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09:00-10:50 Session 16A: Teacher Psychology
Let’s Feel English Together: 'A World of Emotions: Be Kind & Be Contagious!’

ABSTRACT. This is a project based on the idea of ‘learning by feeling (emotion) and doing (experience) together (collaboration)’ and on Tomlinson's ideas of humanising, localising and personalising materials and activities. It deals with emotions, the value of kindness and its ripple effect and it stimulates learners to give voice to their inner voices, to develop the 21st Century Skills (empathy, critical thinking, creativity, collaboration, communication), to investigate and take action in their local communities in order to achieve the UNESCO Sustainable Development Goals. This project promotes the role of emotion in the classroom, so that learners, by feeling, working and growing up together, can develop a sense of connection and a feeling of belonging in order to become responsible citizens of the World and change-makers of the Future. ‘Learning by feeling’ puts human beings and their ‘ability to feel’ at the heart of the learning process and it could become the starting point for a human-centered approach based on mind, brain, body and heart. First, after a brief introduction to kindness and its positive effect on learning, on mental well-being and physical health, it will be explained the concept of learning by feeling in the light of neuroscientists’ findings about the role of emotion in the learning process. Then, after a brief description of the project, its phases and its main aims, Tomlinson's ideas of humanising education and materials will be illustrated. Finally, each activity of the project will be described in detail and in depth. Attending this session could provide educators and teachers, especially those who teach teenagers, with ideas, strategies and practical activities to make their learners more affectively and cognitively engaged in learning English by stimulating their thinking process, touching their emotional sphere and improving their empathy.

“Constrained Creativity” - Teachers’ Perceptions of Agency

ABSTRACT. Language teacher agency, defined as a “teacher’s intentional authority to make choices and act accordingly in his or her local context” (Kayi-Aydar, 2019) is an essential component of teachers’ professional development and practice (Tao & Gao, 2021). However, it has only recently attracted the attention of scholars in second language education (Kayi-Aydar, Gao, Miller, Varghese & Vitanova, 2019), and that attention has been limited to commonly taught languages. Research continues to be lacking in the field of Arabic as a second language, where both opportunities for professional development and research into the professional needs and challenges of language teachers are scarce (De Felice, Lanier & Winke, 2019). We present an exploratory study that addresses this gap by investigating the experience of a group of Arabic teachers working in higher education institutions, in relation to their perception and enactment of their agency in the classroom. Over a hundred teachers of Arabic from around the world were surveyed, and thirteen were interviewed via an online video platform. The methodology followed to investigate teachers’ perceptions, experiences, values, attitudes and beliefs towards the concept of teacher agency is phenomenology (Cohen et al 2018, Webb & Welsh 2019), which allowed us to capture qualitatively and in-depth the lived experience of teachers, individually and collectively.

Preliminary results indicate that language teachers are very conscious about the structural and programmatic constraints that limit their agency. They also view personality traits and cultural baggage as a factor that can significantly influence the extent to which teachers exercise their agency, and they typically associate the term ‘agency’ with a contradictory set of emotions and lived experiences. Teachers’ understanding of agency is also influenced by the level and type of their professional experience. These findings can inform approaches to program organization and teacher professional development.

Rekindling Connectedness and Happiness through Laughter Meditation Intervention (LMI)

ABSTRACT. The recent COVID-19 global pandemic caused people around the world to feel physically separated, severely damaging human connections (Joensen et al., 2020; Gultom et al., 2022). As classrooms move back to face-to-face post-pandemic, extra efforts may be required to rekindle a sense of connectedness in the classroom. This is especially important in the language classroom, where students not only work independently but are encouraged to interact, communicate, and cooperate (Gardner, 2019). In this study, communicative interaction in an English as a Foreign Language (EFL) classroom was supported by a Laughter Mediation Intervention (LMI), which also aimed to improve 100 students’ happiness, well-being, and life satisfaction more broadly. The results showed that 70% of participants’ emotions, friendships with the group members, and relationships with the teacher-in-charge improved. Stress and anxiety levels lowered, awareness of the importance of breathing, and a feeling of mental and physical relaxation increased. Thus, LMI in the classroom revealed that it has the potential to redesign future society by improving global mental problems and well-being among students in language education.


ABSTRACT. It is well known that mentors’ feedback becomes effective when it serves the purpose of helping prospective teachers to become more professional. In addition to providing constructive feedback, the mentorship process possesses an emotional dimension that may contribute to mentees’ creating their professional identity. However, how prospective teachers react emotionally to feedback has received little attention in educational research including foreign language teaching context. Adopting a qualitative approach, this research delved into the emotional responses of prospective EFL teachers to feedback provided by mentees during the teaching practicum experience. Data for the present study were collected weekly through semi-structured interviews and reflective journals during a 12-week teaching practicum program. Participants of the study were 70 pre-service EFL teachers. Data analysis was conducted through coding and thematic analysis considering the nature of feedback and individual differences. The findings of the study revealed a wide range of positive and negative emotional responses from eagerness and motivation to anxiety, defensiveness, and overwhelm. The study underscores the importance of exploring the emotional dimension in the mentorship process and provides implications for teacher educators in designing and enhancing mentorship programs.

09:00-10:50 Session 16B: Teacher Psychology
Teacher engagement in collaborative planning discussions: The role of learner-generated content

ABSTRACT. A problem in EFL teacher training is that novice teachers are often overwhelmed with the many decisions they face is designing instructional tasks. Effective teachers must design tasks for specific objectives and implement them in line with learners’ backgrounds and proficiency levels. Although novice teachers are often eager to try new things, they are easily frustrated in planning and reluctant to invest the time and energy required to tailor activities to context, relying instead on ready-to-use materials. Teachers need support that engenders interest, effort, and investment in instructional planning. This study investigates teachers’ engagement in collaborative planning discussions on using memes in EFL classes. Vietnamese EFL teachers were shown what memes are, provided with examples, and instructed on how to create them using online software. They then created memes of their own that they felt were interesting, wanted to discuss, and thought others would find interesting. They each presented two memes for discussion: their own and one provided by the teacher trainer. Each discussion consisted of agreeing on: (1) the meaning of the meme, (2) how it related to peoples' lives, and (3) how to use it in teaching. They completed these discussions three times with a different partner each time. The discussions were analysed for Engagement in Language Use (Lambert & Aubrey, 2023) and a thematic analysis (Braun & Clark, 2006) focused on planning processes. Discussions of learner-generated memes were compared with teacher-generated memes over three repetitions for engagement and effective planning. The results contribute to knowledge of personal investment in language education (Lambert, 2023) and learner-generated content in language use across multiple iterations of a discussion task.

The association between teacher-student relationship and students’ achievement emotions in a blended EFL learning context

ABSTRACT. The blended learning mode has garnered much scholarly attention in recent years. Students’ achievement emotions and teacher-student relationships are two significant constructs in a blended EFL learning context. However, empirical studies exploring these constructs in the emerging field of blended language learning, particularly in modes incorporating Small Private Online Courses (SPOCs), remain scarce. This study addresses this gap by exploring the intricate relationship between students’ perceived teacher-student relationship, their emotional experience of SPOC learning (enjoyment and boredom), and their corresponding emotional experience (enjoyment and boredom) in the flipped classroom, based on a person-in-context view. Data were collected from a sample of 223 Chinese non-English major freshmen at two time different points in Mainland China. Path analyses revealed several key findings: 1) Students’ perceived teacher-student relationship had a moderate positive effect on their enjoyment and a slight negative effect on their boredom in the flipped language classroom; 2) SPOC learning enjoyment demonstrated a significant positive influence on flipped classroom enjoyment, while unexpectedly correlating positively with flipped classroom boredom ; 3) SPOC learning boredom had a positive and significant impact on flipped classroom boredom. These results provided valuable pedagogical implications for educators aiming to enhance students’ positive emotions and foster favorable teacher-student relationships to achieve more effective learning outcomes within the blended language learning context.

Exploring foreign language anxiety in international teaching assistants’ twofold academic roles: An appraisal theory study.

ABSTRACT. Foreign language anxiety (FLA) results when individuals appraise a relevant situation as threatening due to perceiving that they lack the FL resources or skills to meet the demands of the environment or their own objectives (Fraschini & Park, 2021). It can therefore be defined as a “temporary reaction to a stressful event, characterized by subjective feelings of tension, apprehension, nervousness, and worry” (Zeidner, 2014, p. 266). Particularly, international teaching assistants (ITAs) have been shown to experience FLA when using English in instructional contexts (e.g., Chiang, 2016; Wang & Mantero, 2018). However, the question of whether ITAs perceive the academic environments distinctly in their twofold role as graduate students and course instructors, and how these roles affect their FLA levels remains unanswered.

