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08:30-09:45 Session 1: PLL5 WELCOME & Plenary talk

Prof. Gary Barkhuizen - University of Auckland, New Zealand: Plenary talk: Extending emotional reflexivity in short story analysis: How do you feel?



10:00-11:15 Session 3A: L2 Motivation
Exploring the rooted L2 self in Chinese students learning English and Japanese

ABSTRACT. The rooted L2 self is as ‘a heritage-oriented concept defined by strong feelings of connections to speakers of the language’ on which includes ‘historical knowledge, connection to one’s ancestors, identity, attachment…’ (MacIntyre et al., 2017, p. 512). It is an innovative motivational construct, because it questions the nature of the ought-to L2 self in the L2 Motivation Self System (Dörnyei, 2009) and connects the past with the present and the future. While the rooted L2 self was proposed based on learners of Gaelic in Canada, its explanatory power can be extended beyond heritage learners to many other contexts where there has been some history between the target language and the learner and their community. However, this construct has not received sufficient attention in language learning motivation research and thus needs to be further explored.

In this presentation, I will draw on data from my PhD study which investigated Chinese students’ motivation to learn English and Japanese to explore the explanatory power of the rooted L2 self in non-heritage learners and the mechanism of its motivational power. As my analysis will show, the learners believed that Chinese language is their root and saw foreign languages as a point for comparison to better understand Chinese language and culture. In the case of Japanese language, due to the cultural exchange between China and Japan in the Tang Dynasty, the learners were also motivated to learn Japanese as a means to search for their cultural roots. In this way, there was a sense of rooted L2 self in the Chinese students’ foreign language learning motivation. The presentation will end with a call for more attempts to bring the past into research on language learning motivation.

Effectiveness of vision intervention for Japanese EFL learners: A mixed-methods investigation

ABSTRACT. In Dörnyei’s (2009) L2 motivational self system (L2MSS), language learners’ future self-images are conceptualised as vision and possible selves, and are considered as key factors that affect L2 learners’ motivation. Previous studies have applied L2MSS to classroom teaching as “vision interventions” to motivate L2 learners, and those studies have confirmed the effectiveness of interventions in different research settings (e.g., Safdari, 2021; Sato, 2021). This study aims to examine the effectiveness of an intervention which aimed to enhance L2 learners’ L2-related vision in the Japanese EFL context. The intervention was carried out as a form of workshop which consists of seven 60-minute sessions including an introduction session. Participants were 13 university-level EFL learners in Japan. Activities included in the intervention were based on Dörnyei and Kubanyiova’s (2014) theoretical framework, Hadfield and Dörnyei’s (2013) activities, and previous studies conducted in different contexts. To examine the effectiveness of intervention, quantitative analysis of pre-/post-intervention questionnaire, and qualitative analysis of reflection notes and post-intervention interviews were combined. The questionnaire measured participants’ level of ideal L2 self, ought-to L2 self, and intended effort on learning English, and the scores were compared statistically. Also, qualitative data were analysed focusing on the developmental process of participants’ vision associated with their English use in the future. Results suggest that the intervention enhanced participants’ ideal L2 self and intended effort which have positive effects on language learning. Additionally, from the analysis of qualitative data, it was revealed that the participants (1) identified their future selves using English, (2) revisited their vision to consider whether their future selves are achievable, and (3) set goals and developed plans for future English learning during the intervention. Based on the results, this study concludes that vision intervention has a positive impact on Japanese EFL learners’ ideal L2 self and effort on learning English.

Using proxy variables to measure language proficiency – does it matter?

ABSTRACT. The use of proxy variables to measure L2 proficiency is a popular practice in research, with exam/test results, self-ratings of proficiency levels, and self-ratings of competencies frequently used. However, the extent to which these proficiency proxies can be regarded as 'true' measures of proficiency is uncertain. In addition, in examining a broader nomological network of predictor and outcome variables of proficiency, the question can be asked to what extent it matters when substituting language proficiency for a proxy measure in an explanatory model. This study aims to examine the intricacies of language proficiency measures and proxy variables by 1) determining to what extent 'true' proficiency is related to proxy variables of proficiency, and 2) whether explanatory models differ depending on the measure of proficiency used. Data will be collected from 300 English as a Foreign Language students in Spain. ‘True’ proficiency will be measured via the Oxford English Placement Test, with proxy variables of test/exam scores, grades, self-rated proficiency, and self-perceived competence included. The first research aim of comparing proxy variables and true proficiency scores will be compared via correlation coefficients, variance inflation factors, and dominance analysis. The second research aim will be tested via a series of explanatory models that include the commonly expected nomological network of L2 learning variables (i.e. the relationships between L2 proficiency, willingness to communicate, L2 engagement, L2 motivation, and language emotions). These models will be tested via structural equation modelling, with one model tested per proficiency proxy. The results of the various models will then be compared and contrasted in order to determine the nomological network changes that result from a change in proficiency measure. This study will therefore determine to what extent proxy variables can be substituted for ‘true’ proficiency in L2 individual differences research.

10:00-11:15 Session 3B: Teacher Psychology
Tracking foreign language teacher emotional reactions to student silence: An autoethnographic case study in Japan

ABSTRACT. While much has been researched regarding English language learner (ELL) perspectives on silence and pedagogical implications, the longitudinal negative effects of ELL silence on expatriate foreign language (FL) teachers is an under researched area of study. When considering that (a) Japanese FL classrooms are known to have high levels of silence as compared to the West, (b) expatriate FL teachers generally have a negative bias towards student silence, and (c) the fact that FL teacher attrition rates worldwide are reported to be increasing; this is a surprising gap in the field. Using dynamic systems theory, Bronfenbrenner's (1979) ecological systems theory, Barnlund's (1970) transactional model of communication, and Spilt et al.'s (2011) student-behavior mental representation model as a framework to investigate FL teacher emotional reactions to silence, the researcher conducted an autoethnographic event-based sampling study over a university term in Japan (98 days). In accordance to event-based sampling methodology, the researcher documented "in-the-moment" or "near-the-moment" incidences when emotional reactions to silence occurred. The main findings of this study are as follows: (1) Japanese ELLs are uncomfortable receiving direct FL teacher assistance around their peers, (2) negative reactions to Japanese ELL silence are linked to the establishment or disruption of classroom patterns, and (3) stress pertaining to teacher-teacher silence emerged after teacher-student stress stabilized mid-term. Regarding the third theme, suppressive surface acting and the need for social support were found to contribute to FL teacher stress. Negativity bias was also an influential factor when interpreting silence.

Cultivating Emotional Literacy in Language Teachers during Teacher Training

ABSTRACT. The language learning and teaching process is dynamic and replete with emotions. To establish a positive rapport and to create a conducive working environment, students and teachers depend on their emotional skills, that is, emotional literacy (EL). EL skills allow them to comprehend and display their emotions, manage them, show empathy, recognize emotions in others, and repair emotional damage (Steiner, 2003). Emotional intelligence (EI), while seemingly synonymous with EL, differs in its focus; namely, EI is turned inward as it examines one’s personal experiences and emotions, whereas EL highlights interaction, through which one understands their emotions better (Gillum, 2010). Both students and teachers experience their emotions individually but those emotions are elicited in their interplay with others. Given the prevalence of studies focusing on EI of language learners (e.g., Li & Dewaele, 2020, Resnik & Dewaele, 2021, Zhong & Zhang, 2012), this study hopes to bridge this research gap by examining some facets of emotional literacy in the context of foreign language teacher training programs.

The aim was to explore the experiences and attitudes of pre-service and in-service language university teachers in regard to using different EL skills in the academic setting. To attain these goals and acquire in-depth data, the author opted to use focus groups as a data collection method. A total of four focus groups were envisioned – two teacher and two student groups – in an effort to gather varied insights on the topic. Each focus group consisted of 6-10 individuals. The participants came from various graduate programs. Special activities were prepared to act as discussion starting points. They encompassed several EL domains, such as emotional awareness, managing own emotions, recognizing emotions of others, empathy, and repairing emotional damage. Given the breadth of the topic investigated, the findings will be presented at the conference.

10:00-11:15 Session 3C: Learning & Acquisition
How Skills-based Classroom Activities Shape Learners’ Foreign Language Enjoyment: A Mixed-Modelling Longitudinal Examination

ABSTRACT. Existing research on foreign language emotions has focused on the relationship between foreign language enjoyment and various individual and contextual factors (Dewaele et al., 2021). Classroom activities have been discovered to be of particular importance (Dewaele & MacIntyre, 2014). Although researchers have explored the enjoyment of classroom activities (Boudreau et al., 2018; Dao & Sato, 2021; Shirvan & Taherian, 2018, 2021; Li & Xu, 2019; Pan & Zhang, 2021; Li et al., 2020), more is needed to know about how classroom activities shape FLE in an English as a foreign language (EFL) context. This study examines how the enjoyment of certain skill-based activities changes over time and what factors contribute to its variances within and among foreign language learners. It adopts a longitudinal mixed-method approach. Over nine months, repeated surveys were employed to track the skill-related enjoyment of 160 EFL adolescent learners from three grades in a Saudi secondary school. The survey included items for rating the enjoyment of speaking, reading, listening, and writing activities, as well as items for assessing the amount of four factors linked with each activity: collaboration, control, creativity, and authenticity. Four classroom observations, eight stimulated recall interviews, and ten semi-structured interviews were conducted. A repeated analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed to investigate the differences in skill-specific enjoyment on a particular occasion. The primary statistical analysis was conducted via linear mixed-effects models (LMMs) by constructing random intercept and slope models. The ANOVA results showed significant differences in skill-specific enjoyment on the first occasion. LMMs revealed that only speaking enjoyment increased significantly over time while reading, listening, and writing enjoyment remained stable. Interestingly, intra-individual enjoyment of the four skills increased significantly over time. Moreover, learners' initial levels of the four skill-specific enjoyment varied considerably. Hence, while learners' enjoyment of speaking and listening continued to diverge uniquely, their enjoyment of reading and writing became relatively consistent with the group patterns. At the intra-individual level, collaboration was predictive of speaking enjoyment, creativity predicted speaking and reading enjoyment, whereas control contributed to writing enjoyment. At the inter-learner level, collaboration significantly contributed to the enjoyment of speaking, listening, and writing, while creativity predicted just speaking enjoyment. The enjoyment of skill-related activities was unaffected by authenticity. Both statistical and thematic findings suggest that certain features of the skill-based activities and other individual and contextual factors positively impact learners' enjoyment. Different learners rely on distinct factors, and so does their enjoyment of a specific activity. This study adds considerably to future teaching methods in developing classroom activities with positive features that lead to activity enjoyment.

Dewaele, J. M., Botes, E., & Greiff, S. (2021). Sources and effects of Foreign Language Enjoyment, Anxiety and Boredom: A Structural Equation Modelling Approach. Li, C., Jiang, G., & Dewaele, J. M. (2018). Understanding Chinese high school students’ foreign language enjoyment: validation of the Chinese version of the foreign language enjoyment scale. System, 76, 183-196. MacIntyre, P. D., & Dewaele, J.-M. (2014). The two faces of Janus? Anxiety and enjoyment in the foreign language classroom. Studies in Second Language Learning and Teaching, IV (2), 237-274

An Examination of How Feedback-Seeking Behaviors Predict Learner Preferences for Different Types of Corrective Feedback

ABSTRACT. Adopting a learner-centered perspective on corrective feedback (CF) that moves beyond the mechanistic view of learners as passive recipients of CF and recasting them as proactive agents in the feedback process, Papi et al. (2019) have recently proposed the notion of feedback-seeking behavior (FSB), which represents learners’ engagement in seeking, processing, and using CF by methods of monitoring (gathering and using feedback present in the environment) and inquiry (directly asking other for feedback). Recent studies have highlighted the effects of learners’ growth mindsets, ideal selves, self-efficacy beliefs, self-regulation, and academic buoyancy in the quality and quantity of their FSB (Bondarenko, 2020; Kessler, 2021; Papi et al., 2020; Xu, 2021; Xu & Wang 2023; Yao & Zhou, 2022). The present study builds on research in this area by exploring the relationship between L2 learners’ FSB and their preferences for explicit or implicit types or the absence of CF. Questionnaire data were collected from 537 learners of Spanish as a foreign language at two North American universities. Factor analytic and multiple regression results showed two patterns. Feedback Monitoring positively predicted preferences for the more explicit forms of CF (Explicit Correction with Metalinguistic Feedback, Prompt with Metalinguistic Clue, and Prompt with Repetition) and negatively predicted the preference for Conversational Recasts and No CF. Feedback Inquiry, on the other hand, positively predicted a preference for Conversational Recasts, Prompts with Repetition, and No CF. These findings suggest that due to differences in their motivational characteristics (e.g., Papi et al., 2019; 2020), learners with different FSB patterns analyze the cost and value associated with different types of CF differently, which in turn leads to various FSB patterns and preferences for CF, and lack thereof. Theoretical and pedagogical implications will be discussed.

Phase shifts in the individual learners’ development of complexity, accuracy, and fluency in L2 English writing at secondary school.

ABSTRACT. In Complex Dynamic Systems Theory (CDST) phase shifts, also known as phase transitions or bifurcations, are observed when a dynamic system enters a period of fluctuations which leads to a new stable pattern in this system (Larsen-Freeman & Cameron, 2006). So far phase shifts in language development have been examined in a number of case studies at the tertiary level by means of min-max graphs, Monte Carlo simulations, and change point analyses (Verspoor, Lowie, & van Dijk, 2008; Spoelnam & Verspoor, 2010; Baba & Nita, 2014; Hepford, 2017; Fogal, 2019; Wang & Tao, 2020). Nevertheless, according to Hepford (2020), they still remain elusive in L2 writing research because their detection requires clear criteria and sufficiently dense data. The aim of the present study was to examine phase shifts in the individual learners’ development of syntactic complexity, accuracy, lexical complexity, and fluency (CALF) in L2 English writing at secondary school. The study was based on the analysis of The Written English Developmental Corpus of Polish Learners (WEDCPL) which consists of 1923 texts produced by 100 learners during 21 repeated measurements conducted over the period of three years at secondary school. The study involved four steps: checking the individual learners’ progress by calculating correlations between eleven CALF variables and time, identifying the individual learners’ learning profiles on the basis of their progress, detecting phase shifts in the individual learners’ CALF trajectories by change point analyses, and checking if significant time correlations correspond to phase shifts in the learning trajectories. The results showed that the individual learners differed from the whole group in terms of progress in CALF measures, represented various general, syntactic, and lexical learning profiles, and underwent mostly positive phase shifts. Moreover, the chi-square test indicated that progress was more likely to take place if learners underwent positive phase transitions.

10:00-11:15 Session 3D: Learner & Teacher Identity


Emergent leaders and group positionality during study abroad: Insights from computational social network analysis and case studies in Jordan.

ABSTRACT. Research shows considerable variation in outcomes for students seeking to improve their target language oral proficiency (Freed et al., 2004). Social networks play a key role (Isabelli-Garcia, 2006). This study examines the emergence of student leaders in a study abroad (SA), dynamic cohort network positionality, pre and post-sojourn proficiency in Arabic, and L1 Arabic speaker interaction. Emergent leaders have been documented in studies on sports (Habrick, 2018) and business (Landis et al., 2022). Previous work on variables during study abroad has measured density, dispersion, and intensity of networks and personality, and L2 use (Dewey, et al. 2012; Dewey, 2013; Baker-Smemoe, 2014; Hasegawa, 2019; McManus, 2019). Recent work has measured the relationship between in- and out-group centrality and proficiency (Paradowski 2021a,b & 2022; 2023), but there is a lack of research showing the relationship between SA cohort leaders and their correlation to the density and dispersion of networks of a SA cohort and L1 speakers. Using a computational Social Network Analysis (SNA) approach (Paradowski 2021a,b & 2022), this longitudinal, mixed-methods study analyzes the social networks of 28 SA participants from a large private U.S. university studying Arabic in Amman, Jordan for three months to trace the impact of each students’ position in the social graph using betweenness and in-/out-degree centrality metrics and includes a dynamic developmental perspective with three measurement points at 4-week intervals each. This is supplemented with insights from interviews with a subset of the participants. ACTFL Oral Proficiency Interviews (OPIs) are being used to measure pre- and post-sojourn language proficiency. Data collection is ongoing, with the first survey already administered. The SA program concludes on Dec. 1; analyses of the dataset are expected to conclude in February 2024.

Support for the Vulnerable Majority: Empowering Women Educators in their Multiple Leadership Roles

ABSTRACT. Observing any language teacher’s Conference, one can easily confirm empirically what studies have shown clearly: women make up the majority of the educator population. Longitudinal research has indicated that the trend of female predominance in education in general and the ESL ecosystem in particular is increasing, with women accounting for 68.6% of teaching ESL positions in the USA alone (and still earning less than their male peers).

Teaching has long been identified as one of the most stressful professions and the situation has been aggravated by the onset of the COVID-19 epidemic with an increasing number of educators reporting high levels of stress or even burnout and levels of turnover increasing worldwide. On the other hand, research has indicated educator wellbeing as fundamental for a school-wide approach to mental health and wellbeing.

Although stressors may be the same for both genders, women tend to experience more perceived stress across all levels of educational contexts compared to their male counterparts, as female educators often encounter additional stressors associated with juggling multiple roles at home and in the workplace. Addressing women educators’ distinct socio-psychological needs for empowerment is not only an ethical responsibility but also vital for inclusion and equity.

How does educator well-being affect students? What is the current state of research in the field of coping for women educators and how can they be empowered towards a resilience-centered mindset and wellbeing?

This experiential presentation/workshop will explore self-empowerment skills and coping strategies inspired by NeuroLearningPower®, the evidence-based, structured mentoring framework that supports women educators and their students to develop well-being habits and flourish.

