giving: Regifting Across Cultures
PRESENTER: Sarah Mittal

ABSTRACT. Is regifting taboo or the new normal? The existing regifting research has almost always been conducted in the context of individualistic cultures, like North American (e.g., the U.S.; Swilley et al., 2014) or Western European countries (e.g., Italy; Guido et al., 2016). There is a gap in understanding how collectivistic cultures perceive regifting and the rate of partaking in such behaviors. In the current research, we aim to explore whether cultural differences (i.e., self-construal or collectivism vs. individualism) might exist in regifting tendencies and perceptions.

13:00-14:30 Session 5B: Scaling, Metrics, and Models

Research Methods and Analytics

Empirical Identification of Grouping Different Theories of Satisfaction Using Multidimensional Scaling

ABSTRACT. Literature indicates that multiple processes lead to satisfaction/dissatisfaction judgments. Each process involves different judgment input: performance expectations, performance alone, experience-based category norms, alternative outcomes, desires, equity or fairness, emotions, or postpurchase discovery. The authors explore the relationships among these eight theorized processes and examine their differential antecedents and consequences. Identification of those differences provides a better understanding of customer satisfaction theories and more importantly, a clearer guideline of “when to apply” specific satisfaction theories to precisely capture customer satisfaction.

Application of Bass New Product Diffusion Model to Predict Covid-19 Infections
PRESENTER: Doyle Ervin

ABSTRACT. One of the most widely-used models of diffusion of innovation is Bass model (1969). Bass developed a new product growth model for consumer durables, which provided a foundation of diffusion and adoption of new product innovation research. The most common application of this model is in marketing to forecast the adoption of new products and technologies in a market. Bass model is based on behaviors of innovators (external factor) and imitators (internal factor) and it explains very well the diffusion and adoption of new innovation, even though there is no specific marketing variables in the original Bass model. When it comes to COVID-19 cases, the virus spreads and diffuses to social network without any specific internal factors. Given the very similar characteristics of external factors in Bass model, we’d like to predict the confirmed cases of COVID-19 using Bass model.

Development and Validation of an Instrument to Measure the Effectiveness of Consumer Generated Non-Sponsored Branding on Purchase Decisions

ABSTRACT. Following the framework provided by the identity-based brand management approach, this dissertation research involves an innovative triangulation of multi-stage mixed-methods design including qualitative semi-structured interviews and a quantitative online self-administered survey. Qualitative interviews will help establish a definition of consumer generated branding (CGB). The quantitative survey will investigate the effectiveness of non-sponsored CGB programs on consumer-brand relationship. This pioneer research will help both researchers and practitioners to gain a thorough understanding of the roots, strategies and applications of consumer generated brand-related content in branding

Modeling Approaches for Customer Recommendation Metrics
PRESENTER: Douglas Grisaffe

ABSTRACT. Customer recommendations have long been a highly desired mechanism by which many organizations seek to acquire new customers. In recent years, the focus on customer recommendation metrics has increased, surpassing previously prominent customer constructs (e.g., satisfaction, perceived quality). Recommendation metrics are widely viewed as a leading indicator of corporate growth. For example, Reichheld’s Net Promoter approach (Reichheld 2003; 2006) has been and continues to be widely adopted by major global corporations (Safdar and Pacheco 2019), despite notable critiques in academic circles (e.g., Grisaffe 2007; Keiningham et al. 2007). NPS specifics aside, few would argue with the importance of customer recommendations to business success. However, we point to the substantial gap between the way customer metrics like recommendations are modeled in academic spheres, compared to the typically passive “measure and monitor” approach observed in many corporate customer experience programs. We therefore attempt to infuse academic considerations into applied practice by offering and demonstrating several specific modeling approaches by which corporate researchers can more appropriately model the influence of customer experience elements on customer recommendation metrics. We apply business analytic and statistical modeling approaches that demonstrate how this can be accomplished under several commonly occurring corporate measurement practices involving customer recommendation metrics.