Drawing on appraisal theory (Lazarus, 1991), this quantitative project investigates how ITAs’ academic roles predict their FLA levels via an online survey. One hundred thirty-five ITAs from different academic fields at a public university in the US report their age of arrival to the country, dominant languages (L1), type of pursued degree, as well as teaching responsibilities and experiences. Data is analyzed using descriptive statistics and regression analyses, and comparisons across ITAs’ roles will be performed. Results show that while participants experience FLA in both roles, FLA levels for the instructor role are significantly higher than in the student role, and that the explanatory variables, such as L1, amount of linguistic training, and length of residency in the US have varying effects. Additionally, FLA ratings are higher for items measuring FL perception rather than FL production across roles. Results will be discussed in reference to appraisal-based anxiety research and how appraisals may differ in the student and teacher role. Limitations, implications for ITA training, and further research directions will be discussed.

Character Strengths with Early Career and Pre-Service Coaching

ABSTRACT. Recent data have shown that a significant number of teachers are leaving the profession after just a few years of teaching. Early-Career and pre-service teachers experience an altogether different set of stressors at their level of experience. Some challenges these teachers experience include job insecurity, balancing work and personal life, scaffolding support, and burnout. To help alleviate these concerns, we turned to Peterson & Seligman’s (2004) Character Strengths classification through the VIA strengths survey to develop a system of strengths-based peer-coaching. Peterson & Seligman’s foundational work of character strengths in positive psychology defines the 24 key strengths in their classification to legitimize the topic in the field of psychological inquiry. We used Gregersen & MacIntyre’s (2018) work as a basis for our approximate replication, however, our methodology utilizes peer-coaching rather than a mentor-mentee relationship. The primary participants of this study are teachers at a university IEP. These teachers include interns, student teachers, community teachers, and skill area supervisors. Most of these teachers are at either pre-service or early-career stages. To define these in our context, pre-service teachers are those with some teaching experience, but are enrolled students. Each teacher took the survey at the beginning of the semester to determine their top five strengths and were paired with another teacher who shared similar strengths. They then worked together in a peer-coaching relationship throughout the semester to improve teaching based on strengths. Participants in the presentation will see a summary of our preliminary results, an explanation of the methodology used in our context, and possible applications for further contexts. The teacher's experiences will be highlighted.

09:00-10:50 Session 16C: Teacher Psychology
The Experience of EFL Teachers: Unveiling Workplace Stress in Saudi Higher Education

ABSTRACT. This doctoral research project, titled "The Experience of EFL Teachers: Unveiling Workplace Stress in Saudi Higher Education," aims to explore the experience of English as a Foreign Language (EFL) teachers concerning workplace stress within the context of Saudi higher education. This project uses a critical qualitative methodology to provide a platform for EFL instructors to voice their perspectives, divulge the challenges they encounter, and express their concerns about workplace stress within Saudi universities. The research employs a critical narrative research approach, allowing participants to share their stories, reflections, and lived experiences. The research participants comprise EFL instructors working in Saudi universities, ensuring that their unique insights contribute to a comprehensive understanding of the issue. The significance of this research lies in its potential to raise awareness about the substantial impact of workplace stress on the overall well-being and professional lives of EFL teachers. This study seeks to shed light on the intricate web of factors that contribute to stress in the EFL teaching profession in Saudi Arabia. Ultimately, the findings of this research project may inform policy changes and the development of support mechanisms aimed at enhancing the working conditions and mental health of EFL teachers in Saudi higher education. This research aligns with the conference's theme of "Psychology in Language Learning" by delving into the psychological aspects of EFL teachers' experiences and the implications of workplace stress on their teaching practices and personal lives. It offers a unique perspective from the Saudi context, contributing to the broader conversation on stress in language education.

Exploring the Role of Wonder in English Language Teacher Education

ABSTRACT. In today’s globalized world, English is regarded as the global lingua franca and “has become in some sense a product for consumption, widely marketed as bringing benefits and advantages to those who learn it” (Marr & English, 2019, p. 21). This utilitarian view of English is also reinforced by current language teaching methods which tend to prioritize the ability to successfully get one’s meaning across to an interlocutor over the creative engagement with language for its own sake. Against this backdrop, there may be little incentive for language learners to engage with the English language once they are satisfied with their ability to communicate, and this can make it challenging for teachers to motivate advanced learners of English to continue to work on their language skills.

In this context, the approach of Plutino (2021) who argues for a pedagogy of wonder to allow language learners to “become agents of their own learning” and “eventually […] lifelong linguist[s]” (p. 35) appears to be a promising way forward, and Egan (2013) likewise urges teachers to make “wonder, and awe, more common and educationally effective components of [their] toolkit” (p. 149). For Gilbert (2020), “wonder-based pedagogical approaches [are] one means to connect learners to content by engaging their emotions and desires to learn” (p. 213) Wonder can therefore be seen as an important topic to address in English language teacher education.

In my presentation, I will discuss a five-step process (anticipation, encounter, investigation, discovery, propagation; McFall, 2013) which I used with student teachers in an ELT Master’s programme at an Austrian university to encourage them to explore the role of wonder in language learning. I will also discuss data from a short questionnaire and learner diaries which illustrate student teachers’ conceptualizations of the role of wonder in language education.

The Role of Self-efficacy, Language Proficiency, and the Length of the Training in Language Teacher Conceptual Change

ABSTRACT. Continuous professional development and training are integral parts of the teaching profession. However, the effectiveness and success of it depend on numerous factors which may foster or hinder conceptual change. In my talk, I would like to share the key questions of my research proposal that aims at clarifying the role of self-efficacy beliefs (SEB), the length of training and the language proficiency of language teachers in the process of conceptual change, using the theoretical framework of Language Teacher Conceptual Change (LTCC) in a longitudinal study (Kubanyiova 2012). Research has established a link between self-efficacy of L2 language teachers and their language proficiency (Choi & Lee 2016; Hiver 2013). However, it is not clear from previous studies, which factor influences the other. The role of SEB in concept change is even less clear, as SEB is generally considered to foster change, while strong SEB may create intolerance for it (Pintrich 1999, Sinatra 2005). Finally, the length of the training has proved to be significant for the robustness of change in university teacher training (Postareff et al 2007). This finding has not, however, been tested on wider audience and in the context of language teaching. The results of this research may contribute to the practice of teacher education by exploring the interrelation between language proficiency, SEB, and the length of training. This knowledge may help educational stakeholders make informed choices on training trajectories.


ABSTRACT. The training of early childhood education teachers in the Spanish context is global in nature, so it is not common for these students to have specific training in language teaching beyond the fundamental subjects in the degree. Specific training is usually observed in the case of foreign language teachers or in specialists in hearing and language and in communicative pathologies. Although psycholinguistic and didactic approaches defend communicative perspectives committed to linguistic diversity and the importance of oral language, generally from the didactics of first languages the permanence of very prescriptive and formal approaches is evident, even in the initial stages of early childhood education. Likewise, in many cases, students’ motivation for language teaching is not very high either since it is only considered one more aspect to be learned and its peculiarities as an object of study are not taken into consideration. This proposal presents a didactic experience (in progress) carried out in the Early Childhood Education Degree in a faculty of Spain, in a subject of the second year called “Oral Language Learning”, in a group of 100 students. The objective is to increase the degree of metalinguistic awareness of future teachers about first language acquisition and increase their critical linguistic awareness to achieve teacher training more like that received by other language specialists. Likewise, it will be verified whether this type of approach improves the motivation of students and increases interest in the teaching of first languages. Different instruments will be used to measure their experiences and opinions quantitatively and qualitatively, as well as their degree of motivation. Although this is an initial experience, it is intended to serve as a first step to refine the initial linguistic training of future early childhood education teachers and to help improve methods and approaches in the teaching of first languages.

09:00-10:50 Session 16D: Learner Engagement
Mindful Repositioning: Noticing as the Key to Engagement for English Language Learners

ABSTRACT. Mindful repositioning is an original design and describes a critical and creative approach to engagement with texts for English language teachers and learners. This concept takes inspiration from Ellen Langer’s socio- cognitive concept of mindfulness, otherwise known as Langerian mindfulness, namely “the simple act of drawing novel distinctions…[leading] us to greater sensitivity to context and perspective, and ultimately to greater control over our lives” (Langer, 2000, p. 220). The fundament of Langerian mindfulness and indeed mindful repositioning is the notion of “drawing novel distinctions”, that is noticing, being attuned to subtleties and being in the present. The key qualities of a mindful state are “creation of new categories, openness to new information and awareness of more than one perspective” (Langer, 2014, p. 64). This mindful state can be facilitated by the application of curated questions which reposition individuals to view a text, such a photograph, from a fresh perspective and look more closely, make inconspicuous connections, see beyond the image, consider other physical, temporal and mental points of view and ultimately to resist the urge to quickly categorise, judge and find shortcuts to meaning. Mindful repositioning encourages responses to texts that are deeper, more original and more complex and the richness of such critical engagement provides wonderful inspiration for student responses. Learning to look more closely and see more precisely is an important foundation for thoughtful engagement with texts in classrooms. This guided critical engagement generates more ideas, allows for play, experimentation and aberrant responses and supports novelty. Mindful repositioning is an approach which foregrounds noticing, facilitates deep engagement and supports learning.

References Langer, E.J. (2000). Mindful Learning. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 9(6), 220-223. Langer, E.J. (2014). Mindfulness. Da Capo Press.