10:00-11:15 Session 3E: Learner Advising
Enhancing motivation through reflective dialogue: Advising in language learning

ABSTRACT. Advising in language learning is a relatively recent form of pedagogical intervention, involving a one-to-one interaction between a learner (advisee) and an educator (advisor) (Mozzon-McPherson & Tassinari, 2021). Through intentional reflective dialogue (Kato & Mynard, 2016), advising aims to raise a learner’s awareness of, and enhance their reflection on their learning needs, goals, motivation, and potential, to support the development of their autonomy. As such, advising is a high individualized process that provides insights into the learner and the learning process itself. In addition, it offers opportunities for reflecting on the unique relationship between advisor and advisee, and how it evolves along the advising process. Among the questions already addressed by research on advising, the impact of the advising process on learner’s motivation (Castro, 2018) and autonomy (Mynard & Carson, 2012) garnered significant interest. And this was the question with which a student approached me, as a learning advisor, about one and a half year ago: “How can taking part in advising contribute to boost a learner’s motivation?” The student aimed to investigate this question from an autoethnography perspective within a didactic seminar in her master program. She therefore engaged in advising sessions and reflected on the impact they had on her motivation to keep up learning French autonomously. We met regularly over the course of approximately one year, during which she reflected on her needs, interests, motivation, and reported on the progress in integrating opportunities to learn and practice French into her everyday life. Given the nature of the student’s interest, these sessions were an opportunity both to reflect upon the learning process and to engage in a meta-discourse on motivation, autonomy, and the advising process itself. The present paper reports on this process and reflects on it, offering insights into the learner’s and the advisor’s perspectives.

In coaching dialogue with language department students: Supporting learners’ metacognitive awareness and autonomy

ABSTRACT. Metacognitive awareness may be developed in various ways in order to empower foreign language learners (Wenden 1998). One of them is language coaching - individual dialogue with a student where deep reasoning questions can be asked and issues important from the student’s perspective discussed. Mercer (2022, p. 7) describes it as “a powerful approach to learning and growth which encourages the learner to take responsibility for their learning and play an active role in making progress towards their goals”. Although language coaching has been recognised as a valuable perspective for both learners and teachers (Mercer & Dörnyei 2021, Kovacs 2022), it seems not to enjoy much interest in the methodological literature. In order to bridge this gap, I investigated in my shortly completed dissertation project the potential of coaching dialogue based on the guidelines of the International Coaching Federation in developing metacognitive awareness and autonomy in the specific context of Polish language department students of a major university in Poland. It was the first practical study of coaching dialogue for supporting linguistic majors conducted longitudinally. The study had a qualitative, action research design. It involved observation, semistructured interviews and thematic analysis of 42 recorded meetings with 6 project participants. The results confirmed the autonomising potential of coaching dialogue with respect to all three researched aspects of autonomy: metacognition, self-regulation and attitude towards language learning. Importantly, it was noticed that a non-directive way of leading the coaching dialogues and the character of the relationship with the teacher (coach) were crucial factors in this development. I believe that the active listening and discursive practices particularly appreciated by the project participants have broad relevance for all educators and can be employed to strengthen learners’ autonomy and self-regulatory skills.

Expanding language learning horizons through the lens of desire and resistance

ABSTRACT. Our contribution to expanding the psychological horizons of language learning focuses on understanding how language learner histories unfold over time, that is, over the course of what we call their ‘language learning careers’. In order to better understand why these careers, largely situated in classrooms, often evolve problematically, we chose, following Kramsch (2006), to evoke two ‘neglected’ dimensions of L2 learning: desire and resistance. We begin with the assumption that in order for language learning to occur, “resistance” in the form of the language’s inherent epistemological and disciplinary constraints must be turned or ‘flipped’ into resources (feelings of knowing) that fuel personal growth, progress and achievement. It is the ‘forces of resistance’, rooted in the new language’s structures and internal organization, initially unfamiliar and difficult to handle, that harbor the very potential for further development. We assume concomitantly, however, that such transformation of constraints into stepping stones for growth is inseparable from desire (more or less self-endorsed) that must emanate from the learner. Metaphorically, the fire of epistemological constraint > resource transmutation needs the oxygen of psychological and social desire to burn. Empirically, our model guided us in the analysis of data collected via 10 semi-directive interviews with French undergraduate law students who study English as non-specialists. Our findings underscored the highly subjective nature of L2 learning. Each student, in their own unique ways, exercised agency, deployed strategies (both approach and avoidance), and engaged with the challenges they encountered while striving to achieve victories. Two types of trajectory emerged: scholastic learning careers, primarily focused on short-term success with weaker self-efficacy; and disciplinary expert career paths, with greater focus on longer-term goals and more robust ideal L2 selves. Our study asks how more learners can be encouraged to embrace and pursue the latter kind of learning trajectory rather than the former.

10:00-11:15 Session 3F: Language Learning Emotions
Engaging Japanese junior high students in English learning: perspectives from positive and negative emotions

ABSTRACT. In this presentation, we will describe how Japanese junior high school students’ engagement (behavioral, social, emotional and cognitive) relates to positive emotions such as enjoyment (teacher appreciation, personal enjoyment and social enjoyment) and L2 grit (perseverance of effort and consistency of interest), and also negative emotion such as anxiety. The study was conducted in February 2023. In the study, 309 students aged between 13 and 15 years old participated and they received the online questionnaire. The research questions were to identify learner characteristics in relation to engagement, enjoyment, L2 grit and L2 anxiety (RQ1), and to investigate the inter-relationship between engagement, enjoyment, L2 grit and L2 anxiety (RQ2). For the first research question, descriptive statistics revealed that students tended to show high behavioural engagement, enjoyment (teacher appreciation and social enjoyment) and low anxiety. Then, the cluster analysis was to see the underlying clustering structures of language learning, and three clusters were identified. The MANOVA was then conducted to compare these clusters, and statistical differences were observed. In comparing the details of the three clusters, in Cluster 1, students showed low engagement and positive emotions and high anxiety among three clusters. In Cluster 2, students showed high engagement and positive emotions, and moderate anxiety, and in Cluster 3, students showed moderate engagement, positive emotions, and low anxiety. For the second research question, the hypothesized SEM model in referring to Khajavy(2021) was investigated, and the strongest path was observed from L2 grit to engagement (with the path coefficient of . 67), and the negative path was observed from anxiety to engagement (with a path coefficient of -.03) (Chi=89.909, df=29, p<.01, CFI=.972, RMSEA=.087). In this talk, an overall summary of the present study will be described.

Reference. Khajav, G.H. (2021). Modeling the relationship between foreign language engagement, emotions, grit and reading achievement. In P. Hiver., A.H. Al-Hoorie., & S. Mercer. (Eds). Student engagement in the language classroom. Multilingual Matters.

Do culture-specific Foreign Language learner emotions predict performance across cultures? A comparison of the effects of Peace of Mind and Enjoyment on English Foreign Language learners in China and Morocco

ABSTRACT. The current study presents a cross-cultural comparison of the effects of the Chinese low arousal emotion of Foreign Language Peace of Mind (FLPOM) and the higher arousal emotion of Foreign Language Enjoyment (FLE) on FL performance of 400 Chinese and 502 Moroccan English as a Foreign Language (EFL) learners. The database consists of two merged datasets collected with the same instruments. The data on Chinese EFL learners was collected and used in Zhou et al. (2021) while the data on Moroccan EFL learners was used in Dewaele and Meftah (2023) and Dewaele et al. (2023). The comparison revealed that the Moroccan students scored significantly higher on FLPOM and FLE than their Chinese peers (small effect size). Strong positive correlations were found between FLE, FLPOM and FL performance within the two contexts. Finally, FLPOM turned out to have a stronger predictive power on FL performance than FLE in the Moroccan EFL context. These results suggest that low arousal positive emotions play an important role in EFL performance of learners in both the Chinese and Moroccan educational contexts. It suggests that pedagogical implications drawn from previous research on FLE in largely Western contexts should not automatically be assumed to be applicable everywhere.

“I am empathic that is why I am good at translating” : Exploring emotion regulation and beliefs of student interpreters

ABSTRACT. Interpreting is not only about the mastery of the languages and techniques, but most students in interpreting courses are also destined to work in emotionally challenging positions such as being cultural mediators for refugees and immigrants, and hospital and medical interpreters. A growing body of research focusing on interpreters' stress, burnout, and vicarious trauma (Geiling et al. 2021, for a review) indicates that the negative emotions, vicariously experienced by those professionals, take a toll on their well-being. Research has somehow neglected to investigate how emotions are experienced and regulated by student interpreters who are potentially facing a double challenge: regulating the emotions aroused by what they are translating and those aroused by being in a language classroom (the knowledge of the language is still improving especially from a terminological point of view).

Aiming to contribute to a better knowledge of emotion regulation and the beliefs of student interpreters this study uses the idiodynamic approach (MacIntyre, 2012) to examine whether interpreters are affected by the speaker’s emotions. To this end, a group of student interpreters with Turkish as their A language and French as their B language (N = 7) took part in the experiment. They were asked to interpret three 120-second videos from French into Turkish: a neutral video, an upsetting video, and a funny video. Students were recorded during those tasks and then they were invited to rate emotion fluctuation with the help of a specifically designed program (Anion Variable Tester V2 software) (Boudreau et al., 2018), and to better understand the reasons for this fluctuation they were interviewed after the recording. The results show that student interpreters are indeed affected by what they are translating, and the interviews deepen our understanding of the factors that trigger their emotional responses.

10:00-11:15 Session 3G: Learning Strategies
Qualitative validation of the DISLL

ABSTRACT. Based on the premise that language learning strategies (LLS) play an important role in facilitating learning, questionnaires have been used to assist both educators and learners in identifying LLS. Thus far, the convergence of strategic behaviour and self-regulation (Author, 2011) led to self-regulation questionnaires focused on specific language skills (Author & Johnson, 1996; Tseng et al., 2006; Vandergrift et al., 2006; Wakamoto & Rose, 2021). However, there is no generic questionnaire aimed at diagnosing a broader range of language learning strategies (LLS) encompassing the four language skills.

With this goal in mind and rooted in Zimmerman’s (2000) self-regulated learning model, a team of researchers has developed the Diagnostic Inventory for Strategic Language Learning (DISLL).

To validate the DISLL before wide dissemination, we enlisted 18 top researchers from 12 countries to review the original version. Further revisions in line with the criteria of clarity, simplicity, and intelligibility (Author, 2018), resulted in the current version, evenly representing Zimmerman’s three phases of self-regulation: planning (16 items), doing (18 items), and reflecting (17 items). Afterwards, the DISLL underwent both quantitative and qualitative validation practices.

In addition to obtaining the psychometric properties of the DISLL through large-scale piloting, to assess its user-friendliness, accessibility, intelligibility, and clarity, a group of ESL students from a Spanish university engaged in a think-aloud protocol while completing the DISLL. Furthermore, ESL students from a Canadian university completed the DISLL and participated in in-depth interviews. Comprehensive qualitative analysis (Woolf & Silver, 2017) shed light on learners’ mental LLS processing while completing the DISLL.

Our paper presentation will provide a brief overview of the tool’s development and qualitative validation processes before delving into greater detail regarding the qualitative validation in both Spanish and Canadian sites and its results.

The relationship among task values, costs, and self-regulated learning strategies in learning English as a foreign language: A qualitative analysis comparing situation levels

ABSTRACT. It has been acknowledged that self-regulated learning (SRL) fosters second language (L2) learners to succeed in L2 learning and acquisition. In SRL research, self-efficacy and task values are considered prerequisite elements: the higher the learners’ self-efficacy and intrinsic values, the more self-regulated they are. Expectancy-value theory aligns with this, explaining the role of expectancies and task values, including costs, which are the negative aspects of values. It can be assumed that high perceived costs hinder effort and self-regulated behavior; however, the relationship between costs and SRL has not yet been sufficiently explored. Therefore, this study examined the traits of task values and costs in learning English and how SRL strategies relate to and address costs.

Twelve Japanese university students engaged in two interview sessions each. In the first session, they reported on the source of values and costs experienced in their English learning via semi-structured interviews. In the second session, they demonstrated how they would learn English in the following learning scenarios: homework assignment, in-class assignment, preparing for an exam, and learning for personal growth. This session’s think-aloud protocol enabled students to narrate their feelings and thoughts concurrently, followed by semi-structured interviews.

Narratives about values and costs were coded and categorized using thematic analysis, which was also employed to evaluate SRL strategy use, dividing the performance phases into the first, middle, and last sections of the scenes. Written and video-recorded data were used to interpret the results of the narrative analysis.

The results identified effort, opportunity, emotion, and language costs among Japanese university students. The emotional costs were contextually unique, which seemed to be caused by the learners’ negative experiences preparing for university entrance examinations. Based on the costs’ extracted traits, motivational regulation strategies to maintain task values and address costs were discussed in depth.

Instruction in the use of grammar learning strategies: The role of individual difference variables

ABSTRACT. Although there is copious empirical evidence concerning the role of learning strategies in second and foreign language learning (e.g., Griffiths, 2018; Oxford, 2017; Pawlak, 2022), some areas have been neglected. This certainly applies to grammar learning strategies (GLS), or actions and thoughts learners employ to understand and gain better control over the use of grammar structures (Cohen & Pinilla-Herrera, 2009; Pawlak, 2021). The number of GLS studies is on the increase (e.g., Hassanzadeh & Ranjbar, 2022; Pawlak & Csizér, 2022; Zarrinabadi et al., 2021), but there is almost no research that would address the role of strategies-based instruction (SBI) in this area (e.g., Trendak, 2014). The paper reports a study that aimed to fill this gap by investigating the effects of SBI targeting GLS, taking into account the mediating role of individual difference (ID) variables (i.e., grit, motivation, positive and negative emotions). Participants were 160 Polish university students majoring in English, 122 in the experimental cohort and 38 in the control cohort. The intervention in the experimental groups spanned one semester and comprised ten 30-minute sessions whereas the control groups followed regular grammar instruction. Data on GLS use were collected with the help of the Grammar Learning Strategies Inventory (Pawlak, 2018) at three time points: before the intervention, immediately on its completion and three months later. Data on ID factors were collected once with the help of existing instruments such as the L2 grit scale (Teimouri et al., 2022) or the Short Form of the Foreign Language Enjoyment Scale (Botes et al., 2021). Mixed latent change score modeling demonstrated that SBI was beneficial, particularly in the case of cognitive and metacognitive effects, but the effects were both positively and negatively mediated by some of the ID factors under investigation.

10:00-11:15 Session 3H: L2 Motivation & Identity
Motivational dynamics of intermediate Chinese learners in a remote IPA-informed CSL Curriculum: A case study from a CDST lens

ABSTRACT. Grounded in a complex and dynamic systems theory (CDST) perspective of L2 learning motivation, this year-long longitudinal study examines evolving motivational dynamics of two intermediate Chinese as a Second Language (CSL) learners at a Sino-US joint-venture university in China during the COVID-19 pandemic. Adopting Higgins’ framework of motivation this case study focuses on the interplay of learner motivation for value, control, and truth effectiveness and contextual factors in shaping the contrastive motivational trajectories of two CSL learners who displayed discrepancy in the improvement of Mandarin oral proficiency. In particular, the two contextual factors that are particularly of interest are an Integrated Performance Assessment (IPA)-informed CSL curriculum and COVID-induced remote online learning. We focus on how learners co-adapted with the “here-and-now” manifestations of these contextual factors and how their motivational dynamics and learning behaviors evolved based on multiple interrelated layers of the temporal-spatial context. The findings show that CSL learners’ motivational dynamics were shaped by multiple overlapping and interrelated motivation related to value, control, and truth effectiveness, which emerged out of the contingencies and affordances in the learning context. The learner-context co-adaptations play a significant role in directing relevant motivational dimensions and thereby shaping the overall identity of the whole system. This empirical study contributes to CSL and L2 motivational studies by exploring the applicability of a CDST approach and a global motivational framework to study intermediate CSL learners’ motivational dynamics and how they individually co-adapted with an innovative curricular design and the perturbance during the COVID-19 online teaching and learning process. The paper reflects on the effectiveness and applicability of IPA in an intermediate-level CSL curriculum from a motivational perspective and offers insights into understanding and promoting the complex learner motivation for language educators.

Examining Motivational Dynamics and L2 Learning Transitions of Air Cadets between Year One and Year Two: A Retrodictive Qualitative Modelling Approach

ABSTRACT. Air cadets, who aspire to become military pilots upon graduation, undergo rigorous training at military academies. As first-year cadets are akin to civilian freshmen, they encounter numerous challenges within the seniority-based military academy system. Imposed routines, such as mandatory morning runs and restrictions on mobile phone usage for two semesters, have the potential to impact their learning process and motivation to study, including second language (L2) acquisition.

This study aims to investigate the motivational dynamics and L2 learning transitions experienced by air cadets. To achieve this, a Retrodictive Qualitative Modelling approach will be employed, coupled with the adaptation of the three-barrier structure encompassing institutional factors, situational factors, and dispositional factors. Semi-structured interviews will be conducted to gather rich qualitative data.

By analysing and interpreting the collected data, this research seeks to shed light on the motivational factors that influence air cadets' L2 learning journey. The three-barrier structure will provide a comprehensive framework to identify and understand the institutional, situational, and dispositional factors that may impede or facilitate their motivation and language learning progress. Moreover, the study will explore how these factors interact and shape cadets' motivation and learning experiences.

The outcomes of this research will yield fundamental data that can inform strategies and interventions to enhance the motivation and language learning outcomes of air cadets. By better understanding their motivational dynamics and transitions, educators and institutions can create targeted initiatives, tailored pedagogical approaches, and supportive environments that effectively inspire and engage air cadets as L2 learners.

