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09:10-10:30 Session 5A: Sustainable society and urban form
Analysis on the Spatial and Temporal Evolution of the Characteristics of Spatially Aggregated Elements in Urban Area

ABSTRACT. Information about the spatial distribution of urban elements is essential for understanding the mechanism of urban development and supporting urban planning. With the rise of big data, different geographical big data provide a new perspective for the research on the spatial distribution of urban elements. Wherein, the Point of Interest (POI) is one of the most common types of open access data. Previous studies have mainly focused on the spatial distribution of urban different elements (such as entertainment, commerce, population, etc.), the state of facilities agglomeration, and the functional zoning of the city. However, there is less research work on quantitative study of the evolution of the characteristics of spatially aggregated elements. Taking Wuhan city as a case, using the Block2vec model, this paper extracts the spatial semantic features of the POIs in different regions based on the 2017-2021 POI data, and perform k-means clustering according to their semantic features. Using dynamic analysis and global and local Moran's I, the spatial and temporal evolution analysis of the divided clusters are carried out. The results indicate that: 1) The agglomeration characteristics of urban elements have an obvious circle structure, with a higher degree of agglomeration in the central area and a lower degree of agglomeration in the surrounding areas. The central area has more entertainment facilities such as catering services, shopping services and life services, while the surrounding areas have more scientific and educational service facilities, residences, and transportation facilities. This shows that the spatial agglomerations of different types of elements are inconsistent. 2) During the period from 2017 to 2021, the number of areas with medium and high concentration of urban elements has increased significantly, while the number of undeveloped areas has decreased significantly. It shows that during this period, Wuhan City has obvious urban expansion. 3) Analysis of the changes between 2017 and 2021 shows that the areas where the element agglomeration has increased significantly are mainly concentrated in the surrounding areas of the city, while the element agglomeration in some areas of the city center has decreased, as well as various service facilities.

The effects of Urban Landscape Pattern Evolution on Habitat Quality based on InVEST Model: A case of Harbin City

ABSTRACT. With the acceleration of urbanization process, the intensity and speed of urban land development have been greatly improved, and the urban landscape pattern has been rapidly adjusted and reorganized, which leads to drastic changes in urban habitat quality. In the context of new urbanization and ecological civilization construction, it is of great significance to strengthen the study of habitat quality change and landscape pattern to promote regional ecological balance and sustainable development. At present, the research on habitat quality and landscape pattern mainly focuses on the theories, methods and internal mechanisms of habitat quality and landscape pattern. Relatively few studies have analyzed the coupling relationship between habitat quality change and landscape pattern from the perspective of spatio-temporal evolution. Based on InVEST ecological assessment model (Habit quality evaluation), Fragstats landscape pattern index measurement platform (Class & Landscape metrics), and remote sensing images of 2000, 2010 and 2020 as data sources, this paper evaluated the evolution of habitat quality and the trend of landscape pattern change in Harbin City. The results showed that: (1) From 2000 to 2020, the overall habitat quality in Harbin ranged from 0.70 to 0.73, with a decreasing trend year by year. The overall distribution characteristics are high in the middle, middle in the east and low in the west. (2) From 2000 to 2020, the overall landscape fragmentation increased, the connectivity of habitat patches weakened, and the landscape types tended to be diversified and uniform. (3) The evolution of habitat quality was significantly affected by landscape pattern, and the increase of landscape fragmentation and complexity had a negative effect on habitat quality. The research results provide theoretical basis for ecological protection and sustainable land use in Harbin City.

Systematic review of bibliometrics-based spatial planning and sustainable development studies

ABSTRACT. With the development of human society and the advancement of industrialization, urbanization, modernization and other processes, the contradiction between human and space environment is becoming more and more serious, and the problem of unbalanced regional development is becoming more and more prominent. The human economy and society are facing unprecedented challenges, and the sustainable development issue bears on the destiny of mankind. Space planning has also become one of the important means and measures to improve the promotion of sustainable development in various countries and regions. As an organic whole, space needs more scientific guidance and overall planning. Europe, the United States, Japan and other countries and regions have carried out discussions on space planning and formulated planning programs, accumulating certain experience and providing a reference for developing countries to solve problems. For example, in China and other developing countries, conflicts have become increasingly prominent in the process of development, and this topic has attracted widespread attention from local governments and academic circles.They are committed to the overall development of national economic and social development, population, regional, urban, land, environmental protection, ecological construction, water resources, ocean, food production, transportation, disaster prevention and reduction programs.These areas were relatively independent systems before. How to better conform to the overall planning of the Sustainable Development Goals will be a problem we have to face and need to solve. Objective: There is still a lack of systematic and quantitative scientometrics research on spatial planning and sustainable development. Therefore, we conducted a systematic and scientific bibliometrics analysis and visualization research on the literature in this field.The aim is to better review concerns in the development process, highlight contributors and institutions, emerging trends and future research opportunities to better address future research issues. Methods: We searched and screened English articles, conference papers and book chapters on spatial planning and sustainable development from Web of Science (WOS) , and finally obtained 3462 references. Text mining is carried out from knowledge units such as publication year, key words, abstract, author and content of acquired records.Author analysis and co-occurrence analysis are used to carry out text mining, bibliometric analysis and content analysis, and finally obtain the network and clustering, author, thermal distribution and organization in the research problem. Results: Since 1990, the research in this field showed a trend of increasing year by year, and the number of published literatures in 2020 accounted for 15.367%.Scholars and institutions in China, the United States and Germany are the most productive, and the top three sources of publications are Sustainability, Land Use Policy and Ecological Indicators respectively.Then we use VOSviewer to conduct cluster analysis. In this paper, we identify the trend themes of spatial planning and sustainable development, including policy and institutional innovation of public participation, spatial model and digital technology innovation, the construction of multi-planning integrated spatial planning system, rural spatial planning and sustainable development, etc. The research results of this paper will serve as a reference source for spatial planning theorists and institutions, and provide retrospective reference for research in this field and guidance and suggestions for future research directions.

Optimizing the Habitat Quality of East Lake Scenic Area in Wuhan

ABSTRACT. The sharp decline of natural habitats during the rapid urbanization is the main reason for the urban biodiversity loss. The optimization of the habitat pattern could avoid the fragmentation of habitats, and then increase the regional biodiversity. Taking the Wuhan East Lake Scenic Area as an example, this research aims to explore the method for improving habitat quality through the optimization of habitat pattern. We firstly identify habitat types based on high-resolution remote sensing data, then approach the MSPA+MCR model to optimize the habitat pattern and InVEST model to model the habitat quality value. The results show that the optimization of the habitat pattern has increased the overall habitat unit value of the East Lake Scenic Area by 1.33% , and the area of habitat quality with high value increased about 165 hm2. This indicates that part of habitat in the area has a significant optimization effect through the modeling process.

09:10-10:30 Session 5B: Sustainable society and urban form
Spatial Characteristics and Evolution of Korean Nationality’s House in Tumen River Basin

ABSTRACT. Tumen River Basin is located in Yanbian Korean Autonomous Prefecture. The Korean nationality folk house has a strong national region culture. Nowadays, with the development of urbanization in China and rural population decrease in villages, some problems have to face and to solve:①The characteristics of national culture are not express obviously. ②Lack of care for occupants. Base on this situation, choose the 36 houses as survey object in this paper. Through the methods of architectural planning, this paper analyzes characteristics of the traditional Korean nationality folk house spatial layout and research the evolution law of layout and the behavior pattern. At last, summarizing the dynamic factor which leads to house evolution. In this way, this paper provides a vital reference and theory for subsequent protection and development of Korean nationality folk house.

Research on the Protection and Renewal of Urban Historic District——Taking Cuiwei Village in Zhuhai City as an Example

ABSTRACT. Urban villages are important carriers of cultural heritage and settlement spaces with strong regional characteristics. Certain historical districts have obvious regional characteristics. Cuiwei Village in Zhuhai City is now a typical urban village. The village has a long history and a prosperous business background, and its layout presents natural morphological characteristics. This article analyzes and explores the current situation of Cuiwei Village, and combines field investigations to analyze the problems faced by the historical district. Using qualitative theoretical analysis methods, suggestions are made in terms of village protection strategies and the effective use of historical resources. The streets and lanes of Cuiwei Ancient Village are restored to life, and the streets and historic buildings are reshaped, protected and revitalized. Realize the healthy development of the village and the organic renewal of the ecological environment, providing a feasible reference for policy formulation. Thus, for the economic development of the entire Qianshan area, the historical streets in the traditional villages contribute to the protection, development and organic renewal.

Using phenomenology theory as a trigger to explore the place spatial planning with adaptable growth of urban sustainable community A Case Study

ABSTRACT. The exploration of the meaning of community place is a permanent field of discussion. Norberg Schulz put forward the theory of "place" and "place spirit" in 1979. Since then, the idea of "place" has been influential in urban block planning and architectural design. This paper first points out from the perspective of phenomenology theory of philosophers Husserl and Heidegger: First, the origin of phenomenon is the reflection of philosophical view. The philosophical goal of phenomenology is to return to the origin of community and present its original meaning through emerging cultural phenomena. Second, to establish "a common formal language", "so that we can immediately understand it beyond the personal and cultural boundaries", to achieve the reduction of external phenomena. Traces the inner origin of the concept of "being in the world" in the corresponding urban community. Secondly, this paper tries to explain the relationship between community and place from the concept of place. As early as 1976, Ralf clearly pointed out that "sense of place" comes from the real reflection of the social, economic, cultural and environmental forms of the local residents, which is usually spontaneously generated. It is even a natural attribute of the region, and can be described as a natural direct arrival to the group experience, without the tortuous and time-consuming cognitive path. Similarly, in the community, "sense of place" is more often limited to specific situations and atmospheres, and exists in a variety of real experiences of people and in a variety of relationships between various objects. Then, based on the fuzhou Declaration adopted at the World Heritage Conference held in July this year and the development goal of "sustainable communities" in the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, the paper makes an understanding of its connotation: in a sense, sustainable communities are living, living and ecological. The organic renewal theory tells us that multiple communities constitute the texture and texture of local urban areas in the form and distribution of "cell groups". The "organic renewal" phenomenon of the "cell population" in the city is complex, but it is also regular. Carsten Harris, an American phenomenologist, pointed out in The Ethical Function of Architecture (2001) that "we prefer organic order to inorganic", "although organic order lacks the eternity of geometric shape, it is alive". Then, the paper points out that form and structure shape the material community "place", and at the same time, the community's place spirit affects people's "natural attitude" to the surrounding environment (Ji Tienan, 2008), and this attitude will exist stably in a certain space and time. In addition, after explaining some cultural phenomena emerging in the community, the paper finds that some constant phenomena of the community appear after the balance of the two forces of community culture and materialization, and have self-adaptability. Finally, this paper explores the tendency of urban communities to adapt to the future development and the possibility of continuous growth. With the help of phenomenological theoretical tools, this paper tries to reanalyze some phenomena of urban community places from the micro perspective, and puts forward some superficial understanding of its own, in order to make effective response to the key issue of sustainable community space planning.

Design and Research of Smart Scenario for Urban Underground Space

ABSTRACT. Urban underground space is an important part of urban space. The smart underground space is also an important link of the smarter cities. The intelligence of underground space helps to improve the responsiveness of underground space to various problems, so as to deal with the more diverse and complex environment of underground space compared with above ground space. The underground space’s smart scenario design based on the functional characteristics and spatial characteristics of six different underground space’s types. The design will divide the development and operation of underground space into four phases that is planning, construction, maintenance and warning. The design will research the development and construction processes under different phases and summarize their requirements in different processes. Classify requirements as frameworks for designing scenarios. Discuss and summarize the smart devices or systems to satisfied the relevant needs , then plan and design them properly to finally form the underground space implementation scenario. The final design result has three parts: scenario design guidelines, scenario blueprint and forecast-early warning index. The design achievements can provide reference for the smart work in urban underground space.

09:10-10:30 Session 5C: Ecological civilization and sustainable development
Research on the Impact of Built Environment Factors on Urban Rail Transit Ridership Based on Geographically and Temporally Weighted Regression Model: A Case Study in Chengdu, China

ABSTRACT. To address urban sprawl, traffic congestion, air pollution and other social and environmental problems, more and more Chinese cities have begun to develop urban rail transit (URT). Against this background, it is imperative to deeply understand the relationship between the URT ridership and the built environment of the URT station area. Existing studies have primarily focused on the impact of built environment factors (e.g., 5Ds) on the URT ridership, but few studies have explored the spatial-temporally non-stationary impact of built environment factors on the URT ridership. The objective of this study is twofold: First, URT smart card data is applied to explore the spatial-temporal characteristics of URT trips in Chengdu, China. Second, we empirically examine the spatial-temporally non-stationary impact of URT-related and built environment factors on URT ridership through using the geographically and temporally weighted regression (GTWR) model. The results show that: (1) The URT ridership exhibits an inverted U-shaped spatial pattern (i.e., lower in the city’s middle area and higher in the downtown and suburban area). (2) The GTWR model outperforms the ordinary least squares models and reveals the spatial-temporally varying relationship between built environment factors and the URT ridership. In addition, the relationship has a significantly different pattern between workdays and weekends. (3) The average coefficients of the far and land use diversity are significantly stronger in the downtown than in the suburban area, but the spatial distribution of average coefficients for the office facilities density, commercial facilities density, and bus accessibility is the opposite (the suburban area is stronger than the downtown area). (4) Temporal distribution of the average coefficients for the variables hourly ridership has shown a fluctuating form, and significant difference between weekends and weekdays. This feature is closely related to the relationship of the URT travel. The empirical findings of this study could provide theoretical reference and insights for URT travel demand management, refined design of URT station area’s built environment and the optimization of facility layout.


ABSTRACT. Because of the process of rapid urbanization in China, the urban water security problem is becoming more prominent. A reasonable construction of Rainstorm Ecological Security Pattern is an essential means to guarantee the safety of life and residence. Under the usage of the SCS-CN Hydrological Model and GIS space-coupling The method, we successfully defined four zones after allocated the submerged areas, including the ecological red-line zones that keep the city safe. The buffer zones that mitigate and prevent significant urban risks is the resilience zones with high flexibility and the ecological conservation zones. The study assesses the safety space of the river water, building ecological security patterns of point water, inundated patches, and river corridors. Selecting Xiamen city as the research object, the study extracts an evaluation index and the numerical simulation of the Rainstorm Ecological Security Pattern, presenting a planning and control scheme with different levels (high, middle, and low).In the specific field of city planning, this study also presents the preservation of the ecological red-line areas, improvement of the intensive layout planning, construction of ecological aquatic environment, and enhancement of the rain and flood management.

Using Google Street View Panoramas to quickly evaluate the environmental aesthetics quality of Urban Blue Spaces
PRESENTER: Shixian Luo

ABSTRACT. Urban Blue Space (UBS), including rivers, ponds, canals, fountains, and other urban water bodies, provides residents with many ecological, cultural, and health benefits, and water is also considered an essential content of the urban landscape. There have been a large number of studies that regard water as an aesthetic object. However, most of the current study of urban blue space focuses on the improvement of mental-physical health, and it still lacks research discussing the differences of different blue spaces in cities. Therefore, more knowledge is needed to explore the aesthetic qualities of various urban blue spaces. In traditional urban research usually gather data with a field survey, which is costly and time-consuming. However, although off-site survey methods can efficiently and low-cost examine the urban environment, they also have shortcomings. For example, in photo-elicitation, because of its two-dimensional form stimulus medium, the subject cannot fully perceive the environment, which results in deviations in the results. Consequently, Google Street View Panoramas (GSVP) is considered a quick and accurate audit approach to a study area, which has been supported by previous research. This study uses Google Street View Panoramas to evaluate the environmental aesthetics quality of different blue spaces in the city. Thirty students (15 males, 15 females) from the Faculty of Horticulture at Chiba University were recruited as participants. Selected Perceived Environmental Aesthetic Qualities Scale (PEAQS) as a measurement tool. This is a self-report tool for evaluating green-blue spaces. The scale consists of five factors (23 statements), which mainly reflect the perceived aesthetic qualities of urban green-blue spaces: Harmony, Mystery, Multisensority & Nature, Visual Spaciousness and Visual Diversity, and Sublimity. The GSV2SVF software was used to calculate the average Sky View Factor (SVF), Tree View Factor (TVF), and Building View Factor (BVF) of each UBS. The main findings: 1) three types of urban blue spaces have obvious environmental characteristics; 2) Urban waterfront has the highest SVF value, the Urban canal has the highest BVF value, and the Urban pond has the highest TVF value; 3) The environmental aesthetics quality difference among three UBS are significant, which shows that viewers can perceive the differences in different environments through Google Street View Panoramas; 4) Mystery is always the most significant preference predictor. Moreover, this study discussed the factors affecting these aesthetic qualities, which are valuable for enhancing the environmental aesthetic qualities of urban blue spaces.

Rural Landscape Vulnerability Assessment Method Incorporating Human Disturbance Factors: The Case of a Autonomous Prefecture in Southwestern China

ABSTRACT. The paper addresses the inadequacy of traditional landscape vulnerability measurement methods in considering human disturbance factors, adds the population pressure index, to constructs a rural landscape vulnerability measurement model of "landscape sensitivity index (LSI) - landscape adaptability index (LAI) - population pressure index (PPI)" by combining rural landscape vulnerability characterization, which can provide a reference for the evaluation of rural landscape vulnerability and optimization of landscape security pattern. Located in the southwestern part of Sichuan Province,Southwestern China, Liangshan Yi Autonomous Prefecture is an ecologically fragile area in the southwestern mountainous region where agriculture and animal husbandry intersect, and is an important part of the ecological barrier in the upper reaches of the Yangtze River. Its ecological vulnerability is manifested as follows: large topographic undulations, complex geological structure, obvious vertical changes in water and heat conditions, incomplete development of soil layers and sparse vegetation; strong influence of human activities and obvious regional ecological degradation. The current rural construction is in full swing, human activities are increasingly disturbing the ecosystem, and the fragmentation and homogenization of rural landscape are prominent. Based on the land use data of three periods from 2005 to 2015, the paper constructs a landscape vulnerability evaluation index system based on three dimensions: landscape sensitivity index (LSI), landscape adaptability index (LAI), and population pressure index (PPI). The results show that :(1) the evaluation model has good feasibility to portray the vulnerability of rural landscape in the study area, and the research findings reflect the actual situation to a certain extent, which can provide a reference for the study of rural landscape vulnerability measurement. (2) During the period of 2005-2015, the unevenness of rural landscape vulnerability in each district and county of the study area is significant, showing the characteristics of circles; the spatial structure of landscape vulnerability level changes significantly, the area of high vulnerability area has experienced the process of first increasing and then decreasing, and gradually changing to medium and low vulnerability areas, and the overall situation of landscape vulnerability has been optimized. (3) Natural environmental factors have a continuous influence on the fragility of rural landscape, while socio-economic and urban-rural construction and other anthropogenic disturbance factors have a transformative influence on the spatial and temporal differentiation of rural landscape fragility, and administrative force is another major influencing factor.

09:10-10:30 Session 5D: Sustainable society and urban form
Exploring objective and subjective correlates with the vitality of agro-industrial complex companies in Korea: a structural equation model of psychometric survey data

ABSTRACT. As separated into employment size and sales, how the vitality of the companies located in agro-industrial complexes differs is analyzed through partial least squares structural equation modeling of data from a survey of 600 companies in Korea. The survey evaluates not only objective characteristics at the local, complex, and company levels, but also by grouping them through psychometrics, subjective qualities of the local environment, complex itself, infrastructure, networking, and supportive policy. Among the objective characteristics, significant variables in the employment and sales models turn out to be consistent and mostly at the company level. Also, higher magnitudes are found from company-level variables compared to those at the complex level, and particularly, even for agro-industrial companies, research and development activities appear to be substantially important. As a major finding, among the subjective variables, each employment size and sales is associated with the qualities of infrastructure and supportive policy. Specifically, among infrastructure systems, transportation networks to local areas are more beneficial for attracting employees than community facilities inside the complex. For higher sales, direct support for marketing and market expansion is effective rather than indirect support for the complex, infrastructure, and networking.

Study on spatial pattern evolution of shenyang city based on fractal theory

ABSTRACT. With the rapid improvement of the urbanization process in Shenyang, the urban construction land expands greatly, which makes the urban morphological characteristics change rapidly. In order to guide the city to develop in a more reasonable, healthy, and orderly direction, this article analyzes the evolution of urban morphology in Shenyang. By selecting three different periods of satellite remote sensing images in 2001, 2006 and 2014, With the help of Remote Sensing manual interpretation method, the construction land data of the three years in the city are extracted.According to the fractal theory, the laws of urban development morphology are analyzed, and the characteristics of urban morphological evolution are summarized. Results show that: 1) the area of urban built-up areas increased by 3.7 times from 2001 to 2014, with an average annual growth rate of 21%. The expansion direction is southwest and northeast. The main reason lies in the development and construction of the southwest side of the Yuhong District and the Shenbei New District.;2) By analyzing the quantitative indexes such as expansion intensity index, compactness index, boundary dimension index and shape index, it is found that the urban expansion of Shenyang is characterized by stages, and the expansion speed in 2006-2014 is significantly lower than that in 2001-2006.This phenomenon indicates that the internal structure of the city has stabilized and it has begun to focus on intensive development;3) Shenyang has gradually formed a "one-axis, one-belt" urban spatial pattern, focusing on the coordinated and unified development of multiple centers.

How sustainable are the old industrial campuses and what can we learn from them?

ABSTRACT. Since the mid-1970s, we have witnessed the expansion of the research, policies, and implementations covering sustainability. The sugar factories established in Turkey are similar to the "company town" (corporate cities) model, a type of industrial settlement established in Europe and America since the 19th century to create a healthier environment for its employees. These settlements consist of social buildings, sports fields, and residences, besides production units. They were based on the compromise of industrial and rural lifestyles, and they form together with the industrial roles and rural life habits of workers. With these aspects, sugar factories should be considered not only as tools of production locations, but also the devices for social formation leading to the new modern neighbourhood life. Sugar factories are one of the featured counterparts of this thinking in Turkey. Residences, pavilions, guesthouses, social places such as cinema, restaurant, infirmary and health facilities, education building, sports fields, playgrounds, and mosque as religious structures are the main building groups in almost all campuses of sugar factories. Most of the buildings on campuses are located at a certain distance from each other, and in wide green areas. Erzurum Sugar Factory as one of the sugar factories established in the country is discussed here. The factory belongs to the early examples of the second half of the 20th century. This research aims to consider the factory campus, particularly living areas as residential parts, social buildings, and green areas in the meaning of sustainability. Sustainability is evaluated based on the indicators covering environmental, economic, and social aspects. The design of the living areas of the factory campuses was influenced by the neighbourhood model. Through the field survey and examination of plans belonging to the campus and buildings, it is revealed that; the neighbourhood has active green spaces, human scale, economic adequacy, social interaction between residents, rational distribution of functions, and legibility have considerable attention. Lack of some aspects of sustainability is also observed such as the absence of renewable energy generation, domestic waste treatment facility, etc. There are also some inferences about the spatial organization of the Erzurum Sugar Factory campus in the meaning of functionality, simplicity, and legibility.

A study on business resumption before and after the lifting of evacuation order in the nuclear power plant affected area -A Study of Odaka, Minamisoma City, Five Years after the Lifting of Evacuation Order-

ABSTRACT. Fukushima Prefecture experienced the Great East Japan Earthquake and the resulting Fukushima No.1 Nuclear Power Plant accident, and it has been ten years since the disaster in March 2011. In July 2016, the government lifted the evacuation order, and as of March 2021, 3,925 people were living in Odaka with a 40.0% return rate. However, the resumption of business is important for the reconstruction of the affected areas. This study aims to clarify the dynamics of business resumption before and after the lifting of evacuation orders in Odaka, five years after the lifting of evacuation orders, to contribute to the reconstruction of the affected areas in the future. Although there is a study on business resumption in Odaka conducted just before lifting the evacuation order, this study newly clarifies the trend before the nuclear disaster and five years after the lifting of the evacuation order. The analysis method was to obtain data from the Small and Medium Enterprise Agency websites and the Odaka Chamber of Commerce and Industry to quantitatively identify the number of businesses operating in Odaka before and after the nuclear disaster. We compared the rate of business resumption as of September 2018 in four towns and villages that received evacuation orders due to the nuclear power plant disaster and then had the orders lifted: Kawauchi Town (lifted in October 2013), Naraha Town (lifted in September 2014), Odaka (lifted in July 2016), and Tomioka Town (lifted in April 2017). After the lifting of the evacuation order, the return rate is high in Naraha and Odaka, at around 50%. Odaka's business resumption rate was 64.2%, compared to 54.0% in Naraha, where the evacuation order was lifted two years earlier than Odaka, and Odaka resumed business faster than Naraha. Next, we compared the number and type of businesses reopened in Odaka in March 2011, before the nuclear disaster, and in November 2021, five years after the lifting of the evacuation order. Compared to the pre-disaster period, 55.8% of the businesses reopened in 2021, of which 62.1% returned to Odaka and reopened. The reopening rate by industry was 87.5% for the wholesale industry and 80.3% for the construction industry. Of these, 57.1% of wholesalers and 54.7% of construction industries returned to Odaka, and about half of them reopened in Odaka. On the other hand, the food service and accommodation industry's reopening rate was only 57.9%, but 81.8% of the establishments returned to Odaka, accounting for most. In this study, we clarified the following two points. (1) Odaka had the highest business resumption rate among the towns and villages that were ordered to evacuate due to the nuclear power plant disaster, even though the lifting of the evacuation order was delayed. (2) 55.8% of the establishments resumed their business, of which 80% were in the wholesale and construction industries, which are easy to resume. Still, only about half of the establishments returned to Odaka and resumed their business. The resumption rate for the food service and accommodation industry was about 60%, which was not much different from the overall resumption rate. Still, more than 80% of these businesses returned to Odaka and resumed operations, making it easy for them to choose to return to Odaka. It is thought to be due to the high return rate, the fact that the shopping district was formed around the station, which allowed businesses to reopen without changing their location. The fact that the number of users of the station was expected to increase.

09:10-10:30 Session 5E: Sustainable society and urban form
Adaptative Strategies of Urban Park Planning for Climate Change

ABSTRACT. Citizen’s outdoor activities are rapidly decreasing due to increasing environmental disasters such as urban heat island, fine dust, and infectious diseases. These have caused the problems of citizen’s health, community, and leisure activities. In particular, it is necessary to consider this factor from the beginning of park planning in new town since urban heat island affects citizen’s use of urban parks. In this study, adaptive urban park for climate change is defined and main directions and design elements are suggested. Eight planning elements for climate change adaptation are derived; land use, park system, wind path, traffic, water resources, community facilities, solid greening and architecture. Six influential factors as like greenery, shade, water, wind, facilities and materials are suggested for reduction of heat island. This paper also describes 55 methods for the adaptive design of climate change in urban parks. In addition, Cooling Stations, Cooling Zones, and Cooling Ways are proposed as the typical concepts for adaptive urban parks of climate change. The significance of this paper lies in providing practical planning and design strategies of urban park for climate change adaptation. Some results of this study are supposed to be applied into a park of new town in Gwacheon city, South Korea.