Student Engagement Across Skill-Based Language Classes: Insights from a Thai Intensive English Program

ABSTRACT. In educational psychology, engagement is considered to be a multi-dimensional construct consisting of [at least] behavioral, cognitive, and affective sub-domains (Fredricks et al., 2004). Recently, applied linguists (e.g., Svalberg, 2009) have begun to draw on such conceptualizations of engagement in order to understand how various factors impact students’ active participation in second language (L2) learning. However, the research to date has tended to focus on student engagement in researcher-generated tasks, which may bear little resemblance to the range of activities that characterize typical language classrooms. Moreover, among the more ecologically valid studies (e.g., Aubrey et al., 2022), researchers have mostly focused on spoken interaction in general English courses, while other language skills (e.g., academic reading) and program types (e.g., intensive English programs) have received less attention. In light of these gaps, this presentation reports on an investigation into how students perceive their engagement across three skill-based language classes (reading, writing, and integrated skills) in a Thai intensive English program. As part of a larger investigation, semi-structured interviews were conducted with students (n = 20) which prompted them to consider how different aspects of their learning ecology (Bronfenbrenner, 1993) affect their behavioral, cognitive, affective, and social engagement in L2 learning (cf. Philp & Duchesne, 2016). Results of a qualitative analysis indicated that student engagement was not uniform across skill-based classes, and a range of factors at different scales of activity (i.e., at the level of task, class, and program) interacted in complex ways to shape students’ perceptions of engagement. This presentation will discuss how the results articulate with current understanding of student engagement in L2 learning, as well as potential pedagogical implications for enhancing student involvement in English for academic purposes classes.

Goal complexes as predictors TOEIC L&R scores

ABSTRACT. Goal complexes are a relatively new area of research in educational psychology, likely to be unknown to most second language acquisition (SLA) practitioners. Goal complexes combine reasons for goals from self-determination theory with achievement goal orientations. Goal complexes are potentially important because of their relationship with variables connected to successful L2 learning, such as motivation, anxiety, self-regulation, and growth mindsets. Reasons for goals are the why of classroom learning, and may refer to autonomous or controlled reasons. Achievement goals are defined as the what of classroom learning, such as approaching or avoiding a (un)desired outcome. Such goals might refer to mastery-based orientations, or performance-based ones. Finally, goal complexes combine the what and the why of classroom achievement (e.g., goal X because reason Y). This work-in-progress research-oriented paper is divided into three parts. First, I describe goal complexes, including their relationship with other, more familiar variables in SLA. Second, I report on a study (N = 164) which partially replicated Sommet and Elliot (2017). The setting is a public Japanese university in regional Japan which has as a key performance indicator that all students achieve a score of 600 or higher on the Test of English for International Communication Listening and Reading (TOEIC L&R) by the end of their second year. The reasons for goal items were adapted from Ryan and Deci (2000), the achievement goal items were adapted from Elliot et al (2011), and finally the goal complexes were adapted Sommet and Elliot. The results indicated that mastery-based orientations, autonomous reasons, and their related goal complexes predicted TOEIC L&R scores, with consistently stronger R2 values for listening over reading. I conclude this presentation by describing the importance of helping our learners identify mastery-based goals, autonomous reasons for goals, and their related goal complexes.

09:00-10:50 Session 16E: Learner Psychology
Goal self-concordance and its long-term effects

ABSTRACT. Goals relevant to a learner’s intrinsic values can generate positive learning behaviors (Sheldon, 2014). This argument undergirds the self-concordance model (SCM) (Sheldon & Eliott, 1998, 1999). Informed by SCM, and in accordance with a longitudinal design developed by Vasalampi et al. (2009), this study investigated the long-term effects of the self-concordance of learning goals, and the mediating variables of effort and goal progress on L2 learners’ engagement, buoyancy, enjoyment and resilience over a two-year period.

Participants were 41 first-year students on a program of English teacher education in Turkey. Data were collected on five occasions. At Time 1 (1 week after the start of the program), participants formulated at least three language-related goals. For each goal, and using methods developed by Sheldon and Elliot (1998, 1999), self-concordance scores were computed. At Time 2 (7 weeks later), Time 3 (14 weeks later) and Time 4 (26 weeks later) scores on scales measuring goal-directed effort, goal progress, engagement and buoyancy were recorded. At Time 5 (40 weeks later), scores on measures of resilience, school burnout, and enjoyment were obtained. Path modelling were carried out using Mplus 8.4 (Muthén & Muthén, 1998–2017).

Findings revealed that self-concordant goals influenced goal effort at Time 2, which affected goal progress at Time 3, which, in its turn, subsequently predicted buoyancy at Time 4 and school resilience at Time 5. Further, goal progress at Time 3 predicted engagement at Time 4, which in its turn subsequently predicted enjoyment at Time 5. These findings support the arguments that self-concordant goals can enhance learner behaviors that are supportive of long-term endeavor in the development of L2 proficiency. They also demonstrate the important mediating effects of effort and goal progress. The study’s limitations are discussed and directions for future research are identified.

Cognitive Load, Explicit Approaches and Split-Attention - A Case Multimodal for Instructional Designs

ABSTRACT. Cognitive Load Theory (CLT) has long strived to identify forms of instruction that present information in ways that maximize learning outcomes (Sweller et al., 2019). In second language (L2) learning, previous CLT research suggests that explicit instructional designs are superior as compared with designs requiring learners to find the solution themselves (Kyun et al., 2013). However, not all explicit instruction facilitates learning (Bahari et al, 2023), with some resulting in split-attention (Ayres & Sweller, 2022). Thus, two studies were designed to gauge the differential effects of four different explicit information (EI) treatments (each varying in how clearly it connects metalanguage to meaning), in recognition and production. The targeted linguistic structures were Spanish real and hypothetical conditional or si-clauses. For Study 1, 150 participants completed a multiple-choice recognition task and, for Study 2, 148 completed a guided-production task. In each case, the Reading (R) group received EI in text form. The Reading+Hearing (RH) group received the same text but with auditory support. The Reading+Hearing+Enhancement (RHE) group received the same text and audio, plus textual enhancement. Finally, the Reading+Hearing+Enhancement+Indexing (RHEI) group received text, audio, and textual enhancement with indexing (i.e., animations linking parts of EI to relevant portions of model sentences). A fifth group, included as a control, completed identical outcome measures but received unrelated treatments. Results from recognition revealed that all groups except the control improved significantly from pretest to posttest in both types of conditionals. Similarly, for production results revealed that all groups except the control improved significantly from pretest to posttest, in the case of Real Conditionals, and all groups except control and RHEI made significant gains with Hypothetical Conditionals. No other contrasts were significant. These findings were interpreted to suggest that EI may have a facilitative effect in recognition and production of complex structures governed by categorical rules.

Exploring the Impact of Beliefs on Initial Assessment and Personalised Learning for Newly Arrived Students in Primary Schools: Initial Findings from Qualitative Research in the city of Prato, Italy

ABSTRACT. Prato, an Italian city that has been dealing with significant migratory pressures since the 1990s, now results with the highest percentage of migrants in Italy, comprising 25% of its population, and 29% of the students in its schools. Over the past two decades, Prato has been facing with multifaceted challenges affecting various sectors, including education, social services, and healthcare. A noteworthy aspect of this migration phenomenon is the arrival of many migrant children throughout the year. Due to the moment of arrival, these pupils may not be able to attend the entire school year, but only some months. Furthermore, depending on their age, it’s common that they start attending the Italian school not from the very first primary school class. Despite extensive efforts by the municipality, which has developed a specialised language learning program to support schools, considerable challenges persist in the support of newly arrived students. At this juncture, teachers, especially Italian L2 teachers, assume a pivotal role in evaluating the educational background, prior competencies, psychological well-being of incoming students and in identifying evidence among the indicators of potential special needs or disorders. This initial assessment should be used as base for crafting tailored educational programs. In addition, it could serve as the linchpin for several educational, social, and healthcare initiatives aimed at assisting these children. Our research postulated that the beliefs held by various stakeholders within the educational network, particularly regarding emotions and various types of disorders (cognitive, social, and linguistic), wield substantial influence on assessments conducted by teachers. Additionally, these beliefs significantly shape the personalised learning pathways. The presentation will show preliminary finding from in-depth interviews, ethnographic observations, and focus group highlighting the cultural distances and misunderstandings that don’t allow an effective support of students’ real needs.

09:00-10:50 Session 16F: Positive Psychology
Adult Learners’ Persistence and Engagement in Self-Directed Language Learning: A Survival Analysis

ABSTRACT. Self-directed language learning is a prevalent primary and secondary form of language learning worldwide. Research on self-directed (e.g., mobile-assisted) language learning (MALL) has demonstrated positive associations between time spent on mobile apps and second language (L2) improvement (e.g., Loewen et al., 2020). However, a significant challenge for MALL is high attrition rates, which can undermine its learning potential. Some research (e.g., García-Botero et al., 2021) has focused on documenting this attrition and understanding its underlying reasons. Far less focus has been allocated to understanding why some learners persist in MALL use.