Multilingual identities and Investment of successful Italian L2 adult learners

ABSTRACT. This presentation reports on my doctoral research on the multilingual identities of L2 Italian adult learners from a Centro Provinciale Istruzione Adulti (CPIA) in Northeastern Italy, who successful completed their language courses. CPIAs are state-run centres for adult education in Italy, whose main aim is to promote the linguistic and social integration of foreign nationals. Research on multilingual identities in LOTE settings remains relatively rare (Wu & Forbes, 2022; Jing et al., 2020; Kim, 2019). Furthermore, considering the high school dropout rate in this particular setting, and among foreign students in Italian schools in general, this study can contribute to a better understanding of the L2 investment of this type of population. In order to describe the complex and dynamic interplay between multiple learner identities and their investment in their learning (Norton, 2013; Darvin & Norton, 2015), this study took a Retrodictive Qualitative Modelling approach (Dörnyei, 2014) drawing on data from three biographical semi-structured interviews conducted across the timeframe of one year with 7 successful learners of Italian as a foreign language. The thematic analysis (Braun & Clarke, 2006; 2013; 2021) of the data shed light on the factors and circumstances (Darvin & Norton, 2023) that have contributed to the identity construction and successful learning outcomes of these participants. In particular, they point to the key role played by their past identities and power structures in their home countries to shape their investment in the L2. In a favorable learning context providing easy access to affordances, these learners exercise agency to gain more powerful positions, not only in L2 speaking imagined communities, but also in their home countries and in the wider globalized world

11:15-12:00 Session 4: POSTERS
What motivates students to learn Chinese? How and why motivation changes during a Chinese as a second language course

ABSTRACT. Language learning motivation is one of the key elements to successful foreign language learning, but the research focus has mainly been on learning Global English. In recent years, there has been a growing call for second language motivation research in Languages Other Than English (Al-Hoore, 2017; Dörnyei, 2021).

This ongoing study adopts a longitudinal qualitative approach in researching changes in motivation during a beginner Chinese language course. The aim of this study is to describe the possible changes in motivation during a 4-month-long course and the variables affecting these changes. This study aims to advance the teaching field of teaching Chinese as a second language and Chinese language teacher training. Through understanding the learning motivation of students, we are able to design courses and lectures that promote motivation and thus help students succeed.

6 and 1 teacher from a Finnish university are participating in the study consisting of individual interviews and learning diaries. Students are interviewed at the beginning and at the end of their course while writing learning diaries weekly throughout the semester. The class teacher writes a weekly teaching diary and in the analysis stage, these different types of data will be analyzed together in order to create a full picture of the complicated topic of second language learning motivation.

The expected results of this study are changes in motivation and when these changes usually happen, and also a collection of variables affecting language learning motivation on the language level, learner level, and learning situation level. The data collection is being conducted during Autumn 2023 and analysis during Spring 2024. Through a poster presentation at the PLL5 I hope to share the progress of this research with the community and receive feedback in order to improve it further.


ABSTRACT. The present study aims to present four pedagogical practices, using technological resources in English and Brazilian Sign Language (Libras) classes at the Federal University of Southern Bahia (UFSB) in Teixeira de Freitas (Bahia- Brazil), in order to analyze the possibilities and difficulties of using digital language for teaching purposes, seeking student autonomy through the relevance of the applicability of technologies combined with digital accessibility in language teaching. The interdisciplinary characteristic of UFSB brings students closer to a vision of inclusive and scientific growth, based on academic training that brings students closer to critical development in various areas of knowledge in order to provide a professional construction based on inclusive social understanding and from the perspective of educational knowledge as an open space for collaboration and reinvention. It is noticeable and undeniable that the use of digital technology as an inclusive pedagogical practice serves as a resource that enhances the language teaching and learning process, as it promotes the development of learners’ autonomy through opportunities to emphasize interaction, cooperation and collaboration. In data production, information was collected from technological resources used in two teaching practices developed in English classes and two activities in Libras classes. The analysis of teaching activities demonstrates the extent to which Active Methodologies can produce student autonomy and which attitudes and linguistic skills need to be developed in learners when using digital technologies in remote classes.

An emotion regulation training programme for in-sessional teachers

ABSTRACT. In recent years, emotion regulation has emerged as an important teaching skill that influences a plethora of teacher and student outcomes, and numerous studies have illustrated the vast number of strategies and motives that underly teachers’ emotion regulation actions (e.g., Morris & King, 2023; Talbot & Mercer, 2018). Unfortunately, despite numerous calls for increased training opportunities, few intervention programmes have been designed for in-sessional instructors to reflect on and develop their emotion regulation skills. Here, I present on a government-funded study to implement and evaluate a 6-week intensive training programme on emotion regulation to practicing educators in Japan. The course includes 12 hours of instruction on a variety of emotion-related areas including the psychological underpinnings of emotions, emotion regulation motives, and adaptive emotion regulation strategy use. The depth of this study, along with the use of structured reflection, is expected to bring profound benefits to the 20 participating teachers. The course is being evaluated qualitatively through structured diary entries and semi-structured interviews. A five-month evaluation period is being employed, tracking the participants as they develop their knowledge and skills across the course and after they have returned to their schools. Attendees to this session will be given an overview of the study and the training programme, and they will be provided with early results on the effectiveness of the course.


ABSTRACT. In the field of second language teaching, ethics has been an important issue in the research process (De Costa 2016, Mckindley & Rose 2016, Farrell & Baecher 2017, Kubanyiova 2018, Isbell et al. 2022, Yaw et al., 2023), considered in previous works that have also been seminal for the psychology of language learning and teaching (Banks 1998, Ortega 2005, 2006, 2012, Kubanyiova 2008, Hobbs & Kubanyiova 2008). In social and human sciences, these reflections have been addressed to research some groups of participants (Guillemin & Gillam 2004, Mollet 2011, Wiles 2013, Santi, 2015, 2016), with insufficient attention to researchers’ vulnerability (Aberasturi-Apraiz et al. 2020, Cunningham y Hall, 2021). In recent publications about Spanish as an additional language research (Santos Gargallo & Pastor Cesteros, 2021, Gadella Kamstra, 2021) some interesting reflections from the researcher perspective have been discussed. In the present contribution, primarily, a review of the place and relevance of ethics in early-stage researchers is carried out through the analysis of handbooks on methodology in applied linguistics from the publication of Research Methods in Applied Linguistics (Dörnyei, 2007) to 2021 paying particular attention to research conducted in and about Spanish as an additional language. Secondly, in light of these findings, ethical issues (macro and microethical) are critically examined regarding the researchers’ vulnerability. Conclusions confirmed some of the preliminary hypotheses outlined: microethical considerations have surprisingly increased their presence in handbooks over the last 5 years, but there is still a noticeable absence of references to this topic. Some orientations for early-stage researchers are also provided.

"Hating and talking about hate" as a way of relating to the self. Resistance and affect of subjectivity

ABSTRACT. Psychologists claim that acts of hate are attempts to distract oneself from feelings such as helplessness, powerlessness, injustice, inadequacy and shame. As a matter of fact, hate is grounded in some sense of perceived threat. Engaging in discussions about the order of discourse goes through a vast field of knowledge in relation to the construction of subjectivity, especially when we take as a reference how " hating and "talking about hate" are constituted as an experience that does not happen in a circumscribed situation or discursive event. Taking into consideration the contributions of authors as Foucault (2016; 2018), Butler (2021; 2022), this study aims at investigating what may be linked to the effect of "said things" in agreement with the speech delivered by Paulo Galo, in an interview on Youtube, Podcast "Pod Pah" (available at The theoretical-methodological framework (Clarke; Braun, 2013; Moita Lopes, 2004; Denzin; Lincoln, 2006), richly contributed to the development of discussions led from a different understanding of the fact that "subjectivity is not conceived from a prior and universal theory of the subject, it is not related to an original or founding experience, it is not related to an anthropology that has a universal value" (Foucault, 2016, p.13). Results led to reflections over a set of statements as discursive events (Foucault, 1995) lied on how “hating and talking about hate” manifest modes of subjectivity concerning the relationship of being-resistance, which is both constitutive and crossed by systems of violence and exclusion. We expect to contribute to the studies about hate, resistance and affect as a possibility to provide understanding about discursive practices as a way of situating the processes of subjectivity.

11:30-12:00Coffee Break
12:00-13:40 Session 5A: L2 Motivation
Modelling the relationship between the L2 learning experience and future L2 self guides: an investigation into Chinese learners’ LOTE motivation

ABSTRACT. While the influence of L2 (second language) learning experience on language learning motivation has been widely acknowledged, this component of Dörnyei’s (2009) L2 motivational self system (L2MSS) has long been marginalised in L2 motivation research. To fill this lacuna, this study investigated how various facets of L2 learning experience contributed to the construction of L2 future selves among learners studying LOTEs (languages other than English) at Chinese universities. A total of 304 Chinese LOTE learners were recruited for this study, and quantitative data was collected from a motivational questionnaire measuring their L2 learning experience, ideal L2 self as well as the ought-to L2 self. Notably, a newly validated L2 learning experience scale (LLES) informed by Seligman’s (2011) PERMA model was adopted to unravel the complexity of learners’ multi-faceted L2 learning experience. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to confirm the construct validity of the full measurement scale. In addition, structural equation modelling was performed to test the hypothesised structural relations among the variables. Results indicated that the L2 experience had a statistically significant association with the ideal L2 self. Specifically, the feeling of accomplishment and the quality of relationships were found to have the most potent positive effect on the formation of an ideal L2 self, followed by finding meaningful connections, experiencing positive emotions, and being actively engaged in the learning process. Conversely, the experience of negative emotions was associated with a detrimental impact on the ideal L2 self-image. Interestingly, such negative emotions played a distinctly different role in constructing “ought-to L2 self”, displaying a moderate positive effect. Implications for both theoretical development of L2 motivation and pedagogical practice are suggested, highlighting the importance of fostering positive learning experiences.

Learning English in Britain: Exploring the Motivation of Adult Migrants

ABSTRACT. This talk focuses on the experiences of adults who have chosen to enrol on English for Speakers of Other Languages (ESOL) courses in England at the intermediate level, from forced and voluntary migration backgrounds. Across applied linguistics, this population has been largely under-researched (Plonsky, 2023) and this is particularly acute in language learning motivation (Boo et al., 2015). The intermediate level is often where learners plateau (Richards, 2008) and for migrants, it indicates they have moved beyond the need to learn for survival. The research questions this talk therefore aims to explore are: 1. What motivates adults to enrol on intermediate level ESOL courses? 2. What factors affect their motivation during the academic year? The study employed a longitudinal perspective with five adult ESOL students combining data collected through online interviews, text messages, and survey responses. Self-determination theory (Ryan & Deci, 2017) was used as a theoretical framework to analyse the narratives which were constructed with the participants through member reflections. A selection of the narratives will be shared, highlighting how the students’ needs were met or unfulfilled during the academic year and how this affected both their L2 acquisition and integration into the local community. The findings suggest that increasing confidence when speaking English with local people is important before learners can start to achieve their long term goals. The impact of teachers and peers was also significant, as was the multicultural city where they lived and the opportunities they perceived to be open to them. This talk will challenge the notion that the ‘migrant’ learning experience is uniform across contexts and provide novel ways of collecting data remotely with an often hard-to-reach group.

Language learning by refugees: The contribution of social networks, attitudes, length of residence, and language background

ABSTRACT. Much attention in study-abroad SLA research has been paid to short-term sojourns—with the bulk of the literature focussing on one- or two-semester stays—and students’ contacts with native speakers of the target language. Significantly less attention has been devoted to heavily intensive language courses spanning several weeks, to students’ interactions with non-TL speakers, and to scenarios where the TL is typologically related to and intercomprehensible with the learners’ L1. Since the beginning of the Russian invasion of Ukraine on 24 February 2022, over 15.4m refugees crossed the country’s border into Poland. We investigate peer learner networks of 251 participants in an intensive course of the Polish language dedicated to the newcomer population. Apart from the special situational context, together with the close typological similarity between the languages spoken and being acquired, the students present a unique language constellation profile, with most being functionally bilingual in Ukrainian and Russian, but with different degrees of dominance in each language and complicated attitudes to the latter. While dominance in Ukrainian vs Russian did not affect progress in the TL, L1 Ukrainian correlated with centrality in the contact network. Russian speakers often concealed their L1 use, with 62% of the users of this language in the private sphere declaring Ukrainian as their L1. A reconstruction of the student networks shows higher weighted degree centrality among students declaring Ukrainian as their L1, while L1 Russian speakers are often at the network periphery, suggesting linguistic segregation with symptoms of marginalisation. The most influential significant predictors of self-perceived progress overall and in grammar were level of course enjoyment and two social network measures: the degree of being indicated as interlocutors by well-connected students (pagerank) and degree of interaction with Russian-speaking friends. Objectively measured progress, however, instead hugely negatively correlated with length of residence in Poland.

The influence of contextual factors on the learning of English as an L3 in the Basque Country

ABSTRACT. As is well known, the learning of a foreign or additional language can be influenced by numerous factors that affect students' success rates. The aim of this study is to analyse the influence of various contextual factors on the level of proficiency obtained in English as a foreign language in secondary education in the Basque Country, a bilingual community in Spain where two official languages, Basque and Spanish, coexist. Data were collected from a large number of students in the second year of Secondary Education (13-14 years old), when students are in the middle of the four years of secondary school. The sample was divided into three cohorts, following the three models (A, B and D) established by the Basque Government according to the amount of Spanish and Basque taught in the schools. Next, the mean score of the students in English proficiency was analysed according to the language models. English proficiency covered the following three dimensions of language proficiency: comprehension and written expression and oral comprehension. Results showed that students in models B and D, with a higher percentage of Basque, not only performed better in Basque, but also in English. These results also corresponded to the mother tongue spoken at home. That is, the data revealed that students who spoke Basque at home obtained better results in Basque and English. On the other hand, a positive effect of the socioeconomic and social background on the results in English language proficiency was found. All these findings will be discussed within our multilingual context in the Basque Country.

12:00-13:40 Session 5B: Teacher Psychology


Positive critical incidents experienced by novice language teachers in the light of Rebecca Oxford’s EMPATHICS model

ABSTRACT. All language teachers go through intense identity negotiations and tensions that can originate from what happens in their language classrooms. In our presentation, we focus on novice language teachers (both preservice and newly-employed as inservice teachers) and critical incidents from their language classrooms, but in contrast to most studies conducted so far, our attention is placed on positive critical episodes, that is the classroom events that are grounded in reality and contain a positive element in the teachers’ opinions. Our participants (n=73) provided us with narrative accounts containing 77 positive critical incidents in total. After reading them several times and negotiating potential categories, the positive episodes were grouped into those related to teaching skills and subsystems, handling classroom discipline, addressing students’ special needs, preparating for external exams, introducing cultural issues and dealing with homework assignments. That was followed by the comparison of ‘positivity’ described in the teachers’ accounts with Rebecca Oxford’s constituents making up her model of EMPATHICS, which stands for an SLA framework for positive psychology. Thanks to this, we were able to find out and tried to theorize which elements of Oxford’s model reappeared in the participants’ narrative accounts, how many times, which were ignored, and what new aspects were revealed. In addition, the study suggests that many tensions could be unpacked and discussed as ‘positive’ lessons in teacher education programs so as to shape novice teachers’ fledgling professional identities. The reflection on incidents, often not entirely pleasant but overall positive, can help them better understand and navigate critical moments that inevitably happen in language teaching.

Navigating the First Year of Doctoral Study: A Narrative Autoethnography of Language Teacher-Researcher Identity Tensions and Transitions

ABSTRACT. Graduate school presents challenges for new doctoral students (Pentón Herrera et al., 2022; Velardo & Elliott, 2018). The hidden curriculum of academia (Elliott et al., 2020) often entails learning new rules, compromising values, and negotiating identities (Hall & Burns, 2009). For language teachers entering doctoral study, new roles as teacher educators or teacher-researchers present specific identity dilemmas (Barkhuizen, 2021). While applied linguistics research has highlighted connections between learner and teacher agency, emotion, and identity (Benesch, 2017; Block, 2022; Mercer, 2021), doctoral students’ experiences are often under-researched (Yazan et al., 2023).

Responding to calls for research on doctoral student identity development in applied linguistics (Donato, 2017), and following recent autoethnographic studies by doctoral students examining their own experiences (Kennedy, 2020; Trinh & Pentón Herrera, 2021), I engaged in autoethnography (Mirhosseini, 2018) to investigate my identity development and socialization as a new doctoral student. Specifically, I employed short story analysis (Barkhuizen, 2016) to analyze 35 written reflections from my first year of doctoral study to understand institutional and cultural factors shaping my experience. Findings revealed my identity and socialization shaped by ideologies about self-care, wellbeing, productivity, and different research paradigms.

In this session I present and analyze reflection data using short story analysis to illustrate two transitions I experienced as a new doctoral student and discuss implications for both individual graduate students and graduate programs to support doctoral student identity development, socialization, and wellbeing. Session attendees will gain familiarity with challenges faced by doctoral students in applied linguistics and with autoethnography and short story analysis as tools to develop reflexivity among new doctoral students. Autoethnographic investigation of doctoral student experiences can ultimately humanize doctoral study by interrogating systems and ideologies that challenge wellbeing and constrain identity positions available within academia (Yazan et al., 2023).

Happy language teachers: a self-reflective journey to rekindle our love for language teaching

ABSTRACT. This is a workshop BY a language teacher FOR language teachers. I invite fellow teachers to listen, to self-reflect, and to acknowledge and honor ourselves for the important work that we do. Language teachers who cultivate positive affect in their students increase their own experience of positive affect as well. This creates a virtuous cycle that gives rise to excellent relationships with students and promotes teacher confidence. How can we experience more expansive emotions and thus ensure our own and our students’ wellbeing? When our students believe that we have their best interests at heart, when they feel psychologically safe and pedagogically cared for, they become more open, more creative, more trusting and more resilient. With this in mind, we will revisit teacher qualities and practices that cultivate positive affect in students, foster their trust and respect, and enhance their adaptive resilience, an indispensable condition for successful language learning. Among others, we will consider a positive psychology exercise adopted from Martin Seligman, and scientifically known to boost happiness. We will also answer five questions formulated by Jim Kwik that are pertinent to the language teaching context. Participants will come out of this workshop empowered, inspired to make little changes, confident in their strengths, and optimistic in their capacity to engage students. In preparation for the workshop please note one negative and one positive teaching experience. It does not matter when they happened, the fact that you remember them proves that they were significant for you. I look forward to sharing with you the joy of being a language teacher.