13:00-14:30 Session 5C: Impact of Social Media on Sales, Ties, and Product

Digital and Social Media

Strategizing Product Displays on Social Media: the Case of Proactive Nostalgia
PRESENTER: Eda Anlamlier

ABSTRACT. Nostalgia is traditionally defined as a past-related longing. This research investigates whether consumers strategically create nostalgia for the future utilizing products. We introduce the phenomenon of proactive nostalgia, which refers to the desire to remember a specific content in the future. Particularly, we posit that the proactive nostalgia motivation could be the reason why consumers display material and experiential products for different durations on social media. Through four experiments with MTurk and student samples, we demonstrate that consumers tend to display experiential products as for a long time on social media, whereas, they tend to display material products for a short time. Furthermore, the level of proactive nostalgia mediates the relationship between product type and posting tendencies. Findings suggest that product display decisions on social media could be an innovative way of measuring a product’s value. Implications related to self-construal and culture are discussed.

Ties That Bind: Leveraging Horizonal and Vertical Ties Within an Entrepreneurial Community in Cross-Promotional Social Media Marketing
PRESENTER: Alisha Horky

ABSTRACT. In this paper we examine how small and medium enterprises (SMEs) within an entrepreneurial community engage in cross-promotion on Facebook, leveraging their horizontal and vertical ties to generate publicity, improve brand perceptions, and drive traffic to themselves or community events. By qualitatively examining 1025 Facebook posts from 27 SMEs within an entrepreneurial community, this paper identifies five distinct patterns of cross-promotion—quality signaling, traffic driving, community amplifying, hybrid cross-promotion, and infrequent engagement. This exploratory work advances understanding of social media marketing, identifies key patterns of SME social media behavior and connects it to theoretical work on the AIDA marketing funnel.

Do Social Media Followers Impact Sales?

ABSTRACT. Business investments in social media marketing have been increasing, yet at least 59% of managers were uncertain about the ROI of social media marketing according to a survey by Social Media Examiner in 2019. This study utilizes social capital and brand attachment theories to predict that follower acquisitions on social media have a positive effect on sales. We examined the effect of follower acquisitions on ticket sales of NFL teams over seven years. We also classify the brand types between mass and niche brands by clustering based on past brand performances. The results suggest that an increase in the number of followers is positively associated with sales, even more so for niche brands.

Impact of Artificial Agent Anthropomorphism and Product Recommendations on Product Choice

ABSTRACT. Abstract: Amazon uses its recommendation engines to make product choices. In addition to implicit product recommendations in the form of choices available, Amazon also makes explicit recommendations labeled as “Amazon’s Choice.” Although such recommendations are mostly text based today, this could potentially become a voice activated recommendation from artificial intelligent (AI) agents. Use of such voice agents is already prevalent among consumers when seeking information. This research explores the impact of AI agent recommendations and the influence of AI agent personification, and therefore, its anthropomorphism on product choice.

13:00-14:30 Session 5D: Modern Views of a Service Orientation


Local Customers’ Attitudes Towards Immigrant Other Customers in Service Settings
PRESENTER: Banu Elmadag

ABSTRACT. This study investigates the effects of immigration in service settings, from the local customer perspective, with a particular focus on the interactions between xenophobia, negative emotion, perceived similarity to immigrant customers, self-esteem, and consumer attitudes and repatronage intentions. A cross-sectional quantitative study built on Critical Incident Technique (CIT) was conducted, with Hierarchical Regression and PROCESS Macro Models used to test hypotheses. Results showed: (1) xenophobia was associated with consumers’ negative emotions in service settings; (2) the association became stronger when consumers perceived similarity with immigrant customers; (3) the relationship between negative emotions and local consumer attitudes and repatronage intentions was dependent on self-esteem; (4) xenophobia was indirectly associated with attitude and repatronage intentions only if consumers’ self-esteem was high. Several of these findings are novel. Implications for marketers, managers, and brands are discussed, and directions for further research are suggested.

Super-Heroes at Your Service: Business Communities Inspiring Creativity to Mitigate Crisis

ABSTRACT. Small business owners (SBOs) face unique identity challenges when providing services during the current global pandemic. To maintain services, SBOs must modify strategies. Using social identity and organizational identity theories as a theoretical lens, we introduce the concept of SBO identity and investigate the owners’ journey through early crisis management. We employ an inductive, qualitative approach using netnographic, survey, and interview data in the context of VR-photographers in residential real estate. Our data reveal that SBOs question their essentiality, creating role conflict. We find that business communities offer a social alliance, verification, and sensemaking that can promote creative strategy changes and adaptive capabilities. This creativity can inspire SBOs to take on a new identity of a “super-hero,” where they assist to bring normalcy and sustain the market while keeping others safe. An emergent model is presented, and implications are discussed.