In this study, non-university-student adult app users (N = 5,060) completed a MALL engagement survey. The survey elicited demographic information, language learning and app use experience, and language app acceptance based on the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT; Venkatesh et al., 2003). While many previous studies of (MALL) persistence and engagement have relied primarily or exclusively on self-report data (e.g., Kessler et al., 2023, Loewen et al., 2019) we triangulated survey data with users’ app usage data over 14 years.

A hierarchical k-means cluster analysis revealed three distinct user-attitude profiles. Regression analyses showed that Clusters 1 and 2 had significantly higher levels of MALL acceptance (i.e., willingness to use MALL) than Cluster 3 and amount of app usage over time. To further understand the differences in MALL engagement between the three groups, we used survival analysis, a statistical tool commonly used to assess longitudinal efficacy of medical treatments. The model with cluster as the predictor confirmed that Clusters 1 and 3 have a 46% (95% CI [35%, 56%]) and 49% (95% CI [38%, 58%]) lower risk of discontinuing compared to Cluster 2. This study offers important theoretical and methodological implications for measuring affective and behavioral dimensions of disposition and engagement, especially for self-directed L2 learning.

Rethinking grit in language acquisition research: A critical review and agenda for future research

ABSTRACT. Recently, a considerable number of studies have examined grit (i.e., perseverance and passion for long-term goals) in language learning and teaching context. However, research on grit in both general education and language education research has been criticized for conceptual, measurement, and predictive validity issues. The present study aims to critically review these issues in language education research and to propose recommendation for future research. For conceptual issues, previous research has shown that both grit and L2 grit can be similar to concepts such as conscientiousness, self-efficacy, and cognitive ability which can be a case of jangle fallacy. Concerning measurement problems, it has been argued that the wording of the most well-known measures of (L2) grit including Grit-O (original version) and Grit-S (short version) scales is problematic due to using positive and negative wording for separate facets of grit or not considering the long-term aspect of grit in the items. In addition to the content of the scales, there have been some concerns about the factor structure of (L2) grit that whether (L2) grit should be considered as a higher-order construct or a two-factor model. Moreover, with regard to predictive validity, while previous studies in general education have shown modest relations between grit and academic achievement, this relation has been found to be stronger especially when domain-specific grit is used. After a critical review of these issues, I will propose some recommendations so that future researchers can use to address the issues reviewed above and to see whether these suggestions can yield more promising findings for L2 grit research.

Transforming the EMPATHICS Model Into a Workable E4MC Model of Language Learner Well-Being

ABSTRACT. This paper presents a critical analysis of the EMPATHICS model of language learner well-being proposed by Oxford (2016) as a prerequisite first step to validate this model. The analysis was guided by the theories in the field of language learning and teaching as well as by some elaborations and suggestions originally made by Rebecca Oxford herself. The massive overlap between the dimensions in the EMPATHICS and the absence of operationalization in the literature indicate that the model is acronym-driven rather than theory-based. A thorough revision of the model is needed to eliminate overlap between the dimensions. We argue that empathy, emotions, emotional intelligence, engagement, motivation, and character strengths of language learners (E4MC) lie at the heart of the EMPATHICS model and that all the other dimensions are theoretically interrelated with these more limited number of dimensions. A revised, trimmed-down E4MC model of language learner well-being would allow the operationalization of the construct and could lead to the future development of an instrument that could be further validated.

09:00-10:50 Session 16G: Positive psychology (Workshop)


The role of emotional intelligence, emotion regulation capacity, and appraisal style in the experience and regulation of language teachers’ classroom emotion(s)

ABSTRACT. Educational psychologists have established that teacher emotions play a significant role in both student learning (e.g., Frenzel et al., 2022) and teacher wellbeing (Hascher et al., 2021). Specifically, students’ perception of teachers’ emotions may impact the relationship they built with them (Spilt et al., 2011) and their evaluation of instructional quality (Frenzel et al., 2021), potentially affecting student engagement and motivation. Simultaneously, teachers’ awareness of how their emotion display impacts students and their adherence to emotional display rules through emotion regulation can result in emotional labor, affecting teachers’ wellbeing (Chang, 2009).

In second language acquisition, research found empirical evidence for emotional complexity (Goetze, 2023) and the frequent application of emotion regulation strategies (Dumančić et al., 2022) in language teachers. This exploratory study examines whether individual differences in emotion regulation capacities, emotional intelligence, and appraisal style play a systematic role in language teachers’ experiences of emotions and the application of emotion-regulation strategies in classroom situations.

To that end, I conduct an online survey study that is grounded in cognitive appraisal theory (Scherer et al., 2001) and draws on vignette methodology (Goetze, 2023). A diverse sample of language teachers rate their emotional intelligence (TEIQue; Petrides, 2009), emotion regulation capacity (ERQ; Gross & John, 2003), and cognitive appraisal style (CAS; Skinner & Brewer, 2002) before responding to three text-based vignettes, reporting their appraisals, emotions, and emotion-regulation strategies.

Data is analyzed using multiple regressions with appraisals, emotions, and emotion-regulation strategies as outcome variables and emotional intelligence, emotion regulation capacity, and appraisal style as explanatory variables. Findings illuminate the role individual differences in language teachers’ emotional experiences and their regulation in concrete classroom scenarios. Implications for teacher training and future research are discussed.

Embracing Creativity as an Individual Difference in SLA

ABSTRACT. Psychologists have long studied creativity in many contexts (Cropley, 2011). The study of creativity as an individual difference in second language acquisition is a newer area of research that is steadily gaining more interest (e.g., McDonough et al., 2015; Mackey, 2020; Fernández-Fontecha, 2021). This workshop will explore the PLL5 conference theme of expanding horizons by delving into practical classroom applications of language learner creativity and looking forward to all that is yet to be learned. Today’s communicative and task-based language approaches consistently require students to be creative in order to succeed at classroom activities and high-stakes assessments. At the same time, current research indicates that cognitively creative students demonstrate various advantages in language learning (Pipes, 2023). The workshop will begin with a brief explanation of the existing knowledge on the relationship between creativity and second language acquisition. Participants will then consider how existing language proficiency standards (CEFR, ACTFL, etc.) require students to be creative in terms of four standard elements of creativity: fluency, flexibility, originality, and elaboration. Next, participants will learn and practice designing classroom activities and assessments that support students who struggle with creative thought, as well as how to leverage students’ existing creative strengths to develop skills in all modalities. The workshop will conclude with a discussion of all that remains to be discovered about creativity as an individual difference in second language acquisition and tips for both educators and researchers who are interested in pursuing this emergent strand of research.

09:00-10:50 Session 16H: Learner Psychology
Boosting linguistic majors' self-esteem in an extracurricular project: A mixed-method study.

ABSTRACT. Given the complexity of the language learning experience (Piechurska-Kuciel, 2020), learner-centredness expands far beyond providing learners with opportunities to reflect on the learning process, allowing them to contribute learning content, or incorporating learner training in the curriculum (Nunan, 2015). As posited by Oxford (2017), a vital component of metaknowledge, underlying self-regulation in L2 learning, is person knowledge, with its complete focus on the individual and its scope involving not merely the knowledge of one’s needs or interests, but also one’s possibilities. Perceptions of the latter strongly depend on self-esteem (SE), which encompasses self-competence (SC), or the valuative experience of oneself as a casual agent, and self-liking (SL), or the valuative experience of oneself as a social object (Tafarodi & Swann, 2001). In order to support linguistic majors at a major university in Poland in SE development, we invited them to participate in an extra-curricular project focusing on the skills particularly desirable by contemporary employers. Relying on insights from 36 linguistic majors, who completed the project and provided their responses to the Polish adaptation of the Self-Liking/Self-Competence-R Scale (SLCS-R; Szpitalak & Polowczyk, 2015), we measured the level of SE before and after our intervention and conducted thematic analysis (TA; Braun & Clarke, 2021) of written feedback from 12 project participants. Statistical analyses revealed significant increases in SE in the investigated group (but not the control group), with regard to both SC and SL. In parallel, the results of TA indicated that project participants particularly appreciated the opportunity to reflect on the links between the skills gained in course of their linguistic studies and their personal goals as well as the opportunity to conceptualise their career development. We believe that the outcomes of our study provide support for expanding the range of interventions conducted through extracurricular projects in tertiary language education.

Enhancing Learners' Self-efficacy of Learning Phrasal Verbs and Providing Peer Assessment

ABSTRACT. Self-efficacy (Bandura, 1986) - one’s beliefs of their own abilities to perform a particular task - has been shown to be relevant to language learning (Goetze & Driver, 2022). Thus, fostering self-efficacy beliefs through peer assessment or enhancing self-efficacy in providing peer assessment could also prove useful. This study explored the perceived changes in advanced language learners’ self-efficacy of using phrasal verbs in writing as well as changes in perceived self-efficacy of giving feedback to peers about using phrasal verbs. To this end, we conducted a self-efficacy intervention study (Warner & French, 2020) with a qualitative design. The participants were two groups (ngroup1=16, ngroup2=14) of first-year Hungarian undergraduate English majors attending a general English language development seminar taught by the same teacher. Group 1 served as the control and Group 2 was the treatment group. Pre-intervention, baseline narrative data were collected about learners’ peer assessment experiences. Then, both groups were tested to make sure the phrasal verbs to be learnt were unknown to them. Both groups were given controlled learning tasks and a final open-ended written productive task involving the phrasal verbs. The treatment group received specific guidelines on giving feedback to peers, while the control group did not. Then, both groups were asked to provide peer feedback. Finally, written data on perceived changes in self-efficacy related to the use of phrasal verbs and to providing peer assessment were gathered with open-ended questions. The responses were systematically analyzed with qualitative data analytic techniques and the Atlas.ti software. The results of the two groups were also contrasted qualitatively. Findings suggest that by explicitly training learners to assess their peers’ performances not only enhances their peers’ self-efficacy beliefs of being able to use phrasal verbs adequately in writing, but they also perceived themselves more capable of providing feedback on their peers’ performance.