The study of Benefit Assessment for Environment Improvement of Temporary Open Space : An Empirical Study of Taipei City

ABSTRACT. To promote urban regeneration, recently, the provision of temporary or permanent public open spaces has been adopted by many overseas cities through greening and beautification of spaces resulted from the removal of dilapidated buildings. Through the development of theoretic evaluation system, the method of importance-performance analysis and the non-market valuation (willing to pay) and case study, the purpose of this study is to analyze the content of public interest and to estimate the economic value for the environmental improvement program, including removal of dilapidated and abandoned buildings, implementation of greening and beautification and provision of temporary public open spaces. The appraisal result shows that the nearby residents are pleased to welcome the temporary public open spaces program since it can improve public security and quality of life and amenity. Also, property owners in surrounding areas are willing to pay prices higher than non-estate owners for 4 to 5 times. In the case of study, the average amount of willingness to pay per person is NT $ 3,076. In summary, it is found that Taipei City Government’s landscape improvement program, provision of temporary open space by removing the dilapidated buildings and space greening, is highly appreciated by the nearby residents and passing pedestrians. This may be a positive signal to other local governments interested in similar actions.

A Summary of Urban Simulation Model Research —Based on the Whole Process of Japan's Territorial Planning

ABSTRACT. Since the 1980s, urban simulation models have developed rapidly. By the generalization of urban geographic systems, it can mathematically express urban spatial phenomena, and provide feasible support for the implementation of urban policies as well as the evaluation of urban planning programs. Based on the whole process of Japan's territorial and spatial planning, combined with the characteristics of current Japanese urban development, this article summarizes the related research results of the laboratory so far, and provides theoretical support for the selection of urban simulation models in the planning process.The results of the review show that a more precise definition and prediction of urban development is one of the main development directions of urban simulation models in the future. Japanese urban planning majors should combine urban simulation models with scientific quantitative analysis methods to allow the future urban planning discipline to embark on a path of rational development, which can help decision-makers to manage urban systems scientifically.

The Pattern of Land Use Integration in Historic Areas to the CBD Zone: Comparative Study of Space Syntax Attributes on Malang, Melaka, and Kanazawa [from6E]

ABSTRACT. The issue of sustainability is an interesting discussion on every concept of development in all cities in the world. One issue in urban development is regarding the sustainable urban form. It is widely understood in urban development that the distribution of land use directly impacts the sustainability of cities. One is related to dealing with a particular history. This study examines the relationship between land use distribution and the spatial structure of the road network as a contribution to urban sustainability in parts of the city that have historical value in the Central Business District (CBD) zone. The research objects used are cities that have plans in ancient times. The syntax space attributes are used in this study (connectivity and depth). The city that has a historical value chosen is Malang city, Indonesia. Melaka city, and Kanazawa city. Comparative studies are carried out by counting these connectivity and integration axial lines on three cities that are located in the CBD zone. The software used is DepthMapX which is a space syntax tool for calculating the space syntax attributes. The results of this study are expected to assist in determining the integration that occurs in a particular zone of a city. Furthermore, it will be able to see the suitability between the distribution pattern of land use and the spatial configuration pattern in the historic cities.

09:10-10:30 Session 5F: Sustainable society and urban form
Differences of local residents’ perception towards environment influenced by stream flow: A survey of the communities in the Upo Ramsar Wetland

ABSTRACT. Considering the opinions of local resident is substantial when deciding to properly manage ecologically sensitive environments especially where ecosystems and societies are hydrologically connected. However, it can be challenging to keep track of everyone's behavior toward environment within and around wetland protected area where one-dimensional regulation is applied to specific designated areas only. Despite of hydrological connections of wetland with surrounding environment only specific wetland or open-water area designated for protection are strictly regulated while residents of different villages are exposed to different quality and quantity of ecosystem services depending on location of their residences. This study observed how local residents of the Upo Wetland (Ramsar, national wetland protected area of Korea)community perceived and identified fundamental landscape components differently depending on their location of the residence where water flows in, through and out of the wetland protected area. To understand the local residents' perceptions, a semi-structured interview was conducted for each individual participant. Following the interviews, Keyword Network Analysis was used to identify outstanding keywords and keyword groups derived from each interview. The results demonstrated a shift in perceptions toward landscape components based on the villages each resident belonged to, whereas landscape components, such as agricultural land, rivers and streams, were understood uniformly by decision makers on a map. Visualizing and understanding different perceptions towards fundamental landscape components revealed that residents residing at upper stream of Upo wetland cared less about the water quality and more interested in human induced activities whereas residents of lower stream of Upo wetland expressed greater concerns on degradation of water and were less interested in human induced activities.

The Trend in Small-Size Residence for Single-Person Households and Distribution pattern of Urban-Life Housing around the University Campuses in Seoul

ABSTRACT. University student residences were dormitories on the university campus and boarding houses around the university campus in Korea. And, from 1996, the universities were no longer required to build dormitories on campus. Since then, the private rental market has provided student housing and accommodated more students. However, the deteriorating housing and poor housing conditions became a problem. In 1998, the power to decide the number of students accepted to each university was transferred to universities by the government. As a result, the number of single-person households in Seoul increased from about 380,000 in 1995 to about 1.11 million, in 2015. And single-person households in their 20s, including students, reached 23.2 percent of the single-person households in Seoul at the same period. On the other hand, the number of houses for families has increased due to new town developments and redevelopment projects. But the supply shortage of small-size residences led to declining boarding houses and small-size residences for single-person households. Therefore, in 2005, the Korean government developed student housing with private capital and in 2009 established the Urban-Life Housing system and promoted the construction of small-scale housing mainly in the area around the university campuses. But the living environment has deteriorated due to rising rents, security deposits, illegal change of use, and the decrease in low-rent small-scale housing. In 2016, the Seoul Metropolitan Government formulated the Campus Town Plan. The Campus Town Plan was designed to solve the housing problem of young people around the university. The plan was expected to improve the quality and maintain the sustainable supply of small-scale housing for single households around the university campuses. For that purpose, a policy focused on the qualitative improvement of the living environment that will reflect on the quantitative supply of apartments for single-person households was required. This study clarifies the supply of Urban-Life Housing and the regional characteristics according to the distance from university campuses in Seoul with 4-year courses. The law on housing for single-person households was verified from the Korean Legislation, Korea Private School Promotion Foundation, Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, and Transport, and Seoul City. Planning and licensing status data was collected from the statistics agency. Data on the number of single-person households and university students was obtained from Statistics Korea and SGIS. First, Korean law related to small housing and campus town plan was examined. Next, GIS was used to identify areas densely populated by single-person households, university students, and Urban-Life Housing. Later, distance to the center of each administrative area was measured from the boundary of relevant university campuses. Finally, the number of construction licenses issued to Urban-Life Housing and the number of single-person households in each administrative district were analyzed. The distribution pattern of Urban-Life Housing around the university campus was classified into 4 to 5 patterns from that analysis. Later, the sustainability of the housing supply policies for single-person households was examined.

A Spatial Planning Technique Using Ecological Knowledge of Local Residents: A study from the Hojobeol area of Shiheung City, Korea

ABSTRACT. The ecological knowledge of residents local to a particular area can be used as valuable information for creating an environmentally friendly spatial plan. However, previous studies took a subjective view of this type of spatial design based on oral and survey data on the ecological knowledge of the local residents of an area. This limited the immediate spatialization of local residents’ ecological knowledge and its usage as preliminary data in environmentally friendly planning. Therefore, this study created preliminary data for spatial designing based on ecological knowledge by turning this information, as held by local residents in the Hojobeol coastal area of Shiheung City, Korea, into a map via spatial text mining. The results showed that “rice field puddle,” “halophyte,” “tidal flat inhabitation,” “bridge view,” and “river observation” near, respectively, rice cultivation areas in the upper reaches of a river, the middle reaches of a river, the lower reaches of a river near the sea, at a bridge point, and in areas where crowds gather. These results represent the detailed features of ecological spaces well and can fulfill a role as excellent preliminary data for environmental planning. 

Reforming the Lifescape of Yangmingshan National Park with a Human-centric Building Management System

ABSTRACT. Unlike most other national parks far away from cities, Yangmingshan National Park (YNP) is located nearby Taipei Metropolitan area where 6.7 million people inhabited. The national park was established in 1981 when building control system was not existent. A large number of buildings were built before the introduction of national park management system. Based on the viewpoint of local resident, the problems encountered by the existing buildings and the way to reform the lifescape of Yangmingshan National Park (YNP) will be discussed in this paper.

Before the establishment of national park, buildings were built by the local residents organically to cope with the natural terrain, climate, culture, and economic production. However, building control of National Park Plan is aimed at environmental and ecological protection. Since the building management administration of the existing buildings is extremely strict, the existing buildings cannot be well-maintained and thus could collapse soon any time in the future. Through field research and interviews with the local residents, we've found that the local residents’ demand have been depressed by the regulation's restrictions. As a result, the impractical restrictions not only force local residents to use temporary materials and construction methods to fix their buildings, but also ruin the overall landscape and threaten the safety and living quality of the residents. Obviously, a critical gap emerges between the real environment and the planning goals.

Aiming at the sustainable development goals proposed by the United Nations, through the interview with experts and local residents, it is argued in this paper that the National Park Planning needs to be human-centric in the consideration of living behavior and the landscape, in addition to protect the resources in the national park. To reform the regulations of National Park Planning and building management more flexible for the lifescape of local residents, in this paper, issues and solution approaches will be analyzed and presented.

09:10-10:30 Session 5G: Public safety and urban resilience
Introducing a New Principle of Territorial Subsidiarity Reconfigured at Scales of Social Proximity in Situations of Catastrophic Disaster Events
PRESENTER: Nabil Menhem

ABSTRACT. Public safety and urban resilience

Introducing a New Principle of Territorial Subsidiarity Reconfigured at Scales of Social Proximity in Situations of Catastrophic Disaster Events Menhem Nabil1* and He Bin2 1 Planning Institute of ALBA/ University of BALAMAND 2 Metropolicies.org

* Corresponding Author, Email: nmenhem@alba.edu.lb

Key words: Catastrophic disaster and shock, territorial subsidiarity, urban resilience, governance, scale Abstract: This paper is mainly based on drawing lessons from the aftermath of the horrific blast that shook Beirut on August 4/2020 at a moment when the country was facing simultaneously multiple shocks including a socio-economic and financial crisis in addition to the COVID 19 pandemic. On the one hand, we witnessed a total withdrawal from the central government, public institutions and the municipality of Beirut (all those supposed to be on the front lines), leaving the distressed inhabitants on their own to face chaos and misery. On the other hand, we have all observed the formation of a formidable self-organized, spontaneous and agile system of solidarity that came to the rescue of the wounded and distressed inhabitants of the impacted zone, trying to support them to recover from the shock and to assist them in repairing and rebuilding their destroyed houses and neighborhoods. The paper emphasis is on participatory approaches and micro-scale self-governance (at the neighborhood level) in situations of crisis management. It explores the possibility of inventing a new principle of territorial subsidiarity reconfigured at scales of social proximity allowing agility of actions in the face of shocks. It depicts the attempts to promote a system of participatory and resilient governance through the commitment of local inhabitants and actors on the ground to building community resilience while planning to establish a participatory disaster management plan at the micro neighborhood level that could possibly be replicated at the city level. In this paper the authors will depict the multiple efforts deployed by different actors to assess the damages and draw a contingency plan to rebuild the affected neighborhoods in Beirut and most specifically the neighborhood of rue Pasteur within a close proximity of Beirut port the epicenter of the tragic blast. They will also list and analyze different proposals of imagined self-governance structures and mechanisms at both the neighborhood and district levels as an attempt to build community resilience and strengthen readiness in the face of different shocks and vulnerabilities. For this purpose a close review of the outcomes of several research projects and initiatives tackling such matters and conducted recently will be performed. The assumption here, is that although resilience can be certainly built at a the narrower scale of a community level due to the better understanding of existing risks and vulnerabilities, also thanks to stronger social bonds that facilitate decision making processes, interventions at relatively larger scales and tiers of governance (set aside bureaucracy) can be more appropriate for attaining such goals owing to stronger networks and the ability to mobilize larger resources more efficiently. In this regard, the authors will try to prove that scale matters (Wilbanks 2007; OECD 2011a) and that a combination of action at multiple tiers of governance can prove appropriate in providing public safety and building resilience especially in situations of catastrophic disaster events (KAWATA, 2011).

Geographically and temporally weighted colocation quotients and its analysis of urban crime patterns in the Greater Manchester

ABSTRACT. Incidence data, one typical form of urban big data, are characterized by point feature with high spatial and temporal resolution and categorical value. Different from panel data, such spatial data pooled over time address multi-directional spatial but unidirectional temporal effects as challenges for urban analytics. This paper targets at SDPOT data, which are characterized by point feature with high spatial and temporal resolutions but directional time effects. The categorical SDPOT data require unique spatio-temporal analysis. As an efficient spatial analysis method dealing with categorical point data, co-location quotient and its recent development of geographically weighted co-location quotient (GWCLQ) have been successful in analyzing the spatial dependence and heterogeneity of such data. This paper has developed an innovative approach of geographically and temporally weighted co-location quotient (GTWCLQ) by considering spatio-temporal dependence and heterogeneity in categorical SDPOT data. This new approach, as the further extension of GWCLQ, has designed global and local computation of GTWCLQ analysis and the significant tests using Monte Carlo simulation. Different from other GTWR approaches (Huang, et al., 2010), the integration of spatial and temporal weight matrix is based on Kronecker product, and this method can reduce computational time as well as unbalanced temporal scale problem. The key decision in implementing adaptive GTWCLQ is the spatial and temporal bandwidth values, which correspond to the number of neighboring points and the duration of time periods respectively. The new approach has been validated by a case study of spatio-temporal crime pattern in 2016 across Greater Manchester using open data. The key results from the GTWCLQ analysis with a spatial bandwidth of 100 points and a temporal bandwidth of 12 months confirm the following findings. First, all categories demonstrated varying degree of spatial clustering but the theft from the person, with the strongest spatio-temporal dependence, has produced the largest clusters in Manchester city centre and Rachdale town centres. Second, there are 15 pairs of categories showing co-location pattern, among which drug (C4) and passion of weapon (C11) had the highest intensity of co-location association. Interestingly, two loops of co-location patterns between C2 (burglary), C7 (rubbery) and C9 (vehicle crime) and between C6 (other theft), C13 (theft from person) and C14 (bicycle theft) are detected, which means a small network community with strong spatio-temporal interactions between these categories. Third, there are many asymmetrical associations between categories, among which C1 (anti-social behavior) is spatially excluded by others, which means an independent category.Based on our experimental tests, each category achieves their strongest spatial autocorrelation at varying spatial scale (bandwidth size). By contrast, each category gains larger spatial autocorrelation with longer temporal scale (duration). These tests highlight the importance of reasonably choosing the spatial and temporal scales in GTWCLQ analysis.

Key Factors of Bicycle Transportation in Winter Cities

ABSTRACT. The global climate change, which has increased its impacts on cities over the past two decades, has taken to another dimension with the global epidemic of Covid-19 appeared in 2019. At this stage, sustainable transport policies developed with a focus on mitigation and adaptation for climate change have also been an important tool in the fight against the epidemic. Bicycle transport as one of the main areas of sustainable transport policies have positive effects on both air quality and healthy cities. Increasing the share of bicycle transportation in general transportation network of the city with designing a good transport route offers reliable travel and exercise possibilities by also strengthening immune system of people against the epidemic. It also enables the change of the private vehicle-dependent transport model, which has the most negative impact on the climate.

Although bicycle transportation is a recommended mode of transportation for all cities, it is a mode that is quite difficult to implement in cities that exhibit the characteristics of a winter city. Extra measures and solutions should also be considered for such cities. In this framework, the main objective of this paper is defined as to explore the ideas and strategies for planners, operation personnel and decision makers on winter cycling gathered through independent researches on literature and through interviews with municipal planners and engineers. This study mainly questions whether winter cycling can be an option for transportation networks in Erzurum as one of the winter cities of Turkey. Ensuring that residents have reliable, accessible and predictable bicycle transportation options in winter also ensures that a city fulfills its sustainability goals. In this direction, winter planning for cycling must be considered in detail. The findings show that creating a winter cycling network begins with planning predictable prioritized routes with a high level of road surface maintenance to ensure comfortable and safe bicycle mobility. Also, prioritization of bicycle facilities and routes within a snow removal by-law or specific winter maintenance plan; adding space to sidewalks or boulevards for snow storage; promotion (bicycle programs of the city), and monitoring and evaluation (travel surveys) are the other strategies for winter cycling. The city characteristics and local governments’ policies influence the use of cycle as transport model. In the last part of this study, some policy recommendations for winter cycling including urban planning strategies are made for Erzurum.

The Application Direction of Urban Integration Measurement and Planning Driven by Big Data -a case study of Nanjing and Jurong City, China[from6C]]
PRESENTER: Pengfei Fang

ABSTRACT. With the Yangtze River Delta integration becoming a national strategy, Nanjing and Jurong will become the core cities of Jiangsu Province to promote the Yangtze River Delta integration. Jurong is located near Nanjing and has deep cooperation in many fields. The urban integration strategy of Nanjing and Jurong has been put forward for many years, but there are no scientific and clear explanations and specific policy implementation suggestions for the development status of these two cities. Lack of sufficient data to prove the feasibility and operability of urban integration. Under the people-oriented national strategy of urbanization in China, we measure the development status and characteristics of urban integration from high-precision small and micro-scale by using the massive mobile signaling data with continuous-time, complete space, and a large amount of information formed by mobile phone users, as well as tracking natural people and real nonperception. Secondly, make use of people's demand for space, so as to form the layout and planning of intelligent infrastructure. In this study, we conducted a 7-day survey in Nanjing and Jurong using mobile phone signal data and collected 1798360 pieces of data. The work housing entertainment space is identified by the origin destination-oriented connection. Finally, through field investigation and discussion, the accuracy of empirical conclusions is verified. The results show that: 1) the permanent resident population of Jurong City is 32900 more than the official caliber, which proves the benefits of urban integration. Nanjing is the main source of the floating population in Jurong City, accounting for about 60% of the three types of population. 2) From Nanjing to Jurong, the spatial distribution of population is obvious, showing a pattern of dense in the West and sparse in the East. 3) There are regional differences in the relationship between Nanjing and Jurong, which can be divided into four categories and eight subcategories. It is of great practical significance to use big data to compile the urban integration planning of Nanjing and Jurong.

09:10-10:30 Session 5H: Sustainable society and culture
Resilience of Cultural Landscape Heritage for Urban Heritage Area

ABSTRACT. Cultural landscape is about the interaction between human activities in built environment which refers to the nature. It is discussing the balancing of human activities in specific built environment and nature. How to create the settlement with its belief. In the process, based on the human demand especiall for the space living, there are many changes that reflect dynamic human living. According it, it needs a method to prevent the equilibrium of SES (Social-Ecological Systems) that known as resilience and panarchy which understanding the space and human ability as the capacity to prevent the equilibrium. The goal of resilience of cultural landscape heritage are namely (1) preventing the human and nature disturbance and (2) adaptating in several condition as the effect of changing built environment. To obtain the resilience of cultural landscape in Magelang city, the research has been done with content analysis method. Many empirical and historical document included the government policy were classified and analysed with descriptive qualitative in architecture and planning field. Supporting the research, the local communities that connect with the cultural landscape heritage conservation and the phenomenon of cultural landscape disturbance were analysed in order to get the model

People’s impressions and preferences of a historic street: Balancing heritage conservation and sustainable development

ABSTRACT. Efforts to preserve cultural heritage such as historic areas are meant not to preserve the past alone. In essence, they are to maintain the area's character as part of the history of cultural heritage for the area's sustainability now and in the future. Therefore, the main challenge in urban development is achieving a balance between the conservation of cultural heritage and sustainable urban development. One of the essential determinants in efforts to preserve historic areas is community involvement. Community involvement in the form of studies of public perceptions and preferences has been agreed in the literature as an essential form of passive participation. Therefore, this study intended to examine the impressions and preferences of the public on the visual quality of a historic street, what dimensions underlie people's evaluations, and what factors influence the visual preference of the historic street. This research was conducted on Ijen Boulevard, a prominent historic street in Malang Indonesia, as the case study site. This research used a quantitative study by applying a survey method using a questionnaire. The questionnaire used pictures as stimuli consisting of six visual elements of historic areas representing historic architecture, roadside heritage, urban greenery, modernity and development, connectivity, and visual chaos. A linear-numeric semantic differential is used as a measuring instrument to measure the 22 item scales, which are variables of historic places' visual quality derived from previous research. One hundred and fifty randomly selected respondents participated in this study. Factor analysis found two dimensions that underlie people's impressions of the historic street, namely the Aesthetics and Organization of the place and the Distinctive Quality of the place. The regression analysis results showed that in the Ijen boulevard historic street, people's preferences are determined by the Aesthetics and Organization Quality of the street's visual appearance. There is no significant influence of Distinctive Quality of the street on people's preference. Implications of the findings will be elaborated further in the paper.

Sustainable Agricultural and Tourism Area based on Community Participation in Greneng, Central Java, Indonesia

ABSTRACT. Agro-tourism is an new approach to increase the regional income and economic potential of small farmers and rural communities.Nowadays, agro-tourism is increasingly being developed as a form of environmental preservation and agricultural land resources. Greneng agro-tourism area has huge potential as an agro-tourism area by utilizing the wealth of plantations and nature tourism to participate in improving the economy in the plantation sector and integrating it with the tourism sector. The landscape potentials of Greneng posses are not only diverse contours with dynamic land height, surface water and vegetations but also different characteristics of spatial use as well. Besides, the soil conditions have also support the high productivity. These facts make the main attention of the visitor in visiting this agricultural tourism area. In developing these area to be inovative and sustained, it is needed not only susatinable planning but also colaboration with the local community as well.

Voices from the Edge Road: A Challenge for Making Denpasar a Walkable City

ABSTRACT. The increasing economic status has encouraged urban dwellers in Denpasar to meet the expense of personal automated vehicles. The automobile boom has situated enormous pressure on urban mobility and results in a high level of street congestion, noise and air pollution, road fatalities, and fuel cost. It is a challenge for planners and policy-makers to transform the city from a motorised city to a walkable one. Safety, security, and comfort for the urban dwellers while travelling can be provided by walkability. Walking is the one activity that is, undoubtedly, the most unused space on Denpasar roads. This report is dedicated to making a city like Denpasar more walkable and more pedestrian-friendly and could be a common option for urban mobility. It introduces significant problems on streetwalker’ movement around the city and identifies the prospects of walkability in the town for provisions. According to the basic principles of walkability and the “Walkability Index” indicator, an attempt can be considered to identify possibilities to improve the city’s public management quality. The walkability score and development priorities of Denpasar can be a reference to provide a concept for enhancing walkable pedestrian spaces. The study was conducted on four main roads: Jalan Diponegoro, Jalan Gajah Mada, Jalan Surapati, and Jalan Hasanuddin. Selected locus criteria consider the link of urban activities centres, such as urban public spaces, shopping centres, an urban heritage area, and culinary midpoints. Walkability Index and Importance Performance Analysis were used to measure the quality of research variables: connectivity, intermodal relations, security, safety, also comfort and attractiveness. The analysis discloses that Jalan Surapati has a walkability index in the middle category or waiting to walk. In contrast, Jalan Hasanuddin has a walkability index with a low category or not walkable. Development priority for pedestrian paths is determined from high to low priority at each research locus. The improvement concepts of walkable pedestrian spaces can be determined by the priority level of each walkability attributes. Therefore, more people are expected to decide on walking as their first choice for short trips, instead of using private vehicles. It finally suggests that the concept of pro-pedestrian solutions in Denpasar leads to a sustainable city.

10:40-12:00 Session 6A: Digital urban form and social awareness
Urban Attraction Policies for Science and Technology Talent in China

ABSTRACT. In the context of tensions in international relations and intensified urban competition, attracting and retaining talents has become one of the crucial tasks of various government agencies. In recent years, many national and local governments have continuously introduced talent attraction policies to bring well-educated and high-skilled workforces, especially in the fields of science and technology, to their countries or regions. In addition, many cities try to create the best ecosystem and environments for innovation and entrepreneurship. Science and technology talents can live, work, and play in peace and contentment while contributing their intelligence to the high-quality development of the local economy. China is one of the countries attempting to attract high-skilled workforces to the countries. Not only at the federal government, but many city-level governments also try to draw these domestic and international talents to the cities. Beijing, Shanghai, and Guangzhou are the first-tier cities that have long gravitated highly educated and skilled individuals to the cities. This article aims to review the characteristics of these Chinese first-tier cities' policies on science and technology talent attraction, summarize the commonalities of their policies, and put forward suggestions for cities to formulate science and technology talent policies and other related urban strategies.

[Unregistered, removed from 6A 11:20]Analysis of temporal and spatial distribution pattern of urban nighttime social activities based on multi-source data

ABSTRACT. The social activities of urban residents at night are an important reflection of urban modernization, nighttime economic development and population agglomeration. It is still a challenge to effectively integrate multi-source spatio-temporal data to describe and predict the regularity and randomness of urban residents' daily behavior on a fine spatio-temporal scale. In this study, we take the central city of Nanning, Guangxi, China as the research object, and each street as an independent research unit, and establish the urban road network of urban expressway, main road and secondary road. Specifically, three time periods from 18:00 to 20:00, 20:00 to 22:00 and 22:00 to 24:00 on weekdays and holidays are selected as the research interval to analyze and study the nighttime social activities of residents in the central city. Based on UAV nighttime imagery, nighttime street-level imagery and POIs data, the classification indicators of urban nighttime social activities are constructed, including five main types: residence, travel, consumption, office and construction. The detailed classification system is divided into 14 secondary categories such as residence, open air catering, outdoor sports and automobile flow et al., forming a fine-grained spatial activity system of urban night social activities. Taking residents' nighttime travel activities as an example, the spatial distribution characteristics and temporal variation law of residents' nighttime travel activities are obtained by comprehensively using geo-statistics and correlation analysis methods. The study shows that it has the characteristics of "multi-center" spatial agglomeration of the night travel activities of residents in the central city of Nanning; In terms of time, whether on weekdays or holidays, the intensity of residents' night travel activities has a change trend of "strong - gradually increasing - gradually weakening", but the peak time are different. According to the correlation analysis, the global spatial autocorrelation Moran's I index in different periods of each administrative region are different. But it shows a significant spatial correlation in general, indicating that the night travel activities of urban residents have an obvious trend of agglomeration. In this study, UAV nighttime imagery, nighttime street-level imagery and POIs complement each other, which makes up for the deficiency that the satellite nightlight data can not deeply explore the social activities into city. This study grasps the characteristics of urban residents' nighttime social activities from the two dimensions of time and space, and obtains the strong regularity of urban residents' nighttime social activities, which can provide reference for urban development planning, regional resource allocation and social evaluation.