12:00-13:40 Session 5C: Learning & Acquisition
Can Effort Feedback Improve Behavioral Engagement and Performance on Highly Difficult L2 Reading Tasks?

ABSTRACT. In many compulsory L2 classrooms, learners routinely encounter excessively advanced L2 reading tasks. Such a situation has received little scholarly attention, and thus, many issues remain unexplored. Specifically, it is unclear a) how students behaviorally engage and perform on such tasks, b) what motivational characteristics predict their reactions, and c) whether maladaptive learner reactions can be ameliorated. To address these research gaps, this study examined the role of two motivational constructs—attributions and self-efficacy—and a common teaching practice—effort feedback—in predicting and ameliorating learners’ behavioral engagement and performance on difficult L2 reading tasks. Japanese high school students (N = 238) studying English were recruited for an experimental study and randomly assigned to either the treatment group (n = 124) or the comparison group (n = 114). Both groups first performed a highly difficult English reading task (i.e., pretest). Time on task was measured as a direct indicator of behavioral task engagement. They then rated their success or failure attributions of this pretest. Next, the treatment group received brief positive feedback highlighting effort attributions (i.e., effort feedback), while the comparison group did not receive any performance feedback. Both groups then rated their levels of self-efficacy to perform a similar task. Lastly, both groups performed a follow-up highly difficult reading task (i.e., posttest), and their time on task and task performance were recorded. Results showed that participants generally displayed low behavioral engagement and performed poorly on the pretest. At the posttest, both the treatment and comparison groups experienced a significant decline in their behavioral engagement, but the treatment group showed a small improvement in their performance. Furthermore, the external controllability dimension of attributions positively predicted learners’ behavioral engagement on the posttest. These findings shed light on an unexplored territory of task engagement research that warrants further attention.

Student written feedback engagement in the L1, L2, and L3 classroom: the interplay between proficiency, identity, and environment

ABSTRACT. One of the most extensively researched topics in second language acquisition research is teacher written feedback and its effect on language development. Much was discovered in terms of favorable timing, focus and scope but the search for feedback efficacy and best practice suggestions did not sufficiently provide explanations for when or why student uptake sometime fails, or why some students ignore the feedback altogether. Trying to better understand such individual differences, current written feedback research has taken a psychological turn. Scholars suggest that learner engagement, cognitive, affective, and behavioral, is a prerequisite for successful uptake (Hyland & Hyland, 2019). As student engagement and disengagement is affected by a range of internal and external factors, recent years have seen an increase in publications investigating the matter (i.e., Cheng & Liu, 2022). This study, a part of a doctoral thesis, collects data from upper secondary students in L1, L2, and L3 classrooms in Norway. A comparison of the same students’ written feedback engagement in several languages will contribute to new and more detailed information about the topic. The paper will present preliminary results from focus group interviews, stimulated recall sessions, and students’ written feedback logs. The main study has a dual focus of both engagement and disengagement, collecting data from active users and non-active users of written feedback. To limit the scope of the presentation, only results from the active users will be included in the paper.


Cheng, L., & Liu, Y. (2022). Student engagement with teacher written feedback: Insights from low-proficiency and high-proficiency L2 learners. System, 109, 2-12.

Hyland, K., and Hyland, F. (2019). Context and Issues in Feedback on L2 Writing. In Hyland, K., & Hyland, F. (Eds.). (2019). Feedback in Second Language and Writing: Context and Issues. (2nd ed., Cambridge Applied Linguistics). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press:

Examining the Willingness to Communicate (WTC) Scale with Advanced Foreign Language Learners

ABSTRACT. McCroskey and Baer originally defined Willingness to Communicate (WTC) in the field of first language (L1) acquisition as a personality trait that dictates the degree of predisposition to consistently communicate across a variety of different situations. Second language (L2) acquisition researchers posited that this trait could also be a contributing factor to success for L2 language learners (MacIntyre et al, 1998), and studies by Darasawang and Reinders (2021), Liu and Jackson (2008), and Sato (2020) found a significant, positive relationship between WTC and proficiency level with beginning second language learners.

This study explored the effectiveness of a WTC scale with advanced second language (L2) learners. The WTC instrument included sections on communicating with native speakers of the L2 and peer language learners in various settings (at home, abroad, in-class and online). As most prior research had focused on beginning language learners, in this study, we recruited participants who began to learn their respective languages in informal, long-term immersion settings. Participants took the WTC survey as part of a larger self-assessment instrument with a subset of 600 intermediate and advanced level Spanish (n = 339), Portuguese (n = 155), and French (n = 106) L2 students taking an Oral Proficiency Interview-computerized (OPIc). The instrument was found to be reliable (Cronbach Alpha = .88), and there was a significant difference [t (5) = 2.97, p = .031] in WTC between sections for online and in-class settings. However, the WTC had no significant relationship (Pearson's r2 = .0005) with OPIc score. Thus, while WTC might help beginning learners reach advanced level language, it might not discriminate as well among learners who are already advanced.

Emotions and oral corrective feedback: Investigando su interacción en la interacción

ABSTRACT. While there is copious empirical evidence concerning the role of individual differences (IDs) in learning additional languages (L2s, e.g., Li et al., 2022; Pawlak et al, 2022), few studies have tapped into their mediating role with respect to the effectiveness of specific instructional options, prioritizing instead select IDs (e.g., working memory). This is also true about research examining the effects oral corrective feedback (OCF). While the cognitive-interactionist approach posits that different types of OCF provide positive and negative evidence that can drive the development of both explicit and implicit knowledge (Kim, 2017; Nassaji, 2017; Pawlak, 2021), most have focused on the impact of OCF moves and little attention has been paid to mediating variables (Nassaji & Kartchava, 2020). The present project addresses this gap by providing insights into the contribution of positive (i.e., curiosity, enjoyment) and negative (i.e., anxiety, boredom) emotions to the effects of OCF, linking in an innovative way two important lines of inquiry in SLA. We present results from a pilot study of 30 American university-level learners of Spanish divided into one control and two experimental groups. All completed a pre and post-test on the target structures and a standardized proficiency measure (DELE). Data on positive and negative emotions were collected by means of validated questionnaires and self-reports on the completion of the tasks. The treatment in experimental groups occurred over two weeks and involved completion of six focused communication tasks necessitating the use of the imperfect subjunctive (Baralt, 2013; Baralt, et al., 2016; Carver, et al., 2021). The students in the two groups were provided with different types of OCF: input-providing recasts and output-providing prompts. Quantitative analysis showed that while prompts proved to be more effective, the contribution of both types of OCF was mediated by an interplay of the positive and negative emotions under investigation.

12:00-13:40 Session 5D: Learner & Teacher Identity
How a Rising Star Fell: A Narrative Inquiry into an EFL Academic’s Emotions and Identity Development in Research Experiences

ABSTRACT. Despite the surge of studies on the researcher identity construction of English as a foreign language (EFL) teachers, insufficient attention has been paid to their continued identity development after its establishment. Using narrative inquiry, the study explores this understudied issue by examining how an EFL academic reconstructed her professional identity from a promising novice researcher to a teaching-focused mid-career EFL teacher experiencing emotional flux in her research practices at a public university in China. Data were collected and triangulated from four sources: semi-structured interviews, a narrative frame, institutional documents, and the participant’s academic profile. Thematic data analysis was conducted using a qualitative, inductive approach. Data analysis revealed that the participant developed and modified her identities through engaging in agency-driven actions, interacting with different contextual factors, and experiencing various emotions in the embedded socio-institutional setting. The findings also show that, while the participant started her research journey as a confident novice researcher, the negative emotions she encountered in her subsequent research practices gradually escalated, posing significant impediments to her researcher identity and eventually leading to research stagnation and identity reconstruction in her mid-career. The participant’s identity change with emotional flux can be attributed to potential bias in academia, institutional academic culture with managerial practices, and her self-agency with diminished intrinsic research motivation. The findings provide a nuanced understanding of the complexities involved in the continuous development of EFL academics’ researcher identities in the ever-changing context of higher education. The study also offers implications for individual academics and higher education institutions on how to assist EFL teachers in constructing and maintaining a solid researcher identity to support their continuous professional development.

Mobilizing strengths in the development of French second language teacher identity

ABSTRACT. The purpose of this study is to explore the construction of pre-service French as a Second Language (FSL) teachers’ professional identity through the application of their inherent strengths. Professional identity refers to the image that teacher candidates hold of what it is to be a teacher (Wolff & De Costa, 2017). Focusing on identity during initial teacher education program, making connections between teacher candidates' personal and educational experiences, and encouraging reflection engages students in a process of “self-discovery, transformation and evolution.” (Buendía-Arias & al., 2020, p. 585). During their training, FSL teachers may experience dissonance between their pre-established vision and the realities of the career (Kanno and Stuart, 2011).

Over the course of the University of New Brunswick’s 10-month educator training program, the literacy methods courses in the FSL stream, within both the elementary and secondary cohorts, addressed the concept of professional identity construction. Activities were designed to promote reflective practice and strength awareness for the recognition and resolution of struggles arising from critical incidents. Data collected for this research project consisted of teacher candidate “professional identity journal” assignments as well as a focus group at the end of the training professional training program.

This session will share findings of the process in which professional FSL teacher identities are developed and evolve during that first year of preparation and training, delineating key moments of tension which challenged their pre-existing beliefs, as well as how they were able to confront these moments through the application of their identified areas of strength.

In-sessional English for academic purposes (EAP) language teacher wellbeing

ABSTRACT. Teachers in good physical and mental health are better able to facilitate meaningful and effective learning experiences for their students. A growing focus on teacher wellbeing in recent years has opened important discussions (see e.g. Mercer, 2021), yet, while the body of literature around teacher wellbeing continues to grow (e.g. Babic et al., 2022; Gkonou & Miller, 2021; Pentón Herrera et al., 2023), a context yet to have come into focus is teaching English for academic purposes (EAP). Teachers of EAP and, specific to the focus of this study, in-sessional EAP provision, face unique challenges. On top of issues around workload and precarious contracts (Bond, 2020), faced simiilarly by language teachers in other contexts, EAP teachers must also navigate other challenges, such as marginalisation within university structures and sometimes challenging collaborations with subject lecturers (Ding & Bruce, 2017; Tibbetts & Chapman, 2023).

In this talk, I will report findings from a qualitative interview study exploring EAP teacher wellbeing. A primary aim was to explore the extent to which factors identified as impacting the wellbeing of teachers in other language teaching contexts reflect those reported by in-sessional EAP teachers, in order to better understand the challenges unique to this context.

Qualitative data was collected from 12 in-sessional EAP teachers from universities across England and Scotland. Data collection followed a two-stage interview process, with two 50-60 minute individual interviews conducted with each participant approximately a week apart. Following transcription, participants were given the opportunity to review transcripts before a thematic analysis (Braun & Clarke, 2022) was conducted.

In this talk I share key findings from this initial exploratory study, focusing in particular on factors affecting teachers’ wellbeing that are unique to this particular English language teaching environment. I will share plans in progress for follow-up work and welcome feedback on these directions.

Identities of (non)belonging and (im)mobility across sociolinguistic spaces: Narratives from Adult Educational Cross-Cultural Kids

ABSTRACT. Belonging is a fundamental human need associated with wellbeing (Allen et al., 2021). Relatedly, space and time are key concepts to understanding experiences of multilingual belonging. Because theories of spatiality and temporality address physical movement (Benson, 2021), they have been used in sociolinguistic research to explore the movement and subsequent senses of (non)belonging of multilingual populations (immigrants (e.g., Guardado, 2010) and people who lead transnationally transient lives during their formative years like Third Culture Kids (e.g., Ma, 2010)). Another rapidly growing community sharing many characteristics with the aforementioned groups (ISCRD, 2022) but receiving much less attention are adult educational cross-cultural kids (AECCKs) (i.e., adults who spent their formative years attending schools founded on and ran by a cultural base different from dominant local societal languages and cultures (Pollock et al., 2017)).

I analyzed narratives of six Hong Kong AECCKs and report representative samples from interviews with three focal AECCK's identities of (non)belonging across sociolinguistic spaces through the lens of spatiotemporal theories (Benson, 2021). I focus on the way the AECCKs identified as perpetual foreigners both in the sociolinguistic spaces in which they grew up as well as abroad. I tie the frequent delegitimization based on language practices divergent from local sociolinguistic norms that marked the AECCKs’ childhood to their resulting lack of confidence and self-esteem. I also highlight the AECCKs’ resulting peace and pride when they found special sociolinguistic spaces welcoming of their unique language repertoires. Findings show that even the economically and educationally privileged may encounter spaces where they are delegitimized. In fact, unequal distribution of power can occur in any multilingual space, and oppressive and exclusionary forces may come from those who would be similarly powerless in other multilingual spaces, highlighting the importance of fostering greater belonging in spaces of multilingualism in promoting the wellbeing of all multilinguals.

12:00-13:40 Session 5E: Symposia

This symposium builds on the papers presented at the PLL4 symposium on advising where we showcased the work of learning advisors in different contexts around the world (Japan, Brazil, and New Zealand). This Hme, we look at how educators and learners can be supported in developing their knowledge and skills for taking a fundamentally different and more personalized approach to language education. 

Advising in Language Learning: Preparing Learners and Educators for a Personalized Approach to Language Education

ABSTRACT. Advising in Language Learning: Preparing Learners and Educators for a Personalized Approach to Language Education

In this symposium, we look at how educators and learners can be supported in developing their knowledge and skills for taking a fundamentally different and more personalized approach to language education. Advising in language learning (ALL) is the skilled use of reflective dialogue to facilitate reflective processes necessary for a learner to understand themselves better as a learner, and take ownership of their learning (Kato & Mynard, 2016; Mynard & Carson, 2012). The learning process is underpinned by psychological processes, and ALL is an effective way of helping a learner develop an awareness of the processes that most affect them. As ALL involves working with individual learners, it is best placed to address such personal psychological processes. Learning advisors (or teachers taking on an advising role) can draw on their knowledge of the psychology of language learning to help individual learners understand themselves and their learning, and to take charge of their own language-learning processes. Advisors make skilful use of a variety of discursive features of intentional reflective dialogue and may draw on various tools to facilitate the development of learner self-awareness. Although advisors are not trained as psychological counsellors, their approach is derived from some of its practices by being non-directive, nonjudgmental, and supportive, offering unconditional positive regard to the learner. Contributors to this symposium first look at how learners can be prepared to take ownership of their learning through the tools and dialogue that underpin ALL. Secondly, we also look at the knowledge development and professional training required for educators taking on this kind of role. The presenters provide insights into the processes and implications of offering advising services for learners and training and mentoring educators in developing necessary advising skills and knowledge.

12:00-13:40 Session 5F: Symposia
“The emotional side of translation, interpretation and audio description: EMOTRA2 & ADance Projects"

ABSTRACT. See symposium proposal in attached PDF file.

12:00-13:40 Session 5G: Symposia
"Let’s talk about love”: interdisciplinary views on (pedagogical) love in (language) education

ABSTRACT. Abstract: Love is one of the most fundamental emotions of human beings. It is crucial in a world with increasing reports of isolation, violence, and injustice. Recent papers in education have investigated it from the perspectives of immigrant, refugee, and adult education (Razfar & Smith, 2020; Kaukko et al, 2021; Vanderheiden, 2023), black lives (Grey, 2020), and international development research (Cameron, 2021).

However, despite its importance, in language teaching and learning, there are not many studies that have investigated this emotion, with a few exceptions. This second edition of a symposium on love (see Oxford & Barcelos 2016, PLL 2) aims at providing an update of research on this concept, discussing thematically-related papers on (pedagogical) love and its influence in language learning and teaching and adult education from an interdisciplinary perspective, with presenters from Brazil, United Kingdom, Germany, and South Africa.

The first theoretical paper synthesizes research on pedagogical love in a state-of-the art review and presents two approaches to the investigation of pedagogical love. The second empirical paper investigates emotions towards English of two EFL adolescent learners in Romania, and shows that the emotion of love was crucial for broadening their cognitive resources and engagement. The third empirical paper interviews experts in adult education on their views on the importance of pedagogical love for their work. The fourth paper explores the concept of “pedagogical love” from the theoretical perspective of Existential Positive Psychology (EPP) and argues that pedagogical love is an existential need for individuals to flourish in educational settings.

In the final part of the colloquium, we invite the audience to ask questions and comments and all the presenters compare, contrast, and synthesize their ideas. We conclude with a summary of the main findings and guidelines for future research on pedagogical love in (L2) education based on the whole colloquium.

12:00-13:40 Session 5H: Symposia
Intertwining narratives: Psychology and autoethnography in language teacher dissertations

ABSTRACT. In this symposium, we aim to bridge gaps in understanding teachers’ psychology and dissertation choices. We begin with an introduction to the symposium to situate the conversation and the work we are doing at the intersection of psychology and autoethnography in language teacher dissertations.

13:45-15:00Lunch Break
15:00-16:15 Session 6A: Positive Psychology
“It disposed me to reflect on my life”: The effect of positive psychology interventions on students’ emotional intelligence

ABSTRACT. Inspired by MacIntyre et al.’s (2019) call for “building a base of empirical support for the relevance of PP concepts and efficacy of interventions” (p. 269), we conducted an in-depth, qualitative case inquiry in a course titled Positive Psychology and English at a Polish higher-education institution, which sought to develop students’ English language development while learning about positive psychology interventions and practices they could use in their daily lives. As an important note, throughout the teaching of the course and in this manuscript, PP and, by extension, PP interventions (PPIs) were viewed as social-emotional learning practices. Utilizing Mayer et al.’s (2016) four-branch model of emotional intelligence as the theoretical lens, the inquiry was guided by the research question: What are the effects of positive psychology interventions on students’ emotional intelligence? In this study, participants (N=267) from Poland, Ukraine, Kazakhstan, and North Korea were enrolled in the Bachelor of English Studies or the Bachelor of English and Cultural Studies, as offered by the department, thus allowing us to compare PP and students’ emotional intelligence from different perspectives.