Preliminary development and validation of language anxiety scales beyond the foreign language classroom context

ABSTRACT. Language anxiety (LA) has increasingly been recognized as an influential factor for language learning, language achievement and language maintenance (Horwitz, 2001; Scovel, 1978; Sevinç, 2016). A popular tool used to assess LA is the foreign language classroom anxiety scale (FLCAS), developed by Horwitz et al. (1986). Previously, LA has been primarily examined in the foreign language classroom context, and only few studies have investigated LA in other contexts, such as heritage language contexts and non-traditional classroom settings (Jee, 2022; Sevinç & Backus 2017; Sevinç 2018). The limited research may in part be due to a lack of instruments adequately capturing language anxiety outside of the traditional classroom context. As such, this study will focus on the development and preliminary validation of language anxiety scales that capture competency-specific language anxiety (speaking, writing, listening, and reading), which can be used in heritage and non-traditional language contexts. The speaking anxiety scale was based on a modified short version of the FLCAS. For the writing anxiety scale, the Second Language Writing Anxiety Inventory (SLWAI), developed by Cheng (2004) was adapted. The listening anxiety scale was based on the Foreign Language Listening Anxiety Scale developed by Kim (2000) and adapted from the shorter version by Tallon (2006). Finally, the reading anxiety scale was adapted from the Foreign Language Reading Anxiety Scale (FLRAS) by Saito et al. (1999). Data will be collected from heritage and non-traditional language learners. Validation will include item analysis, exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis, and reliability and validity assessments. This measure presents a starting point for an overarching competency specific anxiety scale that can be used in- and outside of traditional classroom education.

11:00-11:50 Session 17A: Teacher Psychology
Navigating the transition from in-person to emergency remote teaching: The importance of teacher agency for language teacher well-being.

ABSTRACT. The pedagogical challenges language teachers face when teaching online during emergency remote teaching (ERT) and strategies for dealing with those challenges have been relatively well-documented in recent years. Far less attention, however, has been given to the emotional well-being of teachers during ERT especially in the initial stages when they are expected to navigate the transition from in-person to online teaching at short notice and often with little-to-no training. Understanding the factors impacting emotional well-being during this transition could lead to improved strategies for dealing with the sudden change in teaching environment, and ultimately make the transition smoother. This study, therefore, examines the ways in which English language teachers dealt with being thrust from in-person teaching into ERT with a specific focus on emotional well-being during the transition. In-depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 7 English language teachers during an extended period of ERT while delivering English language lessons to students at a vocational college in China. A thematic analysis of interview transcripts triangulated with data from teachers’ lesson observations and an online survey were interpreted within the framework of self-determination theory. Findings show that the challenges arising from delivering ERT at short notice negatively impacted teachers’ emotional well-being. However, findings also reveal that the majority of participants developed teacher agency, especially in the form of collaborative interaction with colleagues, in an attempt to deal with negative emotions and other affective variables. This ultimately led teachers to embrace the challenges associated with ERT. Results contribute to a fuller understanding of the impact of ERT on language teacher emotional well-being by illustrating the various coping strategies employed by individual teachers. Findings may provide valuable information to teachers and educational institutions about how to foster teacher agency to mitigate factors negatively impacting emotional well-being when moving from in-person teaching to ERT.

Mapping the professional identities of pre-service EFL teachers through poetry writing: Insights from an exploratory study in Hungary

ABSTRACT. As a contribution to research on language teacher identity (LTI), this study looks into poems written by pre-service EFL teachers in Hungary through the lens of Dialogic Self Theory (Henry, 2019) and Possible Selves Theory (Kubanyiova, 2017), with a focus on the facets of professional identity displayed in this type of discursive data. The poems collected from the 35 participants are indicative of the identity acts and the varied identity positions of individuals, but the study also seeks to outline some characteristic patterns in the examined teacher community and offer an analytical framework for further research. By showing and analyzing several poems from the dataset, the study aims to present an innovative methodology in which poetry writing serves as (1) a classroom activity for enhancing teacher reflection and (2) an instrument for researching the professional identities of pre-service EFL teachers. On top of that, the study offers insights into identity conflicts, positionings, emotions, and self-appraisals, which are known to collectively act as catalysts to pre-service EFL teachers’ professional development.

References Henry, A. (2019). A drama of selves: Investigating teacher identity development from dialogical and complexity perspectives. Studies in Second Language Learning and Teaching, 9(2), 263-285. Kubanyiova, M. (2017). Understanding language teachers’ sense-making in action through the prism of future self guides. In G. Barkhuizen (Ed.), Reflections on language teacher identity research (pp. 100-105). Routledge.

11:00-11:50 Session 17B: Language teaching (Workshop)
Intuition in Practice: Reflecting on the Dynamicity of Language Teaching and Research

ABSTRACT. A simple Internet search will elicit numerous references to teachers as artists, mixing intricate palettes to dynamically occasion learning opportunities for the particular individuals composing a class. Whether one adheres to such descriptions or not, it goes without saying that during the course of a single lesson, language teachers make hundreds of on-the-spot decisions about how to proceed. If concurrently engaged in practitioner research and teaching, even more so. Intuition plays a vital role in the optimal distribution of mental resources, allowing experienced practitioners to make such decisions quickly, based on tacit knowledge and an accurate sense of what they feel is best in any given moment. Developing this sense of intuition takes years of practice, although our actions based on intuitions may not always be the most facilitative for the circumstances at hand. Yet, while teacher cognition more generally has received significant theoretical and empirical attention (see Borg, 2015, for an overview), intuition remains relatively underexplored. In this workshop, we will commence by looking at the anatomy of intuition, drawing out its many different qualities. Based on past research and tentative findings from the presenters, the majority of the workshop will then engage with different forms of practitioner intuition: mood assessment, improvisation, problem avoidance, envisaging direction, learning opportunity creation, and student-personalised actions. After a brief introduction of each, the facilitators will prompt participants to consider and discuss with fellow attendees their experiences of such different forms of intuition. We anticipate that the session will be empowering for participants, encouraging them to recognize the ways in which metacognitive strategies (such as examining and reflecting on classroom data) can play a part in improving both our teaching/researching, as well as our mental health.

Borg, S. (2015) Teacher Cognition and Language Education. Bloomsbury Academic.

11:00-11:50 Session 17C: ESP Teacher Identity & Motivation
Teacher identity and the dynamics of shared expertise in the ESP classroom

ABSTRACT. One of the particularities of teaching a language for specific purposes is that, often, students know more about the target discipline than the teacher (Hutchinson & Waters, 1987). As Hall puts it, in LSP classrooms, “the relative status of teachers and learners is changed: compared with the more traditional view of the teacher as the expert, LSP carries with it the concept of shared expertise” (Hall, 2013), in which teachers and learners alternate expert and non-expert postures throughout classroom interactions and activities (Carras, 2017).

The aim of this paper is to explore teacher identity constructions in these situations of shared expertise. It seeks to offer insight into the following research questions:

• How do ESP teachers view their role(s) in the classroom? • How do they position themselves in relation to students’ fields of study? • How do they enact their roles as non-experts in interactions involving discipline-specific knowledge?

My presentation will report on a qualitative study which included classroom observations, interaction analysis, and semi-structured and stimulated-recall interviews with two ESP teachers in a French university.

In the first part of my talk, I will examine different definitions of teacher professional identity and show the relevance of multiple theoretical approaches (Varghese et al., 2005). I will focus particularly on: · Identity as an internal process, involving self-images, beliefs, and meanings teachers give to their work; · identity as a social and relational process; · identity as a discursive and narrative process, involving ways we present ourselves to others through discourse and action (Barkhuizen, 2017).

I will then introduce the study, the methods used and how they contributed to investigating the different aspects of teacher identity. Finally, I will reflect on the ways shared expertise can foster not only student learning and empowerment but also teacher confidence and sense of purpose.

Synergistic Effect of Feedback-Seeking Behavior on Teachers' and Students' Motivation in an ESP Classroom

ABSTRACT. The concept of feedback-seeking behaviors (FSB) is being utilized for the first time in the context of English language teaching to examine teachers' classroom practices aimed at soliciting feedback from students. These activities are designed to collect students' comments and perceptions of teaching and their own learning, evaluate their learning progress, and identify opportunities for improving the overall classroom environment. ESP lecturers participating in the study sought feedback on various aspects of their teaching practice, class management, teacher-student interactions, and materials through varying feedback solicitation strategies.