Analysis and Research on the Node Space of Ancient Villages Based on Space Syntax [from6C]

ABSTRACT. This study takes Cuiwei Village in Qianshan District of Zhuhai City as an example. Through field research, the village is investigated and analyzed, and the street scale, spatial structure, functional characteristic streets, internal commercial distribution forms, and functions of Cuiwei Historic District are analyzed. Conduct research and analysis. On this basis, based on the convex space method and the line-of-sight analysis method in the space syntax theory, with the help of Depthmap software, the complex street nodes, namely the space of the two nodes A and B, are established through the establishment of a visual field model, including the integration degree of the visual field and the visual field Agglomeration degree, connection value of view field and spatial characteristics analysis of historical area, select the most representative traditional buildings of the village, namely Sanwang Temple and Webster’s Mansion. When R=N and radius R=3, observe the two buildings Changes in the two parameters of the integration of the horizon of the historical building and the depth of the vision. And with the help of Baidu Time Machine photos in different periods to observe and record the changes in stores and human behavior characteristics, the results show that: at this stage, village collaboration is poor, people are less recognizable in the village space, and people cannot use local perception to reflect the overall space. There is an obvious interface between the inside of the village and the outside world, the isolation is more obvious, the local comprehensibility is better and the global comprehension is poor. Field research and analysis show that although people can walk out of Cuiwei Village, they are always in a state of confusion and it is difficult to grasp the spatial form of the entire area. Therefore, the results of space syntax analysis are consistent with the results of field investigations. Therefore, this research method has good reference value and reference significance in the study of village space.

10:40-12:00 Session 6B: Public safety and urban resilience
Blockchain technology for food security: a case study of grain storehouse tender mode in Huzhou City

ABSTRACT. The sustainable development goals include sustainable food security. Food security is treated as a top national issue in China and the food reserve system has been established for decades to cope with natural disaster and emergencies. However, the present food reserve system is facing the issues such as food production does not meet consumption, and food reserves and staple food consumption are not kept in balance. In order to address these issues, the key is to promote the whole process of food production, purchase, storage, processing and sales. In 2018, a mode named “storehouse tender” was first introduced in Huzhou City, China, which aims at reforming the food reserve system and revitalizing the development of grain industry. The main purpose of the storehouse tender mode is to solve the issues that grain companies have limited capacity of storehouse and the national storehouses have a low inventory turnover ratio of grain reserves. As a trial experiment, the Huzhou government put the contract out to tender (the tender content was the price difference between the purchase and sale of grain in and out of the storehouses) and provided the right of using national grain reserve storehouses capacity of 8500 ton to the companies which were awarded the tender. This mode has shown the benefit of improving the inventory turnover period of grain storage from 3 years to 1 year. In addition, the companies received 200 yuan/ton in revenue, and government expenditure reduced by 150 yuan/ton.

Although this novel solution has the potential to optimize the food reserve system, it is essential to provide a transparent and secure system for tender management and trading. Previous studies found fraud in tender process may happen due to untransparent trading environment and the asymmetric information between participants. In this study, we proposed a prototype system of applying blockchain as an innovative technology to support the storehouse tender mode, so as to provide a transparent and fully traceable environment for tender process and management. Blockchain is a distributed ledger technology, where information can be securely recorded and almost impossible to be distorted. Since blockchain has the advantages of data transparence, secure, decentralization, participants can participate the tender reliably. In this prototype system, we applied Ethereum to record all transactions across the full tender process. Ethereum is an open-source, blockchain-based, decentralized software platform, it enables smart contracts and distributed applications. A smart contract is a computer program that automatically executes predefined terms of contract on the blockchain, participants can make transactions and deal with others through smart contracts. The changes in the information of accounts and smart contracts are collated into blocks of the underlying blockchain in Ethereum. Transactions between the government and companies can be created and executed as smart contracts in our system to ensure the transparency and trading efficiency. At present, we finished the development of the basic smart contract module and completed the test in the local network. This system can be extended to integrate the data from grain production, processing and sales for tracking the entire grain products circulation process.

Spatio-temporal distribution and environmental factors of lung cancer mortality
PRESENTER: Jingjing Tang

ABSTRACT. Malignant tumours have become a serious threat to national health, and lung cancer is currently the malignant tumour with the highest mortality rate, so the study of its mortality distribution, changing trends and influencing mechanisms is of great significance to the prevention and treatment of malignant tumours. The spatial distribution characteristics of lung cancer death in an urban area of Bengbu City, Huaihe River Basin, China from 2017 to 2020 was explored through statistical analysis and spatial autocorrelation, and then Spearman correlation assessment model and geographic detector model were used to explore the correlation between multiple environmental factors and lung cancer death, so as to reveal the influencing factors and their mechanisms for mortality risk. Results revealed that (1) From the temporal distribution, the number of lung cancer deaths showed a linear growth trend, with the number of deaths in winter and summer greater than that in spring and autumn. (2) From the spatial distribution, there was a strong spatial agglomeration form in lung cancer mortality. (3) From the perspective of the whole study area, there were 11 environmental factors with significant correlation and statistical significance in the screening of built environment and natural environment that has impact on lung cancer mortality. (4) According to the spatial stratified heterogeneity assessment, and the results showed that the interaction between environmental factors had a significant enhancement effect on lung cancer mortality. The findings indicated that appropriate urban planning and policies could reduce the mortality of lung cancer to a certain extent.

How Climate Change Impacts Urban Infrastructure in the Northeastern China and its Coping Strategies: An Analysis from Policy-Making Perspectives

ABSTRACT. As China’s urban area grew incrementally fragile to climate change impacts, it is paramount to examine the effects and effectiveness of the top-down policies addressing cities’ coping strategies. After systematically examining the existing literature, we found the Northeastern part of China is rarely mentioned in the academia. To fill this gap, we have selected the Northeast provincial city of Shenyang as a case study to examine its coping strategies for climate change particularly from a policy-making perspective. Besides the empirical evidence employed, we have conducted in-depth interviews with stakeholders from urban planning organs of Shenyang municipality to determine how they view climate change impacts and what policy tools have been developed as coping strategies, its prospects and challenges. We have summarized three sets of policy tools adopted locally, “transformation strategy”, “defense strategy” and “adaptation strategy” for developing urban climate resilient in northeastern China.

Research on the Spatial Features of Cuiwei Historic District Based on Space Syntax

ABSTRACT. Based on the axis analysis method, convex space method and line-of-sight analysis method in the space syntax theory, the street scale, spatial structure, and functional characteristic streets inside the Cuiwei Historic District are studied and analyzed, in order to promote the economic development of the Cuiwei Historic District and improve the villagers of Cuiwei. A sense of belonging, so as to realize the healthy development of the village and provide a feasible reference.

10:40-12:00 Session 6C: Smart and sustainable communities
Man-made Impervious Surface and Its Potential Heat-related Threats to the Public Health

ABSTRACT. Analyzing man-made IMS helps us to understand urban development and human activity. However, IMS can also give rise to a more serious heat problem in urban regions including the heat island effect, which can threaten human health in various aspects. In this study, man-made IMS has been seen as possible health-threatening anthropogenic factors and has been extracted using remote sensing data. On the other hand, DI and non-accident mortality have been used as a proxy of possible threats to human health. Local correlations between the factors have also been analyzed. The main results are as follows: The total man-made IMS in the SMR is 2,675.3 km2, which covers about 22.4% of the total area, while the proportion of man-made IMS is 63.3% for Seoul, 34.7% for Incheon, and 18.8% for Gyeonggi-do. For the grid unit, the spatial distribution pattern of man-made IMS in Seoul is more centralized, while those in Incheon and Gyeonggi-do are decentralized. The hot spots of man-made IMS mainly are distributed in the majority of regions of Seoul, Incheon, and some surrounding regions of Seoul in Gyeonggi-do such as Suwon-si and so on. In the Dong unit, 66.1% of the regions have a man-made IMS area ratio above 50% and 28.3% above 90%. The units with a high man-made IMS area ratio are mainly distributed in Nam-gu, Dong-gu of Incheon, Yeongdeungpo-gu, Guro-gu, and Yangcheon-gu of Seoul, and Paldal-gu of Suwon-si and so on. The regions with a man-made IMS area ratio above 90% have a discrete distribution pattern. The spatial distribution of DI has also been analyzed in the 1Km by 1Km grid and Dong administrative unit. For both spatial units, the general trend of DI distribution has high DI value concentrations in Seoul. For the grid unit, most regions of Seoul and Incheon (except for Ganghwa-gun and Jung-gu), and some regions in Gyeonggi-do, such as Hwaseong-si, Pyeongtaek-si, and so on have high DI values, while the north-east regions of Gyeonggi-do, such as Yeoncheon-gun, Pocheon-si etc. have low DI values. The hot spots of DI values are mainly concentrated in Seoul and some regions in Gyeonggi-do like Pyeongtaek-si, Ansan-si, and Icheon-si, while regions in northeastern Gyeonggi-do like Yeoncheon-gun, Pocheon-si, Gapyeong-gun, etc. are distributed with cold spots. For the Dong unit, the hot spots of man-made IMS are concentrated in Seoul, while the majority of Gyeonggi-do is distributed with cold spots. The value of global Lee’s L of man-made IMS and DI in the grid unit is 0.52, indicating a high positive spatial dependence between the two variables. The hot spots are mainly distributed in Seoul and some surrounding regions of Seoul, while the cold spots are mainly distributed in the peripheral Gyeonggi-do. For the Dong unit, the global Lee’s L is 0.48, which shows a high positive bivariate spatial autocorrelation between the two variables. However, the majority of Gyeonggi-do shows a low man-made IMS area ratio with low DI, while most regions in Seoul indicate a high man-made IMS area ratio with high DI values. There is little spatial bivariate correlation between the man-made IMS area ratio and the concentration of non-accident mortality throughout the study area a global scale. However, at the local scale, we can see that hot spots are mainly distributed in Jongno-gu, Jung-gu, Dongdaemun-gu, Mapo-gu, etc. in Seoul, and Jung-gu in Incheon, while Hwaseong-si, Yongin-si, and some regions of Ansan-si show cold spots. Many regions in Seoul show a high man-made IMS area ratio but a low concentration of non-accident mortality, while peripheral Geyonggi-do mainly shows a low man-made IMS area ratio with a high concentration of non-accident mortality.

IoT based Big Data Analytics for Elderly People’s Behavior in Home-based Care

ABSTRACT. The older population continues to grow in China. According to the data from the National Bureau of Statistics of China, by the end of 2020, the population of the elderly aged 60 and above has reached 264 million, the proportion of older people in the total people has increased to 18.7%. It is expected that the number of the elderly aged over 60 will exceed 300 million in 2030. With the on-going increase in the degree of aging, the demand for elderly care services has grown rapidly. The majority of elderly people choose the traditional home-based care. However, at present, the social care service providers cannot provide enough and high-quality home-based care services due to insufficient supply of social service resources for the elderly. The development of the elderly care industry has been elevated to the national strategic level. In order to ensure the construction and development of care services for the elderly in communities, the new generation of information technology (such as Internet of Things (IoT) and big data etc.) has the potential to play an important role in home-based care service. Real-time monitoring using smart sensors and IoT can remotely help service providers to identify activities and living conditions of the elderly at home. Big data has the ability to analyze the daily life behavior patterns of the elderly comprehensively, which can help to gain insights into the demand of the elderly and improve the home-based care services in communities. Previous home-based care services related studies mainly focused on monitoring elderly people’s behavior using single type sensor such as infrared sensors or wearable devices. Applying multiple types of smart sensors (such as smart water meters and smart mattress etc.) has the benefits of combining different dimensions of data into one data platform so as to comprehensively analyze the behavior of the elderly. In this study, we try to identify the elderly’s behavior patterns at home based on real data collected from the smart home-based care service system. It is expected to provide recommendations for improving home-based care services and exploring the opportunity of promotion of this home-based care service system. The smart home-based care service system consists of multiple types of smart sensors and a big data platform for data management and data mining. Smart sensors (including smart door sensors, smoke sensors and temperature sensor etc.) are installed in the elderly’s home, data from all sensors are collected and instantly transferred to the big data platform via WIFI for behavior monitoring and analysis. This system has been applied in Qingbomen community (Qingbo street, Shangcheng District, Hangzhou), Zhalangkou street (Jianggan District), Fenghuang community (Chuzhou, Anhui Province) etc since 2018. At least 650 old people/families have been using this system and more different types of smart sensors for the elderly’s behavior or physical condition detection will be adopted. So far, we have been working on the data cleaning, imputation and visualization for the historical data stored in our big data platform. Behavior pattern analysis, abnormal behavior detection and data driven based on behavior prediction will be conducted in the next stage. In addition, it is possible to identify the elderly’s personal needs for products and services at home through behavior analysis. Therefore, taking advantage of big data analysis and exploring the opportunity of providing personalized services and products to satisfy the elderly are desirable for future work.

Keywords: big data, internet of things, smart sensors, elderly home-based care, behavior pattern analysis

Research on smart city planning from the perspective of technology and civilization -Take Suzhou Taihu Science City as an example

ABSTRACT. 1. Introduction Contemporary human society is changing fast driven by technology, but the evolution of human civilization has not been able to synchronize - the great changes in human thinking, behavior and even the way of life, not entirely positive on human beings themselves. The smart city in future should not only be embodied in the application of new technologies, but also help human civilization to improve in coordination with the development of technological systems, to shape human beings themselves better. Taking the technical and civilized point of view, the changing human mind, behavior characteristics, living mode in the city appear some problems in current information technology era. To improve and expand the smart city's human connotation, combine it with the smart city's top-level design framework, take the theory of human-environment interaction as the methodological basis, put forward planning and construction strategy of smart city in future, which we take for application exploration in Suzhou Taihu Science City planning.

2. Research methods Based on the multidisciplinary theoretical framework, this study links technical ethics, human-environment interaction, and smart cities. First of all, start with the theoretical framework of technical ethics and philosophy of science, and establish the value orientation from the perspective of technology and civilization. A number of empirical studies have been selected, focusing on the impact of modern technology on people's mental state, behavior habits and ways of life. In the study and exploration of smart city, based on the two theoretical and method frameworks of human-environment interaction and smart city, the influence mechanism of dynamic interaction between human behavior, perception, psychological condition and environmental elements is implanted to form the fusion of theory.

3. The preliminary results From the perspective of technology and civilization, an important value orientation of smart cities is to help shape the all-round development of human beings. The study analyzes the negative effects of this value orientation that have begun to appear under the technical background of the current information age. Such as personal privacy security, attention resource extraction, fragmentation of mind, cognitive closure, content addiction, reduced physical activity, digital divide and other issues. The study puts forward four human connotations of the future intelligent city from the perspective of technology and civilization: information security, cognitive openness, physical and mental health, off-grid tolerance. Using the theory of smart city top-level design, these problems are combined with the functional areas of smart city- smart city center, transportation and travel, ecology and environment, industry and space, community and service, etc., to form four major planning strategies. In Taihu Science City planning, facing information security, combined with smart city public information platform to set up urban information security port, in the urban information center to apply the super-computing ability, to achieve the operation of non-essential personal information reading defense. Based on the connotation of cognitive openness, the use of virtual space and urban information window to introduce multi-ideas to cities, link new ideas around the world with urban public space, use a certain proportion of resources in urban information window for urban output, have the nature of public popularity of thought, cultural output. To improve human physical and mental health, smart city planning should block some space off mobile network data and information for meditation space, meditation space, which combined with some urban public space, to provide a rest island in the sea of information, recovering from the fragmentation of the mind through the special spaces in future cities. For physical activity , the planning sets up the smallest obstacles to walking and sports invitation space in the field of transportation and travel, ecology and environment. For off-grid inclusion issues, it provide off-grid service support in transportation and travel, community and service sector.

10:40-12:00 Session 6D: Spatial planning and land use development
The Relationship of Land Assembly and Prices of Cost Equivalent Land in the Equalization of Land Rights Act: The Case Study of Taiwan

ABSTRACT. Since the first-time revise of The Equalization of Land Rights Act in 1958, urban land readjustment has become a dominant strategy of urban land development and the tool of planning, one of the crucial factors affecting financial self-liquidation of urban land readjustment is the distribution of the cost equivalent land, it is the land used to pay for public facilities within the urban land readjustment region, and funds the readjustment operation through the market bidding process. Past studies on land prices have proved that related factors such as land-use intensity, individuals, and regions do affect the price of land transactions. In recent years, studies have begun to focus on whether the nature of land transactions within the scope of urban land readjustment is like common land transactions.

This paper aims to exam the influence of the land assembly on land prices of the cost equivalent land and to identify other factors by constructing Hedonic Price functions. Based on model testing, this paper indicates that variables referring to general attributes and the land assembly are land price determinants. Variables related to general characteristics, including floor area ratio, width of the adjacent road, width of the base, depth of the base, corner, and time, have proven to have a significant effect on cost equivalent land’s bidding price. Fragmentation of the ownership of adjacent land has little effect on bidding price. It is recommended that the government handling land allocation operations should consider the original land location of the landowner. Still, the influencing factors mentioned above are crucial as well, which all could create higher-value land.

The Impact of Land Use System in Japan, The Netherlands, and The United Kingdom on Permit Management

ABSTRACT. Laws, policies and plans related to land use constitute the land use legal system, in which the licensing system is a means to control land zoning and use change. Based on their own land use laws and regulations, countries first divide the regions, and define a series of development and construction behavior standards in different regions. In the stage before development and construction on the land, it is necessary to apply for a permit to the corresponding responsible administrative department. The administrative department responsible for permit management in each country approves the permit application based on the land use legal system and gives approval opinions. Based on the similarities and differences of permit management in various countries, including administrative organization, application, examination and approval, administrative reconsideration and administrative punishment, this paper compares the role of land use laws and regulations in the construction of permit system in various countries. The laws, policies and plans of various countries have different degrees of influence in permit management. For example, the laws of Japan have a great influence in the process of permit management. Relevant plans are formulated and divided based on laws. When local governments manage permits based on divisions, they need to refer to the suggestions of lower administrative departments, and the approval results need to be reviewed by higher administrative departments; The laws and policies of the Netherlands have a certain impact on the permit management. The environment and planning law establishes a unified environmental planning system and environmental licensing system. At the same time, as an EU country, the zoning in environmental planning cannot violate some EU policies, such as the nature reserve established in nature 2000, that is, its laws, policies Planning has a great impact on permit management; However, in the UK, policies and planning have a great impact on permit management, and there are no detailed provisions on land use related contents at the legal level. The localism act 2011 also gives local planning authorities discretion in permit management, which generally does not need the approval of superior administrative departments. In the UK, it is determined by the national planning policy framework The planning practice guide guides the planning and zoning, and the local planning authority judges based on this and combined with the actual situation to manage the permit.

Green Open Space Alocation Based On Vegetation Density And Urban Surface Temperature In Palu [from6H]

ABSTRACT. A City is the center of various activities and services. High urban activity can also affect the temperature to become warmer, and this causes a temperature difference between the urban area and the area around it, which is called the Urban Heat Island (UHI). As one of the medium cities in Indonesia, Palu is also one of the hottest cities in Indonesia. Furthermore, one of the elements that can reduce urban temperatures is green open space. The number of green open spaces in Palu is currently deficient, which is only around 203.66 hectares or only 0.52% of the total area of Palu. According to the national regulation, this situation is still very much less than the standard for providing green open spaces in urban areas, where green open spaces in urban areas, according to the national regulation, are 30%. Therefore, it is necessary to research the location of green open space development based on vegetation density and urban surface temperature. The research method used in this research is descriptive quantitative. Researchers use several analysis techniques in this study, including Normalized Difference Built-up Index analysis or NDBI, Normalized Difference Vegetations Index analysis or NDVI, Land Surface Temperature analysis, and overlay analysis. This research indicates that land allotment for green open spaces in the Palu Urban Area spreads across all Districts in Palu Urban. The total area of the land allotment for this green open space is 6,359.85 hectares. The type of green open space to be built must adapt to site conditions.

10:40-12:00 Session 6E: Spatial planning and land use pattern
Analyzing the scientific evolution of Smart Village Research using science mapping

ABSTRACT. As the proliferation of the smart city concept, which mirrored the enthusiasm for technological and digital innovation at the turn of the century, new demands for smart and sustainable development in rural areas are emerging. Although still lacking as much attention as urban areas, smart village research has already gone through a remarkable growth of publications in the academic field in recent years. However, the systematic and quantitative scrutiny of the scientific structure and evolution of this topic remains blank. Scientometric review is a critical approach to make a comprehensive evaluation of the development of regarding research area. Science mapping is a generic process of domain analysis and visualization. The scope of a science mapping study can be a scientific discipline, a field of research, or topic areas concerning specific research questions. [Purpose] Thus, we conducted a systematic and scientometric review and visualization of literature, aiming to identify noteworthy contributors, cooperation patterns, intellectual structures, emerging trends, and future research opportunities for a better understanding of the smart village topic. [Method] This study used Bibliometrix R Package, CiteSpace, and VOSviewer to analyze documents(n=240) in the field of smart village research. We retrieved and screened for smart village-related articles, reviews, and conference papers in English from the Scopus citation database and finally got 240 full bibliographic records with 7450 references. Knowledge units such as publication year, title, keywords, abstract, author, source, etc., can be extracted from obtained bibliographic records for frequency count, network extraction, and text mining. Frequency analysis and visualization are conducted to illustrate the temporal, spatial, and thematic distribution of knowledge units. Scientometric analysis methods such as coupling analysis, co-authorship analysis, co-occurrence analysis, co-citation analysis, and text mining are conducted to extract networks and clusters to map the conceptual, intellectual, and social structure in smart village research. [Result] The results show that the number of publications in this field surged rapidly since 2014, with a 39.4% annual growth rate during 2002-2020. The most productive authors and institutions in this subject distribute in India, the USA, Indonesia, Spain, China, and European countries. In this paper, we identify the trending topics of smart village research, as represented in the existing literature, which includes the application of smart management systems, sustainable rural development, rural smart infrastructure construction, smart village policies, and demand in long-term regional planning in smart village sector. [Originality/value] The result of this paper will become a significant reference source for theoretical researchers and practitioners working in smart rural development area to capture state of the art and provides insights for researchers to identify new perspectives on hot topics and research frontiers.

Understanding characteristics and role of spatial residential segregation for inclusive development in urban areas: A comparative study

ABSTRACT. Early works of the Chicago School reflect research in segregation which later became a neglected topic in the early 1970s. Spatial segregation, which indicates the separation of two or more spaces in terms of population groups, is limited to residential spaces in current work. The degree of residential segregation is associated with negative connotations across various social-spatial-cultural contexts and indicates the level of spatial inequalities. Although research studies on segregation primarily focus on population groups segregation based on race and ethnicity, the forms and levels of segregation have evolved with globalization. Individual preferences and behavior and the influence of global forces have significant implications on spatial inequalities and segregation. The paper attempts to understand the diverse characteristics of residential segregation in terms of income groups, race, ethnicity, access to basic services, etc. The research is a secondary data-based comparative study of 16 urban areas reflecting the various types of spatial residential segregation and levels of spatial inequalities. Qualitative and quantitative indicators are used to measure the levels of segregation and spatial inequalities for the comparative study. Furthermore, the underlying forces which have generated these spatial inequalities and segregation are briefly discussed. The paper concludes by highlighting the variations and similarities of segregation and spatial inequalities in the selected urban areas.

Study on the effectiveness of the Shiga Prefecture Watershed Control Ordinance

ABSTRACT. Climate change caused by global warming is causing tremendous damage, and in recent years, Japan has been implementing "watershed flood control," in which parties involved in watershed areas work together to implement flood control measures. The disaster risk area system, in which local governments impose building regulations on areas with high disaster risk, is expected to achieve wide-area risk management by being operated by wide-area local governments based on the watershed flood control.  In this study, the Shiga Prefecture Ordinance on the Promotion of Watershed Flood Control (hereinafter referred to as the "Watershed Flood Control Ordinance") is selected for analysis. It is the first ordinance in Japan to designate disaster risk areas based on numerical analysis rather than actual flooding. However, the target of designating 50 districts has been achieved with only 7 districts designated. In this study, we conducted a field survey and an interview survey. In addition, a literature survey was conducted on the documents of the meetings of the Basin Flood Control Study Committee.  Article 13 of the Watershed Flood Control Ordinance stipulates that the governor can designate inundation warning areas for building regulations. However, the uniform standard for inundation precautionary zones set for the entire Shiga Prefecture does not take into account the characteristics of each area, including small villages and urban areas. It is inferred that more districts than expected by cities, towns and residents were selected as candidate sites.  In the process of formulating and enacting the basin flood control basic policy and the basin flood control ordinance, the common intention of each entity was to improve local disaster prevention capacity by supporting and enhancing soft measures. The common intention of cities, towns and residents toward the prefecture was to promote river maintenance, which is the conventional flood control policy. The prefectural government's intention is to adjust the existing urban planning system and to introduce a building regulation system, and the residents' intention is to avoid risks by understanding and participating in the building regulation and the associated raising project.  In this summary, Nagahama City is described as the target site. The Torahime district of Nagahama City is home to approximately 2,000 households, and is located near the confluence of two rivers, which have been voluntarily raised due to past flood experiences. This historical background has raised doubts among the city and residents about the necessity of imposing new building regulations and raising the height of the area, and is thought to be a factor in the difficulty of designating the area as a flood hazard zone.  In this study, it was found that the difference of opinion among the prefectural government, municipalities, and residents was one of the factors that made it difficult to reach a consensus on inundation hazard areas.  The prefectural government takes the lead in designating inundation precautionary zones, but since these zones cover a wide area, the local governments are forced to take the lead. As a result, however, the involvement of the basic local governments becomes ambiguous and the project itself tends to be top-down. However, the stricter the standards are set, as in the case of Shiga Prefecture, the more likely it is that the area inside and outside of the warning zone will be divided by villages and adjacent properties, making detailed coordination by the local government essential. This contradiction is evident in the process of designating inundation hazard areas, and solving this contradiction will lead to more effective watershed flood control policies in the future.