Interactions of Service Orientation as Business Strategy and as Organizational Climate: a Framework Proposition for Retail Context
PRESENTER: Heitor Kato

ABSTRACT. This summary describes an early-stage research project that will examine the impact of service orientation on firm performance and the moderating effect of innovativeness. A set of propositions is presented. We developed a framework involving two different service orientation perspectives at the organizational level (i.e., business strategy and organizational climate), the role of innovativeness, and firms' market performance. This framework contributes to the service orientation literature in the retail context.

13:00-14:30 Session 5E: Adoption of Electronic Services in Emerging Markets

Emerging Markets

The Factors Influencing Electric Car Adoption Among Consumers in an Emerging Market

ABSTRACT. The purpose of the article is to examine various factors influencing the electric car adoption among consumers in an emerging market. The study followed quantitative research method which employed self-administered survey questionnaire for data collection. The Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) and Smart PLS 3.0 Partial least squares structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM) were used for data analysis. Attitude, perceived behavioral control and willingness to pay premium were found to have a positive influence on the adoption intention. The current article adds to the limited literature on the consumer behavior aspect of electric cars and its acceptance among Indian consumers. To the best of authors’ knowledge, the influence of willingness to pay premium on the adoption intention of electric car has not been explored much in Indian context. The present study would help various stakeholders in formulating better policies and market strategies to increase consumer acceptance of electric vehicles.

Improving Email Cart Recovery Through Curiosity and Gamification: Study of Online Customers in India
PRESENTER: Hrushikesh More

ABSTRACT. E-commerce is currently a booming sector worldwide. In a developing country like India, it has a significant contribution to the economy of the country. With the ongoing digital revolution in India, eCommerce is proving to be an emerging market. But, this industry is facing a lot of problems, and it is ultimately affecting their revenues. One of the major concern which is influencing the growth of this industry is cart abandonment. It is abandoning the online shopping cart without making a purchase, causing a colossal loss of revenue in the e-tailing sector. From the available industry reports, it was analysed that out of all the issues affecting the growth of e-commerce industry; cart abandonment needs to be addressed at the earliest to prevent further loss of revenue. In this paper, we plan to test curiosity and game elements in an email sent to a customer who has abandoned the online shopping cart. We choose to send an email for the shopping cart recovery, considering its numerous advantages over other communication channels. We draw on relevant academic research in using these elements of curiosity and game on seeing their contribution to marketing in recent times. Thus, the present study aims to test the effectiveness of curiosity and gamification elements in the recovery of an abandoned cart. The research outcome will be useful for the e-Commerce industries by incorporating our suggested components into their current recovery strategies.

Instagram Micro-Influencers Driven Marketing and the Purchase Intention of Indian Millennials
PRESENTER: Bikramjit Rishi

ABSTRACT. As the social media consumption in India is increasing, and the number of users of Instagram are increasing particularly the Indian Millennials. Marketers are exploring this emerging platform to communicate with the millennials. The platform offers many challenges and opportunities that need to be addressed on time. Use of Instagram influencers and micro-influencers is gaining popularity. Millennials are living their lives on the social media platforms including the Instagram. Instagram have become an integral part of Millennial’s lifestyle. Online shopping is still getting the hold of Indian Millennials and making purchase intention a very important and famous topic of study in India nowadays. Hence undertaking of this study makes sense to determine influence of Trust and Perception towards micro-influencer on purchase intention of millennials in India.

Chatbot Adoption in Emerging Markets

ABSTRACT. Artificial Intelligence is the umbrella term for technological innovation among advanced operating systems that analyses and interprets data in order to assist the end user. Owing to the rate of technological innovation and technological adoption, as well as the lack of information within the insurance sector thereof; this study aims to provide research into the sphere of artificial intelligent services within the insurance sector. More specifically, this study is researching the influence of consumer perception and behavior regarding the adoption of chatbots as an artificial intelligent service. Furthermore, the research analyzes insurance users (holders and beneficiaries) within emerging markets whom are 18 years of age and above. The sample population was surveyed through the Qualtrics online questionnaire platform, whereby the use of a non-probability sampling method held importance. Literature was presented and synthesized in this research study to gather insights as to the pertinence of artificial intelligence and how chatbots may affect consumers. The statistical analysis will reflect and explain the influence of chatbots and the consumers behavior regarding the use of this artificial intelligent service. The relevant hypotheses were constructed in relation to the theoretical framework consisting of an integrated technology acceptance model and the innovation diffusion theory. An appropriate integration of these well-research models has been utilized to guide this research. Statical tests will be run on the formulated hypotheses through the SPSS programme. The findings thereof will be indicated, and key inferences will succinctly be put through under managerial implications which can be used by insurance companies and other relevant parties within the ermgin markets sector.

