View: session overviewtalk overviewside by side with other conferences

09:00 | ABSTRACT. In 1999 Alon et. al. introduced the still active research topic of approximating the frequency moments of a data stream using randomized algorithms with minimal space usage. This includes the problem of estimating the cardinality of the stream elements - the zeroth frequency moment. But also higher-order frequency moments that provide information about the skew of the data stream, which is for example critical information for parallel processing. (The k-th frequency moment of a data stream is the sum of the k-th powers of the occurrence counts of each element in the stream.) They introduce both lower bounds and upper bounds, which were later improved by newer publications. The algorithms have guaranteed success probabilities and accuracies without making any assumptions on the input distribution. They are an interesting use case for formal verification because their correctness proofs require a large body of deep results from algebra, analysis and probability theory. This work reports on the formal verification of three algorithms for the approximation of F_0, F_2 and F_k for k ≥ 3. The results include the identification of significantly simpler algorithms with the same runtime and space complexities as the previously known ones as well as the development of several reusable components, such as a formalization of universal hash families, amplification methods for randomized algorithms, a model for one-pass data stream algorithms or a generic flexible encoding library for the verification of space complexities. |

09:30 | Mechanizing Soundness of Off-Policy Evaluation PRESENTER: Jared Yeager ABSTRACT. There are reinforcement learning scenarios---e.g., in medicine---where we are compelled to be as confident as possible that a policy change will result in an improvement before implementing it. In such scenarios, we can employ *off-policy evaluation* (OPE). The basic idea of OPE is to record histories of behaviors under the current policy, and then develop an estimate of the quality of a proposed new policy, seeing what the behavior would have been under the new policy. As we are evaluating the policy without actually using it, we have the "off-policy" of OPE. Applying a concentration inequality to the estimate, we derive a confidence interval for the expected quality of the new policy. If the confidence interval lies above that of the current policy, we can change policies with high confidence we will do no harm. In this work, we focus on the mathematics of this method, by mechanizing the soundness of off-policy evaluation. A natural side effect of the mechanization is both to clarify all the result's mathematical assumptions and preconditions, and to further develop HOL4's library of verified statistical mathematics, including concentration inequalities. Of more significance, the OPE method relies on importance sampling, whose soundness we prove using a measure-theoretic approach. In fact, we generalize the standard result, showing it for contexts comprising both discrete and continuous probability distributions. |

10:00 | PRESENTER: Alley Stoughton ABSTRACT. We use the EasyCrypt proof assistant to formalize the adversarial approach to proving lower bounds for computational problems in the query model. This is done using a lower bound game between an algorithm and adversary, in which the adversary answers the algorithm's queries in a way that makes the algorithm issue at least the desired number of queries. A complementary upper bound game is used for proving upper bounds of algorithms; here the adversary incrementally and adaptively realizes an algorithm's input. We prove a natural connection between the lower and upper bound games, and apply our framework to three computational problems, including searching in an ordered list and comparison-based sorting, giving evidence for the generality of our notion of algorithm and the usefulness of our framework. |

11:00 | Verifying a Sequent Calculus Prover for First-Order Logic with Functions in Isabelle/HOL PRESENTER: Asta Halkjær From ABSTRACT. We describe the design, implementation and verification of an automated theorem prover for first-order logic with functions. The proof search procedure is based on sequent calculus and we formally verify its soundness and completeness in Isabelle/HOL using an existing abstract framework for coinductive proof trees. Our analytic completeness proof covers both open and closed formulas. Since our deterministic prover considers only the subset of terms relevant to proving a given sequent, we do so as well when building a countermodel from a failed proof. Finally, we formally connect our prover with the proof system and semantics of the existing SeCaV system. In particular, the prover can generate human-readable SeCaV proofs which are also machine-verifiable proof certificates. |