10:40-12:00 Session 6F: Public facility and elderly society
An empirical study on the decision-making behavior of the elderly's Willingness to the Nomadic Style of Nursing Home — A case study of JiaXing City

ABSTRACT. Aging is an obvious feature of global population development in the 21st century. As an irreversible basic current situation, aging of the population is due to the intertwined effects of the declining fertility and mortality levels and the extension of the average life expectancy of the elderly. Population is the most active element of a city, and knowing the population is a prerequisite for proper urban planning. As the national economy in Chinese mainland is gradually improving, medical care is further developing, and the average life expectancy of the population is growing, the issue of population aging is becoming a problem that cannot be ignored. Jiaxing, as a sub-center city of Hangzhou metropolitan area, the economic level of the elderly is gradually rising, consumption is expanding, and traffic and travel conditions are improving. In recent years, the elderly care industry has developed into elderly health and elderly tourism, and the elderly care have been moving from physiological needs towards higher-level spiritual needs, and the elderly care structure has developed into culture, leisure and recreation. In such a background, the foreign elderly care industry is emerging. Yet, at present, the elderly care industry has a series of problems such as small scale of development and imperfect industrial system. In the future, whether the nomadic style of nursing home can be developed in the long run, and what is the public attitude towards off-site elderly care. In this dissertation , we analyzed the concept, connotation, and theoretical basis of off-site elderly care through literature research and questionnaire survey, and summarized and analyzed the collected data and information. Moreover, it empirically analyzed the public's attitude toward the off-site elderly care industry. Finally, it concluded that the theoretical and questionnaire survey results to provide some suggestions on the development and policies of the foreign elderly care industry, and provided some references for the subsequent research. The study found that: (1) Income level is an important factor in determining the willingness to retire in a different place. The elderly who are younger, working in political party and government agencies, state-owned and public institutions, more educated, and have a spouse tend to retire in a different place. (2) There is no significant difference in people's willingness to retire in different places when they live in urban or rural areas, indicating that Jiaxing has become a pioneer and demonstration of high-level balanced development in urban and rural areas. Based on the results of the empirical study on the decision making behavior of senior citizens' willingness to retire in a different place, the following four suggestions are made. First, the government should strengthen guidance and policy guidance to break the institutional barriers; second, the industry standards should be standardized and supervision should be strengthened; third, the concept of cross-location elderly care should be strengthened; fourth, the cross-location elderly care industry should be reasonably laid out, and a portion of the land use should be reserved as elderly care land, so as to grasp Jiaxing's excellent geographical location and leapfrog development opportunities.

Travel Characteristics and Influencing Factors of the Elderly on the MRT:A Case Study in New Taipei and Taipei City

ABSTRACT. Taiwan officially turned into an elderly society in 2018, and is expected to enter a super-aged society in 2026. In the face of the gradual increase in the elderly population, the transportation problems of the elderly have also been highlighted. To this end, my country responds to the "Friendly Cities for the Elderly" proposed by the World Health Organization, assists county and city governments in reviewing the existing living environment of senior citizens, and proposes improvement plans and suggestions for the deficiencies of the city’s software and hardware, and uses TOD as a means. To protect the transportation rights and basic civilian needs of disadvantaged groups (including the elderly, disabled, children, etc.). In addition, ITDP published the "TOD Standard" version 3.0, which aims to build a people-oriented city and puts forward the principle of inclusiveness, so that people living in cities and suburbs can obtain opportunities and resources in the city. In addition, under the development of science and technology, the connection between transportation and big data has become inseparable. The Ministry of Health and Welfare of my country has also proposed to use big data to integrate cross-domain information to grasp the needs of the elderly, and to create a friendly and happy environment for the elderly to comprehensively improve The health and quality of life of the elderly.

Therefore, this research takes the elderly who take the Taipei MRT as the research object, and uses the analysis of the MRT big data to explore the distribution of the elderly in different time and space, and through the hot spot analysis, the use of the elderly is presented in a visual way. The distribution of hot and cold areas of the MRT. In addition, through literature review, the factors that affect the travel of the elderly are extracted, and general linear regression models, classical geographically weighted regression and multi-scale geographically weighted regression models are established to explore the influence of various factors on the use of elderly people on the MRT. , In order to clarify the transportation characteristics of the Taipei MRT for the elderly. The empirical results show that elderly people take the MRT time to take the plateau shape and avoid the peak hours of office workers, and the hot spots used by the elderly are Zhongzheng District, Wanhua District, and Datong District. In addition, the number of public facilities that can be reached in the built environment has a significant positive impact on the number of elderly people taking the MRT. Finally, through multi-scale geographic weighted regression, we can understand the significant factors that influence the use of the MRT by the elderly at each MRT station.

Mobility Pattern Model of Educational Facilities Distribution Based on Space Syntax Analysis in the East Malang Development Area.

ABSTRACT. The main problem of transport planning is the unequal mobility between regions. Regional disparity, urban sprawl occur due to imbalances in spatial planning. One of the solutions to this problem is by adjusting the movement pattern (mobility pattern). The unequal distribution of urban residential areas is one of the causes of mobility crowded in downtown areas—student movement patterns used as the basis for the development of educational facilities. The mobility patterns study produces an overview of the movement patterns of school student actors. It analyses the relationship between the student population's distribution and the conditions of accessibility from residence to educational facilities in two directions. This analysis is needed to determine the potential spatial gaps in the City Development Area Section's spatial determination. The objectives of this discussion are; (1) to obtain a framework for analyzing the model of student mobility patterns in the area of development in East Malang; and (2) The mobility pattern model for the distribution of educational facilities based on Space Syntax Analysis in the City Development Area Section. This study uses a descriptive exploratory method based on the Space Syntax analysis. The research location was selected using the Classified Purposive Sampling method by classifying the settlement scale (small-medium and large scale). The current admission policy for new students based on zoning has caused much dissatisfaction with the school designation. This problem occurs due to the inadequate distribution of school facilities. The study results on mobility patterns will help map out educational facilities in the development area units. This study will improve the New Student Admission Policy based on the Zoning of Educational Facilities.

10:40-12:00 Session 6G: Spatial planning and practice
Residents’ Perceptions and Attitudes Towards Winter in Cold Climate City

ABSTRACT. In winter cities, cold weather has increasingly forced residents to live under certain conditions in limited ways. In those cities, people are experiencing stressful climatic conditions in each day such as snow, ice, wind and darkness. Residents have to struggle with cold stress and urban planners and policy makers have try to increase outdoor thermal comfort. Those conditions of winter and their lenght cannot be changed, but changing people’s adaptation to winter can reduce the extension of winter in their mind. In this process, it is required to understand residents’ adaptation to winter for implementing sustainable winter communities and creating climate sensitive places which provide residents’ adaptation to winter cities resolving their stressful climatic conditions. Thermal sensation of users has to be understood and explored in outdoor environments for those types of cities especially in Turkey due to the lack of research on this topic. In this context, the focus of this research is defined as the perceptions and attitudes of people towards winter in the case of Erzurum. In order to implement sustainable winter city and community strategies, understanding residents’ perceptions, attitudes and adaptation to winter is critical need.

In this framework, the main objective of this paper is defined as to explore perceptions and attitudes of residents towards winter in the city of Erzurum. This study is made through questionnaire study with residents in different age groups. Thus it will test the assumption indicating that the negativity of the perception of residents’ to cold climate conditions increase as they get older. Erzurum is selected as a case study area due to its harsh climate conditions. It is the city located at 1800-meter altitude in the north east part of Turkey and has a mean annual temperature of 5,6 0C. However, its urbanization process and social and economic issues are not consistent with the winter city characteristics. This study mainly questions whether the attitudes and perceptions of residents in Erzurum are focused on the positive aspects of winter. It also questions the changing pattern of attitudes in different age groups and try to demonstrate the relationship between the perceptions and attitudes of residents to winter and adaptation capability of city’s physical and economic issues. Attitudes of residents are the main points of analysis contributing the sustainability and livability. The findings show that attitudes and perceptions of residents are in the tendency of enduring and tolerating winter which is related with insensitivity of urban physical environment to climate conditions (affected by variables such as the distance between buildings, street orientation, sky view factor, etc). For sustainable development and being resilient against the global warming, adaptation to winter or cultivation of positive attitude towards winter should be integrated into the existing education and urban policies. Also, climate sensitive urban design strategies must be developed in those types of cities. Consequently, it can be said for Erzurum through attitudes and perceptions of residents that it is not a winter city yet but the change is seeming possible with the use of creative solutions.

Comparative Analysis of Yas Island Master Plans Between 2020 and 2030 by Using Space Syntax

ABSTRACT. This paper is a good example on how urban planning can turn into smart planning and results on better decision making using such tools like space syntax, not only to solve urban problems in current cities but also in future planning. Considering space syntax as one digital tools of the planning support system will contribute in moving to a digital governance.

The study focuses on comparison of the case of Yas Island in the Abu Dhabi (UAE) 2020 Master Plan and 2030 Master Plan through analysis of the simulations of the street networks and spatial integration of different parts of the island in regard to it being an urban and dynamic system. It has been found that Space Syntax is an extremely beneficial tool in space planning and allows identification of areas for improvement. Analysis of the current Yas Island plan found a lack of walkable areas in the busiest areas of the Island and calls for a revision of the currently vacant land and rethinking of areas of high connectivity into more public and social spaces. Adding to that, the street networks are located deeply into the island which makes it difficult to reach by foot with any parts on the island. It was noticed that the island street work split the island into two parts separated by the main highway, Sheikh Khalifa Bin Zayed Road.

The Underlying Factors of Regionally Differentiated Covid-19 Impacts in Turkey

ABSTRACT. In Covid-19 pandemic process, people have been increasingly forced to live under certain conditions in limited ways. This process resulted in the emergence of many challenges for cities and regions due to their differentiated characteristics. When the regionally differentiated impacts were analyzed, it has been observed that there may be different reasons as it is observed in EU countries. Throughout history, geography have always played an important role in viruses’ diffusion. In this context, this study is attempted to enrich our knowledge about the territorial differences about the impacts of the pandemic, from April 2020 to June 2021, studying the spread of Covid-19 across 26 Nuts-2 regions in Turkey and explaining its underlying factors. Air quality, demographics, global interconnectedness, urbanization trends, health expenditure and policies to mitigate the pandemic are the factors effecting the regionally uneven morbidity and mortality rate of Covid-19.

In this framework, the main objective of this paper is defined as to explore the relationship between morbidity/mortality rates of Covid-19 and regional characteristics measured with some indicators such as air quality and health expenditure in the Nuts-2 Regions of Turkey. This study is made through ordinary least squares (OLS) cross-sectional multiple regression model to estimate the slope and intercept parameters of a dependent variable with cross-sectional data. In this case, the OLS model is used to estimate the association between Covid-19 morbidity/mortality and various regional features, while also capturing the interrelationships among all the explanatory variables. This study mainly questions whether the initial spread of the pandemic outbreak across regions in Turkey varies depending on different characteristics. To draw a detailed picture of the initial spread of the pandemic outbreak across regions, this paper uses number of patients and deaths caused by Covid-19 per 100,000 inhabitants in each region based on data sourced from the Ministry of Health in Turkey. The findings show that the demographics, average household and business size, air quality, global interconnectedness, economic dynamism, and urbanization trends, health expenditure and policies were regional features that have different level of effects on the uneven morbidity and mortality rate of Covid-19 across 26 regions in Turkey. According to the results, some policy recommendations including urban planning strategies are made for different regions of Turkey.

Urban Design Strategies for Human Health and Emotional Wellbeing

ABSTRACT. In the last decade, climate sensitive urban design has become popular research topic in most of the countries due to the changing climate pattern. After the Covid-19 pandemic, the issue of sustainable spatial planning for human health has also become the most important topic on the agenda. But, northern cities have always been experiencing difficulties and stressful climatic conditions such as snow, ice, wind and darkness and they are always needed to be ready against those types of conditions. From macro-scale to micro-scale, urban patterns should be consistent with cold climate conditions and impacts of pandemic due to increase the quality of life and health in that cities. Especially, public spaces and residential districts should reflect winter city characteristics and become sensitive to the meterological parameters in order to extend outdoor uses as one of the important factors effecting this quality of life, human health and emotional wellbeing. Residents should be encouraged to be remaining outside with the help of public space design which is maximizing the beneficial aspects of winter.

The study has observed microclimatic conditions in three different residential areas and one public spaces (Yenisehir, Şükrüpaşa, Yıldızkent-Toki residential districts and Yakutiye Square) in Erzurum. It is aimed to understand the relation between micro-climate and urban design in the case of a cold-climate city. The effects of different urban forms on micro-climate are analyzed for winter months in the context of this study. As a methodology, ENVI-met is used for processing micro-climate simulation of selected urban areas by using measured and obtained climate data such as air temperature, relative humidity, average reflected temperature, surface temperatures, sky view factor, wind velocity and direction. In order to check the accuracy of the simulation for the case study area, obtained data (from meteorology station) is simulated with ENVI-met and results were compared with measured data in the area. Also, land uses and field searches based on the observation of existing situation of urban environment were included into analysis. The findings show that new planned residential areas are thermally uncomfortable than old designed ones. Thermal comfort level increases for residential districts which have more open and green spaces under cold climate conditions. The results of simulations provided that new design parameters in residential areas have led to severe urban micro-climates. Similarly, findings show the inconsistency of the design of Yakutiye square with cold climate conditions. It is not taking the advantage of the existing climate conditions. According to the results, urban design strategies are suggested for residential districts and public spaces in Erzurum. Urban form and climate variables are two of the most important factors shaping thermal comfort feeling in outdoor spaces.

10:40-12:00 Session 6H: Public safety and urban resilience
Mobility Pattern Model of Educational Facilities Distribution Based on Syntax Analysis Space in the East Malang Development Area.

ABSTRACT. The main problem of transport planning is the unequal mobility between regions. Regional disparity, urban sprawl occur due to imbalances in spatial planning. One of the solutions to this problem is by adjusting the movement pattern (mobility pattern). The unequal distribution of urban residential areas is one of the causes of mobility crowded in downtown areas—student movement patterns used as the basis for the development of educational facilities. The mobility patterns study produces an overview of the movement patterns of school student actors. It analyses the relationship between the student population's distribution and the conditions of accessibility from residence to educational facilities in two directions. This analysis is needed to determine the potential spatial gaps in the City Development Area Section's spatial determination. The objectives of this discussion are; (1) to obtain a framework for analyzing the model of student mobility patterns in the area of development in East Malang; and (2) The mobility pattern model for the distribution of educational facilities based on Space Syntax Analysis in the City Development Area Section. This study uses a descriptive exploratory method based on the Space Syntax analysis. The research location was selected using the Classified Purposive Sampling method by classifying the settlement scale (small-medium and large scale). The current admission policy for new students based on zoning has caused much dissatisfaction with the school designation. This problem occurs due to the inadequate distribution of school facilities. The study results on mobility patterns will help map out educational facilities in the development area units. This study will improve the New Student Admission Policy based on the Zoning of Educational Facilities.

The Location of Temporary Evacuation Shelter (TES) in the Tsunami Prone of Palu Coastal Area

ABSTRACT. Earthquakes are one of the most severe threats in Palu, one of the medium cities in Indonesia. The follow-up disaster such as tsunami on the coast of Palu is increasing the vulnerability. Earthquakes and tsunamis have been recorded several times in Palu Bay. The last major earthquake followed by the tsunami was on Friday, 28 September 2018, at 18:02:45 WIT (10:02:45 UTC), which is estimated to trigger a 10-meters high wave, destroying the densely populated parts of Silae, Besusu Talise, and Lere district in the coast of Palu Bay. With the historical background of the earthquake and tsunami, the potential for these disasters to happen again is still high. Therefore, disaster preparedness or mitigation is needed by constructing or using buildings as temporary evacuation sites (TES) and determining evacuation routes to the nearest TES. In the city of Palu, there is still no availability of TES, so it threatens the safety of the people who live in the coastal area of Palu Bay. The tsunami disaster will significantly affect all community activities in disaster-prone areas. Reduction of disaster risk of death is a factor that dramatically influences disaster response spatial planning. Provision of evacuation routes and temporary evacuation sites (TES) for pedestrians in vulnerable areas needs to be carefully considered so that refugees can move effectively in the evacuation time lag between the initial early warning information and the time of the tsunami. Evacuation time must also consider the community's most vulnerable groups, such as the elderly and children whose movements are relatively slower than the productive age group. Spatial Planning Guidelines in Indonesia have required modeling of evacuation routes and disaster evacuation sites in general but have not considered the specific conditions of the tsunami disaster. Based on the initial study, the modeling of disaster evacuation by walking/without a vehicle directed in the spatial planning guidelines will be very dangerous for refugees. For this reason, it is necessary to make a new model for ongoing evacuation in a tsunami disaster. Disaster evacuation modeling with the fastest route model on the existing road route has been commonly done, some modeling software in GIS can very effectively help the calculation process, but the use of GIS models with the use of existing roads has drawbacks in calculating the time required in detail. Modeling with more detailed results is proposed by Rifai Mardin et al. using the tessellation model in 2019. Furthermore, the combination of the existing road lane with the tessellation lane in 2002 uses a hexagon-shaped net/tessellation model to replace the small road lanes that are not identified on the map. Although it gives results that are similar to reality, this model has not been tested in real terms in the field. Using a combination modeling of existing paths and hexagon tessellation and network analysis, this study will examine the placement of TES in Tsunami Hazard Areas based on the fastest time (5 minutes) that can be accessed using an evacuation route. The method used is the spatial analysis method (GIS) with network analysis Solver Tools of the fastest path on the road and hexagon tessellation. Learning from the past disaster event, the tsunami disaster in Palu Bay in 2018, evacuation time is limited to 3 minutes and 5 minutes based on the time window. Meanwhile, the speed used is the speed of vulnerable groups (the elderly). A field study is conducted to trace the routes, both on the paths identified as roads, as well as on the routes that are not identified on the map (as a comparison of tessellation routes) to verify the results of the evacuation modelling.

Evaluation Of The Shape Of Tree Crowns To Protect Air Quality On The Roadside From The Co2 Dispersion Produced By The Transportation

ABSTRACT. This research focuses on evaluating the tree's crown shape that impacts CO2 dispersion from transportation. CO2 emission from a motor vehicle can spread quickly to the area around the road. The roadside, which is located closest to the road, is directly affected by motor vehicle emission and causes poor air quality. The design of tree planting is a way to control the level of air quality from CO2 dispersion. Trees crown shape is an element design that should be considered in planting the trees because they have different crown shapes. A mistake in choosing the shape of the tree's crown cannot overcome the spread of CO2 from the vehicle on the roadside. This research provides five shapes of the tree's crown that are primarily found in Surabaya city as a study area to be evaluated. There are round, umbrella, oval, conical, and columnar shapes. The study area with different tree crown shapes is created in 3D modeling using sim studio tools software. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis is then used to simulate the spread of CO2 emission on the roadside. The simulation has four scenarios, which are CO2 dispersion in 0, 90, 180, and 270 of wind direction. The last process of this research is validation data use correlation analysis. The result proved that the tree's crown shape influence CO2 dispersion. So crown shape must be considered in selecting species in the design of tree planting. The oval, conical, and columnar tree's crowns are the most appropriate to plant along the roadside among the five tree's crown shapes. This shape can decrease the CO2 emitted dispersion. Otherwise, the round and umbrella crown shape have the highest CO2 distribution. So this shape is not suitable for planting along the roadside.

The Role of the Palu Local Government for Disaster Emergency Response 28 September 2018

ABSTRACT. West Palu is a district in the city most affected by the disaster of 28 September 2018. Compared to other districts, catastrophic earthquakes, tsunami, and liquefaction simultaneously occur, a natural disaster caused damage to infrastructure, and the number of casualties shows that the level of preparedness of society and government officials city is still deficient, mainly due to a lack of understanding and attention to this disaster. This research examines the role of the Local Palu City government in the disaster emergency period of September 2018 related to its duties and functions in "Implementation of disaster management during emergency response" according to the regulation of the head of the national disaster management agency number 4 of 2008 concerning guidelines for preparing disaster management plans, namely 1. rapid assessment and appropriate to the location, damage, and resources; 2. The determination of the status of emergency response; 3. The rescue and evacuation of people affected by the disaster; 4. fulfilment of basic needs; 5. protection of vulnerable groups; and 6. recovery immediately vital infrastructure and facilities. The data collection utilizes observation, documentation, and interviews with government-role persons and the survivors during the emergency disaster. The interview is collecting information from the first day of the disaster until one month after the disaster. The Questions are based on the emergency response time in the study area, and secondary data obtained from the data is related to institutions are like BPBDs (local disaster countermeasures agency) and social services institutions which are then processed to answer the research questions. This research uses qualitative and quantitative research methods. Based on the results of qualitative analysis and policy analysis, The role of the local government in the West of Palu District is still not optimum. There are still deficiencies in implementing disaster management during the emergency response period, such as slow evacuation in Balaroa and Lere villages. The fulfillment of basic needs also uneven, lack of attention to vulnerable groups and recovery of vital infrastructure facilities that are less quick and responsive, in other hands, some villages such as Ujuna, Siranindi, New kamonji village, the local government has been quite responsive during disaster emergency period.

13:10-14:30 Session 7A: Urban form and transportation
The impact of urban parks accessibility in cold regions on leisure-time physical activity levels of older adults in winter
PRESENTER: Yifang Zhang

ABSTRACT. The cold regions increase the risk of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases caused by aging, and the insufficient activity level of older adults (≥60 years old) in the park in winter will cause health problems. Studying the impact relationship between park accessibility and the level of leisure-time physical activity of older adults is of great significance to the realization of active aging and the intervention of urban park construction. This study mainly analysed the accessibility of six representative parks and quantifies the activity profile of older adults in winter. Furthermore, we explored the relationship between park accessibility and the level of leisure-time physical activity of older adults, and put forward intervention measures. Concretely, the network analysis method was used to analyse the accessibility of 6 different types of urban parks in Nangang District, Harbin. At the same time, the leisure-time physical activities of older adults aged 60-80 in the winter park were collected by means of on-site investigation, questionnaire and interview, and the total leisure-time physical activities level was calculated. Next, SPSS was used to explore the relationship of the two main influencing factors (walking accessibility motor vehicle accessibility) and six side factors (gender, age, climate, health levels, reasons for going out, preference for parks) and the activity level of older adults. The study results indicate that: 1) the park distribution in the region is unbalanced, and the 15min park walking accessibility effective service range is less (14.71%), and the motor vehicle accessibility effective service range is larger (85.79%); 2) In winter, the proportion of medium and high-level leisure-time physical activities is 91.3%, and the walking travel rate is 80.65%. Walking is the main travel mode of older adults; 3) In winter, the accessibility of Nangang District urban park will affect the level of leisure-time physical activity of older adults. 5-minute walking can promote the occurrence of high-level leisure-time physical activity (correlation coefficient 0.244 *, p=0.018<0.05). There is no significant relationship between motor vehicles (buses) and high-level activity; 4) Among the side factors, there was no significant correlation between age, climate, health, preference for parks and activity level. While, retirement has a significant impact on the activity level, and the activity level of women is higher than that of men. According to the research results, we can improve the activity level of older adults and promote the health benefits of the park by building the construction of pocket park, optimizing street walking safety and encouraging older adults to actively participate in activities.

Research on Behavioral Characteristics of Bus Riders in a Compact City — A Case Study of Kumamoto City
PRESENTER: Qiaoling Fang

ABSTRACT. Bus is one of the most essential components of urban transit system since it can cater to residents’ daily travel demand. In Japan, public transportation is becoming more and more important due to the declining birthrate and aging population, the increase in the number of elderly people who do not have transportation, the social participation of persons with disabilities, and the growing awareness of reducing the environmental burden. In this paper, we explore the spatio-temporal patterns of urban bus mobility using a one-month bus trajectory dataset in Kumamoto City through processing the big data of smart card data. Based on the idea of compact city, the mutiple linear regression(MLR) is implemented to explore the factors that affect the bus ridership in the 17 essential regional area in Kumamoto City. Through spatial autocorrelation analysis, the built environment factors that have a spatial impact on the number of bus rides are selected. Then we model the spatial heterogeneity of the bus ridership and visualize the spatial distributions of parameter estimations through the geographically weighted regression(GWR). By comparison of the results of the two model, it is found that the GWR model performs better than the MLR model in explanatory accuracy. We found that the distribution of population density has a little negative impact on the number of bus trips. The bus stop density and recreational facility density are revealed to have significant influence on urban bus ridership. Road density level in each regional area is found to reduce the number of bus trips and transportation facility density is positively associated with the bus ridership. Strong spatial variabiity for hospital density is observed. The results can provide valuable proposals for estimating the bus demand as a function of spatial parameters estimations which may have significance on bus route optimization, transportation and urban planning.

Research on the Evolution of the Spatial Structure and Complexity Characteristics of Urban Rail Transit Networks in Big Cities——Taking Beijing and Shanghai as Examples

ABSTRACT. In recent years, the process of urbanization in China has been advancing rapidly, and urban rail transit is a powerful guarantee for the efficient commuting of the population under the tide of rapid urban expansion. This article will be based on the research perspective of complex networks, taking Beijing and Shanghai as examples, from the aspects of rail network topology, network complexity and dynamic characteristics, spatial distribution of Hub stations and high-between stations, and coupling of station degree distribution efficiency and population density distribution, etc. Conduct a comparative study. The research found that: ①Beijing and Shanghai urban rail transit have basically formed a spatial layout form of "ring + radiation + grid + rapid corridor", Beijing is more concentrated, and Shanghai's decentralized layout is more obvious; ②The city of the two cities The complexity of the rail transit network has become more and more obvious. The average degree of stations, network diameters, clustering coefficients, etc. are all increasing, and the characteristics of small worlds are beginning to appear; ③HUB stations and high-between stations are concentrated in the central area of the city, resulting in urban rail transit stations The degree of regional distribution efficiency is poorly coupled with population density distribution. Based on this, two suggestions are put forward: ① Construct a multi-level rail transit network to improve the efficiency of station distribution, reduce the average path length, and improve efficiency; ② Optimize the layout of urban railways, and interconnect the internal and subway multi-line and multi-point interconnections, and the main external coverage Town groups.

Exploring the Impacts of Built Environment on Bike-sharing Trips Based on Multiscale Geographically Weighted Regression: The Case of Guangzhou

ABSTRACT. The emergence of bike-sharing service has changed the travel mode of citizens, and played a critical role in solving last-mile problem. However, owing to the excessive supply of shared bikes, more problems related to bikes management have arisen. Extant studies have explored the relationship between built environment and bike-sharing trips, but most of these studies mainly focus on the impacts of cycling environment measured by POI data only, whereas a fuller picture of built environment is lacked. Moreover, the commuting purpose of bike -sharing service on weekdays has been extensively studied, but its recreational function on weekends has been little touched. In this study both street view pictures and POI data were collected and processed to describe cycling environment more comprehensively. This study focuses on residents’ cycling behaviour on weekends, and explores the impacts of built environment factors including density of road network, road average gradient, density of residential POIs, density of working POIs, density of transportation POIs, density of recreational POIs, eye-level urban greenness rates, overhead-view sky rates and overhead-view building rates on bike-sharing trips by employing a multiscale geographically weighted regression model. The research results demonstrate that density of road network, density of recreational POIs and density of residential POIs all have significantly positive impacts on bike-sharing trips on weekends, and the intercept variable and density of road network variable show significant spatial nonstationarity. Furthermore, due to the restrictions (e.g., shared bikes are not allowed to enter some public open space) imposed on shared bikes, friendly cycling environment and high accessibility might not lead to more bike-sharing trips. These findings imply that to promote the usage of shared bikes on weekends, the density of cycle lane need to be improved in some places and restrictions on shared bikes in parks need to be lifted. This study could enrich the research on bike-sharing travel behaviour and provide references for sustainable bike-sharing management.