This study employed a qualitative experiment design, combining qualitative strategies with elements of experimental design to investigate the case of two lecturers and eight students in English for Specific Purposes (ESP) classrooms. Mentoring sessions for the lecturers were held, and in-depth interviews with teachers and students were conducted upon formative feedback collections during an academic term in Iran.

The findings highlighted the positive and synergistic effects of feedback solicitation practices on teachers’ and students’ motivation and students’ engagement. Moreover, these practices fostered rapport and care in the classroom. In addition to providing practical lessons on effective and non-threatening feedback solicitation methods in English classes, this study also interprets teachers' motivation through the framework of feedback-seeking behaviors (FSB) costs and values. Furthermore, the results contribute to the current knowledge of teacher motivation research in several ways. Firstly, it explores how teachers' motivation, driven by self-supported professional development motives, is manifested in FSBs, which can be viewed as micro-level continuous professional development activities. Secondly, it examines how teachers' motivation influences students' motivation, drawing from the lens of Self-determination Theory and its micro-level theories like Cognitive Evaluation Theory. Specifically, it demonstrates how teachers' support for autonomy and student voice can enhance students' intrinsic motivation, which, in turn, positively impacts teacher’s motivation, practice, and psychological fulfillment.

11:00-11:50 Session 17D: Language Learning Anxiety
The effects of foreign language attitude on Flemish secondary education EFL learner’s foreign language enjoyment and anxiety’

ABSTRACT. Learning a language in a classroom context can often be both stressful and enjoyable for students. Whereas enjoyment allows for more language intake, anxiety can inhibit language learning (LL) (e.g. Dewaele and MacIntyre, 2019). Furthermore, a person’s attitude towards a certain language might impact language production positively or negatively (e.g. Getie, 2020) and has been shown to influence both anxiety and enjoyment for British students learning French (Dewaele, 2017). The positive politico-cultural beliefs in Flanders towards the English language (Dewaele, 2005) raise the question whether Flemish students’ foreign language attitude also strongly correlates with their foreign language anxiety (FLCA) and enjoyment (FLE) and whether those emotional variables subsequently affect their language learning. This study’s main aim is to provide insights into that specific matter. Additionally, it examines differences between gender, age and teacher attitude. 146 Flemish secondary school students (84 female and 62 male) were asked to fill out a survey containing twenty questions in total on foreign language anxiety (adapted from Horwitz, 1986), enjoyment (adapted from Botes et al., 2021) and attitude (adapted from Somblingo, 2020). Moreover, students were presented with two open-ended questions, inquiring about a recollection of a good and bad episode of a past English class, providing the study with a qualitative body in addition to the quantitative results. Finally, the students’ teachers (N=3) were also asked to complete a survey on their attitude towards English as a foreign language. The present study showed significant positive correlations between both students’ positive attitude and FLE and positive attitude and FLCA. Furthermore, significant gender differences between FLE and FLCA were found. Following the open-ended questions, this study revealed FLE experiences to be more task-oriented, whereas FLCA had been elicited through both tasks and teachers’ actions. Implications and possible directions for future research will be discussed in our presentation.

Heritage language anxiety – Influential factors and adolescent heritage speakers´ perspectives.

ABSTRACT. Language anxiety (LA) describes the apprehension or fear experienced when a language user is expected to perform in a target language (Sevinç, 2016). Most research on LA has focused on the foreign language classroom context, while studies on exploring LA in an im/migrant context are limited (Jee, 2022; Sevinç & Backus 2017; Sevinç 2018). This paper focuses on heritage language anxiety experienced by adolescent French and German heritage speakers in Denmark. Multiple studies have indicated that degree of exposure and frequency of use significantly influences LA (Jee, 2020; Kristen, Seuring & Stanat, 2019; Santos, Gorter & Cenoz, 2017). However, no previous study has examined the direct link between LA and different exposure types to the heritage language. Therefore, three heritage language exposure groups will be subject to this project: (1) adolescents who attend a French/German school in Denmark (2) adolescents who take part in German/French mother tongue classes, and finally (3) adolescents who primarily speak German/French in the home. A further aim is to investigate the feeling of heritage language anxiety from adolescent heritage speakers´ perspectives. Is anxiety the right term here? How will students express and describe their feelings with respect to their heritage languages? A mixed methods approach will be implemented consisting of a questionnaire, language portraits and interviews. The research questions are: RQ1: How is language anxiety experienced differently/similarly between different heritage language exposure groups? RQ2: What factors (socio-linguistic and socio-emotional) contribute to language anxiety experienced by German and French heritage speakers in Denmark? RQ3: How do adolescent heritage speakers describe and define heritage language anxiety? The data will contribute to further deepen our understanding of heritage language anxiety and which factors play a role with specific focus on how adolescents experience and conceptualize LA.

11:00-11:50 Session 17E: Language learning and teaching
Power relations and control of the space in Communicative Language Anxiety processes in the Basque Country: a gender perspective

ABSTRACT. Based on the theory of performativity, the production of gender is subjected to the repetition and stylisation of specific social norms that are at the core of the binary subject division scheme (Butler, 2004). In the context of language learning, the recreation of such acts generates a special interest since language learning is an interactional process in which the (re)production of individual and social discourse takes place. Power, control, and knowledge are key factors that emerge in the exchange of discourse, and they have a large impact on the interactional patterns at hand (Foucault, 1966). By now, it has been established that gender impacts Communicative Language Anxiety (CLA) processes (Pavlenko, 2001). Schools and classrooms are socialising agents that transmit the values of a given society and are key in forging students’ subjectivities (Trujillo, 2021). Therefore, the effects of a sociopolitical context that largely benefits certain forms of masculinity are expected in the generation of CLA. However, the role that power and control might play in CLA generation is still understudied. The present study aims to explore the role of power and control in relation to CLA processes in the language learning context of the Basque Autonomous Community. To do so, semi-structured interviews were conducted, and data obtained through them was analysed with the Atlas.ti software. Participants included 50 Secondary School multilingual students that ranged from ages 14 to 18. Students were learning at least one Foreign Language and had three compulsory language subjects at school. Thematic data analysis was employed to explore the data and obtain the results. Results arising from the thematic analysis were compared to findings in relevant previous literature. Power relations and control appeared to be intertwined with the (re)production of masculinity and played a major role in classroom dynamics and student relationships.

EFL teachers’ beliefs and emotions about assessment: A metaphorical analysis

ABSTRACT. This presentation derives from an investigation conducted in the context of an Argentinian PhD program on Linguistics and Languages. The aims of the investigation were: 1) to identify and analyze EFL university teacher’s beliefs and emotions about assessment; 2) to establish relationships between teachers’ beliefs and emotions and their assessment practices. Assessment is known to be of paramount importance in the field of education in general, and in language education in particular, since it provides information to reorient teaching, contributes to students’ learning progress and certifies acquired levels of competence (Anijovich & Cappelletti, 2017). However, despite its relevance, assessment usually remains resistant to innovations and rooted in traditional practices. Moreover, assessment has been described as an emotional endeavor (Steinberg, 2018), as the decisions teachers make are influenced by their emotions and intrinsically intertwined with their beliefs (Barcelos, 2015). Therefore, inquiring into teachers’ beliefs and emotions could provide valuable information to reach a deeper understanding of assessment practices that may lead to more effective and innovative approaches. A qualitative interpretative study was designed to explore EFL university teachers’ beliefs and emotions about assessment by analyzing the conceptual metaphors (Lakoff & Johnson, 1986) used to conceptualize it. Metaphors are considered to be useful tools to encourage personal reflection and to shed light into the implicit pedagogical assumptions that underlie teaching experiences. Semi-structured interviews, written narratives and philosophies of teaching were collected and analyzed through inductive thematic analysis. Preliminary results showed that the metaphors used by teachers revealed contradictory emotions about assessment, which were, in turn, related to their beliefs in different ways. The presenter will describe data collection sources and discuss some initial findings from a contextual perspective. Pedagogical and research implications will also be addressed by highlighting the value of inquiring into beliefs and emotions for achieving more reflective assessment practices.

11:00-11:50 Session 17F: Young Learners
Setting them up for (grammatical) success: a pilot study on the impact of metalinguistic explanations in young learners’ metalinguistic awareness and language learning aptitude

ABSTRACT. Metalinguistic awareness (MA), defined as the ability to reflect on language as an object rather than using it as a tool with an instrumental purpose (Bialystok, 2001), is increasingly gaining attention in language acquisition studies. Research has demonstrated that MA seems to be a predictor of achievement in a foreign language and makes a significant difference in limited input conditions such as a classroom setting. As a state-like construct, MA is susceptible to changes in time (Tellier & Roehr-Brackin, 2013) or as a response to an intervention (Kasprowicz et al., 2022). Likewise, the overlapping concept of language learning aptitude (LLA) also acts as an equally powerful predictor of attainment success in instructional settings (Muñoz, 2014). Given the scarce input that young EFL learners receive, targeting to develop these two abilities seems like a wise choice for making the most of their limited instruction time.