13:00-14:30 Session 5F: Firm Strategies and Directions

Marketing Strategy & Entrepreneurship

The Effect of Cause-Related Marketing on Firm Value: an Investigation of Institutional Ownership & CEO Compensation
PRESENTER: Jennifer Tatara

ABSTRACT. An ongoing debate remains in the literature about the role that corporate social responsibility (CSR) plays within the firm. To understand the financial impact of CEO compensation, institutional ownership, and donation type on the effectiveness of cause-related marketing announcements on shareholder value, we perform an event study including 227 public U.S. firms that appeared in the Fortune Most Admired All-Star list between 2005-2017. Results show that the amount of institutional ownership and the use of CEO long-term pay structure are negatively associated with abnormal returns to cause-related marketing announcements. Moreover, we find in-kind (versus monetary-only) donations moderate the relationship between institutional ownership and abnormal returns to cause-related marketing announcements, such that the negative relationship is mitigated for in-kind donations. Findings contribute to the CSR literature by examining what factors are able to explain and mitigate the negative shareholder wealth effect found in cause-related marketing.

Breaking the News: How Does CEO Media Coverage Influence Consumers and Shareholder Perceptions?
PRESENTER: Samuel Stäbler

ABSTRACT. This study investigates how a large variety of CEO-related events covered in news media impact consumer perceptions as well as abnormal stock options. The conceptual model proposes six types of CEO-related news categories and their consequences that arise from heterogeneity in volume and valence of the news. The authors analyzed a rich sample of 733 CEO-related events of 127 firms covered in the leading U.S. newspapers, magazines, and TV news shows from 2009 to 2019. Based on an event study and a quasi-experiment, this study uncovers striking asymmetries regarding the kind of coverage to which consumers and investors react. For example, whereas negative news stories about CEO compensation show a negative impact on consumers, it does not impact stock prices. On the other hand, stories about CEO accomplishments impact stock prices but do not influence consumer evaluations of a firm. The results of this paper yield actionable implications for management boards, CEOs and several stakeholders including news media and investors.

Effect of Design Orientation on New Product Success: the Role of Market Orientation

ABSTRACT. Both of the design orientation and market orientation are strategically important resources for organizations and both orientations support each other. However, while market orientation is one of the most-studied phenomena in literature, the role of design orientation in strategic level need further and comprehensive investigation. Therefore, this research proposal potentially contributes to the literature by showing the relationship between design orientation, customer integration and new product success in both functional and strategic level. Besides, interaction between design orientation and market orientation will be clarified.

Adoption of Influencer Marketing: an Institutional Theory Perspective
PRESENTER: Serwaa Karikari

ABSTRACT. This paper proposes a framework that examines how the isomorphic forces (coercive, mimetic, and normative) determine influencer marketing adoption, and how the adoption of influencer marketing mediates the relationships between the aforementioned pressures and performance outcomes (return on investment, and reach and visibility). The paper also investigates the moderating role of strategic fit on the relationship between the isomorphic forces and influencer marketing adoption. This paper will advance the influencer marketing literature by offering a new perspective, that is, an institutional theory perspective.

15:00-16:30 Session 6A: Training, Developing, and Rewarding Sales Reps in B2B Context

Personnel Selling & Sales Management

Examining the Effects of Manager Feedback and Salesperson Customer Orientation on Salesperson Creativity and Salesperson Performance in a Retail Sales Context
PRESENTER: Sandro Deretti

ABSTRACT. This study shows the effect of manager feedback and salesperson customer orientation on salespersons’ creativity and salesperson sales performance. Data were collected from salespeople in Brazilian retail sample. Analyzing the data with PLS-SEM approach, the current study findings indicate that both manager feedback and salesperson customer orientation have a positive influence on salesperson creativity. While manager feedback also has a direct influence on salesperson performance, the influence of customer orientation on salesperson performance is fully mediated by salesperson creativity.