13:10-14:30 Session 7B: Resilient Governance and Pandemic
Study on residents' willingness to community gardens construction in post epidemic Era:Investigation from Wuhan

ABSTRACT. After the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic, people who have experienced social isolation during the epidemic became more concerned about the function of public open space in their communities. Nowadays, community gardens are trendy in developed countries, and it is beneficial to social and cultural cohesion, enhance education, improve environmental equity, and other functions. However, in developing China, community gardens have not been included in the urban planning system. The phenomenon of occupying green space for gardening in urbanized residential communities has sparked disagreements and disputes among residents in the community. The purpose of this study is to explore whether community residents support the construction of community gardens on public land for collective gardening activities and the reasons for the formation of their willingness. The subjects of this study are residents of three urbanized residential communities in Wuhan, Hubei Province. Questionnaires were distributed in the communities via the internet to assess residents' willingness to build community gardens. Three hundred eighty-two completed and valid questionnaires were collected. Descriptive statistics and chi-square tests were used to evaluate the categorical variables. The results show that 82.5% of respondents expressed support for the construction of community gardens, while 17.5% said they did not support it. A significantly higher proportion of females than males held a supportive opinion. The elderly have a higher support rate for the garden. A considerably higher proportion of respondents with minors in the household owned a supporting statement than those without children. Living in different communities, education levels, and monthly income had no significant impact on the results. Residents who were dissatisfied with the greenery and public infrastructure were more supportive of community gardens. Respondents who are currently engaged in home gardening activities and those with experience in planting are overwhelmingly supportive. The main reasons for support are parent-child education, neighbourhood communication, food health, and exercise; saving money is not the main reason. The main reasons for not supporting community gardening are attracting mosquitoes, planting fertilizer that creates odours, and taking up public resources. In addition, we found that not all supporters were willing to spend money or time on community gardens. As the construction of community gardens in China lags behind that of developed countries, efforts are needed in community management decision-making and spatial planning, for which this study provides a meaningful reference.

PRESENTER: Khushi Pandya

ABSTRACT. The Corona virus (COVID-19) broke out in many countries and has resulted in unprecedented changes in the mobility patterns and travel behavior of people in India and other parts of the world. Some of these behavioral changes arose as the result of restrictive measures imposed by the Governments, while others are driven by the safety concerns. The “lockdowns” have been imposed on global scale as strategy to curb pandemic spread has affected different socio- economic groups, resulting in universal mobility crisis. After the successful commissioning of COVID-19 in order to bring life back on track, the restrictions have been relaxed or completely waived off across various geographies. It has been observed and reported in media and reports that the mobility pattern post lockdown is affected due to COVID-19 induced safety concerns and government guidelines on social distancing etc. Post COVID-19 people tend to avoid crowd in order to comply with social distancing norm. A decline in public transport usage is quite likely, due to these restrictions and commuter’s choice, as public transport vehicles and stations may be recognized as a place for contamination and virus transmission due to more number of passengers and limited physical space available. The situation may induce a modal shift in favor of personalized modes of transport, inducing the lower income group commuters to buy new vehicles thereby resulting in increased transport expenditure. This study uses the data from different states of India which was collected through an online survey, target population for the survey was urban population with access to internet. The questionnaire included questions like, the city of residence, income, and occupation, the survey posed questions regarding their travel behavior like trip purpose, modal choice, online grocery shopping, and food deliveries, followed by specific questions on how their preferences changed after the lockdown was lifted. The surveys were done from Feb 15, 2021 till Feb 22, 2021, where Snowball sampling technique was used to select the respondents. One thousand four hundred and thirty (1430) responses were collected from various cities of India. In order to test the impact of COVID- 19 on public transport usage the data of frequency of public transport usage before and after COVID- 19 lockdown was compared using paired sample test. It was observed that the median of the daily usage of Public transport has decreased. To test the Hypothesis, where Hº = there is no significant difference in the usage of public transport before and after lockdown and Hᵢ = there exist significant differences in the usage of public transport before and after lockdown. The validity of the hypothesis was tested by performing a T-test on the average usage of Public Transport before and after lockdown. From the output analysis we can derive that there is a significant difference in the mean of the usage before and after lockdown, at p < 0.05. Study also found that there has been a significant reduction in the number of trips after lockdown. Remarkable change can be noted in educational and work trips, as ‘study/work from home’ had to be quite prevalent during post COVID-19 period. Work trips of users were badly affected by this pandemic. Most of them were working from home or going to the office on alternate days (after lockdown). To test the hypothesis of Impact of COVID- 19 lockdown on work trips before and after lockdown the data obtained was compared using T- test. This paper discusses the impact of COVID-19 on transport behavior in India, by taking pre and post COVID-19 transport scenario related questions from approximately fourteen hundred (1400) respondents spread across the length and breadth of India.

Social Capital: A critical asset for urban migrant workers’ livelihood security
PRESENTER: Andrew Kyaw

ABSTRACT. Social capital has always been supportive as a valuable and critical resource contributing to well-being, especially during times of crisis and socio-economic change. Meanwhile, various literature portrays that urban migrant workers had utilized social networks or connections to reduce risks, access services and acquire information to lower transaction costs. However, although social capital is a resource of persons and a key aspect accessing information about opportunities and problems, there has been little investigation of its implication, such as the relationship between social capital and livelihood security which is hardly found in the literature. The study aims to identify notions of social capital towards urban migrant workers’ livelihood security, using qualitative documentary research on published articles and books regarding a theoretical literature review of social capital, livelihood security and relationships between social capital and livelihood security. In addition, the study does an empirical literature review on studies in different countries with a large population of both/either international and domestic migrants to identify roles and contributions of social capital towards urban migrant workers’ livelihood security. The present results show that regardless of solid ties or weak ties, and high trust or low trust, the outcomes of social capital are critical factors of securing migrant workers’ livelihoods in relation to the migration process, mobility, settlement, finding jobs, providing accommodations, helping with financial problems, and supports of health outcomes. Social capital is relatively vital as one of the centralities for urban migrant workers that increase accessibility to resources, services, and assistance as well as promotes livelihood opportunities and health outcomes, having increased those accessible resources. Nevertheless, different levels of outcomes from the social capital the urban migrant workers belong it has been a critical asset for securing livelihoods in various ways.

Research on the vitality, problems and Strategies of living streets based on POI data——Taking Qianshan District of Zhuhai City as an Example

ABSTRACT. From the general direction, urban roads can be divided into township roads, county roads, provincial roads and other types. Urban life streets can be divided into life service streets and leisure and entertainment streets from the function. Urban point of interest (POI) is a geographical entity closely related to the life of urban residents, such as wholesale shops, savings offices, primary and secondary schools, etc. This paper takes Qianshan District of Zhuhai City as the research object, and divides the surrounding streets of Qianshan District into life service street and leisure entertainment street. Using geographic information system to integrate the data of different functional facilities of the street, and the data after integration are overlapped and analyzed. According to the relevant results of software analysis, we find the existing problems of life-style street in Qianshan area at this stage, and finally put forward corresponding suggestions for the future development direction of life-style street in Qianshan area.

13:10-14:30 Session 7C: Resilient Governance and Pandemic
Study on close contacts between pedestrians in underground shopping streets using computer-vision tools

ABSTRACT. On the background of Convid-2019 spreading, underground shopping streets are risk place for close contacts due to the enclosed environment. Obtaining people’s movement and spatio-temporal distribution in underground space are essential issues for underground pedestrian system planning and management. Taking an underground shopping streets as an example, pedestrian’s movement in several underground passages are recorded through monitor cameras. This study applied computer-vision tools to automatically detect pedestrian from frame images. Through the re-identification algorithm, detection results in the neighboring frames are matched to construct pedestrians’ trajectories in pedestrian space. People’s staying duration in a specific underground shops are clarified by matching person’s appearing and disappearing frames at shop gate. With the calibration of rotation matrix, pedestrians’ spatio-temporal distribution in underground streets are obtained. The close contact degrees of pedestrians in underground space are studied in view of the proximities of three-dimensional trajectories in time-space coordinates system. Close contact degree of pedestrians in shops are defined by people’s number and staying duration. The influence from shop type and spatial distribution are examined. For pedestrian space, close contact degree are defined by the scale of walking group and contact duration between individuals. The influence of metro station and underground crossing to close contact risk are examined.

Human-made flood driving forces in flood-prone areas: The case investigation of Cantho city, Vietnam

ABSTRACT. Flood-prone urban areas have been existed and considered as barriers to reaching sustainable development goals in many countries. Exposed to the ongoing expansion of disturbing development, it is necessary to identify flood-related sources as flood driving forces to find new approaches from public-sector perspectives that trying to manage imminent flood risk. Nevertheless, studies on challenges and barriers relevant to the implementation of flood risk management approaches for flood-prone areas are scarce. For responding to the gap, the objective of this research is to support deeper and more detailed analysis of the most important driving forces through the examination of flood driving forces in Cantho city which is located in the Mekong River basin. The research was conducted by examining the secondary data based on many sources as well as development plans within the public sector. Findings show that human-made flood driving forces, as processes or trends that contributed to the flood-vulnerability status, possibly increasing flood risk and forming the flood-prone area including population growth, land-use change, urban expansion, and drainage network. These are accelerated long-term processes; therefore, these issues demand adequate approaches to handle changes that are associated with the human-made context.

Optimizing spatial allocation of COVID-19 vaccine by agent-based spatiotemporal simulations

ABSTRACT. Backgrounds: Optimizing allocation of vaccine, a highly scarce resource, is an urgent and critical issue when the outbreak of COVID-19 is on-going in the world. Prior studies suggested that vaccine should be prioritized by age and risk groups, but few of them have considered the spatial prioritization strategy. This study aims to (i) examine the spatial heterogeneity of COVID-19 transmission in the city naturally, and (ii) optimize vaccine distribution strategies considering spatial prioritization. Methods: We proposed an integrated spatial model of agent-based model and SEIR (susceptible-exposed-infected-recovered). The model simulated spatiotemporal process of COVID-19 transmission in a realistic urban context. Individual movements were represented by trajectories of 8146 randomly sampled mobile phone users. Simulations were conducted under seven scenarios. Scenario 1 and 2 examined natural spreading process of COVID-19 without any intervention measures and its final state of herd immunity. Scenario 3-6 evaluated four vaccination strategies (random strategy, age strategy, space strategy, and space & age strategy) on epidemic spreading dynamic, and identified the optimal vaccine strategy. Scenario 7 assessed the most appropriate vaccine coverage. Findings: Herd immunity is heterogeneously distributed in space, thus, vaccine intervention strategies should be spatialized. Among four strategies (random strategy, age strategy, space strategy, and space & age strategy), space & age strategy is substantially considered as the most efficient strategy , with 7.7% fewer in attack rate and 44 days longer in natural transmission duration than random strategy under 20% vaccine uptake. Space & age strategy requires 30-40% vaccine coverage to control the epidemic, while the coverage for a random strategy is 60-70% as a comparison. Interpretation: The result demonstrates the importance of space in optimizing vaccines allocation. It also highlights that a spatial strategy greatly improves the effectiveness of the vaccine usability. It suggests that global policymakers need to know the specific ‘hotspots’ of the city based on their specific spatial situations to fight against on-going COVID-19 epidemic.

13:10-14:30 Session 7D: Smart transportation and mobility
Study on the Demand Characteristics of Buying and Using Shared Electric Vehicles

ABSTRACT. With the development of economy and technology, a series of phenomena such as increasing car ownership and excessive consumption of natural resources have appeared in cities, which has caused the contradiction between increasing travel demand, air pollution and energy shortage to become more and more intense. In addition, Taiwan’s record of greenhouse gas emissions from the Ministry of Transport in 2018 shows that the carbon dioxide emissions of passenger cars are about 50%, accounting for half of the total emissions of road transportation. As mentioned above, energy conservation and carbon reduction have become an important issue for urban development, and all countries are actively developing alternative energy sources. Therefore, the Ministry of Economic Affairs (2017) encourages the use of low-polluting electric vehicles (Electric Vehicles) in order to achieve the industrial development policy goals. The Environmental Protection Department of the Executive Yuan has also launched a phased vehicle electrification initiative to achieve full electrification of newly sold vehicles in 2040. As the core of the sharing economy, share mobility (Share Mobility) has gradually attracted attention in the mode of transportation that combines shared mobility with electric vehicles.

However, the planning and development of electric vehicles in Taiwan is not yet mature, and it will be less than 20 years before new vehicles sold are fully electrified in 2040. Therefore, this article intends to explore the two use behaviors of electric vehicle purchase and holding and shared use. Through the questionnaire survey, use the narrative preference method to grasp the people's use cognition and feelings, and use the principal component analysis method to reduce the questionnaire factors into appropriate factors and rearrange The new variable is a linear combination of the original variable, which reflects the information contained in the original variable as much as possible. Finally, the binary logit model is incorporated to establish the demand model for purchasing and sharing electric vehicles. The empirical results found that the willingness to share electric vehicles will be affected by age, alleviation of traffic congestion, replacement of original transportation vehicles, and abandonment of purchasing cars, while the willingness to purchase electric vehicles will be affected by gender, number of vehicles owned by households, car ownership, etc. Factors such as purchase awareness have a significant impact, and the willingness to share will significantly positively affect the willingness to purchase. Finally, according to the established demand model, the future electric vehicles should be developed in the traffic engineering, urban design and related supporting measures.

A Design Guideline on Smart Devices Allocating and Networking for Smart Environment Services in Smart and Healthy Building

ABSTRACT. Function is one of the constitution elements of building. Building space is to be divided into certain number of function areas. Traditionally, for architects, they concern about design elements including space design, aesthetic design, function area arrangement and so on. For electrical engineers, they arrange all the electrical equipment and devices base on requirement from architecture, endeavor assuring equipment and devices work well. Recently, construction of Smart and Healthy Building obtains increasing concern. In Smart and Healthy Building, function area with smart services provided by smart devices can be regarded as smart space. Smart space design is an emerging work for architects. However, the standard process to design a smart space is yet to be determined. In the traditional architecture design process, architects didn’t need to consider the smart services, let alone allocating and networking smart devices. Now, they are expected to give out clear requirement on allocating and networking when design a smart space. If not, electric engineers are not able to arrange electrical devices. Gap between architect and electric engineers appears under the context of Smart and Healthy Building design. As a guideline devoted to bridge this gap, this research focus on smart environment services, first determined the service areas of smart devices based on their influence range and building function area, then allocated the devices into building space, finally organized the devices in networking to co-work to realize smart services in Smart and Healthy Building. This paper used Smart and Healthy Building Laboratory (SHBL) as case study to make the guideline clear.

Developing an online-historical building story maps based on 3D GIS and laser scanning for urban heritage digital governance

ABSTRACT. The development of an online digital information system for historical buildings is the one innovation of heritage tourism management. Classical governance of historical building asset management must transform into a digital urban governance system that supports public access, accommodates historical information data for the wider community and interested parties, and supports city historical tourism. Moreover, the development of an online digital information system has to reconstruct the digital storytelling concepts that build an exciting and interactive connection between narrative, visual and spatial aspects. This strategy has the opportunity to develop and strengthen a sense of place in a digital way and support the city's historical tourism industry. This research aims to develop an online-historical building story map combining the 3D laser scanning method into the 3D modeling based on online GIS and packaged in the ArcGIS StoryMaps application. This study involves four primary procedures—first, the visual data mining of historic buildings through a 3D laser scanner. Second, the stage of the 3D historic building modeling based on the HBIM method. Third, the 3D GIS development stage. The last is the digital storytelling development stage through the ArcGIS StoryMaps application. The study area took place in historical landmark buildings in Malang, one of the cities in Indonesia with many heritage buildings during the colonial period. Malang has three developments in the Dutch East Indies architectural style that marked the growth of Malang, namely the Indische Empire style in the 19th century (1850-1900), the early modern colonial style in the early 20th century (1900-1915), and the Nieuwe Bouwen style in the 20th century (1916-1940). The study focuses on the historic landmark buildings that formed the urban image of the Malang until 1935, namely Tugu Square, Malang City Hall, Ijen Church, Kayutangan Church, PLN Building, and Frateran School. The six objects represent the three architectural styles of the Dutch East Indies, which are essential as a milestone in the birth of a prominent architecture style in Malang. In the first stage, accurate and representative 3D modeling development greatly supports developing a digital management system for conserving and preserving historic buildings. Digital survey techniques are needed to produce detailed 3D models to be attractive and practical for various purposes within the scope of cultural heritage (Chiabrando et al., 2015). The latest automatic 3D reconstruction technology is 3D laser scanning, which is used to accurately document and model various objects (Lemmens, 2011) and records large and complex building objects (Grussenmeyer et al., 2011). Laser scanning was considered the only viable 3D digitization technique in the early 2000s (Nocerino et al., 2013) and is a popular 3D documentation technique (Remondino et al., 2014). The HBIM device, in the second stage, was implemented to optimize the method of documenting and organizing all information related to historic buildings through the help of a 3D laser scanner. The HBIM method can manage all building information and reference and integrate data on geometry with 3D model information (Bruno and Roncella, 2019). Various studies and practical activities in the field have proven the reliability of the HBIM method in documenting and recording all historical building object information related to all historical data, conservation policies, and significance values (Palomar et al., 2018). This method has the opportunity to improve the management of historic buildings at the life cycle management stages, such as the intervention, execution, maintenance, and even the dissemination activities of historic building conservation assets to the broader community (Garcia et al., 2018). This HBIM-based modeling process includes several stages to get to the final product, starting with the collection and processing of laser survey data, identifying historical details from the architectural pattern database, constructing parametric components on historical objects, performing correlation and mapping of parametric objects to scanned data and final production on technical drawings. The results of the HBIM 3D modeling convert to a 3D GIS file into the ArcGIS application. The last stage is ArcGIS Story Maps programming which builds the digital storytelling concept of historic landmark buildings by integrating 3D GIS data with exciting and interactive narratives related to text, visual, spatial, and 3D model information. The story maps method offers digital storytelling capabilities with online maps. The story maps application can integrate 2-dimensional and 3-dimensional spatial data, especially ArcGIS data, into maps. Story Maps can help build historical tourism stories and create narratives and spatial relationships through map content, text, photos, videos, and historical building modeling, which have the opportunity to develop the digitalization of the historical tourism industry through the integration of spatial data (GIS), architectural data of historical building objects, as well as other related city databases. Using a combination of GIS technology in the Story Maps application has significantly impacted building interactive web-based visual presentations (Antoniou et al., 2018). This stage includes three main activities, namely the integration of 3D GIS data on historic landmark buildings in the application system, user interface design (UID) spatial multimedia application systems based on the ArcGIS Story Maps application, and the development of online-digital historical building story maps. The final result of this research is the development of a spatial multimedia system that refers to the principles of Good Tourism Governance, a package system based on HBIM technology, and ArcGIS Story Maps on interface design through web programming. This application system has the opportunity to improve the historical tourism industry that accommodates domestic and foreign tourists in accessing and interacting with visual and spatial information of historical buildings through online applications.

Recognition and Classification of Riverscape Based on Cloud Image Annotation API
PRESENTER: Jiaying Shi

ABSTRACT. Effective classification of landscape photographs is a vital step in data processing and environment analysis. With the popularity of crowdsourcing geo-information, an increasing number of studies have used geotagged photographs to visualize how people perceive and interact with destinations and explore the aesthetic, cultural, and entertainment value of the area. According to Cartwright (1988), such photographs need to be quantified in a systematic and structured form for classification in batches. Vailaya et al. (1998) developed a hierarchical classifier to distinguish urban and landscape images using low-level features and manually added keywords.

Machine-learning algorithms for image recognition have dramatically improved the efficiency of the assignment of keywords. Cloud image annotation tools, such as Google Cloud Vision, Microsoft Azure Computer Vision, IBM Watson Visual Recognition, and Amazon Rekognition, have the advantages of photograph annotation in batches without training. Several studies have documented machine learning improves the efficiency of the classification of photographs by automatic image annotation. However, the applicability of such methods for the functional landscape classification is still not clear, especially for the photographs presenting a homogeneous landscape.

In the current study, we applied machine-learning techniques to human-like classification for a large number of photographs. We developed an automatic classifier for VEP photographs of the homogeneous landscape. The purposes of this investigation were (1) to determine whether the classifier is practical for recognition and classification of the homogeneous landscape, and (2) to evaluate the accuracy of the classifier by comparing it with manual classification. We also created heat maps of the study area based on the classification.

A total of 508 urban riverscape photographs were collected during two river cruise trips in the Nihonbashi area, Tokyo, Japan. The approach applied Google Cloud Vision API to obtain the keywords and corresponding confidence scores of each photograph and used a multi-level hierarchical clustering to classify these photographs. The multiclass confusion matrix assessed the agreement between the classifier and the manual classification. Results showed that photographs in each group had a common visual theme. The mapping of the photograph groups provided credentials for evaluating the preferences and perceptions of visitors. A perfect agreement was acquired in 82.8% of the samples, with a kappa statistic of 0.79. The accuracy test proved that the classifier has a firm agreement with manual classification. Besides, we compared the results of clustering by continuous confidence scores and binary confidence scores. The binary dataset was useful if important keywords sometimes had low confidence scores.

Methods in this study can be applied for practical tourism management and landscape evaluation, especially in situations where large numbers of photographs of a homogeneous landscape need to be classified. In automated destination image classification, such methods fill the gap in the sensitivity of local-scale variability. It also provides the possibility of public participation in the assessing process, which, in turn, contributes to urban environmental management.

13:10-14:30 Session 7E: Resilient Governance and disaster management
Disaster Vulnerability Assessment and Adaptation Strategies in Industrial Park

ABSTRACT. Affected by the extreme climate, natural disasters such as typhoons, earthquakes, floods, and droughts may increase the scale of disasters and seriously affect environment safety and economic development losses. The industrial parks are composed of enterprises and manufacturers of different scales. The interdependence of internal manufacturers, industrial clusters, and production chain has increased the impact of disasters. The vulnerability of different industrial parks determines the potential hazard and expected consequences of the whole region. The vulnerability assessment determines the possible vulnerability factors and potential risks of the industrial park. According to statistics from the Ministry of Economic Affairs, the total area of the industrial park reported by the Central Ministry’s club is 18,745 hectares, while the area of the projected industrial sites under the Industrial Development Bureau is 11,539 hectares, the largest area, May be the first to bear the brunt of the environmental impact. Therefore, this research will take the projected industrial sites as the research object, discuss the vulnerable factors and characteristics that may occur in the industrial parks in the face of climate change and disaster impact, and integrate and analyze from the three levels of municipal government, industrial park service center and manufacturers. In order to build a resilient industrial park, through relevant literature theories and reviews, the vulnerability is quantified and established indicators. This research uses the Fuzzy Delphi Method (FDM) to filter the indicators that are suitable for the vulnerability of the park, and use Dynamic Network Process (DNP) to ask experts and scholars about the correlation between clusters and indicators, as well as the weight changes between 2020 and 2030. According to the results of different clusters of vulnerability assessment, the industrial parks are divided into eight types. This study develops different types of industrial park disaster prevention management and adaptive strategies. Based on these strategies, this study will give municipal governments, industrial park service centers and manufacturers' respective recommendations. This study provides relevant suggestions on the adaptive strategies of disaster prevention in industrial parks of different management departments, which serve as a reference for the response mechanism and risk management of disaster management system of industrial parks to realize the goal of sustainable development of land use and industry.

Changing attitudes to flood defense in Japan -Through text mining analysis of newspaper editorials

ABSTRACT. In recent years, fierce typhoons and torrential rains have hit the Japanese archipelago, resulting in annual deaths from flooding. In terms of natural science, the IPCC Fifth Assessment Report has pointed out the effects of climate change due to global warming. Against this background, the current flood management system has reached a turning point. In Japan, the development of flood prevention laws after the Second World War has led to the suggestion that flood prevention has changed from an autonomous activity to a public service, and that the culture of disaster has faded. However, in some areas, the activities of flood defense groups are still observed, and it is thought that there is still a perception that flood defense is something to be done by oneself.  Therefore, this study aims to clarify the relationship between the change of awareness of flood prevention and social conditions in Japan, and to suggest the direction of flood prevention in Japan in the future.  To follow the change of citizens' awareness of flood prevention over a long period of time, the target of this study is newspaper editorials. In Japan, newspapers are popular media that easily reflect current events. For the analysis, we used KH coder, a software for text mining analysis.  First, the number of editorials and the number of floods were compared. We found that the number of editorials on flood damage increased accordingly when a major flood occurred, indicating that editorials reflect interest in flood damage and its countermeasures.  The number of words extracted by KH coder showed that the most frequent words were "lesson", "preparation", and "evacuation", indicating actions that should be taken to prevent floods. In particular, the word "evacuation" appears mostly in the 2010s, suggesting that public opinion has taken on board the importance of evacuation learned from the 2004 torrential rains.  Correspondence analysis revealed that editorials argued that "the government should hurry up to take measures against floods". It was also suggested that the growing interest in environmental issues in the 1990s and 2000s may have influenced the references to flood control.  Co-occurrence network analysis revealed that 'lessons learned' have continued to emerge since the 1940s, after the Second World War. From the 1970s to the 1990s, flood lawsuits were a frequent topic of discussion, suggesting that the attitude of "holding the government responsible for the damage caused by floods" had developed by this time.  This study has revealed three findings, as follows. (1) A sense of being 'protected' by the government emerged after the Second World War. (2) The lessons learned after the floods have not been fully utilized. (3) The awareness of flood prevention in Japan is influenced by factors other than floods.  Flood awareness in Japan is also affected by factors other than floods. Flood awareness in Japan is dynamic and is constantly being updated. It is suggested that future flood prevention measures need to take a different approach, such as updating residents' awareness of flood prevention from the outside.