Data were collected through weekly journaling, classroom discussions captured in the researcher’s journals, anonymous end-of-course questionnaires, and the course’s final projects, which were videos created by students. These were analyzed through interpretative data analysis zooming in on key experiences and “significant features that shape [participants’] actions and behaviors” (Stringer, 2013, p. 94), which allowed us to draw conclusions and implications for teaching and learning practices in the classroom as well as research practices in the field of PP. Findings indicate that PPIs positively affected participants’ emotional intelligence, as reflected by increased awareness of their social and emotional well-being, identifying and employing strategies to mitigate undesired emotions inside and outside the university space, contributing to participants’ motivation and engagement in the English classroom. Based on our results, we advocate for the inclusion of PPIs in the language classroom, teacher professional development, and general coursework of higher education students. Finally, by conducting PPI studies such as this one, we would like to contribute to a more thorough empirical understanding and increase PP’s visibility and legitimacy in the field of applied linguistics.

Addressing conflicting emotions of the heritage language learner study abroad experience: Borrowing a page from positive psychology

ABSTRACT. Increasing efforts to internationalize higher education in the past decades has led to growing popularity of study abroad (SA) programs in the United States. Encouragingly, these programs – once designed for second language (L2) learners, middle/upper-class, White, monolingual English speakers– have become more accessible, with the number of Latinx heritage language learners (HLLs) of Spanish who study abroad increasing in recent years (Institute of International Education, 2022). While participation by a greater number of language minoritized students is promising, scholarship on HLLs of Spanish studying abroad highlights issues of discrimination based on “nonstandard” Spanish use, race, ethnicity, and social class, all of which have potentially damaging effects on students’ emotional well-being (e.g., Moreno, 2009; Quan, 2018). While research in positive psychology has revealed the benefits of positive emotions such as happiness, interest, and pride in combating negative emotions that may arise in the L2 classroom (e.g., MacIntyre et al., 2016), the application of positive psychology for HLL well-being during SA remains unexplored.

This presentation examines the coping mechanisms employed by six HLLs during a three-week sojourn in Spain. Qualitative data were collected through weekly reflections while abroad and one post-SA focus group. Results illustrate how students managed to remain motivated, hopeful, proud, and resilient even when confronted with emotional (e.g., frustration, anger, anxiety) and social obstacles (e.g., racism, linguicism) and show multiple possibilities for expanding the principles of positive psychology into new but necessary contexts to best support HLLs’ socio-affective needs during their time abroad. Anchoring on the tenets of transformative positive psychology (Mercer & Gregersen, 2023) and critical SA curriculum design, we provide practical recommendations for supporting educators in challenging evolving inequities in SA and minoritized students in building coping mechanisms to combat, or prevent, negative emotions during a HLL SA experience.

Mindsets, L2 grit, and flow in online vs face-to-face language learning: Different contexts = different predictors

ABSTRACT. Learning a foreign language is a long-term process requiring persistence and a willingness to engage in activities that will help develop communicative competence. An important role on the way to achieving linguistic proficiency is played by L2 grit. However, we do not know why learners demonstrate different levels of this trait and subsequently the extent of their L2 achievement. In the field of L2 studies, researchers have also been paying increased attention to flow experience – a psychological state of intense engagement in a performed activity. However, again relatively little is known about the occurrence of this construct in the process of language learning. This preregistered comprehensive questionnaire study investigates the non-trivial interactions among the antecedents of L2 grit and flow in online vs face-to-face contexts. A multiple linear regression model basing on responses of N=539+753 participants from 60+ countries learning 33 different languages demonstrates that in F2F contexts, L2 grit is predicted by self-directed learning, learning motivation, autonomy, resilience, and fixed language mindset (Adj. R²=.47;F7,531=70.12,p<.001,ηp²=.52[.47;.55]), with large effects for the first three components and a medium size for the fourth, while in the online condition only by the first three of these factors (Adj. R²=.47;F7,745=94.61,p<.001,ηp²=.47[.42;.50]), with large effects for the first two and a medium one for the latter, but no influence of L2 mindset any longer. Regression models with flow as the dependent variable in turn likewise confirm the existence of distinct predictors in in-class vs remote settings: L2 grit and autonomy in the former (Adj. R²=.30;F3,227=33.25,p<.001,ηp²=.30[.22;.37]) vs. L2 grit and resilience in the latter (Adj. R²=.31;F3,588=89.68,p<.001,ηp²=.31[.26;.36]). The differential predictors of L2 grit and flow suggest that these constructs are highly context-dependent, which realisation should be taken into account in future investigations.

15:00-16:15 Session 6B: L2 Motivation
A Self-Worth Perspective on Language Learning Motivation in Two Expanding Circle Countries

ABSTRACT. Emerging as a response to the need achievement theory (Atkinson, 1957) and further developments by Weiner (1972, 1974), the self-worth theory (Covington, 1992, 1998) proposes that individuals seek validation from others to find purpose in life: One’s performances and successes in a particular task are indicators of their ability, which subsequently influences their sense of worth. High performance boosts confidence and a heightened sense of value as an individual, while low performance leads to reduced self-assurance and feelings of diminished self-worth. In response to the limitations of the bipolar model of need achievement theory, which failed to acknowledge the interplay between success orientation and failure avoidance, Covington introduced the Quadripolar Model of Achievement Motivation (QMAM) (Covington, 1992). This model considered the interaction between fear of failure and drive for success, categorizing students as Optimists (high drive for success, low fear of failure), Overstrivers (high drive for success, high fear of failure), Self-protectors (low drive for success, high fear of failure), and Failure Acceptors (low drive for success, low fear of failure). Despite the self-worth theory's prominence in psychology, it has not received much attention from SLA researchers. To address this gap, a qualitative study was conducted to explore the self-worth theory within two economically distinct English-learning contexts: Burkina Faso and Japan. The aim was to identify which QMAM categories were prevalent among students and identify salient differences between the groups. Participants were required to write essays describing their responses to three hypothetical situations that could threaten their feelings of self-worth. The findings revealed that the majority of Burkinabe students (56.3%) fell into the Optimists category. In contrast, a significantly smaller percentage of Japanese participants (6.0%) were classified as Optimists. Possible explanations for these findings and their pedagogical implications will be discussed.

Motivation and language related initiatives of teenage and university exchange students

ABSTRACT. Owing to a disparity in findings, more research into the differences and similarities that arise between the language and culture learning experiences that teenage and university students undergo when abroad is needed (see also Perrefort, 2008). These experiences are often affected by living arrangements and the degree to which both groups of students intermingle and build relationships with native or fluent speakers of the target language (Freed, 1995), which in turn determine how they negotiate cultural differences or reach language learning goals. These motivational and language learning variables have been analysed through a series of interviews with undergraduate students at a Spanish university who had experienced sojourns in homestays (N=4) and in halls of residence (N=7) either during secondary (N=6) or higher education (N=5). Results, analysed using thematic analysis, showed that there were differences in the mindset of the two groups of participants. The younger students seemed to be more adaptable therefore enhancing the benefits of their homestay experience and allowing them easier access to the local community, while for HE students their opportunities for interaction with native speakers were restricted. Despite the fact that for both types of students SA was often described as a lifechanging event, for SE students even a short sojourn abroad was enough to boost their motivation. However, for HE students, who experienced longer stays, their investment proved greater to fully benefit from the advantages of SA. Therefore, investing in SA exchange schemes during adolescence seems to be worthwhile due to the participants’ reported linguistic and cultural enrichment.

Freed, B. F. (1995). Second Language Acquisition in a Study Abroad Context . John Benjamins Publishing Company.

Perrefort, M. (2008). Changer en échangeant? Mobilités et experiences langagières. In F. Dervin & M. Byram (Eds.), Echanges et mobilités académiques: Quel bilan? (pp. 65–91). L’Harmattan.

Visualising language learning motivation across time: A longitudinal study of transformative participation

ABSTRACT. This paper examines the transformative capacities of a longitudinal L2 motivation study, at the micro level. I adopt a person-in-context relational view to understand the motivational transformation experienced by young participants at different schooling stages (Ushioda, 2009). Indeed, the existing literature has illustrated that motivation research can motivate (e.g., see Lamb, 2016, for a retrospective account) but it remains unclear: (1) how such transformative experiences are narrated by teachers and school-aged learners in situ; (2) what implications could be drawn to inform pedagogical practice; (3) what ‘ambivalent long-term consequences’ are manifested in terms of ethical complexities. Drawing on a case of bilingual school in China, I attempt to elucidate the three aspects above by analysing young participants’ self-recorded L2 motivational fluctuations and the associated narratives.

Motigraph is employed as the main qualitative instrument to elicit learners’ perceptions of day-to-day language learning motivation across time. The iterative process is supplemented by bi-weekly focus group interviews to scaffold learners’ reflections on their lived experiences of L2 motivational change, over two academic terms from October 2022 to June 2023. Throughout the data collection, participatory roles are reconsidered as agentive social actors, rather than traditional passive informants (Pinter, 2014). The ultimate dataset is comprised of 75 hours of audio recordings and 314 copies of learner-generated artifacts. Initial analysis has identified two emerging themes concerning the mediational roles of self-monitoring, via the specific visualising tool of motigraph, and the researcher-researched motivational synergy. While visualising motivation, children and adolescents are offered opportunities to reflect on second language selves, and to consciously make sense of their being and becoming. Such self-monitoring process itself is arguably conducive to language learners’ self-understanding and identity formation prior to adulthood. This paper concludes by considering participatory approaches to supporting young adolescents’ self-determined and self-regulated L2 learning behaviours.

15:00-16:15 Session 6C: Learning & Acquisition
Does the theory of Island Ridge Curve work? A verification with Chinese English learners’ self-beliefs, test anxiety, and English learning outcome

ABSTRACT. Background. A dominant assumption in existing second/foreign language research is learner resources (e.g., cognitive, affective, or blended) linearly determine L2 learning achievement. During the recent years, a new theory called the Island Ridge Curve (IRC) has emerged to challenge this assumption, contending that the effects of learner resources on L2 achievement fluctuate with the continuous increase in L2 proficiency. Purpose. To test the IRC, the current study explored the fluctuation of English test scores with the variation of two opposite types of learner variables, namely, positive self-beliefs (self-concept and self-efficacy) and negative emotion (test anxiety). Method. Participants involved 957 Years 7 and 8 students from a middle school in a province in China (Mage= 16.55, SD = .69, females = 58%). Data analysis involved three steps: (1) confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) to ensure measurement validity, (2) latent profile analysis (LPA) to identify latent groups of self-beliefs and test anxiety, and (3) the analysis of variance (ANOVA) to compare the means of English test scores across the latent groups. Results. I found that: (1) all measures had good measurement validity; (2) there were four latent groups: low beliefs with upper-medium anxiety (Group 1), medium beliefs with medium anxiety (Group 2), upper-medium beliefs with low anxiety (Group3), and high beliefs with high anxiety (Group4); and (3) Group 3 had highest English achievement (efficient adapters, with upper-medium beliefs and low anxiety), followed by Group 4 (adapters, with high beliefs and high anxiety), Group 2 (mediocre adapters, with medium beliefs and medium anxiety), and Group 1 (mal-adapters, with low beliefs and upper-medium anxiety). Conclusion. The finding that upper-medium (not high) self-beliefs go with the lowest test anxiety and highest English scores verified the hypothetical fluctuation effect of learner resources on L2 learning outcome, thereby confirming the IRC.

A retrospective longitudinal study of advanced learners’ engagement in the process of language learning

ABSTRACT. The study seeks to establish the engagement trajectories that emerge from the language learning histories of students majoring in English. Using a retrospective-longitudinal design (Côté, Ericsson, & Law, 2005), quasi-narrative accounts of crucial phases of 15 learners’ language learning histories have been documented through interviews. Having been familiarised with the notion of engagement dimensions, the respondents were asked to reflect on their operation in successive stages of their language learning from kindergarten to university. The decision to involve this specific group of learners has been based on the assumption that their proficiency and duration of learning exceed that of other learners in instructed contexts, which may result in a higher number of critical incidents, a deeper level of reflection, and the ability to critically assess different aspects of language development. The interview procedure has elicited temporal reference points (time windows) in the learning histories and allowed the interviewees to reconstruct specific events. In this way, thematic indices of participants’ engagement have been gathered together with a description of the significant features of the learning process. The accounts have provided a rich pool of data that were later analysed following an analytic inductive approach to identify the main events within different contexts, themes associated with each setting, and other bottom-up conceptual categories that emerged in the course of the analysis. A process tracing procedure (Collier, 2011) has been used to tap into dynamic processes and adaptive and competitive interactions between system components. The retrospective mode has enabled examining and representing the present as a continuation of the past. Collier, D. (2011). Understanding process tracing. Political Science and Politics, 44(4), 823-830. Côté, J., Ericsson, K. A., & Law, M. P. (2005). Tracing the development of athletes using retrospective interview methods: A proposed interview and validation procedure for reported information. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 17, 1–19.

Motivation to learn a second foreign language in upper secondary school: A preregistered intervention study

ABSTRACT. Background

A major reason supporting the conceptualization of L2 motivation as a self-system was the possibility to develop interventions based on possible selves. While reports of more than a dozen interventions can be found in the research literature, and while results are often promising, studies suffer from design weaknesses. Despite recognition of the need to carry out and measure the effects of an intervention over longer timeframes, intervention periods are short, and delayed post-testing is rare. Methodological rigor lacks the standards accepted in experimental paradigms. Not only is teaching in intervention/control groups often conducted by the researcher, but effective randomization is frequently lacking. Moreover, outcome measures are generally limited to a restricted range of self-report measures. In addition to methodological and measurement limitations, studies have focused almost exclusively on English, and intervention activities have been poorly integrated into regular teaching.

Study design

To overcome these weaknesses, and to better evaluate the utility of interventions based on possible selves, we designed a long-term intervention to be simultaneously carried out at 2 schools, for 3 second foreign languages (French, German, Spanish), and involving 12 classes (6 intervention and 6 control) taught by 6 collaborating teachers (each teaching one intervention and one control class). The study was preregistered, and the first wave of data collection took place in September 2023.


The study was designed as a 2 x 4 mixed factorial experiment where the main factors are the intervention (two levels, between-subjects) and time (four occasions, within subjects). Classes were randomly designated as intervention or control. Self-report outcome measures included engagement and self-efficacy. Observed measures were of writing and vocabulary.


In this presentation we present and discuss the study’s rationale, design, and the role of the collaborating teachers. We will also present findings from initial post-test measures of self-reported outcome variables.

15:00-16:15 Session 6D: Learner Identity
“I feel like I have a superpower”: A phenomenographic analysis of adolescents’ experiences of multilingual identity development during an identity-based pedagogical intervention

ABSTRACT. The field of multilingual identity, defined here as an individual’s explicit understanding of themselves as users of more than one language, has gained increasing attention recently among both researchers and practitioners. Studies from the wider project on which this talk is based have not only suggested meaningful connections between learners’ multilingual identity and academic attainment (e.g. Rutgers et al., 2021), but have also indicated the potential for an identity-based pedagogy to enhance students’ multilingual identity (e.g. Forbes et al., 2021). However, research to date has tended to take a quantitative approach and to focus on patterns at the level of a whole-class or cohort. There is therefore a lack of qualitative, longitudinal data which explores the ways in which learners experience an identity-based pedagogy and how this influences their understandings of multilingualism and their multilingual identity.

In this presentation we aim to address this gap by reporting on qualitative data from a phenomenographic study conducted with four classes of Year 9 (age 13-14) learners in secondary schools in England. Each class was exposed to six one-hour identity-based intervention lessons over the course of one academic year in their foreign language (French, German or Spanish) lessons. Data were collected via interviews with a total of 14 focal students before and after the intervention, and phenomenographic analysis was conducted. The following three qualitatively distinct categories of description were identified which capture students’ varied experiences of the intervention: resistant multilingual identity development, emerging multilingual identity development and, reflexive multilingual identity development. In this presentation we will present each of these trajectories and highlight key pedagogical implications for developing students’ multilingual identity in the classroom.

Exploring the Development of Taiwanese Learners’ EFL Learner Identity and Cultural Identity in an English for Tour Guide Course

ABSTRACT. Abstract: In recent years, Taiwan has been promoting Chinese-English bilingualism vigorously, and among different measures encouraged by the government, EMI (English as a Medium of Instruction) has assumed a prominent position in higher education. However, while universities across the country are dedicated to fostering students’ English proficiency, what has been greatly overlooked concerns learners’ identity. To address the gap, an interdisciplinary, project-based course in the general education curriculum, English for Tour guides, was investigated. Participants were 18 university EFL learners at the pre-intermediate level enrolled in this semester-long course. Data collected through semi-structured interviews, surveys with open-ended questions, and learners’ reflective accounts were analyzed based on the model of investment by Darvin and Norton in 2015. Findings revealed dynamic changes in both their cultural identities and EFL learner identities. Through field work conducted throughout the course time, learners have developed a stronger emotional bond with the local community and culture. Also, their ideologies and imagined community of qualified tour guides contributed to their transformation of cultural identities. However, as learners’ cultural identities evolved, they gradually found that their insufficient linguistic capital might have interfered with their hope to be an eloquent guide at a cultural site. This was when learners started to adjust their ideologies about an EFL learner and invested in language learning to gain desired capital. Specifically, through authentic experience interacting with international students, they seemed to have shifted their EFL learner identity, from zero tolerant of errors to a focus on meaning making. Furthermore, the feeling of ownership of English started to emerge. This study concluded by encouraging more classroom practices that include the exploration of learners’ own culture using target language and more research in understanding EFL learner identity in response to the trend of bilingual education policy.