11:30 | PRESENTER: Johannes Hostert ABSTRACT. We develop and mechanize compact proofs of the undecidability of various problems for dyadic first-order logic over a small logical fragment. In this fragment, formulas are restricted to only a single binary relation, and a minimal set of logical connectives. We show that validity, satisfiability, and provability, along with finite satisfiability and finite validity are undecidable, by directly reducing from a suitable binary variant of Diophantine constraints satisfiability. Our results improve upon existing work in two ways: First, the reductions are direct and significantly more compact than existing ones. Secondly, the undecidability of the small logic fragment of dyadic first-order logic was not mechanized before. We contribute our mechanization to the Coq Library of Undecidability Proofs, utilizing its synthetic approach to computability theory. |

12:00 | ABSTRACT. The back-and-forth method is a well-known technique to establish isomorphisms of countable structures. In this proof pearl, we formalise this method abstractly in the framework of constructive type theory, emphasising the computational interpretation of the constructed isomorphisms. As prominent instances, we then deduce Cantor's and Myhill's isomorphism theorems on dense linear orders and one-one interreducible sets, respectively. By exploiting the symmetry of the abstract argument, our approach yields a particularly compact mechanisation of the method itself as well as its two instantiations, all implemented using the Coq proof assistant. As adequate for a proof pearl, we attempt to make the text and mechanisation accessible for a general mathematical audience. |

Lunches will be held in Taub lobby (CAV, CSF) and in The Grand Water Research Institute (DL, NMR, IJCAR, ITP).

14:00 | PRESENTER: Jagadish Bapanapally ABSTRACT. This paper presents a formal proof of the Banach-Tarski theorem in ACL2(r). The Banach-Tarski theorem states that a unit ball can be partitioned into a finite number of pieces that can be rotated to form two identical copies of the ball. We have formalized 3-D rotations and generated a free group of 3-d rotations of rank 2. The non-denumerability of the reals has been proved in ACL2(r) and the Axiom of Choice with the strengthen option has been introduced in ACL2 version 3.1. Using the free group of rotations, the Axiom of Choice, and the proof of the non-denumerability of reals, first we show that the unit sphere can be decomposed into two sets, each equivalent to the original sphere. Then we show that the unit ball except for the origin can be decomposed into two sets each equivalent to the original ball by mapping points of the unit ball to the points on the sphere. Finally, we handle the origin by rotating it around an axis such that the origin falls inside the sphere thus creating the two copies of the unit ball. |

14:30 | Formalizing the ring of adèles of a global field ABSTRACT. The ring of adèles of a global field and its group of units, the group of idèles, are fundamental objects in modern number theory. We discuss a formalization of their definitions in the Lean 3 theorem prover. As a prerequisite, we formalized adic valuations on Dedekind domains. We present some applications, including the statement of the main theorem of global class field theory and a proof that the ideal class group of a number field is isomorphic to an explicit quotient of its idèle class group. |

15:00 | Proof Pearl: Formalizing Spreads and Packings of the Smallest Projective Space PG(3,2) using the Coq Proof Assistant ABSTRACT. We formally implement the smallest three-dimensional projective space PG(3,2) in the Coq proof assistant. This projective space features 15 points and 35 lines, related by an incidence relation. We define points and lines as two plain datatypes (one with 15 constructors for points, and one with 35 constructors for lines) and the incidence relation as a boolean function, instead of using the well-known coordinate-based approach relying on GF(2)^4. We prove that this implementation actually verifies all the usual properties of three-dimensional projective spaces. We then use an oracle to compute some characteristic subsets of objects of PG(3,2), namely spreads and packings. We formally verify that these computed objects exactly correspond to the spreads and packings of PG(3,2). For spreads, this means identifying 56 specific sets of 5 lines among 360360 (= 15 * 14 * 13 * 12 * 11) possible ones. We then classify them, showing that the 56 spreads of PG(3,2) are all isomorphic whereas the 240 packings of PG(3,2) can be classified into two distinct classes of 120 elements. Proving these results requires partially automating the generation of some large specification files as well as some even larger proof scripts. Overall, this work can be viewed as an example of a large-scale combination of interactive and automated specifications and proofs. It is also a first step towards formalizing projective spaces of higher dimension, e.g. PG(4,2), or larger order, e.g. PG(3,3). |