Estimating Evacuation Shelter Capacity Based on Population Number used Machine Learning Method, Case Study: 2020 Hitoyoshi Flood in Kumamoto Prefecture, Japan

ABSTRACT. Floods are the most devastating water-related disasters experienced throughout the world. Extreme rain events and related flooding have been more common in Japan in recent years. The research on the advancement of flood prediction models contributed to risk reduction, policy suggestions, minimization of the loss of human life, and reduction of the property damage associated with floods. Flooding in the Kyushu region was triggered by torrential rains at beginning of July 2020. Flooding inundated many cities in Kumamoto and the Fukuoka Prefecture in Japan, causing significant damage. Hitoyoshi City is located in Kumamoto Prefecture, Japan that was affected by a flood on 4 July 2020 and we used Hitoyoshi city as a case study for this research. The city of Hitoyoshi, Kumamoto Prefecture, is seen overflowed after the Kuma Stream flooded due to torrential rain. Shelters after natural disasters are one of the most vital needs needed by evacuees of natural disasters. In this study, land use data will be used as a model for the spatial distribution of the population in the Hitoyoshi-city area. Then the use of the P-median model is used to analyze the service area and supply to the evacuation shelter based on the distance from the demand point to the evacuation shelter point. From the result, it is known that Hitoyoshi city's demand for evacuation shelter points reaches 48% which indicates that it is almost half the ratio of demand to disaster evacuation points. In this study, using the location-allocation method in ArcGis 10.6 is needed to determine the supply-demand ratio of Hitoyoshi City. This data is expected to be used to optimize the function of the evacuation shelter in the Hitoyoshi area as a disaster-prone area for future urban development.  This makes it possible for evacuation safety or disaster planners to create tools specific to their region in the event of a flooding event and when an event occurs, it provides a method to predict when roads are no longer safe for residents to run during the evacuation process in a future disaster situation. Supply and demand for evacuation points need to be evaluated to find out the overall capacity if at any time a natural disaster occurs again.

Importance of Investing in Disaster Prevention in Upstream Areas Revealed by the 2019's Huge Typhoon Disaster in Japan

ABSTRACT. The eastern Japan region was severely damaged by torrential rains caused by a huge typhoon that passed through the archipelago in October 2019. At that time, the evacuation order was issued by the government to 160 local governments covering 13 prefectures including urban and rural areas. In these areas, the damage was so severe that some residents were forced to evacuate for a long time. In Japan, civil engineering projects to protect the people from disasters are public works, and the damage directly affects the evaluation of the government by the residents. In the areas that were affected by the disaster, it is expected that there will be some impact on the residents' evaluation of the government and their attachment to the area. However, it is not theoretically obvious what changes can be confirmed from existing studies, and empirical analysis is necessary to understand the facts, so this study collects original data and analyzes them statistically. In recent years, the population of rural areas in Japan has been declining, and there have been discussions about reducing public investment in terms of financial efficiency. In this study, we use a large-scale social survey to determine whether such an imbalance in investment between urban and rural areas is justified. If this study shows that the degree to which residents in rural areas are less willing to make a commitment and less attached to their residential areas is higher than in urban areas, then the reduction in investment in disaster reduction may accelerate population decline. This is a major problem in terms of the future grand design of national land. The research data were collected through an online questionnaire using a web system in November 2019. The whole of Japan was the scope of data collection, and the sample size obtained was 11780. To focus our analysis on the impact of the 2019 typhoon on eastern Japan, we limited our analysis to data obtained from areas where official evacuation orders were issued. The statistical analysis is as follows. We identify regional differences by classifying urban and rural areas using Japan's indicators of population centers. Then, external municipalities that can be judged as similar to the municipalities in the official evacuation zone are selected from observable indicators and used as control areas for the analysis. Based on the above setup, we conducted a time-series analysis of trust in government, participation in community management, and place attachment. The results of the comparison between the evacuation-designated areas and other control areas showed that there were clear differences between urban and rural areas in several indicators that are important for regional management and national public investment strategies, although some factors were not significantly different.

13:10-14:30 Session 7F: Sustainable society and culture
Applying Cultural Life Circuit to Vitalise Urban Living Environment

ABSTRACT. The contemporary Asian countries have pursued the goal of becoming a stylish and organised region by undergoing mega-regional (re)development. However, the spatial reconfiguration has destroyed many existing communities, local culture and factors also caused the damage of local life and broke interior social connections. People’s recognitions of spaces, daily life and networks that had operated for several decades were interrupted by the sharp changing of physical living environment. The research applies long-term on-site participant observation and photography to integrate the perspectives of the government and professionals and locals to explore the empirical site, Chung District, Taichung City, Taiwan. Base on theories discussion and observe results analyses, it brings out the concept of Cultural Life Circuit (CLC). A culture life circuit forms a stable and diverse living environment. It supports interior factors easily to involve in the living environment and to be satisfied with daily life and social life needs by its self-sufficiency system and possibilities of flexible roles shifting. In addition, it represents that within the same living environment, all factors should be regards as an entirety, accordingly, it cannot process a regional (re)development by considering and designing by only one factor such as in the modern time that is usually be Space. Furthermore, it should consider their inter-influence and interactions that affect the culture features forming of the urban living environment. Within a CLC, all interior factors will shift and compose and recompose following times, also the existence of diverse factors (groups, space and behaviours) form a self-sufficiency system which supports individuals’ social and daily life needs and need of multiple roles performance The cultural life circuit is not a fixed status, instead, it is alterative and those flexible interior compositions soften the limitations of geography and social boundary and provide more opportunities of interior factors intersections and interactions. To develop an urban area by forming a culture life circuit can shape an area where contains safe and sustainable living environment and maintains local culture well. In conclude, the research aims to discuss a concept that can be applied to the future regional development meanwhile, to shape and maintain the active environment and its vivid and diverse local culture during practicing regional (re)development.

Research on the benefit of natural ventilation in the living space of residential institutions for the elderly

ABSTRACT. Taiwan is located in South-Eastern Asia.Since 2018, it has become an aging society, and it is estimated that it will enter a super-aged society in 2025 when more than 20% of the population is 65 years or older.Relative researches indicated that improving the living conditions of the elderly can improve their physical well-being and better mental health. It also improves the happiness of the elderly.Nowadays, most families are smaller in size. As a result, both husband and wife need to work to have two incomes to support higher living costs.The smaller families do not have the resources to take care of their elderly at home.This has dramatically increased the demand for residential institutions for the elderly.Hence the increasing needs to conduct studies and research on the comfort of living space of residential institutions. This has become an essential and critical issue for society.

In this study, CFD simulation was carried out by Airpak software on 2-persons and 5-persons room types of two different institutions. The effects of airflow and carbon dioxide accumulation based on the different room types, frequency of opening and closing of access doors and windows, different directions of the access doors and windows are studied meticulously.The results show that increasing the size and reducing the height of windows can effectively improve the rooms' airflow ventilation and the temperature to make it more comfortable for the elderly staying in the rooms.At the same time, with careful and integrated planning of the furniture and walls in the rooms to achieve natural ventilation without hindrance. Carbon dioxide are easily removed by natural ventilation

Multi-participation evaluation system on the renewal of urban villages: a study of residents and neighborhoods

ABSTRACT. Urban villages are common semi-formal areas that accommodate low-income migrants and alleviate housing pressure during rapid urbanization in China. However, The process of urban renewal promotes the reconstruction of urban villages, which is a game between the government, village collective (property owners), and developers under the land system. There is no evaluation system before the decision is made on whether or how the transformation should be implemented, and notably lacks the participation of the resident migrants, who are not property owners, but comprise a majority of the actual residents (accounting for 81.7% of the residents in our investigation). This paper analyzed the characteristics of the actual residents and the physical space where they live. The significant correlation between them indicates that the migrant residents, as an independent variable, affect the village environment. In addition, results of their evaluation of village life cluster analyzed hierarchically in SPSS using 36 aspects and 7 groups shows the desire to remain in the urban village, rather than enduring demolition and reconstruction. Our findings suggest that retaining rather than demolishing the urban villages may be a more sustainable approach to dealing with immigrant residents and also support the aims of modern urban planning. We hope that this study can be used as a reference to the evaluation system before the decision of urban village renewal.

Existing building administration for the requirements of the rapid changing society’s responsibility analysis

ABSTRACT. In the late 20 century, our lives were influenced by the improvement of communication technology, industrial transformation, and the financial risk of globalization, also climate change lead to the new pandemic era. People worldwide have different lifestyles than we used to have which also change the function of spaces from our differences. “Building “ being as a carrier of our daily lives and supply systems that should respond to our daily requirements. Through my study of case analysis in Taiwan, and also have information discussions with some experts. I’ve had discovered except with the hardware repair technician and the material problems, the code of Building Administration are mostly done for the new buildings. For the existing buildings, there are a lot more needs to be done. Moreover, the Building Administration in different countries have always keep up with the times, which made the code become more strict and solidified. However, reusing existing buildings are way harder than rebuilding the news’. Furthermore, letting the existing’s being abandoned or torn down to achieve another usage aren’t eco friendly and sustainable. The present code of Building Administration need to combine new materials and develop new technology with the intelligence governance, by giving more adjustable management for the requirements of the rapid changing society. Due to the numbers of reasons, this study may become a possibility of reaching a more suitable way of framing the code for the existing buildings in a more sustainable and eco-friendly way for different cities on Earth.

13:10-14:30 Session 7G: Sustainable society and culture
Participation in the adaptive reuse of private-led cultural heritages: two Dutch cases

ABSTRACT. There is increasing debate concerning citizen participation in the reuse and transformation of heritage sites—however, the question of why and how participation in private-led heritage adaptive reuse receives limited attention. The paper shows why the community plays an essential role in reusing heritage sites in the two Dutch cases. The paper is theoretically based on debates on social sustainability, community participation and adaptive reuse of heritage sites. The qualitative investigation consisted of interviews with different actors. The findings show that the adaptive reuse ambitions of the two Dutch heritage sites face difficulty in receiving the support of the local communities. The interview shows gaps in interest, expectations, and needs between the private heritage and local communities. The investigation shows that the participation of the local community is lacking, and the mutual understanding between the two is problematic. The paper suggests the multi-stakeholder processes can identify the key stakeholders and how to activate key stakeholders to collaborate with available means.

Impacts of Study Area Spatial Form on Co-Location Quotient Analysis: Evidence from Medical Resources in Wuhan City

ABSTRACT. Understanding the spatial patterns of medical resources and identifying their spatial dependence and heterogeneity is prerequisite for equally and optimaly allocating these competitive resources in the process of healthy city planning that aims to improve the quality of life of urban residents. As a recently popular analytical method of measuring symmetrical spatial dependence and heterogeneity using point data, geographically weighted co-location quotient (GWCLQ) analysis has been particularly successful in dealing with categorical variables. Using point of interests data, this paper presents a first study of analysing the spatial patterns of seven medcial resources across Wuhan city using GWCLQ method. Pariticularly, the unique morphorlogy of Wuhan city, which is divided by a wide Yangtze River into two parts, is used to address the impact of study area spatial form on GWCLQ analysis. The findings highlight another form of multiscale analysis in urban GIS aplications.

Main Aspects of the Legal System of Spatial Planning (Territorial Planning) and Development in Central-Eastern Europe on the example of Lithuania and Poland

ABSTRACT. Lithuania and Poland as neighbours have a history of over 1000 years. Few countries can boast of this. Today, as two separate, sovereign states, they form part of an integrated Europe. Both countries experience intensive urban development. There are separate legal systems of spatial planning and development in both countries. In both countries, the guiding principle of action by the public administration is the rule of law (legality). An efficient system of spatial planning and development guarantees the fulfilment of the needs of each unit and the needs of the general public resulting from public goals.

The aim of the research is to present the main legal aspects of planning and spatial development in Eastern and Central Europe. Guaranteeing the rule of law in planning and spatial development is the starting point for the Authors. The authors will present the main assumptions of the Lithuanian and Polish spatial planning and development system. Using the method of legal comparative analysis, the authors will indicate similar and different elements of both systems. In the research, the authors will analyze the legal basis of each of the systems, the administrative division of countries, national levels of planning authorities, competences and tasks of authorities responsible for planning and spatial development. The authors will present examples of planning documents / acts, indicate participants of spatial planning and their participation in the preparation of planning documents. The authors will emphasize the specificity of the Polish and Lithuanian planning systems as well as the directions of development of planning and spatial development of each country.

The sources of research will be the universally binding law, jurisprudence of administrative and common courts, literature on the subject.

Street mobility metrics for analysing walking patterns. [from 5G]

ABSTRACT. Data acquisition and analysis is a vital part of understanding human behaviour in urban area, where monitoring and better understanding of changes in pedestrian activity can be used in various fields of urban management and planning, such as improving pedestrian safety, adjusting transport networks and retails development, leading to better management of growing urbanization. However, in traditional approach, data collection of pedestrian movement can be time consuming, or require installation of dedicated static physical sensors, which can be limited by economic factors. The primary aim of this study is to measure and validate developed pedestrian mobility metrics for analysing street walking patterns. To allow more cost and time effective solution of collecting urban pedestrian data, innovative and already available DL models are used to detect pedestrians in video footage captured by UAV, and then the output data is integrated with GIS environment to conduct walking pattern analysis.

This study explores the potential of deep learning techniques to extract relevant pedestrian behaviour data from video footage using RetinaNet Object Detector based on Fast.ai library and compares it with another one-stage object detection model - YOLO v4, with additional techniques to detect supplementary metrics such as gender. Detected objects are then combined with output depth information generated using depth estimation model - monodepth2 and original video footage metadata to estimate geolocation of each detected object and automatically create pedestrian geodatabase that is fed into GIS environment. Developed pedestrian metrics are divided into 4 groups: quantity (including count and density), pedestrian characteristics (gender, age group, estimated health), location (pedestrian location in reference to street elements like carriageway, footpath), movement characteristics (including walking path, speed and lack of movement, changes in direction).

Pedestrian metrics like pedestrian count, gender and age group are collected during deep learning stage, and are included in GIS attribution. A spatio-temporal point pattern analysis of pedestrian is carried out using ArcGIS Pro. Pedestrian density, walking path and changes in direction and speed / pause / crossing carriageway is analysed and effects of other street movement participants, like vehicles are included. The analysis results are presented in a form of interactive dashboard.

14:40-16:00 Session 8A: Urban form and transportation
UrbanPS: A site selection framework for urban power station at micro-scale using genetic algorithm and geospatial big data

ABSTRACT. Site selection of electric power facilities is important for planning and managing electric power resources, which plays a key role in economic development and power grid construction. However, the current site selection of power facilities often fails to consider the spatial and temporal heterogeneity of urban electricity demand at the microscopic scale, and it is difficult to make spatial and temporal dynamic adjustments to power distribution, resulting in unreasonable energy distribution and waste, and even leading to power outages in local areas during peak periods of electricity consumption. Selecting the most suitable substation space and realizing the dynamic opening of the substation according to the change of electricity demand is essential to meet the electricity demand of production and life. In this study, we propose a multi-scene micro-scale urban substation siting optimization framework (UrbanPS) based on a genetic algorithm based on this problem. First, we use the random forest method to construct a fine-scale power consumption fitting model under different scenarios based on multi-source spatial data and power big data. Second, based on the area growth algorithm, the neighborhood power diffusion is carried out to divide the power supply range of the substation with the substation as the center. Thirdly, the idea of coverage model is introduced to establish an urban substation siting optimization model based on LSCP, and the optimal solution of this problem is solved using a genetic algorithm. To verify the validity of UrbanPS, a 110 kV terminal substation in Pingxiang City, Jiangxi Province, is used as an example for site selection optimization. The results show that the power consumption estimation model exhibits high accuracy (RMSE=0.010, Pearson R=0.694). The coverage and utilization rate of the optimization results under four different power consumption scenarios are close to 99%, which improves the spatial distribution of substations by 5%-30% relative to the existing ones. In addition, we found that there is a strong seasonal effect of the electricity load in each functional area of the city, and the number of substations required in different scenarios is different, which can save cost by "turning on and off" substations. This study helps to optimize the coverage of the urban distribution network and realize the economic dispatch and reasonable resource allocation of the power system.


ABSTRACT. As a window of urban culture, newsstands are faced with many survival tests and renewal problems in the data age. At present, the related research of newsstands focuses on development experience, art design, current problems and so on, and lacks consideration of its own vitality characteristics and impact index system, and mainly focuses on qualitative research. This study focuses on the daily life of citizens instead of the symbolic physical environment.On the micro level, the total transaction times of 45 existing newsstands and the transaction times of their derivative functions are obtained through field research. Based on this, the vitality of newsstands is quantitatively evaluated. Furtherly,the paper analyzes the explanatory power of five parameters, including population density, function mixed degree, topological form, geometric form and street walkability, on the vitality of the existing newsstands. At the macro level, based on Baidu streetscape time machine, this study obtains the spatiotemporal differentiation data of 277 newsstands within 160 square kilometers in the west of Beijing (2013-2021), and compares and analyzes whether there are differences in these five parameters between the disappearance and the existing newsstands in the eight year time span, so as to reveal the underlying reasons for the survival of newsstands. It is found that the street walkability and population density are the main factors affecting the vitality of newsstands, whether for the existing newsstands or for the newsstands in the eight year time span; In terms of each function, there are differences in the correlation between the number of transactions of newspapers and periodicals and the number of transactions of life retail functions and the walkability and function mixed degree. On this basis, the paper puts forward the strategies of function renewal and space location renewal, in order to provide reference for the demolition, construction and urban renewal of newsstands in the future.

Spatial layout characteristics and planning enlightenment of urban physical business under O2O e-commerce model: A case study of catering space in downtown Shenzhen

ABSTRACT. Two different local online transaction modes, home-based O2O and shop-based O2O are exerting different influences on the commercial space. Based on the open data of the Internet, this paper makes a comparative analysis of the layout characteristics of home-based O2O stores and shop-based O2O stores in the downtown area of Shenzhen. It analyzes the internal causes of the differences in spatial layout from the perspective of consumers and merchants. The empirical results show that, on the urban scale, home-based stores show a pattern of diffusion to surrounding areas based on commercial center aggregation, and there is a trend of re-aggregation in these areas, while shop-based stores continue the spatial pattern of physical stores agglomeration. On the micro-scale, home-based stores tend to penetrate the interior of the plot, and their storefront quality is lower than that of shop-based stores. Within the Internet life, consumers' different demands led to the other from the traditional sense of the store type, its space form difference, make business more flexible in the shop location selection, formed a business entity to plot the trend of internal diffusion. The choice of adaptability of the market, make again gathered at the shops in the area of distribution may have. Finally, it proposes that the planning of commercial networks should pay attention to the redevelopment of the edge area of the commercial center and change the classification and layout of traditional public service facilities, and points out the development trend of non-market public service facilities.

Research on Spatial Characteristics of Urban Agglomeration Association Networks Based on Railway Travel

ABSTRACT. Transportation infrastructure such as high-speed railways and inter-city railways can enhance urban accessibility, and achieve temporal and spatial shrinkage of urban agglomerations. The railway network drives the movement of people and elements, promotes optimal allocation of resources and division of labour, and enhances the overall development capabilities of urban agglomerations. Railway travel is characterized by time heterogeneity, and different time constraints reflect the differences in the associated spaces of urban agglomerations. Existing studies mostly focus on the overall population flow between cities, or the correlation analysis based on the number of railway trains, and do not take into account the actual travel volume and time difference of railway traffic. This paper uses Tencent’s big data platform on population migration to extract residential railway travel data from October 1st to October 31st in 2018. It constructs a data matrix of inflow and outflow between cities, and systematically portrays the network pattern of urban agglomerations on weekdays, weekends, and holidays. The results show that: 1) The cities closely related to railway travel are mainly concentrated in the east of the Hu Line. The overall city-related network shows a diamond-shaped travel distribution. And urban agglomeration has become the core of the urban connection pair. Among them, the agglomeration effects of the Yangtze River Delta, Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei, Pearl River Delta, Chengdu-Chongqing, and other urban agglomerations are more noticeable. 2) From working days to holidays, the network level of small and medium-sized cities is gradually improved. The entire network hierarchy tends to be flattened and balanced. And the urban agglomeration simultaneously embodies the dual attributes of "space of flow" and "space of place". 3) From working days to holidays, the number of community structure gradually decreases, forming an urban agglomeration, high-speed rail community structure, and cross-regional urban agglomeration combined organization structure in sequence. 4) GDP and distance have important influencing factors on the population flow of railway travel. GDP has a positive effect, and distance forms an attenuation effect. The article explores the spatial characteristics of the urban agglomeration network from the perspective of the population flow of railway travel. Aiming at the shortcomings of existing planning, it proposes planning methods and suggestions such as balanced sharing, efficient linking, and dynamic optimization to provide theoretical guidance for the spatial layout planning of urban agglomerations.

14:40-16:00 Session 8B: Urban form and public services
Evaluation of Rural Public Space Service Functions in Highly Urbanized Areas: A Case Study of Rural Suburban Areas of Beijing

ABSTRACT. Rural public space is not only an outdoor open space to meet the daily life of rural residents such as communication and activities, but also a spatial place to carry residents' production activities, undertake ecological and environmental regulation, and inherit local history and cultural memory. In recent years, in the context of China's national strategies to promote rural revitalization and beautiful countryside, the implementation of rural construction actions has gradually become an important initiative to promote the integrated development of urban and rural areas. However, the service function of rural public space also reveal a series of problems, such as the inability to meet residents' daily life demands, the lack of historical and cultural memories, the unreasonable layout of production functions, and the inability to undertake basic ecosystem service functions. At present, China has conducted studies on rural public space around mega-cities such as Shanghai and Wuhan, but the studies are mostly on planning strategies and rural governance. There are relatively few quantitative studies, and the studies on rural public space in suburban areas of Beijing have not yet produced results. Therefore, this paper aims to analyze rural public space in suburban areas of Beijing from a perspective of public space service function evaluation, and selected public spaces in a total of 139 countrysides in 10 suburban areas of Beijing as research objects. Firstly, the specific scope of rural public space in 139 countrysides was determined by combining satellite images with field research. Secondly, by analyzing the main service functions of public space in 139 countrysides, 16 indicators were selected from 4 aspects of living, production, ecology and culture. The factors' weights were determined by using PCA(principal component analysis), and the results of public space distribution of 4 types of service functions were obtained by overlaying with ArcGIS platform. Finally, the coupling coordination index was introduced to analyze the level of mutual influence and constraint between the four types of functions of living, production, ecology and culture in different rural public spaces. The public space service functions of 139 countrysides in suburban areas of Beijing were classified into six types, which are: living-production coupled and coordinated, living-ecology coupled and coordinated, living-culture coupled and coordinated, production-ecology coupled and coordinated, production-culture coupled and coordinated, and ecology-culture coupled and coordinated. By analyzing the results of coupling coordination degree, it can be found that the six types of rural public spaces are closely related to the distribution of natural and human resources and infrastructure such as transportation in 139 countrysides. The rural public spaces with life and production coupling and coordination as the leading function are mainly located in Daxing District. The rural public spaces with life and ecology coupling and coordination as the leading function are mainly located in Fangshan District and Mentougou District. The rural public spaces with life and culture coupling and coordination as the leading function are mainly located in Tongzhou District. Rural public spaces with production-ecology coupling and coordination as the leading function are mainly located in Yanqing, Huairou and Pinggu districts. Rural public spaces with production-culture coupling and coordination as the leading function are mainly located in Shunyi District. Rural public spaces with ecology-culture coupling and coordination as the dominant function are mainly located in Changping District and Miyun District.It also combines the resource advantages and characteristics of different countrysides to strengthen the leading function, and proposes corresponding planning layout patterns for the development of six types of rural public spaces in 139 countrysides. For example, Daxing District, which has a life - production coupling and coordination as its leading function, encourages the development of agricultural landscapes, and introduces local special fruit trees, vegetables and other crops as design elements into public spaces to build rural public spaces with an idyllic theme. As a composite spatial carrier that undertakes multiple functions of living, production, ecology and culture, studying the development relationship among multiple service functions of rural public space in highly urbanized areas not only provides new ideas and important references for optimizing the planning layout of rural public space, but also has important significance for promoting the implementation of rural revitalization and beautiful countryside strategy and integrated urban-rural development.

Analysis of Environmental Factors Influencing the Choice of Running Paths Based on Big Data Visualization: Case Study of Washington D.C.

ABSTRACT. Under the background of sustainable development and low-carbon fitness, more and more people like doing daily outdoor physical activity in order to obtain health benefits. Urban outdoor running has become one of convenient, safe, low-carbon global fitness methods. This research aims to find out the environmental factors influencing the choice of running path. This research is based on the open source heat maps of running path data, in combination with Google Earth environmental data, public rating data on network and semantic data, to discuss various environmental factors influencing on the public choice of running path, by comparing and analyzing the similarities and differences of environmental image, spatial distribution density of photo point , public rating of landscape nodes on different heat running path in Washington D.C. ( coordinates of rectangle range:-77.068575, 38.916285 | -76.984996, 38.878826).The research results shows that independent pedestrian space, path continuity, safety facilities, landscape resources and the quality of landscape nodes can influence the public choice of running path. There are the following environmental conditions: the path with sidewalk, with continuous boundary that uninterrupted by cross roads and signal lights, with safer facilities in dangerous areas, with high-quality landscape nodes and abundant landscape resources, which are more likely chosen by the public for outdoor running. Creating environments supportive for running, could be an effective strategy to increase physical fitness at the population level. The research results can provides the basis for the design of urban street fitness environment.

Measurement and spatial pattern analysis of equalization level of basic public services-- Take Fujian Province as an example

ABSTRACT. China is now in a new stage of development after completing the building of a moderately prosperous society in an all-round way. Equalization of basic public services, as a key link in this stage, needs to be continuously implemented, refined and scaled down.By constructing an evaluation index system for the equalization of basic public services, this study used Theil index method to measure the level of equalization of basic public services at multiple spatial scales (provincial, between and within two collaborative development zones) in Fujian Province from 2015 to 2017, and analyzed the regional spatial pattern.The results show that: (1) The overall level of regional equalization of basic public services is gradually improving, and the level of cultural services and infrastructure between regions is slightly lower, which accounts for a higher proportion of the total regional differences. The level of regional equalization of basic public services in Southwest Fujian has less fluctuation than that in Northeast Fujian.(2) The level of equalization of basic public services in Fujian Province can be divided into four categories: Xiamen is the high level region, Longyan, Fuzhou and Sanming are the high level region, Quanzhou and Nanping are the general level region, and Zhangzhou, Putian, Ningde and Pingtan are the low level region.(3) The equalization level of basic public service in southwest Fujian is higher than that in northeast Fujian. Xiamen and Fuzhou are the core cities in southwestern Fujian and northeastern Fujian respectively. Xiamen plays its radiating and driving role to promote the equalized and coordinated development of basic public services in southwestern Fujian.Fuzhou has a strong siphon capacity, but it fails to exert a good spillover effect, which leads to the obvious polarization of the equalization level of basic public services in Northeast Fujian.

Design and Research on scenic visualization of Smart Library

ABSTRACT. The existing research on Smart Library mostly stays at the level of theory and equipment, and lacks specific design examples. The author will integrate "users", "intelligent devices" and "intelligent technology" from the specific scene needs of the smart library, focus on "scene visualization", use 3D modeling and unity development platform, explore and verify the positive significance of visual design method to improve user experience and show product interaction, and summarize the scene visualization method. By mediating objects, scripts, event and other practical operations in the unity scene, the environmental adjustment and equipment management visualization of the smart library are completed. Therefore, the author preliminarily summarizes the methods of visual design, including four modules: strategy, hardware, architecture and performance.