The roles of cultural stereotypes and attitudes towards different English varieties in intercultural metapragmatic awareness

ABSTRACT. In the era of globalization, broadening the primarily monolingual concept of L2 metapragmatic awareness to intercultural metapragmatic awareness, defined as reflexive awareness of L1 and L2 use, is desirable. Although scholars have speculated that intercultural metapragmatic awareness is related to social cognition factors (Liddicoat & McConachy, 2019), empirical evidence is lacking. To fill the gap, this study investigated the roles of cultural stereotypes and attitudes towards different English varieties in advanced L2 English learners’ intercultural metapragmatic awareness. 32 Taiwanese university students completed an online survey which encompassed three subsections: (a) two unlabelled visual prompts of an American and an Indian talk show host, followed by questions on their ethnicity and (stereotypical) cultural characteristics, (b) intercultural metapragmatic awareness measures, which consisted of seven video clips of each of the two talk show hosts followed by questions about pragmatic aspects of the hosts’ language use, including ratings of appropriateness and politeness and comparisons with similar contexts in Taiwan, and (c) an adapted 24-item Global Englishes Orientation Questionnaire (GEO-Q) (Funada et al., 2020). 13 Taiwanese students in North America served as baseline data to compare metapragmatic awareness responses from culturally proficient users of North America with those from students who had never studied abroad. The 32 participants’ metapragmatic awareness scores were correlated with their scores for cultural stereotypes and GEO-Q. Preliminary results showed that cultural stereotypes scores (positive impressions) on American and Indian talk show hosts were significantly associated with politeness ratings. However, only cultural stereotypes scores on American talk show host were significantly associated with written metapragmatic comments. It was also found that learners’ attitudes towards English varieties were not correlated with any measures of intercultural metapragmatic awareness. The findings suggest that cultural stereotypes play a greater role in learners’ intercultural metapragmatic awareness than attitudes towards English varieties.Pedagogical implications are discussed.

15:00-16:15 Session 6E: L2 Motivation & Autonomy
Theorising Agency as Complex Dynamic Systems: Evidence from ESL Learner Narratives in Online Tutoring

ABSTRACT. The recent dynamic turn in second language acquisition (SLA) research has called for an investigation in learner agency by taking its complex dynamic nature into account. Informed by the complex dynamic systems theory (CDST), this study investigated the agency of learners in a complex educational context where mainstream schooling and private tutoring, i.e. shadow education, coexist, and when teaching and learning was switched online. Through longitudinal narrative inquiry, this study analysed the experiences of 23 senior secondary students enrolled in online English private tutoring. Data were collected through three rounds of individual interview and two pieces of learner reflective writing, supplemented by artefacts such as their language learning materials and interviews with their tutors, schoolteachers and parents. The multiple sources of data collected for one year were compiled as narratives for analysis. The findings highlight the importance of considering learner agency from the CDST perspective, acknowledging its characteristics such as its relational, ecological, emergent nature, and its spatiality, multidimensionality and sustainability. This study sheds light on the complex agency-structure interplay in shadow education situated in the wider education context, and offers implications for educators to support language learners to be agentic in regulating their learning.

L2 proficiency, engagement and autonomy: What matters most when learning L2 pragmatics through self-access online materials?

ABSTRACT. The present study explores the influence of three individual variables (L2 proficiency, autonomous language learning behaviours, and engagement) in students’ pragmatic gains after three weeks of instruction in the form of a self-access online module that focused on performing requests to faculty. Specifically, the study focuses on pragmatic awareness, that is “the conscious, reflective, explicit knowledge about pragmatics” (Alcón-Soler & Safont-Jordá, 2008), as its development is considered necessary for learners to make informed decisions about the appropriateness of their messages in specific communicative situations.

Participants were 66 EFL first-year university students whose proficiency levels ranged from B1 to C1. Students' development of pragmatic awareness was measured through four open-ended appropriateness judgment tasks involving email requests to faculty that contained various pragmatic infelicities and aggravators. Students’ descriptions of (in)appropriateness were analysed both through a scoring rubric and an in-depth qualitative analysis (Nguyen, 2018). Reported autonomous language learning behaviours were collected through a Likert-scale questionnaire (Albert et al., 2022) and engagement was measured through a combination of indicators (e.g., amount of tasks completed and time spent on the materials) based on Zhou et al (2021).

Our results indicate that self-access instruction had a positive effect on students’ pragmatic awareness concerning email requests to faculty. A paired-samples T-Test revealed significant gains from the pretest (M=1.93; SD=.75) to the posttest (M=3.43; SD=.89), [t(65)=-15.265, p<.001]. Concerning individual differences, while L2 proficiency was positively correlated with pre-test scores, it did not have an influence on students' pragmatic gains. Linear regression analyses showed that gains were significantly influenced by students’ engagement (F(1,24)=13.46, p<.001) and by their technology-related language learning autonomy (F(1,24)=6,61, p=.012). These results will be discussed in relation to their theoretical and pedagogical implications.

How to motivate students with various levels of openness to experience and ambiguity tolerance in the foreign language classroom?

ABSTRACT. Many internal factors, also known as individual differences, influence foreign language learning. One of the individual differences is personality with its higher and lower-order traits. This study concentrated on openness to experience (O) and ambiguity tolerance (AT), higher and lower-order personality traits, and their relationship to students’ self-assessment and school grades in foreign language acquisition. Also, it examined the link between students’ attainment and preferred ways of learning English. 359 participants from secondary schools filled out the Openness to Experience Scale, the Second Language Ambiguity Tolerance Scale, and an additional questionnaire providing information about their attitudes towards learning English and their favourite ways of learning. The data was gathered with quantitative and qualitative methods and analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics. The study revealed that there is a relationship between O and AT as well as students’ attainment and their favourite ways of learning a foreign language. Students with high O and AT achieve better grades and have higher self-assessments. They are curious, open-minded and feel less anxious before unknown language situations. Therefore, teachers can suggest new techniques and use unexpected turns to raise students’ interests. Students with medium levels of these traits have good grades and have a medium level of self-assessment that coincides with external assessment. They cope with their anxiety, and their involvement during lessons depends on the topic they work on. They need new stimuli very often to increase their interest in a lesson. Learners with low O and AT achieve low grades and have very low self-assessment as well as a high level of language anxiety. They have a conservative nature, and this entails their bounding to traditional learning techniques. Therefore, teachers should try to raise students', e.g., emotions using media, as well as self-assessment to enhance their positive attitude toward learning English.

15:00-16:15 Session 6F: Learner psychology
Self-Efficacy Beliefs and the Effect of Metacognitive Strategy Training on EFL Student-Writers’ Argumentative Essay-Writing Performance: An Experimental Study

ABSTRACT. The purpose of this study aimed to explore the mediational influence of writing self-efficacy and its relationship to the effect of metacognitive strategy training on Moroccan EFL student-writers’ argumentative essay-writing performance. To this end, three groups participated in the study, two experimental groups divided to whether they had high or low perceived writing self-efficacy and a control group. The two experimental groups received a treatment that consisted of metacognitive strategy training in the planning of an argumentative essay while the control group received no treatment. The statistical results of the study showed that the two experimental groups displayed more improvement on the post-test than did the control group whose performance remained invariable. Also, the first experimental group showed more improvement than the second experimental group. This finding revealed that the level of self-efficacy seemed to influence mediationally the student-writers’ writing performance. Interestingly, more than half of the second experimental group showed improvement on the post-test. Adopting the repeated measures method, the re-administration of the self-efficacy questionnaire to this group displayed that more than the half developed their self-efficacy over the treatment period. This finding accounted for the improvement of their performance. It also corroborated the mediational role of self-efficacy. These findings demonstrate that students' confidence in their writing capabilities influence their writing and can either enhance or diminish their writing development.

English language learners and the writing classroom: investigating writing self- efficacy, self-determination, academic grit and buoyancy among Saudi Female English major university students

ABSTRACT. Good grades and IQ alone are often not sufficient to understand how learners maintain effort, remain motivated and confront difficulties. No matter how intelligent or talented they are, students who lack the psychological drive may struggle greatly and even worse stop learning or drop out (Duckworth et al., 2007; Duckworth et al., 2019; Lodhi, Hanif & Fatima, 2019). Positive psychological factors such as grit and buoyancy are typically linked to positive outcomes. In the field of SLA research, these variables are frequently described in regard to long-term and short-term persistence in the face of academic challenges. Several studies have recognised learners’ persistent effort as a predictor of general language learning outcomes (Yun, Hiver and Al-Hoorie, 2018; Alhadabi and Karpinski, 2020; Aydın and Michou, 2020; Teimouri, Plonsky and Tabandeh, 2020). However, the relationship between individual variables, especially grit, buoyancy, motivation, self-efficacy and language achievement at a skill level, especially writing, is rarely examined among English language learners. Therefore, this study aimed to test the hypothesis of a relationship between academic persistence among EFL female Saudi students in their first two years at university, as defined in terms of grit and buoyancy, and their writing course scores. Furthermore, the study aimed to unmask how learners understand persistence and their experiences in responding to writing difficulties beyond the constraints of self-report measures. Therefore, sixty-one English major Saudi undergraduates, attending a public university in Saudi participated in the study. As part of their study plan, participants were required to study academic writing during both the first and second years. To understand this and the complex relationships between learners’ non-linguistic factors and achievement outcomes in relation to writing, the study utilised a mixed methods approach. In particular, a self-report questionnaire, cloze test and memory task (MT) were used to assess the nature of the association between grit, buoyancy and self-efficacy constructs and writing achievement outcomes. To test this, descriptive statistics and regression analyses were used. Semi-structured interviews among twenty learners and two writing instructors were used to understand how thereof define writing persistence. The study aimed to answer the following research questions: 1. What is the relationship between grit, buoyancy, self-efficacy, and writing achievement outcomes? 2. Do grit and buoyancy predict writing achievement along with the moderating role of self-efficacy? 3. How do Saudi female undergraduates understand academic persistence in writing as they venture through their first two years at university? 4. How do writing instructors perceive academic persistence?

The longitudinal effects of positive psychology interventions on English language learners

ABSTRACT. This research explores the effects of positive psychology interventions (PPIs) in the context of second language acquisition (SLA) through a longitudinal lens. Students in an Intensive English Program (IEP) for non-matriculated university students participated in PPIs which focused on both positive psychology and language learning outcomes. The PPIs were created based on the PERMA model of well-being (​Seligman, 2011​), which focuses on positive emotion, engagement, relationships, meaning, and accomplishment. Interventions were administered in the form of weekly 65-minute lessons and short daily activities over the course of one semester. The lessons were created with a dual purpose of promoting both well-being and language learning, with outcomes for each being specified in each lesson plan. The interventions focused on topics such as gratitude, resilience, perseverance, hope, kindness, volunteerism, and service. Students in all classes that received PPIs were given open-ended surveys at the conclusion of the semester the PPIs were administered to investigate how students felt about the PPIs and how the PPIs might have affected student engagement, enjoyment, and well-being. Some students also took part in semi-structured interviews to further explain their experiences. Follow-up surveys are to be administered two and a half years after the initial interventions to discover the long-term effects of the PPIs. We aim to discover what students remember most from the PPIs, and if and how the students' well-being has been affected by the PPIs.

15:00-16:15 Session 6G: Learner & teacher psychology


Spreading wellbeing: EFL instructors and students thriving together

ABSTRACT. During the process of learning a foreign language, student wellbeing may be at risk. Within the domain of L2 education, understanding and promoting students’ wellbeing lies at the heart of language teaching and learning (Mercer, 2021). In general terms, wellbeing refers to individuals’ satisfaction with their life, physical and mental health, and work. It is not only subjective and individual but also objective and social (Mercer, 2021). Wellbeing promotes individuals’ growth and flourishment (Seligman & Csikszentmihalyi, 2000) and can bring about positive emotional and academic experiences, such as students’ higher foreign language enjoyment (Proietti Ergün & Dewaele, 2021). The emergence of positive psychology in L2 education turned SLA researchers’ and L2 teachers' attention to the possibilities of focusing on wellbeing (MacIntyre, 2016). In this way, two disciplines, positive psychology and language education, ally with the aim of enriching the language learning experience and provide the framework that we use to weave language learning and wellbeing. In this workshop we conduct a series of experiential activities framed within the PERMA model which aim at explicitly teaching the target language to talk about wellbeing, academic emotions and experiences; and at the same time creating safe spaces to reflect on language learning and wellbeing. We also explore positive psychology principles and holistic approaches to promote wellbeing among language learners. We finally focus on giving participants time to reflect upon how they could adapt the materials they use so as to intertwine language practice and the promotion of wellbeing and share their ideas. By fostering wellbeing, language teachers can create an environment that generates moments of positivity. We believe that shifting towards a positive education-oriented perspective in EFL classrooms is crucial for teachers and students to prosper and flourish together.

Language teachers’ roles and their past and present effects on the WTC of migrant learners in NZ

ABSTRACT. Tides of migration are likely to remain a significant global issue for the future and therefore satisfactory resettlement, including the desire and ability to communicate in another language is vital (Lou & Noels, 2023). Previous emphasis on the nature of the learners’ WTC means that that teachers’ views on WTC are under-researched (Gkonou, Mercer, & Daubney (2018). Current thoughts on WTC could be augmented by this new horizon connecting teachers and learners. In this presentation, I report on the findings of a qualitative longitudinal (18mth) study, which included in-depth interviews and observations of 10 Iranian adult migrant students and their 10 New Zealand English teachers. Thematic analysis was applied to the collected data which revealed factors such as context, motivation, personality, self-perceived competence, as well as the teacher’s methods and approach, as having an important role in the level of the learner’s WTC. Such antecedents were found to create individually different dynamic fluctuations. Results show commonalities and disparities between the views of teachers and students. For example, two teachers had quite different opinions of the same student’s WTC and a student’s self-evaluation contradicted those of the teacher. As for context, the students reported a higher level of WTC in NZ than in Iran, where the teachers and teaching methods limited their confidence. An ecosystems framework was applied to the findings which clearly demonstrated the interaction between the roles of teacher, student, and context at the micro- to macro- level (Li, 2023). I concluded that the teacher’s role in fostering the learner’s WTC was very influential on their past and present language learning experiences in both the geographical contexts of Iran and NZ. Finally, I will share some practical insights for language teachers, while allowing for the fact that teachers in different educational environments are subject to different pedagogical constraints.

15:00-16:15 Session 6H: Learner Identity & Investment
Mapping internal affordances in graduate students’ language learning narratives

ABSTRACT. The ecological approach to language learning proposes the conceptualization of affordances as perception, reflection and action upon possibilities present in the environment (Van Lier, 2004). In recent years, research has been giving attention to character strengths as positive personal traits used by individuals to maximize their experiences in life (Peterson & Seligman, 2004; Niemiec, 2019). In this study, I turn my attention to affordances which belong to the internal environment of individuals, and of which they are mostly unaware of. In my understanding, these affordances are cognitive and metacognitive resources, including character strengths, but not always consciously used when learning a language. Borges’ (2022) model stresses the importance of reflection as a basis to autonomous learning development. Perception and reflection on character strengths can lead students to action, thus enjoying a more successful trajectory in language learning. This qualitative exploratory study makes use of language learning narratives collected from 13 MA or PhD graduate students, in which they narrated their experience of learning and using language(s) from early age until the present. The narratives were analyzed following the content analysis procedures, which centered on the categories that indicated participants’ intrapersonal reflection on character strengths that lead them to learn additional languages. Results show that only three students did not mention any internal affordances. Prominent categories stated by the students included: wisdom (curiosity, judgement, love of learning), courage (bravery, perseverance), temperance (self-regulation), and transcendence (appreciation of excellence). On the other hand, three students reflected upon the resistance or even aversion they felt towards learning a foreign language. Implications of this research are that providing opportunities for students to reflect on their character strengths as intrapersonal affordances may lead to more positive behaviors in language learning.

„If this portfolio supports you like this, then the lessons are fun” - A case study of the influence of portfolio work on learners’ investment in the French language classroom

ABSTRACT. Motivation is central to language learning (Dörnyei, 2020). The sociological construct of investment in which a student’s identity and commitment within the language learning process interact complements the psychological notion of motivation (Norton, 2013). The concept of investment was mostly researched in terms of English language learning of adults or immigrants. To expand this body of literature to the language classroom at school, this presentation aims to first explore the following research question: (RQ1) In which circumstances does French adolescent learners’ investment emerge in formal language learning? In order to answer this research question, I conducted an empirical longitudinal study in a French language classroom in a grammar school in Germany. Particular to this class is that they work with student-designed portfolios with several sections (e.g. grammar, vocabulary, creativity) that are systematically integrated into classroom life for students’ three years of learning French. During my classroom observations, a second research question emerged, which will also be addressed in this presentation: (RQ2) How does portfolio work contribute to the emergence of investment in the French language classroom? Nine students (out of 22, aged 14-15) were considered „special” in terms of (increasing or decreasing) motivation during the school year by the teacher. Therefore, ethnographic interviews and portfolio examinations with these nine students were carried out and subjected to grounded theory analysis. The factors and processes influencing students’ investment were found to be playful learning that takes place collaboratively and autonomously through exploring and/or co-creating documents relevant to the students. These results will be illustrated through the in-depth presentation of a focal single case, in which a student explicitly connects his investment to working with the portfolio.

Dörnyei, Z. (2020). Innovations and challenges in language learning motivation. Routledge. Norton, B. (2013, 2nd ed.). Identity and Language Learning. Multilingual Matters.