In this study, a classroom of 24 L1 Spanish 11-year-olds was divided into a treatment and a control group. We created an instructional sequence using explicit metalinguistic explanations (ME) that focused on two target forms (TF). As metalinguistic knowledge is a prerequisite for the development of MA, it was expected that these ME would have a positive effect on the treatment group learners’ scores in an MA (Tellier, 2013) and an LLA (MLAT-E; Carroll & Sapon, 2002) test. Likewise, we expected an increase in their oral and written accuracy regarding the TF. Using a pretest/post-test design, the children completed the MA and LLA tests and a dictogloss. The treatment group engaged with the ME between the pretest and the post-test stages. Results show significant differences between the treatment and the control groups regarding positive effects of ME on MA, LLA and accuracy. Both theoretical and pedagogical implications derived from these findings will be discussed.

Pre-task planning by child EFL learners: An exploratory study of the impact of L1 use on attention to form, L1 functions and attitudes

ABSTRACT. Pre-task planning (PTP), the learner’s preparation before task performance, is a pedagogical interventional effort that has been shown to improve fluency and complexity in adult learners’ speech (Ellis, 2009). However, in spite of the growing numbers of child foreign language learners worldwide (Enever, 2018), very little research has been carried out with this population regarding the language used for the PTP stage, specifically their first language (L1), which some second language (L2) acquisition approaches have considered a very important device mediating the learning process (De la Fuente & Goldenberg, 2022).

This study examined whether L1 or L2 use in PTP had a different impact on children’s attention to the target feature under study (3rd person –s). Moreover, the functions the L1 serves during interaction and the children’s attitudes to its use were considered. Eighteen (n = 18) 11-12 year-old children with an elementary proficiency level worked on a dictogloss task (Wajnryb, 1990) in pairs. They were divided into an L1 PTP, an L2 PTP and a control group. Their oral interaction was transcribed and analyzed for frequency, type and outcome of language related episodes (Swain & Lapkin, 1998) and L1 functions, and an exit questionnaire assessed their attitudes toward L1 use. The findings revealed that the children focused their attention on the form of the L2 during the dictogloss stage but very little attention was paid to the target structure –s. Moreover, PTP did not have a significant impact on the children’s attention to L2 form, although the L1 PTP dyads clearly devoted their attention to L2 form during the PTP stage. Neither PTP nor using their L1 in that stage had an effect on the children’s attitudes toward the use of their L1 in the EFL classroom. Pedagogical implications and lines for further research will be presented.

11:00-11:50 Session 17G: Learner Psychology
Exploring Role-Induced Variations in Willingness to Communicate

ABSTRACT. In an increasingly interconnected globalized world, effective communication plays a pivotal role in disseminating knowledge and exchanging ideas among individuals. Therefore, educators must adapt and expedite their approaches to nurture individuals who possess both the capacity and inclination to communicate. This inclination, referred to as Willingness to Communicate (WTC), is a multifaceted and intricate phenomenon that revolves around the likelihood of engaging in communication when individuals have a choice in the matter (McCroskey, 1992). The primary objective of this present study is to investigate participants' WTC when assuming distinct roles. To accomplish this, a qualitative methodology was employed, and data were gathered through semi-structured interviews, journal entries, and an inventory designed to self-assess participants' WTC levels at 15-minute intervals during their classess either as students or teachers. The analysis of the collected data unveiled that, in general, participants exhibit a willingness to communicate. Nevertheless, it is evident that assuming different roles, specifically those of a teacher and a student, exerts a substantial influence on their propensity to initiate and sustain communicative interactions. This research sheds light on the dynamic nature of WTC, emphasizing the significant impact of roles on individuals' communicative tendencies. The findings offer valuable insights into the realm of education highlighting the importance of fostering effective communication skills among learners.

Microanálisis del carácter dinámico de la voluntad de comunicarse en una segunda lengua de adultos hispanohablantes a través la práctica del drama.

ABSTRACT. La voluntad de comunicarse en una segunda lengua (VDC L2), es decir, “la voluntad de iniciar un discurso en un momento dado con una persona o personas específicas, utilizando una L2” (MacIntyre et al., 1998, p. 547), es fundamental para el aprendizaje por su impacto en la frecuencia de comunicación en L2 (MacIntyre y Charos, 1996). Fue teorizada como un sistema dinámico complejo, influido por multitud de variables cognitivas y afectivas, como la ansiedad lingüística (MacIntyre, 2020), lo que generó la necesidad de examinar técnicas pedagógicas con capacidad para interactuar con las fluctuaciones dinámicas de la VDC L2 (Dewaele, 2019). Una tarea pedagógica que desarrolla las habilidades orales en L2 es el drama (Galante y Thomson, 2017), definido como una tarea enfocada al uso de técnicas teatrales diseñadas para involucrar a los estudiantes en el aprendizaje (McAvoy y O'Connor, 2022). A pesar de su gran potencial para aliviar la ansiedad lingüística (Galante, 2018), un fuerte predictor de la VDC L2, ningún estudio ha examinado aún los factores del drama que interactuarían con la evolución dinámica de la VDC L2. El objetivo de este estudio fue, por lo tanto, explorar esta interacción con siete adultos hispanohablantes de nivel principiante e intermedio de francés L2, que participaron en quince talleres de drama repartidos en ocho semanas. Medimos su VDC L2 en tres momentos de la sesión utilizando el método idiodinámico (MacIntyre, 2012), que implica una autoevaluación del nivel de VDC L2 durante una tarea de drama, seguida de una entrevista de recuerdo estimulado. Las fluctuaciones dinámicas de la VDC trianguladas con análisis de contenido semántico de las entrevistas revelaron una fuerte interacción entre aspectos específicos del drama y factores psicoafectivos y sociales de la VDC. Se obtuvo una concordancia entre evaluadores de 0,89. Estos resultados se analizarán teniendo en cuenta estudios anteriores.

11:00-11:50 Session 17H: Teaching & Learning
Beliefs of Spanish and French teachers about (cross-linguistic) mediation – exploring the role of plurilingualism

ABSTRACT. This paper aims to explore the results of a quantitative study regarding German Spanish and French teachers’ beliefs towards (cross-linguistic) mediation, in general, and regarding the connections between mediation and plurilingualism, more specifically. Beliefs are a part of the concept of teacher cognition and “refer to ideas that individuals consider to be true” (Borg 2017, p.76). Teachers’ individual beliefs – which have cognitive, conative and affective dimensions – characterize them as people and may influence their behavior and thus their implementation of mediation tasks in the classroom (Borg 2017; Buehl & Beck 2015). Cross-linguistic mediation is hereby understood as the transfer of selected information from one language to another, considering the addressee, the meaning and the situation (Philipp & Rauch 2010). It has become an indispensable part of foreign language teaching through its implementation within the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages in 2001 and its Companion Volume in 2018 (Council of Europe 2020). Mediation enables and requires the inclusion of languages other than the target language in foreign language teaching, which contradicts the still prevalent curricular principle of monolingualism. This tension is also perceived by teachers, whose beliefs about mediation are characterized by reservations due to an increased use of the majority language (Gerwers 2020). This paper therefore aims at addressing this tension by looking at the results of my empirical large-scale study in Germany. The underlying research question is: How are Spanish and French teachers’ beliefs about mediation related to their beliefs about multilingual approaches in general? This question will be answered by descriptively analyzing the results of a self-designed survey – conducted September-December 2023 – and by testing for correlations between teachers’ beliefs about mediation and their beliefs about plurilingualism as well as their linguistic biography (t-test, regression, or other tests depending on data).

Motivational challenges faced by English teaching assistants in Spain: A survey study

ABSTRACT. Moving abroad to teach one’s language and culture is becoming increasingly common among recent US college graduates. One of these destinations is Spain, where these graduates arrive each year to teach English as teaching assistants (Spanish Ministry of Education, 2022). A number of factors might affect how these graduates carry out their teaching task in an international context. How motivated they are or how their motivation might fluctuate throughout time when having to deal with linguistic and cultural barriers, and the attitudes they develop towards the host culture and people are some of these factors. An analysis of their motivation and attitudes might help us better understand their teaching performance and how the latter might result in a better (or worse) student engagement and success in their classes. Teacher motivation has been investigated in different teaching contexts and levels (e.g., Dornyei & Ushioda, 2021; Kubanyiova, 2019), but research on teaching assistants living abroad remains scarce. In this paper, I will share the results of a motivation battery test completed by 15 college graduates from the United States who are currently teaching English in Spain as teaching assistants in primary, middle and high schools. All of them have been teaching in Spain between one and three years. The test employed is the Work Tasks Motivation Scale for Teachers (WTMST), developed by Fernet, Senecal, Guay, Marsh and Dowson (2008). This scale was designed to assess five different motivational constructs: intrinsic motivation, identified regulations, introjected regulations, external regulations, and amotivation in a series of teaching tasks, such as class preparation or evaluation of students. The shortened version of the scale employed for this study consists of 30 likert-scale items. Findings aim to shed some light on the relationship between teachers' motivation and their performance in an international and unfamiliar context.