14:40-16:00 Session 8C: Sustainable society and culture
Analysis and Research on the Process of Industrial Development and Transformation of Historical Villages——Taking Cuiwei Village in Zhuhai City as an Example

ABSTRACT. With the rapid development of science and technology, since the reform and opening up, the speed of urbanization has been accelerating. Zhuhai City has steadily promoted the transformation of old factories, old towns and old villages, thereby promoting the process of urban renewal and realizing the city’s economy. Taking off has promoted the transformation and upgrading of the industry and improved the people's living standards. Urban villages are important carriers for cultural heritage and settlement spaces with strong regional characteristics. They can well integrate and fully express the production, life and cultural customs of local residents. I analyze and study the problems encountered in the process of industrial development and transformation of historical villages, and finally give corresponding policy recommendations for the future development of the villages.

Study on the defensive characteristics of traditional civilian fortress settlements in central Henan --Taking Shenhou ancient town in the Ming and Qing Dynasties as an example

ABSTRACT. As the birthplace of the Central Plains culture, the central area of Henan has formed numerous civilian fortresses with defensive functions based on a unique historical and war background. As one of them, the ancient town of Shenhou, due to its unique Jun porcelain trade culture, makes the defence function closely integrated with daily production and life, and its defence is more meaningful for research. The current drive towards urban modernisation has led to the decline and destruction of traditional rural fortified settlements. The article is a detailed analysis of the defensive features of the ancient town of Shenhou from an architectural and sociological point of view, through field research, combined with relevant historical documents, and concludes that its defensive system consists of a combination of physical and spiritual defences, providing a basis for the study of the conservation of traditional fortified settlements in central Henan.

Discussion on the protection and development of the native Hakka culture under the urban planning of Macau -- Take Ka Ho Village as Research Object

ABSTRACT. Since the successful application for the heritage of the Historic District of Macau in 2005 has been included in the UNESCO's "World Cultural Heritage List"Macau has been committed to expanding the protection of folk cultural heritage and intangible cultural heritage. Since the 16th century, Macao has been an important port for cultural exchanges between China and the West, and its cultural value has been also recognized all over the world. However, with the rapid development of Macao's economy in the past decade, a series of contradictions between the protection of cultural heritage and urban expansion have arisen. Among them,Lai Chi Vun Village (Povoação de Lai Chi Vun) and Ka Ho Village(Pacoação Ká Hó) in Coloane area have been impacted by urban development. Before Macao’s return to the motherland, the villagers’ culture in Macao was dominated by Hakka culture. Under the background of cultural coexistence and cultural conflict caused by the influx of immigrants and colonialists after the impact of colonization and modern turbulence on Macao, how to protect the original local cultural context in the process of urban planning? Therefore, this paper will take the development and protection of Hakka culture in Macao as an research object, and take the overall design theory as a theoretical tool to analyze the current situation of Ka Ho Village's cultural heritage. At the same time, based on the case of Ka Ho Village, this paper will discuss the possibility of using cultural heritage in the way of "village protection" during the period of urban expansion. Finally, this paper will analyze how to further build and develop local cultural heritage from the perspective of the government, tourists and local residents.

Discussion on Urban Epidemic Prevention and Control in Chang 'an City in Tang Dynasty

ABSTRACT. Chinese cities have a history of at least five thousand years, and the city of Chang'an in the Tang Dynasty is a milestone. The planning and design of Chang'an City represented the most advanced level in the world at that time and laid the foundation for the design of China's capital city. With the global outbreak of the new crown virus COVID-19, it is even more necessary to enter the "post-epidemic era" for urban epidemic prevention and governance measures. In the history of the Tang Dynasty, there were 49 plague outbreaks, but they still created prosperous situations such as the "Excellent Governance during the Zhenguan Times" and " Flourishment Age of Kaiyuan Era". This article analyzes and explores the urban epidemic prevention and governance system of Tang Chang’an City from six aspects, including the site selection,water supply and drainage system, medical isolation facilities, Li-Fang walled ward management system, landscaping, and mainstream medical ideological guidance, and summarizes previous experience. Provide reference for follow-up modern urban epidemic prevention and management.

14:40-16:00 Session 8D: Smart Environment Services and energy saving
Research of urban ventilation and NO2 pollutant distribution of different building configuration in Taiwan
PRESENTER: Chienying Tsai

ABSTRACT. Results show that street orientation, building height, building density, Etc., are factors that affect urban wind fields. Adjust building configuration can improve the urban microclimate. This paper aims to study the effect of three common building configurations of Taiwan, including the square-type, windmill-type, and H-shaped type buildings, via computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations. Use the square building array model by changing building width, height, and street width as experimental conditions (Jian Hang et al.,2010) to determine the wind field ventilation and pollutant accumulation (NO2) around different building configurations. Results show that under the condition of the same building height, comparing the mean wind speed at the measuring points, the order will be windmill-type (0.72m/s)> square-type (0.64m/s)> windmill-type (0.63m/s), and the order of pollutant is square-type (7.05ppm)>windmill-type (6.78ppm)>H-shaped type (6.24ppm). The H-shaped type's mean wind speed is the lowest, with fewer pollutants on the lee side. Reduce the street width with the same building height case can effectively increase 63% wind speed to the former case. The mean wind speed of measuring points order is square-type (1.17m/s)>windmill-type (1.15m/s)>H-shaped type (0.95m/s). The pollutant distribution slightly decreased 12%, the order of pollutant is square-type (6.43ppm)>H-shaped type (6.01ppm)> windmill-type (5.51ppm). Square-type and windmill-type's mean wind speeds are higher than the H-shaped type. The wind speed had a small difference between buildings arranged in different heights case and same building heights case, but the pollutant distribution of square-type and windmill-type models are down to 16%. The mean wind speed of measuring points orders square-type= windmill-type (0.75m/s)>H-shaped type (0.69m/s). The order of pollutant is H-shaped type (6.57PPM)> square-type (5.86PPM)> windmill-type (5.7PPM). Due to the different building height around windmill-type, the building's right side and the left side had higher wind speed and lower pollutant distribution than others. Among the three cases, the square-type has the highest mean wind speed, but the building's right side and the left side have lower wind speed, so the pollutant is easier to distribute on the lee side. The H-shaped type has the lowest mean wind speed and is easier to distribute pollutants than others. At last, the windmill-type have a good mean wind speed and lower pollutant accumulations.

Guideline on Smart Device Selection for Smart Environment Services in Smart and Healthy Building

ABSTRACT. On the one hand, with the development of ICT (Information and Communication Technologies), especially IoT, Big Data and cloud computing, there is a growing concern on smart building. On the other hand, aging population is becoming a structural problem for most of the developed countries such as Japan, even for developing nations like China. Home health care has become a new focus. In the Post-COVID-19 era, the demand on living healthy is expected to upsurge. Under this context, Smart and Healthy Building are gaining more and more attention. However, as a new-born concept, there is no standard, criterion or design guideline about design and construction of Smart and Healthy Building. As a basic part of Smart and Healthy Building, smart environment services embody the concept of smart and healthy to some extent. Four smart services in smart environment services are designed according to four aspects of building environment: smart thermal environment service, smart light environment service, smart light environment service and smart acoustic service. To realize the smart environment services, smart devices are expected to selected. Relative researches discussed smart products, but no paper talked about how to select smart devices in smart environment services. This paper talked about the classification of sensors and actuators and some subdivisions, and try to contribute as a guidance on how to select smart devices in smart environment services base on decisive variables, needed reaction, capacities of actuators. A case study of Smart and Healthy Building Laboratory (SHBL) was introduced in this paper to explain the details of the guideline. Complying with the guideline, one kind of human detecting sensor, one kind of environment sensor and six actuators are selected as smart devices in smart environment services in SHBL. Guideline for other smart devices’ selection are expected to be researched.

[Unregistered, removed from 8D 15:00]Beijing Air Pollution Issues and Citizens' Environmental Awareness -- From the Viewpoint of Environmental Governance

ABSTRACT. With the introduction of the reform and opening policy in 1978, China began to achieve rapid economic development. And with accession to the World Trade Organization (WTO) in 2001, China has strengthened its economic and trade relations with the international community. It has also deepened its interdependence in terms of environment and resources, such as importing renewable resources and large quantities of mineral resources. As a result, in 2010, China surpassed the U.S. in primary energy consumption to become the world's largest energy consumer. At the same time, however, energy consumption has quadrupled from 1990 to 2015, and the country has become the world's largest emitter of nitrous oxide. On the other hand, the air pollution situation has been worsening in recent years, and various reports indicate that the city is covered with smog to the extent that visibility is poor even in central Beijing, and the airport and highways have been closed one after another. In two days in mid-January 2013, the PM2.5 concentration in Beijing exceeded 900㎍/m³ and approached 1000㎍/m³. This is equivalent to 40 times the WHO standard. In addition, the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei zone has the most severe air pollution in the whole country. There are two factors behind this problem. Firstly, the 2008 Beijing Olympics was held. The relocation of more than 200 heavily polluting companies in Beijing, including metallurgical, chemical, electric power, and cement companies, moving into Hebei Province for the 2008 Beijing Olympics. At that time, Hebei was still lagging in terms of economic development, and to raise the income of its residents, it had no choice but to relocate even the most polluting companies. Another factor is that the population growth rate in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei zone has been about the same as the national population growth rate for the past 19 years. This population explosion required more energy demand. Furthermore, this study conducted a questionnaire survey in Beijing, obtaining 468 samples from a social survey implemented in September 2019, to understand the characteristics of environmental awareness. The results of the data analysis of the questionnaires from these respondents showed that the presence or absence of private car ownership was closely related to the environmental awareness of the respondents. Respondents who owned a private car were more concerned about air pollution in Beijing than those who did not. However, even though they are aware of the seriousness of environmental problems and the need for environmental protection activities. There is a clear gap between environmental awareness and action, as people are aware of the seriousness of environmental problems and the need for environmental protection activities, but do not actively devote time and effort to them. This phenomenon can be attributed to the following reasons. The current environmental management system in China is characterized by "tension at the top and laxity at the bottom”. Since the central government has been trying to improve the effectiveness of environmental policy implementation by strengthening audits and the administrative authority of the higher-level environmental protection department. In addition, the National People's Congress (NPC) is limited in its ability to fully reflect the will of the people. In fact, the development of environmental NGOs has been limited in many ways. In a country with a centralized political structure such as China, citizens tend to be at the lowest level, remaining passive bystanders and consumers of environmental activism.

Effects of rising urban temperatures on the residents – A case study of Kolkata Metropolitan Region

ABSTRACT. Urban climate changes and the warming of the cities are some serious issues that cannot be overlooked. One of the most common inferences for these changes is unprecedented and unplanned urbanization, which further causes a rise in local, regional, and even global temperatures. Although the city's socio-economic value and GDP per capita are defined and highly altered by the rate of urbanization, if the phenomenon goes out of hands and urban growth is hap-hazardous, it can cause severe damage to the environment. There has been a steep rise in urban population over the past three decades globally, and the highest growth rates have been observed in Asian and African cities. These two continents have been predicted to contribute to almost 90% of the total urban growth from the present to 2050. India is one of the few highly susceptible countries to the harsh effects of climate change in terms of rise in temperatures, as more than half of its population depends on agrarian economy, coastal areas, and the Himalayan region. Urbanization in India has been mapped post-1990s’ which has led to alterations in the landscape wherein the non-permeable regions have come up on the cost of vegetation and open areas. This has led to a severe rise in the surface and ambient air temperatures that affect the health of the planet and affect humans as well. Elevated temperature drastically affects the health of urban dwellers leading to a rise in stress and discomfort levels. Estimation of Land Surface Temperature (LST) can play a vital role in understanding the region-specific alterations in temperatures as it uses satellite data that captures the entire region and provides the information in the form of pixels. Traditionally, the temperature was measured at meteorological stations and extrapolated for the complete region that inaccuracies. This ambiguity can be amended by developing a relationship between LST and ambient air temperature. This communication focuses on LST estimation using Temperature Emissivity Separation (TES) algorithm corresponding to various Landuse (LU) categories. The study also tries to attempt and create a relationship between the LST and the ambient air temperature observed at various meteorological stations. An overall assessment of a number of days under stress for the residents was also performed over several years. Kolkata Metropolitan Area (KMA) was considered as a study area to represent the results and understand the complete analysis. A rise of 2.12°C was observed in LST over five years due to an increment of 17.42% in the urban area. Analysis of the number of days under stress showed an increasing trend for the study area due to alteration in urban temperatures. These results and the suggestions from the scientific community, urban planners, and climate experts will help develop or modify the current policy frameworks for creating a balance between development and the environment, thus creating sustainable urban development.

14:40-16:00 Session 8E: Land Use Policy and environment
A Spatial Institutional Response to Industrial Land Use Policy towards Sustainable Development: A Case Study of Taiwan

ABSTRACT. In the post-WWII era, some East Asia economies, including Japan, Taiwan, South Korea and Singapore, utilized a specific economic strategy to achieve a rapid industrialization and prosperity. That is developmental state strategy to describe the governments who usually prioritize economic development, facilitate rapid industrialization with positive interventions, subsidize strategic industries, provide preferential loans for enterprises and promote the development of emerging industries. However, the implementation of developmental state strategy requires particular social environment since it only takes economic development as first priority and neglects other dimensions such as environmental protection and social justice. In this sense, the sustainability has to be discussed and reconsidered the adaptations with modern society and value.

Accordingly, author takes Taiwan as an example to discuss what difficulties an economy encounters when it transforms the industrial land use policy in responding to sustainability from the perspective of spatial institution. Thus, this article would firstly study developmental state theory, especially academic’s opinions on democratized economy. Second, Taiwan’s unique industrial land use policy would be introduced and to figure out why it was uncooperative with spatial planning system. Finally, author would survey the relationships among industrial land development through the three dimensions of sustainability to answer the research question, what obstruct industrial land development in democratization.

In conclusion, the industrial land development was obstructed since economic plans were not able to dominance land use plans. In the view of sustainability, economic should grow rationally rather than sacrifice society to protect environment. If do so, that would become another type of unsustainability. In order to dissolve the chaos and turn the situation into a more sustainable direction, it might need an institutional adjustment to improve the cooperation between economic plans and land use plans.

Correlation analysis between land-use and river pollution based on distance and concentration approaches for protecting algal reef ecosystem in Taoyuan’s coast

ABSTRACT. Algal reef ecosystem usually provides key ecosystem services for specific sites because algal reef ecosystem not only contains rich biodiversity but also plays key roles to provide structure foundation of habitat for marine and coastal species. However, Taoyuan’s algal reef ecosystem is suffering from impacts of multiple stressors, e.g., development of coastal industrial zones, fishing port construction, wind power facilities, and reclamation works. Moreover, land-use and human activities, e.g., industrial and agricultural use, in the watershed will also affect the algal reef ecosystem and their distribution in the coastal area through polluting river. Therefore, this research focuses on the relation between land-use and water pollution by multiple regression to explore potential impact from land-use to water quality and discusses on algal reef ecosystem protection in the coastal area. This research indicates that specific water quality indices (concentration) of monitoring spots near to industrial, residential, and agricultural land-use exist significant correlation with specific land-use area. The further the distance is, the slighter the water pollution is from the concentration perspective. However, most emission of waste water continues to accumulate on coastal area because of terrain and ocean current condition in Taoyuan coast. Although, Watershed Special District Plan is proposed based on National Planning Act, however, the plan concentrate on flooding issue and pay less attention to water quality control. To provide appropriate protection for coastal area and its vulnerable algal reef ecosystem, planning department should cooperate with environmental department to propose heterogeneous water quality standards with considering different terrain and ocean current condition in coastal area instead of unanimous standard for most of rivers and streams.

The Impact of Land Ownership in Japan, The Netherlands and The United Kingdom on The Permits Management

ABSTRACT. The permits system is one of the methods commonly used to manage land use in various countries. Nevertheless, the permits system of each country is also different. Some countries adopt the method of development permits, while others adopt the method of planning permits. Many current studies have focused on the operating mechanism of the permit system in one country, but there is no more exploration of the background causes of different permit systems, and almost no research has explored the differences in permit systems from the perspective of land ownership. From the perspective of land ownership, this article analyses the relationship between the concept of absolute land ownership and the legal system. Different concepts of absolute land ownership have different zoning methods, and zoning is the foundation of permit management. Therefore, land ownership has an impact on permits management.

Research and International Comparison on the Depth Regulations of Underground Space Planning and Utilization

ABSTRACT. The rapid development of urbanization has made planning and construction more inclined to the development and utilization of underground space. Therefore, the development and utilization of underground space has become a very important means to increase land resources, maintain ecological balance, and continue to promote urbanization. Although the underground space in some countries has been developed and utilized in various ways, such as underground transportation facilities such as underground railways, underground highways, and underground passages; underground commercial facilities such as underground streets and underground shopping centers; power supply, water supply, heating, gas, telecommunications and other urban underground infrastructure and other facilities. However, the planning and utilization depth of underground space does not have a relatively systematic, complete, and targeted regulation. Therefore, this article will study the requirements for the planning and development and utilization of underground space and the basis for its development and utilization. Simultaneously compare the similarities and differences between the four countries of Japan, Singapore, the United Kingdom and the United States. This article mainly adopts the comparative analysis method, including the horizontal comparison method and the vertical comparison method, and then sorts out and analyzes the many messy materials obtained from the investigation and rational theoretical analysis. First of all, it is necessary to clarify the ownership of the space that can be used for planning and utilization in the underground space of different countries. Secondly, it must be explained in detail whether there are special regulations for the depth of development and utilization of underground space in different countries. If there are specific detailed regulations, the basis of the regulations shall be described in detail, and the research work of tracing the source shall be carried out; if there are no specific detailed regulations, it shall be necessary to describe in detail how the country’s existing underground space is planned and utilized At the same time, explain the reasons for doing so, and study the basis for the planning and utilization of underground space. Then, compare the common points and differences of the depth regulations for planning and utilization of underground space in various countries. In the end, the final conclusion can be obtained through the method described above, based on the data studied, and the method of comparative analysis. And it also totally needs to be summarized and have extended thinking. This paper focuses on a comparison of four countries - Japan, Singapore, the United Kingdom and the United States, in terms of whether there are regulations on the depth of planned use of underground space. Among them, Singapore has specific tiered regulations for the depth of underground space planning and utilization. Underground spaces of different depths are planned and used with different functions. The underground space planning and utilization are carried out in layers. Through layered development, Functional zoning realizes the optimal allocation of limited, non-renewable underground space resources. Due to the different ownership of land ownership, underground space in the United Kingdom separates space rights from land ownership during planning, utilization and determines hierarchical ownership by dividing land ownership. However, Japan does not have a general plan specifically for the underground. The sequence of development and utilization of underground space is from shallow underground space to deep underground space, and the newly constructed underground facilities should be set up deeper underground than existing facilities. The depth of underground space development is increasing year by year. The land ownership in the United States is different from European countries. The land holder also owns the land in the underground space, and there is no specific regulation on the depth of underground space planning and utilization.

14:40-16:00 Session 8F: Urban form and Resilient Governance
Possibility of land use control by Disaster Hazard Area

ABSTRACT. In recent years, damages caused by torrential rains and consequent river flooding have become more frequent in many parts of Japan, due to global warming. On the other hand, as the population of Japan decreases, development pressure is also decreasing, and therefore urban planning that takes disaster risk into consideration is considered to be an effective countermeasure against floods. One regulation that restricts building activities in areas with high flood risk is the Disaster Hazard Areas by Article 39 of the Building Standards Law. Using this regulation, it is possible to reduce damage by restricting residence in areas with high disaster risk. In addition, according to the Location Normalization plan based on the Act on Special Measures concerning Urban Reconstruction, the Disaster Hazard areas are not included in the Residence attraction area ,so land use control can be expected through this regulation.

 The purpose of this study is to reveal the actual operation of the current regulation, including its purpose, target buildings and scope, and requirements for designation for the Disaster Hazard Areas that have been established for the expected occurrence of floods, which are frequent disasters, and to examine the possibility of a land use restriction system that takes flood risks into consideration.

 This study targets 36 out of 38 municipalities (excluding two prefectures) that have been designated as the Disaster Hazard Areas for the following three reasons in the 2019 edition of the "Manual for Seismic Retrofitting of Residential Buildings": "Flooding," "Storm Surge and Flooding," and "River Flooding. Furthermore, Nagoya City and Miyazaki City, whose Disaster Hazard areas are within the urbanized area, were surveyed on the relationship with the Location Normalization plan. Regarding the designation status, we conducted a literature survey and interviews with local governments. We also interviewed the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism about the relationship between river projects and the Disaster Hazard Areas.  The study revealed that 33 out of 36 municipalities designated Disaster Hazard Areas as a requirement for the adoption of projects. In addition, Nagoya City and Miyazaki City are the only municipalities that have designated Disaster Hazard areas in urbanized areas, and land use control by linking the Disaster Hazard Areas and the Location Normalization plans is not expected in other municipalities at present. A survey of the designation status of Nagoya City and Miyazaki City showed that ,in addition to the Disaster Hazard Areas and the Location Normalization plans, the use of zoning districts was used to maintain the functions of the urban area and to ensure the safety of the area. Specifically, in Nagoya City, areas with high disaster risk in the lower reaches of the river were designated as industrial areas, such as Exclusive Industrial Areas, Waterfront Areas, and Distribution business areas, effectively restricting residence. In Miyazaki City, due to a large proportion of the urbanized area being at high risk of flooding, the Disaster Hazard Areas directly regulates building activities only in the middle and upper reaches of the river. As for the coastal areas, the depth of inundation was set at 2 meters, which is the same depth as that of the Great East Japan Earthquake, and areas above that level were excluded from the Residence attraction area. Moreover, as in the case of Nagoya City, the area was excluded from the Residence attraction area by designating it as a Waterfront Area or the Exclusive Industrial Area. These results suggest that disaster risk can be reduced by taking measures based on the characteristics of risk and by utilizing the zoning system.

Analysis of the Process of Deciding on the Place of Residence of Households Affected by the Great East Japan Earthquake -A Case Study of District A, Area U in Kamaishi City, Iwate Prefecture-

ABSTRACT. The government implemented many reconstruction projects to improve housing for residents whose houses were damaged by the Great East Japan Earthquake. Due to the reconstruction projects, the residents needed to choose new places to live. How did attributes such as age and place of residence affect the decision of where to live? As a member of the research team, we conducted interview surveys about their thoughts and plans regarding reconstruction with residents in District A in Area U of Kamaishi City, Iwate Prefecture, continuously from 2012. We analyzed the text data of the survey results using a text mining software called KH coder. We used data from August 2012, immediately after the disaster, and September 2017, for 41 households. In December 2011, Kamaishi City formulated the Basic Plan for Reconstruction. Therefore, as a result of extracting words from the 2012 survey, many residents expressed their feelings of "relief" and "anxiety" regarding their expectations and concerns about the city's future. There were also comments about the state of infrastructure, such as "seawalls," and worries about finances such as "money. In November 2012, Kamaishi City decided to implement a land readjustment project, which covered 2/3 of the households in District A. In 2017 many words regarding reconstruction projects were extracted, such as feelings of "delay," "hope," and "impossibility." As a result of analyzing the tendency of statements by age using the co-occurrence network, "people" co-occurred most strongly with residents in their 40s, 60s, and 70s, while residents in their 60s and 70s co-occurred with"everyone," indicating that many of them were concerned about the movements of others when deciding the place to live. About generational trends, residents in their 30s and 40s often talked about their family, such as "children," while residents in their 50s and 60s co-occurred with "elderly" in 2012 and "young" in 2017, indicating that both upper and lower generations were discussed. Regarding the tendency of statements by residence, the words "return" and "going home" co-occurred with households living in the inland Kamaishi in 2012, but in 2017 they no longer co-occurred with these words. In 2012 "reconstruction housing" co-occurred with inland Kamaishi, but in 2017 both "temporary housing" and "reconstruction housing" co-occurred with both inland Kamaishi and Area U. Also, in 2012, "house" and "build" co-occurred with inland Kamaishi and Area U, but in 2017, "house" co-occurred with inland Kamaishi, Area U, and District A, and "build" co-occurred with area U and district A. In 2017, "build" co-occurred with Area U and District A. "Land" co-occurred with inland and outside Kamaishi in 2012 but co-occurred with Area U and outside Kamaishi 2017. It became clear that some residents had returned near their original place. On the other hand, as of 2012, households living in inland Kamaishi were considering returning to Area U or District A to rebuild. By 2017, residents living inland Kamaishi had decided to settle inland were no longer considering rebuilding. Even if they live outside of Kamaishi City, they are still concerned about the land they left behind in District A. We revealed the following three points. (1) Residents have hopes and fears about the information they receive and the situation around them from time to time during the reconstruction process. (2) Residents were always concerned about what others are doing when they rebuild or decide where to live. The middle age group is susceptible to this. (3) Residents who moved inland to Kamaishi after the disaster are no longer considering returning. On the other hand, residents who have lived outside of Kamaishi are concerned about the land they left behind in District A.

Analysis of changes in the residence rate after lifting of evacuation order due to the Fukushima No.1 Nuclear Power Plant accident -Five municipalities in the Hamadori region of Fukushima Prefecture-

ABSTRACT. Municipalities designated as ordered evacuation zones due to the accident of Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant are working to create an environment for the return of people to their homes, including public disaster housing and public facilities. Still, as of April 2021, approximately 28,000 people have evacuated from Fukushima Prefecture. Previous studies on the evacuation of residents from nuclear disaster-stricken areas have clarified the actual support for evacuees and the return process of residents. In addition, it has been reported that the number of repatriation residents and the rate vary depending on the municipality, but the number of target municipalities is limited. In this study, we clarify the changes in the number and rate of residence overtime after lifting the evacuation order and examining the factors behind these changes in the areas . We study Namie Town, Okuma Town, Tomioka Town, Naraha Town, and Odaka Ward in Minamisoma City. We study as basic research for analyzing the process and content of the reconstruction plan, which indicates the reconstruction policy of the local government. Central Government designated the entire administrative area in five municipalities as an ordered evacuation. Still, the evacuation orders were lifted by April 2019, except for the areas where it is difficult to return. At first, we compared the rate of decrease in the basic resident register population in March 2011, before the nuclear power plant accident, and in April 2021, 10 years after the nuclear power plant accident, and the ratio of the population living in the town as of April 2021 (the number of residents) divided by the basic resident register population (the residence rate). Next, we investigated the changes in the residence rate over time since lifting the evacuation order. From this, the following three points became clear. First, the basic resident register population of Okuma and Naraha in April 2021 decreased to about -12% compared to 2011, and had the smallest rate of decrease. the basic resident register population of Odaka in April 2021 decreased to about -45% compared to 2011, with the largest rate of decrease. The residence rate was less than 10% in Namie and Okuma. And the evacuation order lasted for more than six years after the nuclear accident, while it was 60.4% and 54.2% in Naraha and Odaka, where Central Government lifted evacuation order relatively quickly. In Odaka, for example, the residence rate tends to be high. In contrast, the rate of decrease in the basic resident register population before and after the nuclear accident is significant, and the two are not correlated. Second, the residence rate in Naraha and Odaka was different when the residence rate increased the most after the lifting of the evacuation order. The residence rate in Odaka rised in 1 year after lifting the evacuation order and the residence ratein Naraha rised in 2 to 2 and a half years after the lifting. In the evacuation-directed areas, central gvernment established a period when people can stay overnight to prepare for their return. This period was more extended than in Naraha, about 10 months until the evacuation order lifting in Odaka, compared to 5 months in Naraha. We thought it may have made it easier to choose a place to stay and prepare for the return. Third, in Naraha and Odaka, when the residence rate increased coincided with the end of the provision of temporary housing, suggesting that it was one of the timing factors for choosing a place to live. On the other hand, in Namie and Tomioka, there was no significant increase in the residence rate when the provision of temporary housing ended.