Sales Training - Exploring Cost Effective Ways
PRESENTER: Bella Serapiglia

ABSTRACT. In today’s world, effective sales training is essential for companies to enjoy as much profit as possible. However, the cost of sales training can be extremely high for many companies. If companies do not properly train their employees, they will have under performing sales associates. The goal of sales training is for a company to produce a well-oiled machine among their employees. The one thing that holds companies back from having a sales training program that creates motivated and knowledgeable sales associates is the cost. Companies do not want to spend a lot of money on training their employees. If they want to see the profit they are looking for, companies need to find a cost-effective way to provide sales training programs. There are two methods that companies can use to provide sales training in a cost-effective way. These methods are for companies to cut costs by designing a program tailored to exactly what they need, as well as switching over to the online sales training.

‘Small Talk Is Not That Small’! B2B Salespersons’ Social Media Usage Facilitating Collection of Buyer Intelligence Resulting in Sales Performance.
PRESENTER: Anu Mary Chacko

ABSTRACT. Abstract Purpose: This paper aims to develop the theoretical framework of B2B salespersons’ social media usage and its effect on sales performance through small talk and buyer intelligence collection as mediators. Design/Approach: Conceptual Paper. Expected Contribution: Theoretical development of ‘engaging in Small Talk’ and ‘Buyer Intelligence’ involves a lot of significance in sales literature in terms of its novelty and practicality. It also illustrates on how B2B salespersons’ social media usage is instrumental in finding common grounding and other commonalities so as to get engaged in relevant small talk with the buying center members for building a better rapport and eliciting buyer intelligence, thereby influencing the adaptive selling behavior for an efficient outcome-based sales performance. Originality/Value: It is a unique study through the lens of a B2B salesperson aiming at the merits of social media utilization for engaging in small talk during sales interactions, leading to buyer intelligence collection for an efficient sales performance.

The Importance of Delayed Gratification in B2b Sales
PRESENTER: Sergio Robledo

ABSTRACT. Salespeople play a pivotal role in organizations as they are responsible for the revenue streams. Finding which personal traits increase salespeople’s chances to perform at high levels when selling in a business to business environment, and how such qualities influence them to want to remain in the organization, are important organizational questions. Delayed gratification is an important self-regulation construct that provides salespeople with the ability to develop long-term relationships with buyers that will increase business opportunities for both organizations. Establishing the relationships between delayed gratification, performance, and intentions to leave is the main objective of this research. Additionally, finding how two of the Big Five personality traits, consciousness and neuroticism, influence the individual’s propensity to exercise delayed gratification is a secondary objective of this study. While sales performance and salespeople intentions to leave have been analyzed from several perspectives, to date, no research has been done to relate salespeople’s delayed gratification ability to these two constructs. A similar goal for this research is how personal traits relate to salespeople’s delayed gratification. A field study was employed to empirically test the four hypotheses that support the relationship between delayed gratification and performance, intentions to leave, conscientiousness, and neuroticism for salespeople.

15:00-16:30 Session 6B: PANEL: The Habits of Highly Effective Marketers: An Analysis of Marketing through Analogy


The Habits of Highly Effective Marketers: an Analysis of Marketing Through Analogy
PRESENTER: R Wixel Barnwell

ABSTRACT. In their seventh annual special session, the panelists will use the lens of the habit of highly effective people (Covey 2013, Covey 1989) offer fresh perspectives on marketing. Creativity inspired by the intersection of disparate disciplines (Johansson, 2004) and the relevance of analysis through analogy (Cornelissen 2005) are well documented. Applying the revered self-management principles to the larger marketing world, additional insight might be gained. This special session extends the well-received panel discussions of 2014 “Where do you draw the line? Discussing issues of consumer deviance and ethicality,” 2015 “The Seven Deadly Sins of Consumer Behavior,” 2016 “Four Horseman of Consumerism and the Fall of Branding Babylon,” 2017 “The Ten Commandments – The Thou Shall Not’s of Marketing,” 2018 “The Beatles & Marketing – Getting By With A Little Help from Our Friends,” and 2019 “From Princesses to Prozac - Snow White and the Seven Dwarves: An Analysis of Marketing through Analogy.”