On umbilical cords and hybridized socialization practices during work/study abroad: The key roles of investment and identity

ABSTRACT. Inspired by Kinginger’s (2008) descriptions of sojourners’ not so immersive experiences abroad, this study aimed to explore how American study-abroad undergraduates participating in a semester-long program in Spain would react to an activity based on critical reflective practice regarding the potential existence of various ‘umbilical cords’ while in Spain. To that end, 40 US undergraduate students in their early 20s were asked to reflect on their day-to-day sociocultural interaction and social relationships and then write a journal entry on their socialization adjustment practices in their host community while they were spending week 8-10 in Spain. An analysis of their compositions showed high levels of variability although most of the participants recognized the highly ‘hybridized’ nature of their social / interactional experiences. Against this background, a study was designed to explore the socialization / interactional patterns of an older and significantly more experienced sojourner within this generic learning context in order to find out the extent to which similar hybridized practices might also be present. A longitudinal, ethnographically-oriented case study was conducted during 10 months in order to examine the sociocultural patterns developed by a 33-year-old, Spanish-English bilingual male who, while being a graduate student at a US university, came to Spain as a visiting lecturer in a work-and-study-abroad program. The design was triangulated through the use of five data-gathering techniques: An extensive background questionnaire, 9 audio-recorded, semi-structured interviews, 9 guided journal entries, 5 culture-based tasks, and 2 ‘shadowing’ sessions. The data-analysis procedures included data coding, thematic analysis, saturation, and member checking. The findings revealed that the experienced sojourner also found it difficult to integrate into his new academic and sociocultural environment. As in the case of most of the undergraduate students in the semester-long program, he also had an overall satisfactory—yet socially non-immersive—experience that was largely attached to electronic and non-electronic, external and internal umbilical cords. The highly individual nature of the acculturation process in the host culture was characterized in this study by the distinctive similarity of non-immersive socialization patterns. The critical roles that two individual differences—investment and identity—seem to play in this contemporary phenomenon are underscored.

16:15-16:45Coffee Break
16:45-18:00 Session 7A: Learner Motivation & Wellbeing
‘I go to the gym when I feel stressed’: The wellbeing literacy of EFL students and its relevance for language teachers

ABSTRACT. Wellbeing has been recognized as a basic human right (World Health Organization, 2001), a core determinant of success in education (Adler, 2017; Cárdenas et al., 2022), and a skill that can be developed (Seligman et al., 2009). In language education, the evidence suggests that higher wellbeing is likely to lead to more classroom engagement and ultimately greater success for learners (Botes et al., 2022; Jin et al., 2021; Sucaromana, 2012). For English language teachers, there is a need to understand what learners know about wellbeing, what kinds of support they feel they need, and how best to integrate such support into their regular language teaching practice. In this talk, we report on a qualitative study, which set out to understand the wellbeing literacy of a group of English as a foreign language (EFL) learners in Austria. Focus group data were collected with 45 EFL learners at a high school in Austria in their final year of school. The findings reveal five categories in which learners demonstrated knowledge of wellbeing: understandings of wellbeing, causes of stress, coping strategies, the role of systemic factors, and issues in the English language teaching (ELT) context specifically. Based on the analysis of these data, we present a practical framework for EFL student wellbeing literacy. Teachers can use the framework to work with learners in evaluating their current wellbeing knowledge and needs, and it can also be employed to inform teaching practices. We conclude the presentation by presenting a range of classroom activities which could be utilized with the framework to foster wellbeing in ELT.

Emotional sources of engagement and flow in secondary-level EFL learners

ABSTRACT. This paper investigates Foreign Language Enjoyment (FLE), Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety (FLCA), and Foreign Language Boredom (FLB) as predictors of learners’ engagement and the amount of time they spend in a state of flow in English as a Foreign Language (EFL) classes. Both engagement and flow have been shown to have a positive impact on performance and learning outcomes. Additionally, which emotions are most frequently experienced in the EFL class, according to the learners themselves, as well as possible sources for experiencing them will be investigated. Data were collected with an online questionnaire. Respondents were 328 upper secondary-level students from various schools in Austria. Regression analyses revealed that higher levels of FLE, paired with lower levels of FLB, resulted in learners’ higher engagement in the subject, explaining a variance of 28.8% in students’ engagement scores. Additionally, the analyses showed that both enjoyment and boredom were reliable predictors of learners’ amount of time spent in a state of flow: Students who experienced higher levels of FLE and lower levels of FLB reported spending a higher proportion of time in a state of flow (variance = 49.8%). FLCA had no significant negative effect on learners’ engagement nor on the amount of time learners spent in a state of flow in their EFL classes. Data from an open-ended question on the top three emotions experienced by learners in their EFL classes revealed that when learners are given the opportunity to list the emotions experienced in EFL classes freely themselves, boredom was listed most frequently (n = 161). Additionally, the learners offered detailed explanations as to why and when they felt bored in their EFL class, thereby providing educators with rich insights into how it can be counteracted to increase students’ engagement and facilitate experiences of flow.

A tangled web: Learner autonomy and trait emotional intelligence as predictors of language emotions, willingness to communicate and academic achievement in online language learning

ABSTRACT. Previous research revealed the crucial role of learners’ positive and negative emotions in the foreign language (FL) class regarding their readiness to communicate in the FL. More specifically, prior studies have established that foreign language classroom anxiety (FLCA) and foreign language enjoyment (FLE) are reliable predictors of learners’ willingness to communicate (WTC) in in-person FL classes (Author 3 & D). Additionally, more emotionally intelligent and autonomous learners at the tertiary level were shown to experience both higher levels of FLE and lower levels of FLCA in their brick-and-mortar as well as their emergency remote English as a Foreign Language (EFL) classes after the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic (Author 1 & 3, 2020, 2023). Building on these findings, the present study investigates the role of learner autonomy and trait emotional intelligence (TEI) in learners’ experience of positive and negative emotions in online EFL classes at the secondary level. Additionally, their impact on learners’ WTC and grades will be considered. With a web survey, data were collected from 490 learners in a vocational school in Lower Austria during 30 online EFL lessons. Statistical analysis through structural equation modelling revealed that TEI predicted both FLE (positively) and FLCA (negatively), although learner autonomy only had a significant positive effect on FLE. Both positive and negative emotions predicted WTC and the academic achievement of learners. The study demonstrates the role that autonomy and TEI play in directly predicting language emotions and indirectly impacting language learning success. In addition, the study further demonstrates the strength of positivity, as measured through learner autonomy and positive emotion, in the foreign language classroom.

References: Author 1 & 3. 2020. Author 1 & 3. 2023. Author 3. & D.

16:45-18:00 Session 7B: Learner Psychology
Pioneering Pathways in Language Learner Wellbeing: Conceptualisation, Measurement, and Support System

ABSTRACT. This presentation aims to break new ground by placing the concept of wellbeing at the heart of its investigation and delving into a domain-specific understanding of language learner wellbeing. Specifically, it focuses on the wellbeing experiences of a particular learner group – young Chinese heritage language (CHL) learners in the UK – with the ultimate goal of fostering positive and flourishing HL learning experiences for them. Since research into language learner wellbeing is still in its early stages and no study to date has explored HL learner wellbeing, this study aims to contribute to this burgeoning field by filling the gaps in its conceptualisation, measurement, and support system.

The study employed a multi-phase, mixed-method design to establish an empirically validated model and a psychometrically sound measure of language learner wellbeing. Phase One initiated a qualitative exploration with 40 students, probing their conceptualisation of wellbeing in HL learning. Building on these insights, Phase Two developed and validated a domain-specific scale with a broader population (n = 545), uncovering the factor structure of the construct. Phase Three then meticulously examined four individual wellbeing cases, refining our understanding of the underlying mechanisms. Collectively, these three phases contributed to a novel four-factor model of language learner wellbeing, informed by children’s insights, validated with a larger sample, and refined through individual case analysis.

The presentation will delve into this newly-developed model and measure, outlining its potential for wider applications within varied L2 learning contexts. As an effective tool for assessing and monitoring language learner wellbeing, it serves as a cornerstone for future research. By exploring what brings happiness and wellbeing at the language-domain-specific level, our study also paves the way for impactful interventions, empowering individuals to flourish in their language learning journey.

The link between perceived self-efficacy and emotion regulation in L2 spoken communication: A mixed-methods study

ABSTRACT. Previous studies have examined the role of language learners’ self-efficacy beliefs in relation to selected individual differences in the context of second language (L2) learning (Bondarenko, 2020). However, the role of perceived self-efficacy (individuals’ beliefs in their ability to perform well) has not been explored in relation to learners’ emotion regulation (ER; up-regulation of positive and down-regulation of negative emotions; Bielak & Mystkowska-Wiertelak, 2020). To address this gap, the quantitative strand of this mixed-methods study included survey data examining the relationship between L2-English learners’ speaking and listening self-efficacy and ER strategies. Adapted L2 Speaking and Listening Self-Efficacy Questionnaire (SLSE; Bondarenko, 2020) and Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (CERQ; Garnefski et al., 2001) were administered to 200 English learners. Regression analyses showed that a higher sense of self-efficacy contributed to a more frequent use of adaptive ER strategies. In the (mostly) qualitative strand of the study the idiodynamic method was used. Twelve English-major learners’ performance in L2-English classroom speaking tasks was video-recorded. While viewing the recordings immediately after the tasks, participants self-rated their foreign language anxiety, foreign language enjoyment, and English speaking and listening self-efficacy on a per-second basis using the idiodynamic software. In subsequent stimulated-recall interviews, participants revealed the exact ER strategies they employed to regulate the emotions, including the timing of strategy use and self-perceived strategy effectiveness. Participants also reported the causes of the fluctuations in their self-efficacy ratings. In the analysis of the idiodynamic data, which revealed a complex reciprocal relationship between the two variables, particular attention was paid to the timing of ER strategies in relation to learner perceived self-efficacy. In the final analysis, data from the two study strands were merged. The convergences and divergences between the results from the two strands were interpreted with reference to the context and high ecological validity of the idiodynamic investigation.

L2 motivation and international migration: Validation of scales measuring approach–avoidance, hope, and future time perspective

ABSTRACT. Background and purpose Today, insights into the motivation of L2 learners in universities and schools abound. However, findings can translate poorly to populations of adult migrants, where language proficiency is inextricably bound up with life opportunities, where the future is often uncertain, and where L2 learning is a long-time, high-stakes process (Ortega, 2019). To address this knowledge gap, the purpose of the research was (i) to identify motivation constructs relevant to the situation of adult L2 learners in circumstances of precarity, and (ii) to develop and validate scales to measure motivation. From the literature on motivational persistence, three constructs were identified as relevant to the investigation of adult migrants’ L2 motivation: Approach–Avoidance (AA) (Elliot, 2006), Hope (Snyder 2000), and Future Time Perspective (FTP) (Nuttin, 2014).

Procedures For each construct, a preexisting scale was adapted for current purposes: AA (Lockwood et al., 2002), Hope (Snyder et al., 1996), and FTP (Nuttin, 2014). Following piloting, and using back translation methods, Arabic, Persian, and Russian language versions of each scale were created. Questionnaires containing these scales were administered to 193 adult migrants learning L2 Swedish. Data was inputted into SPSS (version 25). Validation procedures described in Botes et al. (2021) were used, with confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) carried out in Mplus 8 (Muthen & Muthén, 1998–2017).

Results For AA and Hope, the CFA showed adequate fit. Both scales demonstrated high internal consistency, with Cronbach’s alpha between .70 and .84, and McDonald’s omega between .70 and .84. Analysis of the AVE and factor loadings revealed acceptable values, indicating that the items included in each factor shared a high proportion of variance. For FTP, results of CFA were poor. Internal consistency and factor loadings were unacceptably low. Findings are discussed in relation to measures needed to investigate motivation in migrant populations.

16:45-18:00 Session 7C: Third-age Learners
Exploring Retirement as a Threshold: Retirement as a Predictor of Change in Cognitive Functioning, Theory of Mind, L1 Discourse Production, and L2 Learning

ABSTRACT. Retirement, a significant life event (Coupland, 2009), brings lifestyle changes and potential shifts in language habits. However, while the impact of occupation on cognitive functioning, L2 aptitude, and the relationship between retirement and mental/physical health are well-established, no studies have analyzed how this transition influences language development and communication skills (and vice versa). This is unfortunate, given the hypothesized associations between communication skills, late-life language learning, and enhanced cognition, all influenced by contextual variety, socio-affective variables, and life events, including retirement. Additionally, cognitive decline in ageing often coincides with decreased empathy and Theory of Mind (ToM) abilities (e.g., Bailey et al., 2008), which impact coherent discourse production in L1 (e.g., Büttner-Kunert, 2022). We thus hypothesize retirement to negatively affect L1 discourse, compromising communicative effectiveness. This study is part of a longitudinal micro-development project, addressing, inter alia, the following questions: (1) Does the transition from work to retirement correlate with significant changes in cognitive functioning, L2 development, and ToM? If yes, when exactly? (2) How do job complexity and pre- and post-retirement activities affect older L2 adults’ cognitive functioning, L2 learning, and ToM across retirement? (3) Do changes in ToM across retirement correlate with changes in the ability to produce coherent L1 narrative discourse? The study includes 30 healthy, mostly native German-speaking employees in Switzerland (aged 62-64) who participate in a 2-year-long English course for near-beginners. 20 retire within the first 18 months of the training. Participants are assessed every two weeks on cognitive, L2, L1 discourse production, ToM, and socio-affective parameters. The data is analysed using generalised additive mixed modelling and timeseries cluster analyses. The results not only shed light on communication problems arising across retirement but also on the mechanisms through which retirement affects cognition by investigating L2 acquisition as a meaningful, ecologically relevant, and socially relevant time-use activity.

Exploring the Impacts of a Pandemic on Language Teacher Identity and Professional Development in Japan

ABSTRACT. As every educator surely knows, the COVID-19 pandemic fundamentally altered not just teaching, but how educators, researchers, and even the public look at teacher well-being and professional development. This presentation shares work connected to a three-year government-funded research project in Japan. The purpose of this project is to investigate how the time teaching online during the COVID-19 pandemic, as well as the gradual return to face-to-face lessons has impacted language teachers’ identities, emotions, and teaching practices. Specifically, it aims to see whether educators have changed the way in which they engage in professional development activities due to their experiences in those challenging times and to ascertain the degree to which those activities had an effect on their identity, emotions, or teaching practices. The researchers used narrative inquiry to collect data about the participants in their individual teaching contexts: primary through tertiary education, including assistant language teachers, eikaiwa (conversation school) teachers, and eikaiwa school owners. This focus on qualitative data, rather than quantitative data, is essential because it explores, and shares, educators' lived experiences, which are an integral part of a teacher’s identity. Data was collected through narrative frame surveys, with a selection of respondents interviewed to gather more detailed reflections on their experiences. Additionally, those interviewees were asked to provide their language learning histories and various ethnographic artifacts (e.g., syllabi, lesson plans, teaching journals) in order to collect thick descriptions of the participants' lived experiences during the pandemic. This presentation will share the preliminary findings from the research project, focusing on the emergent themes within the survey data as well as providing initial thoughts on what is expected to be uncovered in the interview conversations.

Socio-affective Factors, Retirement Resources, and Variability in L2 Trajectories of Third Age Learners

ABSTRACT. Socio-affect plays a key role in retirement, impacting social and mental well-being during this major life transition. Second language (L2) learning, a complex and engaging activity, has been linked to enhancing emotional, social, and motivational resources in the third age (Pfenninger & Kliesch 2023). Following the resource-based dynamic model (Wang et al., 2011), retirees engaging in more pre-retirement activities such as L2 learning are expected to have greater retirement resources, ultimately leading to improved well-being post-retirement (Yeung & Zhou, 2017). These retirement resources vary greatly amongst older adults, and this may arguably modulate L2 learning in the transition from work to retirement. This study is part of a large-scale longitudinal research project, which addresses, inter alia, the following RQ: How do individual differences in social-contextual, emotional, and motivational resources relate to L2 performance during the transition from work to retirement? This study analyses the L2 trajectories of German-speaking adults (aged 62-65) in Switzerland who attend a 2-year L2 English course and who have recently retired or will retire sometime during the L2 training period. The 30 participants are assessed at 2-week intervals on (1) a range of socio-affective measures via surveys and qualitative interviews: life satisfaction, self-efficacy, retirement anxiety, positive and negative affect, (2) a L2 test battery (Kliesch & Pfenninger, 2021), and (3) demographic and behavioral measures such as working memory and executive functioning. In a mixed-methods design, combining network analysis with generalized additive mixed modeling (Wood, 2006) and content analyses, this paper aims to identify pre- and post-retirement activities, critical life events, and retirement resources that mediate effects of retirement on language acquisition and vice versa and help explain inter- and intra-individual differences. Outcomes from this study will offer in-depth insight into individual learner profiles and help refine future language-based interventions for older individuals.

16:45-18:00 Session 7D: Learner Autonomy & Wellbeing
Outlook of Learner Autonomy in English Language Classrooms: Perspectives of Students and Teachers from Pakistan

ABSTRACT. This research explores the perceptions of undergraduate English language learners and teachers about Learner Autonomy. Using cross-sectional survey design, 561 learners studying functional English courses and 62 teachers teaching functional English courses were selected from six universities of central Punjab including three public and three private universities. Two questionnaires were used to collect data from both groups. Descriptive and inferential analyses of the data revealed that in the context of Pakistan, both English language learners and teachers are familiar with the concept of LA and they have positive perceptions about it. Moreover, they are practicing autonomy-supportive activities in learning and teaching of language in their classrooms. The results also revealed that though teachers are aware of the feasibility of LA, they have comparatively low positive perceptions about its feasibility in actual language teaching. As for as the differences are concerned, the perceptions of female, English Major and private learners were more positive than male, English non-major and public learners. Conversely, no significance variation was found among the perceptions of teachers in terms of gender, institute type and academic rank. On the basis of experience, the only difference was that the teachers with 10-15 years of experience were more positive than teachers belonging to other experience groups. The study recommends that the learners and teachers in the context of Pakistan should acknowledge their new roles according to the demand of the present era and the value of English language in Pakistan. The future researchers must keep in focus not only other areas of Punjab but also other four provinces of Pakistan besides Punjab. Moreover, future researchers must adopt experimental research design to investigate the phenomenon with more depth so that learners, teachers and curriculum designers may take advantage of it to develop LA in their learning, teaching and course-designing.