12:00-13:50 Session 18: POSTER SESSION
Wellbeing and identities of English language teachers in Costa Rica: Paradoxes and contradictions

ABSTRACT. Teacher wellbeing and teacher identity are crucial for teaching practices and thus subsequently learners’ achievement (Caprara et al., 2006; Day & Gu, 2009). Both are defined by personal characteristics and social contexts, and there are tensions in understandings about the respective role of each. Therefore, I employed an ecological perspective which allows the researcher to explore the interrelatedness of personal and contextual elements in the development of teacher wellbeing and identities (see Falecki & Mann, 2020; Sulis et al., 2023). In this talk, I report on a qualitative study, which set out to examine how English Language Teachers (ELTs) in Costa Rica perceive and experience their wellbeing and identities from an ecological perspective. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with six volunteer ELTs generating approximately 7.5 hours of audiodata. The findings reveal a fascinating paradox that the ecological perspective allows to emerge. Essentially, the participants report feeling mostly positive about their ecologies; however, as they continue to talk about their situations, more nuanced contradictions emerge. For example, participants indicate that teaching two jobs due to low salaries is detrimental to their wellbeing but they do not recognise any problems in the wider societal and institutional ecologies – somehow failing to connect the role of policy, social status of teachers, and institutional support as being connected directly to the stress they experience in having to work two jobs. These findings suggest that further work is needed to understand how aware teachers are of the role of societal factors in impacting their wellbeing on a personal level and what can be done to raise their wellbeing literacy and trigger more active support within social systems in Costa Rica for educators.

"It reminded me... I do really want to learn it'’: Reengagement in beginner learners of Mandarin in UK higher education

ABSTRACT. Learning a new language is often a dynamic journey with periods of progress and challenges, demanding continuous engagement throughout. In the recent decade, many studies have investigated how language learners engage with classroom activities in different manners (e.g. in behaviour, cognition, emotions) (Mercer and Dörnyei, 2020), however, one aspect engagement research seems to overlook is how discouraged students later ‘reengage’ when perceived learning opportunities occur. This current study is a longitudinal project that looks at student engagement change over the first academic year in their Mandarin course at a British university. Adopting a Person-in-Context Relational View, it applies a detailed lens (Ushioda, 2020) to capture the fluctuations of eight Anglophone learners’ engagement over a year. To document their journeys holistically, a data-rich approach has been applied using multiple data sources, which includes three in-depth interviews with student participants, a motivation tracker that records students’ self-report weekly engagement, three semi-structured interviews with teacher participants, and twenty classroom observations. From preliminary analysis, the study has found that students' interest in Mandarin and its related cultural phenomena appears to be a salient factor for their reengagement, which may function as a 'switch' in the learning process (Ainley, 2012) that enables demoralised students to reflect and identify subsequent learning opportunities. Furthermore, it has showed that positive changes in students' environmental support and environmental challenge (Shernoff et al., 2016) could contribute to their willingness to reengage in learning activities, including changes in- and outside the language classroom (e.g. more challenging but reachable language tasks, less competing workload from other modules). Interestingly, a co-adapting process between students and their main language tutor is reflected in the study, which demonstrates how the teacher's openness to adjust teaching style/strategies during the course could help shift demotivated students' perceptions of Mandarin learning and therefore encourage their reengagement.

The impact of emotional factors on the degree of oral fluency of Chinese learners of Spanish as a foreign language

ABSTRACT. Recently, there has been a growing interest in foreign language (FL) learners’ emotions, encompassing both positive and negative aspects, as well as their impact on performance. To date, no study has been found that investigates the emotions of Chinese learners of Spanish as a FL from a holistic perspective. Even though oral fluency is a crucial indicator of oral proficiency and overall FL competence, the relationships between FL emotions and different indicators of oral fluency remain largely unexplored. Previous research has identified a negative relationship between Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety (FLCA) and oral fluency (e.g., Pérez Castillejo, 2019). However, the associations between other FL emotions and oral fluency remain relatively under-researched.

This ongoing PhD project explores the relationships between FL emotions and their impact on utterance fluency. It will involve approximately 50 learners of FL Spanish with L1 Chinese and L2 English. The FL emotions considered in this study include Foreign Language Enjoyment (FLE), Foreign Language Boredom (FLB) and FLCA. Utterance fluency will be assessed in three dimensions: speed, breakdown, and repair fluency (Skehan, 2009). Potential mediators and moderators, such as willingness to communicate and emotion regulation, will also be considered. Data related to FL emotions will be collected through validated self-report questionnaires, such as the short-form FLCA scale (Botes et al., 2022), the Chinese version of the FLE scale (Li et al., 2018) and FLB scale (Li et al., 2023). To gather speech samples for the analysis of utterance fluency, participants will be required to complete two oral monologue tasks in Spanish. Data collection is expected to be completed by March 2024.

This study can contribute to understanding the role of emotions in FL speech production and will address implications for FL teachers to enhance students' oral proficiency, especially within the context of learning Spanish in China.

How do resilience and enjoyment encourage teachers to adopt unfamiliar teaching method: A study of tertiary level English teachers in Japan

ABSTRACT. In SLA, teacher psychology research has been regarded as important as learner psychology research these days. One reason is that teacher psychology influences how teachers work overall. Teacher psychology and the way teachers teach are closely connected (e.g., Suemori, 2023). When teachers have a high level of enjoyment and well-being, and they are resilient enough, they can avoid frustration and burnout (e.g., Ergun & Dewaele, 2021). The other reason is that teacher psychology is contagious to learner psychology. When teachers experience enjoyment and happiness in their work, their students are also likely to experience them (e.g., Mercer & Kostoulos, 2018). Because of these reasons, teacher psychology is believed to be important, but the studies have not been conducted enough. Especially in the Japanese context, the number of studies is very limited. This study, therefore, focused on tertiary level English teachers in Japan and investigated their level of resilience and foreign language teaching enjoyment (FLTE). Participants were tertiary level English teachers working in Japan. First, the participants joined the questionnaire study on resilience and FLTE. Then some participants were interviewed to further understand their psychology and classroom teaching experiences. The findings of the study showed that the participants had a relatively high level of resilience and FLTE in general. As indicated in the previous studies, the level of resilience and FLTE were correlated. In case of teachers with high level of resilience and FLTE, they tended to implement the teaching method that they experience difficulties such as integrating content and language. They were more willing to adopt challenging method for them. The study indicated that the resilience and FLTE can be key factors in encouraging teachers to adopt unfamiliar teaching method for them.

Directed Motivational Currents (DMCs) in Second Language Teaching: A Multiple Case Study

ABSTRACT. Directed Motivational Current (DMC) is a motivational “flow” that characterizes periods of high and intense motivation above an individual’s normal levels. So far, the exploration of DMCs is still in its early stages. Most scholarly discussions have centered around Second Language (L2) students' DMCs, leaving L2 teachers relatively unexplored. In this study, I extended DMCs by providing an understanding of DMCs in L2 teachers. The research also delved into the dynamic affective properties and triggering factors that contribute to, sustain, or diminish teachers’ DMCs. In this presentation, I will share preliminary findings about how L2 teachers comprehend and experience their DMCs.

This research employed an in-depth, longitudinal qualitative multiple case study to obtain current occurring DMCs. It involved eight L2 teachers, representing different stages, educational levels, and teaching experiences in the Chinese context, as typical cases. Multi-method was adopted including semi-structured interviews, annotated motigraphs (graphical representations of motivation levels with annotations), and reflective blogs, two of which are conducted and processed through my bespoke website. This study adopts real-time analysis of DMCs and embraces an ecological perspective, enabling exploration not only of individual aspects but also contextually situated characteristics across various levels of their ecological context. The preliminary findings reveal that the participating teachers experienced and understood their DMCs in different ways depending on contextual circumstances embedded in the micro, meso, macro, and chrono systems of language education.

Assessing Accent Anxiety: Unraveling the Underlying Dimensions of Non-native Speakers’ Concern Over Their Foreign Accents

ABSTRACT. Non-native speakers (NNS) often experience anxiety in conjunction with challenges posed by their accented speech. Building on these insights, this paper introduces an instrument specifically designed to assess the source of NNSs’ accent anxiety, proposing a hierarchical three-factor model. The Accent Anxiety Scale (AAS) encompasses three distinct subscales: (1) NNS’s apprehension about negative evaluations about themselves, personally, tied to their non-standard pronunciation (Fear of Negative Evaluation), (2) concerns about rejection from the native speaker community because of their "foreign" pronunciation (Fear of Intergroup Rejection), and (3) anxieties over potential communication hurdles attributed to their pronunciation (Intelligibility Concerns). We evaluated the psychometric robustness of the AAS by analyzing data from 356 immigrant and international student NNSs at a western Canadian university. Through exploratory factor analysis, confirmatory factor analysis, and correlational studies, robust evidence emerges supporting the factor structure, reliability, and validity of the AAS. The findings not only support the use of the AAS in research, they also offer implications for pedagogical strategies aimed at alleviating NNSs’ accent anxiety.

12:50-13:50 Session 19: PLENARY SESSION

Prof. Peter MacIntyre. Cape Breton University, Sidney, Canada. PLL5 Closing Plenary talk: Willingness to communicate: Lessons for the psychology of Language Teaching