15:00-16:30 Session 6C: Value of Certifications, Identity, Technology in the Marketing Major

Marketing Education & Pedagogy

Through the Practitioner Lens: the Value of Branded Digital Marketing Certifications
PRESENTER: Holly Syrdal

ABSTRACT. The value of digital marketing certifications through the lens of marketing professionals and potential employers has yet to be investigated in academic research. To address this gap in the marketing literature, a qualitative pilot study was conducted with the aim of answering the following research questions: 1) Which digital marketing certifications are more likely to be included in the required or preferred qualifications in job ads for marketing positions?, 2) Which digital marketing certifications are perceived as more valuable by marketing professionals?, 3) What is the incremental monetary value in terms of higher potential salary or wages for job applicants in obtaining digital marketing certifications? The findings of this study provide insight into the current job market with regard to the value of various digital marketing certifications and may serve to assist marketing educators in the decision of which certifications to include in course curriculum.

Seven Technology Tools for Better Online Classes

ABSTRACT. We present seven technology tools that can be used to enhance live-streamed classes and video recorded lessons. We make recommendations on how improved web cameras, lighting, microphones, and other tools can be properly set up to maximize professionalism and the student experience.

Self-Customizable Online Courses: One Size Does Not Fit All
PRESENTER: Michael Hyman

ABSTRACT. Through self-customizable online courses, students can design more satisfying learning experiences that are more compatible with their needs and preferences. By choosing an assignment mix that provides more focused and personally relevant course content, students can balance their diverse interests and learning goals against course/program-specific learning objectives. A review of relevant literature and anecdotal evidence gleaned from multiple sections of a self-customizable marketing research course suggest a series of research propositions, several course-design recommendations, and several future research studies.

The Self- Brand Identity and Business Major Choices
PRESENTER: Ceyhan Kilic

ABSTRACT. The decline in student enrollment numbers has been a major concern for academic degree programs across universities. Higher education presidents and deans tend to utilize enrollment numbers as one of the criteria when they decide on the allocation of funds and human resources. The theoretical model proposed in this study analyzes the implications for major selection by students in higher education.

15:00-16:30 Session 6D: Doctoral Dissertation Competition

Doctoral Dissertation Competition

"Arab Refugees in Transition: Consumption and Family Identity, Between (Re)Construction and Maintenance”

ABSTRACT. This thesis research aims to explore the role of consumption in (re)construction of family identity when going through liminal transition, associated to forced immigration. Integrating the family identity framework, and Van Gennep’s rites of passage theory, we intend to understand the identity (re)construction process that accompanies the onset of a refugeehood experience. The study is considering an ethnographic approach with Syrian refugee families settled in France, focusing mainly on their food rituals. The study aims to provide recommendations for policy makers to improve the well-being of refugee family through consumption.

Investigating the Impact of Salespeople’S Emotional Labor on Selling Success

ABSTRACT. Emotions and the management of emotions have a paramount role in personal selling. This doctoral work proposes a conceptual framework that synthesizes key insights from the literature on emotional labor, i.e. emotion management in interaction with customers. Salespeople’s emotional labor has shown to have an effect on sales performance, however findings are very contrasted. A critical incident technique (CIT) survey was conducted to explore the impact of salespeople’s emotional labor on success and failure, during 454 sales interactions. Results indicate that failed sales interactions are associated with emotion management but also with customer mistreatment. Subsequently, a quantitative survey with 269 salespeople was undertaken to measure the effect of customer mistreatment on salespeople’s emotional labor, which impacts both their success and satisfaction. The moderating role of self-esteem was also considered. Findings show that customer mistreatment significantly affects emotional labor dimensions, leading to attitudinal and behavioral outcomes. These effects are stronger for young salespeople.

The Effect of Loan Application Formats on Consumer Loan Decisions

ABSTRACT. Do different loan application formats affect personal loan requests? Three studies show that when consumers are asked to provide a monthly payment (vs. loan amount), they request different principal loan amounts. This is because the formats prompt consumers to recruit format-consistent knowledge that influences their final request. When consumers are asked to provide a monthly payment (loan amount), consumers request what they believe is a typical monthly payment for (the estimated cost of) their acquisition. Notably, for a given term and interest rate, the monthly payment (vs. loan amount) format results in higher principal requests. This effect is pronounced for lower cost acquisitions (< $5k) but reverses for higher cost acquisitions (> $8k) because perceived typical monthly payments are constructed using credit card and auto loan monthly payments as referents, which range restricts personal loan monthly payments and results in principal requests weakly calibrated to cost.