Going north of neutral in the language class: The power of positive conversations to elevate students’ well-being

ABSTRACT. The emotional load carried by the learning of an additional language led researchers to describe this activity as “a long-term, gradual acquisition process necessitating perseverance, optimism, and resilience, among other qualities” (MacIntyre, Gregersen & Mercer, 2019, p.2). Having experienced this emotional experience, frequently, advanced language students reach a language learning plateau where they master the target language but many of them lack the vocabulary and language structures to express their emotions. According to David (in Brown, 2021) “learning to label emotions with a more nuanced vocabulary can be absolutely transformative”. She explains that if you don’t have a sufficient emotional vocabulary, it is difficult to communicate your needs and get the support that you need from others. Therefore, combining the theoretical underpinnings of: a) Positive Psychology (Seligman & Csikszentmihalyi, 2014), b) Positive Language Education (PLE), which stems from a combination of Positive Education and Language Education (Mercer, et al., 2018), and c) the power of conversation, I created a teaching proposal called: Elevate English Experience and its Spanish version: Elevate Experiencia en Español to lead language students to go north of neutral in the language class. This proposal aims to cater to the needs of speakers of English and Spanish as additional languages who have reached an advanced level of language proficiency and want to practice their conversational skills and promote their well-being. In this presentation, I am going to describe an innovative way of infusing positive psychology into the language classroom following a creative generic class structure in a very short framework of time. In sum, this presentation will lead you to the world of language potentiation to give voice to your inner world and facilitate its expansion through positive conversations.

Investigating task-specific flow in older adult EFL learners

ABSTRACT. Research on the relevance of emotions in SLA has a long tradition and, although for a time it has focused mainly on negative emotions, the rise of positive psychology in the early 2000s has led to a change in perspective and an integration of the new trend and applied linguistics (SLA) research. One of the themes positive psychology has explored is flow, an optimal psychological state of total immersion, enjoyment, and concentration in an activity with the appropriate balance of challenge and skills (Csíkszentmihályi, 1997), which in SLA has been identified as an important factor contributing to improved task performance (Gregersen & MacIntyre, 2014; Czimmermann & Piniel, 2016). However, despite its relevance, publications related to this aspect in the context of Foreign Language Geragogy (i.e., FL learning and teaching of older adults) are still very scarce. To bridge this gap, the present research has been undertaken in the group of older adult EFL learners with a view to investigating task-specific flow in the FL classroom and the corresponding range of emotions. The study employed a mixed-methods approach with the two types of data collected in two stages. First, participants, students of the University of the Third Age, representing CEFR A1 (n=20) and A2+ (n=16) proficiency levels, were asked to complete a questionnaire immediately after performing three different tasks during a regular lesson. The data collection instrument consisted of scales tapping into their enjoyment, anxiety, and flow. This was followed by semi-structured in-depth face-to-face interviews with selected participants (n=10). The preliminary inspection of the results shows that flow in the FL classroom is dynamic, and dependent on specific task characteristics, especially the arrangement mode and the level of other students’ disruptive behaviours. The data point to the decisive role of the instructor in generating the collective experience of flow which corresponds to an increased task and emotional engagement of the participants. On the whole, older adult FL learners reported experiencing mainly positive emotions and frequent states of flow in particular types of tasks.

Csíkszentmihályi, M. (1990). Flow: The psychology of optimal experience. New York, NY: Harper & Row. Czimmermann, E. & Piniel, K. (2016). Advanced language learners’ experiences of flow in the Hungarian EFL classroom. In P. D. MacIntyre, T. Gregersen, & S. Mercer (Eds.) Positive psychology in SLA (pp. 193-214). Multilingual Matters. Piniel, K. & Albert, Á. (2017). L2 motivation and self-efficacy’s link to language learners’ flow and anti-flow experiences in the classroom. In S. L. Krevelj & R. Geld (Eds.) UZRT 2016: Empirical studies in applied linguistics (pp. 90-103). FF Press.

16:45-18:00 Session 7E: SEM studies


The Role of L2 Learning Motivation, Learning Environment, and Self-regulation on Students’ Perceived Effectiveness of Instruction: A Longitudinal SEM Analysis

ABSTRACT. This study aims to explore the interplay among second language (L2) learning motivation, learning environment, and self-regulation within the context of South Korean elementary and junior high school students. Previous research has indicated that learner variables, including L2 learning motivation, L2 learning environment, and self-regulation, exert substantial influence over successful language learning. Given the dynamically evolving nature of these variables, it is imperative to focus on longitudinal changes, accounting for the maturation of the same participants over time. Nonetheless, there is still a gap in systematic inquiries into the impacts of learner variables on L2 learning motivation, learning environment, self-regulation, and the subsequent levels of L2 achievement from a long-term perspective. Thus, this study undertakes the task of identifying how the structural dynamics between student variables and classroom effectiveness evolve over time.

In this regard, this study analyzes longitudinal questionnaire data sourced from 7,324 Korean students from elementary to junior high school. The questionnaires consisted of factors, including student variables such as learning environment, intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, cognitive and behavioral regulation, alongside the perceived effectiveness of instruction. Data were collected longitudinally from the cohort of 7,324 students throughout their elementary and junior high school years. To analyze the temporal shifts in key student variables across different educational stages, the data underwent rigorous quantitative analysis, primarily utilizing structural equation modeling (SEM).

Regarding the perceived effectiveness of instruction among elementary school students, the SEM reveals that intrinsic motivation exerts an indirect impact on the perceived effectiveness of instruction, primarily mediated through behavioral regulation. However, a notable distinction arises among Korean junior high school students, where intrinsic motivation exhibits a direct impact on the perceived effectiveness of instruction. The findings underscore the importance of nurturing intrinsic motivation for L2 learners, especially those in EFL contexts, as they progress through the educational system.

You Should Use Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) in Your Research and Here is Why: Guidelines and Practical Recommendation

ABSTRACT. Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) is a comprehensive statistical method that encompasses several well-known first-generation methods such as correlation, regression, t-test, and ANOVA. It is commonly used to study latent variables in the field. Premature researchers think that SEM is only needed for "advanced" analyses as it generates results that are unavailable in correlation, multiple regression analysis, or ANOVA. Also, they erroneously think that SEM always requires large sample sizes, normally distributed data, special training, and an advanced understanding of statistics. It is unfortunate that reviewers and editors in our field still reject manuscripts based on these unsound claims. In contrast, SEM provides reliable results even for simple tasks such as correlation and t-test. Nowadays, SEM can be used through free-of-charge software packages such as the click-and-drag software Jamovi. In addition, learning SEM has become easier than ever with lots of manuals and video tutorials on the Internet, making the claim that SEM is only for advanced purposes unrealistic and outdated. In this presentation, I (1) argue that using SEM can provide greater reliability and flexibility even for simple tests such as correlation and t-test. For example, when using SEM to conduct a t-test, one can include a multiple-indicator latent variable rather than its mean value–thus allowing for estimation of the reliability and validity, handling missing data appropriately, accounting for non-normality, using binary variables (e.g., Yes/No), using a bootstrapping method. Also, I (2) present an empirical example of a t-test and correlation in SEM in a step-by-step through Jamovi software; and (3) briefly explain some of the "advanced" topics such as the difference between path analysis and structural model, mediation, moderation, and model comparison. I conclude that, if a researcher learned how to conduct first-generation methods (e.g., correlation and t-test), then it is important to expand their knowledge and learn SEM. Moreover, reviewers and editors should expand their knowledge about SEM to enhance their evaluation of submitted SEM papers.

16:45-18:00 Session 7F: Learner & Teacher Psychology


How effective is my teaching of different foreign language competencies?

ABSTRACT. Language teachers may hold different beliefs in relation to different domains of language learning (Lou & Noels 2019). This contribution sheds light on the beliefs they hold in respect to the effectiveness of their teaching to improve the learners’ language competencies. We adopt Q methodology, a theoretical and analytical approach developed on the principles of inter-behavioral psychology that allows us to explore variations within participants’ perspectives. Participants in this study will be about 30 teachers based in Europe, Australia, and East Asia, teaching a variety of European and Asian languages in different educational contexts, from schools to universities. With the inclusion of teachers of languages other than English, from different cultural backgrounds, and working in different educational contexts, we address some of the imbalances of current language teaching research, overtly oriented toward English Second Language learners (Haukås & Mercer 2022). Following a Q methodology protocol, we built the concourse by extrapolating statements about language competencies from the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEFR). The final set of statements, developed through iterative analysis and discussion among the researchers, is representative of all domains and scales included in the CEFR. A preliminary statistical analysis, conducted on thirteen participants, has already highlighted the existence of two main factors, i.e., two main perspectives. These hold different, sometimes contrasting, beliefs regarding the effectiveness of their teaching of, among others, language awareness, fluency, ability to recognise socio-cultural conventions, and ability to use non-verbal language. In addition to a qualitatively rich description of different perspectives regarding the effectiveness of foreign language teaching, final results are expected to provide both a prompt for practice-oriented individual reflections, and insights for the design of teacher training and professional development programs.

CASEL & Classrooms: An SEL Boost to Language Teaching

ABSTRACT. While academic ability and achievement remain the primary focus of educational institutions, research has shown that the social and emotional development of the learners is just as important, if not more, especially during the difficult times the whole world has passed through. According to the studies by Lindorff (2020) and the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD, 2018), a social and emotional learning (SEL) curriculum component can lead to improved academic performance and the development of the “whole” child. However, many teachers still struggle with incorporating SEL into their teaching practices.

During the session, the attendees will first explore the “What” and “Why” of SEL. Then, the presenter will focus on how teachers can utilize the CASEL framework, which was developed by the Collaborative for Academic, Social, and Emotional Learning, in designing activities that incorporate SEL components. The presenter will show how CASEL can be adopted as a structured methodological framework tailored for language education. Attendees will garner hands-on techniques to embed SEL into their language lessons, fostering both linguistic competence and emotional connectivity.

By the end of the session, educators will have a better understanding of the CASEL framework and how it can be utilized to design language-centric activities that harmoniously merge SEL principles. Attendees will leave the workshop with a greater appreciation for the positive impact of SEL on the students’ academic performance and mental well-being along with a repertoire of ideas that they can implement in their classrooms. With the shared practices, language teachers can thus nurture students who are not only linguistically adept but also emotionally attuned and socially skilled.

16:45-18:00 Session 7G: Learner Psychology
Investigating Second Language Writing Instruction and the Impact on Student Writing Motivation: A Mixed Methods Study in China

ABSTRACT. Considerable research has focused on the effectiveness of various second language (L2) writing instructional approaches on students’ writing development and performance, however, little is known about the practical implementation of L2 writing instruction and its actual impact on students’ writing motivation within the Chinese exam-oriented EFL context. This study utilized a sequential explanatory mixed methods design, incorporating both quantitative and qualitative data gathered through a large-scale survey to investigate the practice of different writing instructional approaches (i.e. product-, process-, and genre-oriented) and their impact on students’ writing motivation in 12 Chinese senior high schools. A sample of 1,440 students and 108 teachers across six regions (the Northwestern, the Central, the Southwestern, the Northeastern, the Eastern and the Southern areas), half from provincial key high schools and half from ordinary high schools, participated in the study. This study can provide empirical evidence on the connection between teachers' instruction and students' writing motivation, offering pedagogical implications for L2 writing teachers to enhance student motivation in the senior high stage, a critical phase bridging the primary school period and college years. Additionally, the study can also shed light on potential variations in L2 writing instruction and students’ writing motivation across schools of different levels and different geographic regions.

The Effect of Second Language Anxiety on English Learners’ Foreign Language Accuracy, Comprehensibility, and Speech Rate Across Three Communication Tasks

ABSTRACT. Past research has demonstrated a mostly negative relationship between foreign language anxiety (FLA) and second language (L2) performance (e.g., Horowitz, 2017). Few studies have examined anxiety’s influence on L2 pronunciation specifically, which is surprising considering that speaking the L2 has been identified as “the most common form of FLA” (Coppinger & Sheridan, 2022, p. 2; King & Smith, 2017). Those that have examined its effects looked mostly at foreign language learners in a classroom experience (e.g., Baran‐Łucarz, 2014). However, more research is needed to determine whether anxiety differs across different environments and in differ types of learners. This study differs from previous research in that it examines how FLA affects pronunciation features for students in an L2 environment, specifically at an intensive English program in the United States. Thirty-seven intermediate-high English learners participated in the three communication tasks: a formal academic speaking test, an informal casual interaction with a classmate in the classroom, and a formal interview with an unfamiliar native speaker. They completed the Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Scale and three anxiety inventories rating their anxiety in the present moment—one before each task. Three pronunciation measures were examined: speech rate, and native speaker judgments of foreign accent accuracy and comprehensibility. Results demonstrated that the speaking exam caused more anxiety for all students, but half the students rated the classroom experience and the other half rated talking to a native speaker as more anxiety-ridden. Surprisingly, results also demonstrated that anxiety positively correlated with each pronunciation measurement, although the degree of its influence depended on the task and pronunciation feature examined. These results suggest that anxiety may affect types of L2 learners differently, and its influence may also differ depending on the communication task and how students have been taught to approach anxiety. Implications for teaching and research are discussed.

16:45-18:00 Session 7H: L2 Motivation
Metamotivation: Self-Regulating Motivational States

ABSTRACT. Metamotivation refers to “the processes by which individuals monitor and control their motivational states in order to achieve their goals” (Scholer et al., 2018, pp. 437–438). Successful regulation of one’s motivation contributes to well-being and success across various domains, including language learning. This regulation may be directed toward the quantity (i.e., intensity) or the quality (i.e., type) of motivation. Regulating motivational quantity requires recognizing the relative utility of different motivational regulation strategies in enhancing motivation (Schwinger & Otterpohl, 2017). Regulating motivation quality, in contrast, requires realizing that motivation can additionally differ in type (e.g., promotion vs. prevention). For example, activating a promotion versus prevention regulatory focus orientation is generally more compatible with tasks requiring creativity and innovation (e.g., brainstorming) versus tasks requiring vigilance (e.g., proofreading), respectively. Metamotivation represents awareness of such task–motivation fit.

This presentation reports a study involving Saudi language learners of English (N = 311) who were presented with language-related tasks requiring two different motivational orientations (e.g., brainstorming vs. proofreading) and were asked to indicate their preferred incentive structure (inducing eagerness vs. vigilance) under two contexts (independent vs. interdependent). In an independent context, the participant is informed that gains and losses resulting from their performance would be applicable to themself only; in an interdependent context, their performance would implicate both themself and their team members.

The results showed that the participants exhibited metamotivational awareness in terms of promotion, but not prevention, orientation. Female participants displayed a marked overgeneralization bias, clearly favoring a promotion-inducing incentive structure even for vigilance tasks. The implications of these findings are discussed in relation to task engagement and persistence and to expanding the scope of language motivation theory, paving the way for a new line of research into language learning metamotivation.

Motivational Teaching Strategies and Students’ L2MSS: Tunisian University EFL Context

ABSTRACT. A number of studies underscore the significance of motivation in foreign language learning. Yet, limited attention was devoted to the effective application of motivational strategies (MotS) by English as a Foreign Language (EFL) teachers. Keller’s (2010) ARCS model addresses the gap between L2 motivation theories and classroom practice with a focus on four facets of motivation: attention, relevance, confidence, and satisfaction. In this regard, the present study endeavors to explore the use of MotS by Tunisian university EFL teachers and assess their effectiveness from the perspective of their students. It also seeks to explore the relation between students’ self-perception as speakers of English and their teacher’s use of MotS. Two questionnaires were employed to answer the research questions: (a) the Instructional Materials Motivational Survey (IMMS) questionnaire to students and teachers (Keller 2010) and the L2 Motivational Self System (L2MSS) questionnaire (Dörnyei 2009). The analysis of questionnaire data was carried out with SPSS 24.0. Factor analysis was conducted, and the items with significant factor loadings were labelled under the ARCS and L2MSS categories. The reliability with Cronbach’s alpha for each factor was checked for internal consistency. More statistical analyses were carried out to calculate descriptive statistics on the four categories of MotS for both students and teachers. Then, independent samples t-test were done to identify any significant difference between students’ and teachers’ perception of MotS. Correlation analyses were also conducted to identify the effect of the MotS used on students’ future self-perception through the L2MSS model. The findings highlight a significant difference between teachers’ reported use of MotS and students’ perception of the MotS used. Moreover, correlations between the L2MSS and the IMMS categories could be explicated in light of teachers' questionnaire results. The present study is expected to offer pedagogical contributions to the Tunisian higher education context.

French- English- and Plurilingual Selves of multiple language learners in Switzerland

ABSTRACT. Since the implementation of the Council of Europe's language policy (2001) to promote multi- and plurilingualism in schools (Beacco et al. 2016), language learning motivation research has increasingly developed a multilingual perspective investigating motivational interactions between different languages in multiple foreign language learning, especially studies based on Dörnyei's (2009) "L2 Motivational Self System". The focus of these studies has mostly been on the influence of learning English on the motivation to learn other foreign languages. Some studies found no motivational interactions between languages (Heinzmann 2010; Brühwiler et al. 2017), others found negative (Henry 2010, 2011) or positive (Stöckli 2004) interactions. Recently, there have been efforts to conceptualize the motivational systems of each target language not as separate entities, but as an overarching multilingual motivational self-system comprising multilingual self-guides, one of them being an ideal multilingual self (Henry 2017, Henry & Thorsen 2017; Busse 2015; 2017, Lasagabaster 2017).

The present contribution situates itself within this still young research tradition on multiple language learners’ multilingual self and its interaction with L2 and L3 selves. It reports preliminary findings of a large-scale experimental intervention study with a pre-, post- and delayed posttest design in the Swiss-German context examining the effectiveness of an integrated language learning and teaching approach (see Manno et al. 2020) in French L3 classes on 10th graders’ French competencies, ideal language selves and language learning awareness. In the first part of our contribution, we will present the intervention and our conceptualization of a plurilingual self which is firmly rooted in an integrated view of plurilingualism. Based on data from the pretest (prior to the intervention) in 36 classes, we will then outline how well-developed these students’ English (L2), French (L3) and plurilingual ideal selves are, whether this is related to students’ language background and how these motivational selves interact.

18:00-19:00 Session 8: PLENARY SESSION

Plenary Session

Prof. Mª Carmen Fonseca Mora. University of Huelva, Spain. Plenary talk: Affective literacy in an additional language for effective citizenship education