When Big Is Bad: Brand Dominance and the Authenticity Deficit of Sustainable Products

ABSTRACT. Brands are responding to the increasing importance consumers and society have placed on sustainable practices and products. However, no previous research has compared how consumers evaluate sustainability initiatives of existing brands and no research has considered the impact of brand size on purchase intent. Across seven studies, including a field experiment on Facebook, I demonstrate a negative bias that exists with consumer perceptions of brand size and sustainability related to perceptions of authenticity. This bias is tied to the inherent conflict of sustainability which is focused on “taking less” (i.e. less energy, chemicals, materials) and the prevailing measure of success in business which is focused on “making more” (i.e. more profit, production). With this paradox, the challenge of a brand becomes further amplified as the brand is perceived as bigger and more profit centric. While this authenticity deficit significantly impacts purchase intent, it can be attenuated with commitment or certification.

15:00-16:30 Session 6E: GSSI Special Session A


Digital transformation in sales as an evolutionary process
PRESENTER: Stefan Wengler

ABSTRACT. Most companies are working on their digital transformation and thus on their digital transformation of sales. Despite enormous transformation efforts, the positive productivity effects seem to be missing. As this research paper will show, the reasons are given in a limited knowledge about the main success factors of digital transformation as well as a missing understanding of the digital transformation as an evolutionary process. Based on the newly developed market-oriented transformation model, management implications as well as future research directions are derived for a more focused digital transformation process in sales.

A New Conceptual Approach of Sales Activities
PRESENTER: Richard Conde

ABSTRACT. Sales researchers have consistently studied sales activities as part of a sales manager sales control mechanisms. The definition and classification of sales activities are based on standards and functions created over two decades ago, with limited consideration to current sales processes and the overarching influence of sales technology. Because most empirical sales activity studies based on such conceptual approach have limited findings, this article attempts to expand the application of sales activities to an industry technology summary of the sales process. The effects of sales technology on sales agent activities are considered. A number of research propositions are presented.

An Examination of Effectuation in Dynamic Sales Environments

ABSTRACT. How do salespeople succeed in dynamic sales environments? This paper presents an initial foray of effectuation into the sales realm. Effectuation is rooted in entrepreneurship and management literature and describes how expert entrepreneurs make decisions in dynamic/uncertain environments. Effectuation was first conceptualized by Sarasvathy (2001) and is a set of decision- making heuristics consisting of five constituent elements: means, affordable loss, strategic alliances, exploitation of contingencies and seeking to control an unpredictable future. This paper hypothesizes that in dynamic sales environments, effectual decision-making will lead to improved performance, and that effectuation will reduce the impact of role ambiguity on sales performance.

Insight Over Intuition: Present and Future State of Analytical Skills In B2B Selling
PRESENTER: Richard A. Rocco

ABSTRACT. The importance of salesperson analytical skills has risen to the forefront of sales management priorities to enhance selling performance and customer success. Analysis is winning the debate over intuition and experience. Unfortunately, initial industry research suggests deficiencies with analytical skills within today’s sales organizations and there remains a dearth of academic sales research examining this topic. This exploratory study utilizes a key informant mixed methodology with B2B sales managers to explore both the present state and future needs for analytical skills in sales. Implications include recommendations that academics and managers develop methods to better communicate the analytic data’s customer-centric meaning.

Perceptions of Ethics as a Prospecting Constraint

ABSTRACT. Sales Call Reluctance occurs when salespeople develop where they are unable to prospect due to fear. One possible fear is a lack of knowledge that may inadvertently cause the salesperson to act unethically. A salesperson with this form of call reluctance may exonerate the lack of performance by claiming the high moral ground. A study of 1998 salespeople supports the proposed relationship for two types (role rejection and over-preparation) of call reluctance but not telephobia, as predicted. Over-preparation is mediated by a need for more product knowledge. These results provide insight into how fear turns into call reluctance.

17:30-18:30 SMA and Taylor & Francis Reception Honoring Dr. Mike Ahearne


Adam Rapp, Ohio University

Zach Hall, Texas Christian University

Eli Jones, Texas A&M University

Greg Marshall. Rolliins University

Jagdip Singh, Case Western Reserve University