Changes in the Unified Exterior Form Facing on the Street and the Influencing Factors in Suburban Detached Residential Area - A Case Study of Mihara-Satsuki-no-danchi, Sakai City, Osaka Prefecture, Japan-

ABSTRACT. 1. Background and purpose In Japan, some of the suburban detached residential areas were planned with a uniformed exterior design at the time of development. However, with time passing, it is not easy to maintain the uniformed exterior form. It is because that residents needs for the house may change over time. Especialy with the living household-replacement due to sales, inheritance,etc., the needs and the sense of value for the house may change dramatically. In addition, the rebuilding house may be a major opportunity to change the exterior form. The purpose of this paper is to clarify the actual condition of the change of the exterior form in the suburban detached residential area which had the unified exterior design at the developing time, and to explore the influencing factors with a focus on the household-replacement and rebuilding. This study will provide basic knowledge to maintain the uniform exterior form or to consider how it should be changed in response to the housing needs of residents. 2.Methodrogy The research target of this paper is the entire area of the Satsukino residential area located in Mihara-ku, Sakai City, Osaka, Japan having about 1900 plots. The reason for the selection of this area is the two distinctive exterior designs make it easy to keep track of changes in the exterior design. The two distinctive designs are a planting strip with a 65cm depth facing the street and a hedge. They were installed in all houses at the time of development. As factors affecting the change in exterior form, we focus on (1) house vacancy, (2) number of parking spaces, (3) household-replacement, (4) rebuilding, (5) duration after development by a block, and (6) membership in communal building agreements by a lot. Data collection methods are: changes in exterior form and (1), (2), and (4) were conducted through field visual surveys; (3) was conducted through residential maps of two-time point (1997 and 2017); and (5), (6) was conducted through literature surveys.

3.Summary of Results a) In about 80% of the lots, the forms of both planting strip and hedge are preserved. The hedge is more likely to disappear than the planting strips. In addition, there are a certain number of plots with no planting or with surfaces other than soil, even though the form of the planting strip is preserved. b) It was confirmed that vacant houses may promote the disappearance of greenery, especially hedges and plantings. c) The addition of flat parking lots may promote the disappearance of exterior forms. However, about 76% of the lots with two flat parking spaces maintain the exterior form. d) Both rebuilding and household-replacement have the potential to promote the disappearance of the exterior form, and the influence of rebuilding is greater than that of household-replacement. One of the reasons for this is assumed that the increase in the number of parking lots accompanying the rebuilding and household-replacement. e) The relation of the duration after development and the preservation state of the planting strips and hedges are not confirmed. One of the reasons for this is the low relationship between the duration after development and the occurrence of rebuilding and household-replacement. f) The relation of the membership in communal building agreements by a lot and the preservation state of exterior form was not confirmed. It indicates that the effect of the building agreement gets lose.

16:10-18:00 Session 9A: Sustainable society and Environment impact
Determinants of House Prices in Small Cities in Northwest China

ABSTRACT. In recent years, China's urbanization has brought about a new problem of population loss in small and medium-sized cities. The property prices in small and medium-sized cities often reflect the local residents' feeling of their surrounding urban spatial environment in a more intuitive way, becoming one of the criteria for urban development, while the explosive development of new technologies such as big data provides a new latitude for re-evaluating the suitability of cities and buildings for development. Taking Qingyang City in Gansu Province as an example, this paper attempts to reveal the objective pattern of the intrinsic correlation between residential property prices and some urban spatial environmental influencing factors in small and medium-sized cities in Northwest China through a multiple linear regression model method, and concludes that for small and medium-sized cities in Northwest China, basic education resources and urban public green space are the two spatial environmental influencing factors that affect residential property prices more significantly. Based on this, we propose a few suggestions and considerations for urban managers in small and medium-sized cities in Northwest China: firstly, we should tackle population loss by focusing on basic education; secondly, we should focus on the uneven distribution of education resources in the layout of public services; thirdly, we should pursue accessibility and small but precise public spaces; fourthly, small and medium-sized cities should build on their own endowments and continuously improve their Fourthly, small and medium-sized cities should build on their own endowments, continuously improve their own public services and strive to create a comfortable urban living environment in order to meet the challenges of new-type urbanization.

The Study On Evaluation Index System Of Village Merger In Zhangjiakou

ABSTRACT. In order to optimize the rural space layout, improve the rural living environment, accurate implementation of village merging integration tasks. This research starts from the County space, through quantitative analyses the Field survey data in Zhangjiakou area, catches the importance of people's in the urban and rural development. Combined with the Zhangjiakou regional development policies and related standards, using mathematical statistics method like AHP, Factor analysis, Fuzzy evaluation method etc , extract the evaluation index and calculate the weight value,from the internal basic elements of villages development and the regional development elements outside the villages,which reflect to the potential of the village. In the end, established an efficient evaluation index system of village merger in Zhangjiakou area, used for quantitative evaluate the village's potential conditions in Zhangjiakou area, guiding the development of village integration and construction projects. It also can improve the efficiency and accuracy,when formulating the town-village system planning,land-use planning, and urban-rural development strategies.

The Impact of The Spread of Pollutants in Different Urban Densities

ABSTRACT. The development of High-density and High-rise buildings has led to problems such as Urban Heat Island Effect, sunshine, and inadequate ventilation. The outbreak of covid19 in 2020 has brought a huge crisis to the world, highlighting the high concentration of urban poor ventilation and air pollution will affect the health of residents. Factors affecting wind environment and air pollution include volume ratio, building height, Site Coverage, and urban patterns. The research on different density cities still lacks micro-climate influence. The research on the effects of different density cities on microclimates and simulated them with CFD Fluent v18. Explore Site Coverage(64%, 36%, 25%), building arrangement (building height is equal, building height front-row high and rear low, building height center high around low), and Floor area ratio (225%, 337.5%, 450%) Effect on urban walking height wind, temperature, and pollutant concentration. The results show that the lower the Site Coverage, the better the ventilation effect and the lower the heat accumulation and pollutants. Building height front-row high rear low can increase air circulation, building height center high around low can improve the original leeward urban wind field weak wind situation, It can also effectively reduce the temperature and pollutant concentration in the street valley, the average wind speed of the building ranks high and low in the front row (2.44m/s) > the building height is the same (1.17m/s) > the central high around the low (0.93m/s). Under the same condition of building shelter rate (36%), the optimal performance of wind speed in the 450% scheme showed that under the same condition, the higher the height of the building, the higher the average wind speed, the less likely it is to produce heat accumulation, the average concentration of pollutants is also lower, and the average wind speed Floor area ratio is 450% (1.48m/s) > Floor area ratio 337.5% (0.81m/s) > Floor area ratio 225% (0.8m/s). Overall, lower Site Coverage and higher building height, as well as misplaced building arrangements, have better effects on airflow, lower the temperature, and the ability to remove pollutants.

Analysis on the status quo and construction problems of domestic urban civil air defense engineering system

ABSTRACT. As the urbanization process in developing countries continues to accelerate, although my country has achieved significant results in planning and construction, there are still many problems. For example, the rate of urban green space decreases with the continuous increase of urban buildings. Therefore, the domestic urban underground civil air defense Engineering construction is in a very important position at this stage, and our development goals must be shifted from above ground to underground. This article analyzes the general situation of domestic civil air defense engineering system, expounds the current situation and existing problems of my country's urban civil air defense engineering system, which has an important influence on the development of my country's cities. Functional departments must take into account the various functions of civil air defense projects and put people's safety first. At the same time, firefighters should also improve their professionalism, leadership and organizational skills, and be able to evacuate people in time when encountering danger and arrange them to take refuge in designated locations. The technicians in the relevant departments in the city need to use scientific and technological means to mix the urban network system in series and parallel, so that the various structures of the urban network system are unified and interact with each other. When a disaster strikes, it can protect the safety of the people and reduce the economic loss of the city. Reduce to the lowest level to maximize benefits.

16:10-18:00 Session 9B: Urban form and green space
Assessing the environmental benefits of urban ventilation corridors: A case study in Hefei, China

ABSTRACT. Precise and timely assessments of the environmental benefits of urban ventilation corridors are important for understanding urban sustainability. Previous studies have mainly focused on the construction of urban ventilation corridors, while less attention has been given to the subsequent environmental benefits that are generated. Taking the main urban area of Hefei as an example, this study first proposed a corridor construction model that was based on the ventilation potential coefficient (VPC) and quantified and compared the environmental indicators for different corridor levels to understand the environmental benefits that were created. Datasets that combined architecture morphology and wind frequency were utilized to construct four-season urban ventilation corridors at a macro level. Three environmental indicators were adopted in the VPC assessment model: i) reduction of air pollutant concentrations (PM2.5), ii) reduction of land surface temperatures (LST), and iii) utilization efficiency of vegetation space (NDVI). The results indicated that (1) the VPC that was based on the architecture morphology dataset had a significant correlation with urban environmental benefits, including the PM2.5, LST and NDVI levels. (2) Compared with traditional ventilation corridors that are built on urban arterial roads, those constructed by considering the VPC can provide greater environmental benefits. (3) The intersection nodes had higher ventilation benefits than other areas of the ventilation corridors and showed significant spatial aggregation characteristics in alleviating the PM2.5 concentrations and surface temperatures. The method proposed in this study provides important theoretical support for the improved construction of future urban ventilation corridors.

Disparity in visiting preference for urban parks from a gender perspective with machine learning approach in Guangzhou, China

ABSTRACT. Many suggested that the planning of public space, including urban parks, has long been shaped into gender inequality. Although it has been recognised that the visiting behavior of urban parks are variant, few studies have been investigated from a gender perspective. We leveraged machine learning methods to investigate how the existing settings of urban parks affect the visiting patterns of different genders. A range of urban parks in Guangzhou was selected as test sites. A series of factors have been tested for the correlation gender based visiting patterns, these factors included surrounding POIs, the visiting frequency and the characteristics of parks. The experimental results confirmed that men are more active than women both in the daytime and at nighttime in general, in addition, they are more willing to visit urban parks on the periphery of city center. Furthermore, public transportation accessibility is the main factor which influences gender park-visiting. It has demonstrated that the machine learning algorithm combined with GIS-based technique is a low time-costing and relative efficiency method for explore active urban parks from gender experience, which could provide design strategy of urban parks for urban planners and policy-makers.

A Systematic Literature Review and Research Frontier Analysis of Health Research in urban green space

ABSTRACT. With increasing urban problems and the outbreak of COVID-19, public health has attracted much attention.As an important part of the construction environment, urban green space has attracted high attention in the field of health research.With Web of Science core collection database 3948 English literature as the research object, using CiteSpace visual software, combined with literature content, China and foreign research combing and analysis, clarify the field of urban green health.Results showed that: (1) the research object of foreign scholars from a single green space to group green space, scope gradually expanded to city, country and the world.The research focuses on broadening the relationship between people and green space to the exploration of comprehensive benefits.Research methods from early research and evaluation, simulation experiments to qualitative and quantitative cross analysis, forming a more perfect subjective and objective research paradigm; (2) Chinese scholars began to focus on the overall spatial ecological relationship of urban green space, from plane visual perception to healthy texture, from subjective assumption to applied space analysis; (3) foreign research and empirical field research; theoretical research, and domestic scholars on practical application and foreign theory, breadth and depth to be improved. Overall, results provide new ideas for the construction of urban green space system.

16:10-18:00 Session 9C: Spatial planning and practice
Discuss the ecological city planning in urban planning and design

ABSTRACT. With the acceleration of urbanization in China, the requirements of nationals have become higher and higher, but the urban planning and design is not only to meet people's living conditions, but also in line with urban ecology, making people and natural harmonious development. In fact, the performance of eco-urban planning in urban planning and design in my country is increasingly prominent, and this paper analyzes from the perspective of ecological urban structural perspectives to explore how to achieve urban structure and function in the planning of ecological cities.

Wearable Intelligence - a virtual fitness trainer for improving quality of life in communities

ABSTRACT. Sustainable communities are communities planned, built and developed for improving sustainable living. Sustainable development aims at balancing economic growth, environment and social impact, so as to build a better quality of life for all residents. One principle of sustainable communities is active living which is a way of life involving physical activity in daily life. Physical activity improves health and quality of life, every resident in the sustainable communities should have convenient and affordable choices for physical activity with long-term supported services. Those services should be designed to provide a variety of functions to match resident’s preferences and abilities. The current technology such as wearable devices has the potential to help and support residents' daily physical activity.

The rising popularity of fitness wearables has produced a plethora of metrics relating to users' exercising and biometrics. The health benefits of using such devices to fitness have been proven in many studies. Despite this, common wearable devices on the market focused only on passive data collection and lack of intelligent analytics towards user data, preventing the long-term adoption of such wearables for many users.

This study presents Synochi, a coaching system that integrates a common wearable device with sports science theory. The objective of the system is to provide adaptive training, feedback, and personalisation to address the lack of long-term motivation found in mass-market wearables. It aims to achieves this by modelling an adaptive training model, which firmly grounded in sports science using modern techniques such as fuzzy logic and regression. A user perception study was conducted in two parts, assessing the perceived motivational affordance of the system and the user experience of the progressive web application. Both showed positive responses from the participants, providing promise for further development and evaluation. The results provide a promising solution for addressing the known issue of modern wearable devices and ultimately increasing their efficacy in improving users’ physical activity and health. In the future, a clinical trial against control groups with real personal trainers would provide more quantitative insight into the efficacy of the system.

Given the prototypical nature of the training model, future work into extending and improving the model would be valuable. An obvious avenue of exploration would be consulting with running training experts and iteratively improving the model based on their feedback. In comparison to the manual knowledge engineering processes, more data-driven approaches such as data mining of exercise data and clinical trials can be used to produce further insights and recommendations.

This study can be extended to other domains such as exercise based clinical rehabilitation and elderly rest home-based care etc. It is expected this virtual fitness trainer can help people to achieve long-term physical activity goals as well as enhance health-related quality of life in communities.

16:10-18:00 Session 9D: Urban form and public space
Changes in Space Usage Behaviors after the Implementation of Seoul’s Bus Rapid Transit Project in Jongno Street: A Social Data Analysis

ABSTRACT. This study analyzed blog data to examine visitors’ behavioral changes following the introduction of a bus rapid transit (BRT) system in Seoul to vitalize public transportation. Using blog texts, we assessed the appearance frequency of numerous keywords, including “Jongno Street” (the target location), “public transportation,” and “bus-only lane,” to identify and categorize frequently visited places and examine the changes in user behaviors before and after project implementation. Based on this analysis, we categorized the major places into nine types (public spaces, cultural and religious places, open spaces, major places, historic sites, streets, and structures) in accordance with Jongno's attributes. We found that the scope of visitors’ activities increased within a 1-km radius of the station and most people visited open spaces, streets, and major spaces and engaged in various activities before reaching their final destination. The visitors who used public transportation often walked to their destinations within a 1-km radius. This showed that the BRT system implemented on Jongno Street contributed to the creation of a vigorous, walkable urban environment.

The possibility of transit-oriented reorganizing Overview: A case study of low density occurrence around railway station spheres in Japanese conurbation

ABSTRACT. In the last decade, there has been much discussion about the shift to compact cities. Most governments and municipalities in developed countries are making efforts to realize this policy. Transit-oriented development (TOD) has been introduced in many countries in conjunction with the promotion of compact cities. However, low density occurs with heterogeneous and random spatial patterns and impedes the creation of people-friendly, sustainable cities, which makes it challenging to attract the investments necessary to create a compact city’s core. This phenomenon is more serious during depopulation periods. Therefore, this paper clarifies the occurrence pattern of low density districts around railway stations and their related spatial characteristics to better understand the how to reorganize transit-oriented urban structures in a society with declining population. By using spatial correlation analysis to observe the Keihanishin conurbation, which is the second largest urban area in Japan, we confirmed that some railway stations are experiencing low density growth in their surrounding areas. The locations of these railway stations are independent of their location in either the city center or the suburbs. We also found that there are three primary routes for low density’s progression. These results will be helpful in future urban planning, including site optimization, and can help attract facilities and mutual support between regions.

Take “smart entrance” as an breakthrough point to discuss the feasibility of designing smart building with Unity.

ABSTRACT. In the past research on smart building control systems, researchers often focused on system design and the rationalization of system architecture and the automatic learning of user behaviours by the system. At present, in the system design link, users still lack participation and related research. Therefore, the way the system designer obtains user feedback is relatively indirect, and the cost of adjusting the design is relatively high. This research aims to explore the low-cost realization of intelligent building auditory and visual interactive function simulation, so as to increase the possibility of users' intuitive participation in the modification plan in the design stage, so as to reduce the system modification cost and better meet the needs of users. Relying on the Unity3D platform and taking the smart building entrance as an example, this research completes the digital simulation of the smart entrance scene through 3D modelling, designing virtual scenes, writing programs, and recording scene animations to achieve functional visualization and interactivity. Up to now, the smart entrance scene simulation built by this research institute can provide system designers with intuitively controllable scene environment variables such as sound source size and light brightness, allowing users to experience the automatic lighting of entrance lights and door leaves through roaming simulations. Face recognition unlocks the opening and closing, automatic music playback at the entrance, the call duration of scene detection appliances, and the function of the user to independently select warm and cold colours in the scene. The above functions basically describe the scene of the smart entrance, which has the possibility of being an auxiliary tool for system designers and users to experience and modify the program during the program discussion stage. This shows that through the design and construction of virtual scenes, it is hopeful that in the discussion stage of the smart building system design, the auditory and visual functions of the system can be intuitively displayed to the system users, and user feedback can be obtained to make the system more comfortable and reasonable. Reduce the possibility of system reconstruction and expansion costs.

16:10-18:00 Session 9E: Sustainable society and landscape
Research on the overlook landscape of Matsudo City based on the citizens' landscape preference

ABSTRACT. Matsudo City, as a peripheral city of Tokyo, has historical and cultural heritage, urban park construction, and bustling commercial districts. However, as a typical ordinary city whether in economic development or in tourism development, it does not have a characteristic landscape that can be praised or remembered specially. In such an ordinary city, its landscape development plan is mainly a kind of internal benefit and construction, whose target population is almost exclusively citizens living in the city.

Matsudo City has entered a new year of landscape planning since 2020, and its government and urban planning department have worked hard to draw up a new landscape plan that is more suitable for the development of Matsudo City. The direction of the landscape of Matsudo City in the future is more like a microcosm of the structure of the ordinary urban landscape in Japan.

Based on a 10-year recruiting activity held by the government of Matsudo City, the research conducts a type summary and distribution analysis on the landscape preferences of Matsudo citizens.

Since 2009, the government of Matsudo City has been organizing an activity, ‘My Favorite Matsudo Scenic Spots’, for Matsudo residents. As of 2018, the campaign has received a total of 1265 contributions in the form of photography or painting, with 1703 effective contributors and more than 300 landscape spots nominated.

Through analysis, the Park and Square has the most contributors and received the most submissions, with 190 submissions and 318 related submissions, which is the most popular landscape type in Matsudo City. The Waterfront Landscape and the Shrines and Temples are the second most popular ones. However, it is worth noting that although the landscape types of Parks and Squares, Waterfront Landscapes, and Shrines and Temples have a large number of contributors and submissions, contributors are mainly concentrated in some particular parks, rivers, or shrines in the city.

While Overlooking Landscape does not have so many contributors and submitted works, the number of nominations for overlooking scenic spots ranks the first among all types of landscapes, with about 43 overlooking spots.

The objects of overlooking are not only limited to the representative buildings and mountains in Matsudo City such as Matsudo-jo Hill and The Tower of Wakagaya Water Purification Center, but also Mount Fuji, Tokyo Sky Tree, and Mount Tsukuba in Ibaraki prefecture, Mount Nantaisan in Tochigi prefecture, etc., which are kilometers away from Matsudo City.

Among them, there are a total of 15 spots whose overlooking objects are outside the city, 24 scenic spots whose overlooking objects are outside the city, and some other sunset views. It can be seen that the overlooking objects outside the city accounts for a large proportion.

Different from the distribution of ordinary scenic spots, the overlooking spots are mostly concentrated in Yakiri Region where there are flatlands with wider viewing, and in Matsudo Region where there are tall buildings with higher viewing. These areas are adjacent to the Edogawa River and Tokyo, and have favorable conditions as overlooking spots. The eastern part of Matsudo City is also conducive to overlooking for the higher topography.

Furthermore, based on our research, we hope not only contribute to the future landscape planning and construction of Matsudo City, but also provide a direction and more flexible ideas for the landscape development of the same ‘internal benefit’ and ‘ordinary landscape’ cities as Matsudo City.

Keyword Analysis of Forest Therapy in China Using Mapping and Bibliometrics

ABSTRACT. China has a long history of Qigong, Tai Chi, and Chinese medicine that emphasize physical and mental health. Forest therapy has shown that people's attention to self-health has recently increased under the effects of economic construction. After 2010, and the birth of the big data era, this study directly shows the points of forest therapy and the trend of forest therapy in China through the visual analysis of data. From 2010 to 2020, the China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) was used to search for forest therapy’s keywords, using document management software such as Endnote and Zotero for transformation. Vos viewer was used to conducting visual analysis. The result was 533 articles in CNKI about Forest Therapy, 457 journals, nine conferences, and 40 dissertations. After using the Vos viewer visual analysis, it was found that the network in China was connected with the surrounding keywords in three large circles: "forest recuperation," "forest rehabilitation," and "forest therapy." Foreign literature is centered on "forest therapy" and related to the associated vocabulary. Besides the keywords around the three largest circles and in Chinese literature, others are "rehabilitation landscape," "forestry development," "National Forest Park," "planning and design," "Yunmeng Mountain," "Badaling," "Beijing," and so on. The key words connecting the largest circle and its surroundings in foreign literature are "healing forest," "stress," "forest bathing," "horticultural therapy," "occupational therapy," "forest," "profile of mood state," "burnout," "Korean medicine," and "autonomic nervous activity." In general, Chinese literature except for the academic interpretation of "forest therapy," also focuses on the direction of regional development and construction, which can be seen from the emergence of many place names. Foreign language journals concentrate on "forest therapy" more academically, focusing on the form, effect, and profile of the state of individual forest recuperation. This shows that Chinese journals are more likely to be completed as a national project for forest therapy and contribute to local construction. It is of great significance to explain that "forest therapy" plays a very important role in regional characteristics. Foreign journals in CNKI pay more attention to the positive effects of various forms of forest therapy on different people's health.

Differences in perceived naturalness and preferred spaces among urban park visitor groups in Seoul, Korea

ABSTRACT. Though the activities in urban facilities have declined during the COVID-19 crisis, the demand for visiting open space and parks has increased. Visitors to city parks also increased in Seoul last year. People realize that nature is an important space for safety, health, and leisure in their everyday life. This study implies that people intend to visit city parks for natural space in the urban area. As assessment criteria for the environmental quality of city parks, naturalness was selected as one of the indicators. Perceived naturalness by park visitors was also considered as one of the important elements in cultural ecosystem services. This study chose six parks as a study subject in Seoul and found various differences for visitors in the perception of naturalness in city parks. Q-statements were collected through in-depth interviews with park visitors of the study sites. Factors of perceived naturalness in city parks were extracted based on the statements mentioned by park visitors. Q methodology is a useful tool to identify different individual perceptions of nature. The perceived characteristics of the natural spaces by city park visitors were summarized in 17 statements. In addition, Q-sorting was conducted by participants in this survey, sorting statement cards in the form of a pyramid ranging from more natural to less natural. Through the Q analysis, park visitors in Seoul were categorized into six major groups based on the differences in the perception and the valuation of naturalness. The study found that differences have resulted from their past experiences, personal preferences, and psychological status. The first group is identified as a dynamic type who enjoys various landscapes, and the second is identified as a group of people who love to meditate in serene woodlands. The third group enjoys watching animals and consider the ecosystem as important, and the fourth group enjoys feeling the changing seasons through different senses. The fifth group recognizes nature through the contrast between buildings and the natural environment in the city. The last group enjoys conversing old trees or the existing nature environment itself. In general, appraisal of perceived naturalness is subjective and individual. However, this study clarified that perceived naturalness could be categorized into several groups having different valuation criteria or tastes. The perception of naturalness influences landscape preferences on and attitudes to city parks. City parks are precise but spatially limited green open spaces in urban areas. Therefore, the perception of naturalness by visitors should be a crucial consideration to maximize park services so that visitors can appreciate various tastes.

Waterfront Developments and Public Space; Abu Dhabi’s mangroves as a Case Study

ABSTRACT. Abu Dhabi’s coastlines are currently being gentrified to allow for more connectivity to waterfronts. This is especially visible at the Eastern Mangroves on the main island of Abu Dhabi that is being connected via a new bridge to Al-Jubail and Umm Lafina Islands. This is part of a broader plan to create connections from newly urbanized islands to the mainland archipelago of Abu Dhabi. Public spaces and open landscapes, including waterfront natural environments such as Mangrove habitations have not yet been fully explored as venues for creating a health city especially in Abu Dhabi. They open spaces newly emerging in the Gulf have been found to stimulate local economies, contributing significantly to urban and economic revitalization of cities especially in the post Covid-19 pandemic era. Creating natural environments are important however, the challenge in Gulf cities for planners and architects is to juxtapose working with nature while creating icon projects that adhere to architectures from the broader spectrum of vocabularies. During past decades, there has been a growing awareness of the importance of mangroves as forms of greening the city and in protecting the coastline, mangroves prevent erosion and provide habitat for a wide variety of species. Projects such as the Eastern Mangroves, Al-Qurm and Al-Samalyia manifest alternative expressions of architecture that interacts with environmental design and cultural epicentres. Such projects further support sustainability through expanding planting mangrove trees in marshlands and lagoons and bring awareness to their importance. The most challenging aspect in Gulf state cities is creating green open spaces and parks due to the scarcity of water and extreme heat. Natural environments are important for metropolitan areas especially in Gulf cities in order to support ecosystems, public health, social interactions, aesthetic needs, and to mitigate urban heat-island effects. Mangrove landscapes and parks encourage confidence in pre-existing cities with their aging urban fabrics highlighting their ability to focus on better connections between city residents and nature. Mangroves grow at the intersection of land and sea, at the mouth and surrounding areas of tidal lagoons, estuaries, and rivers, and they are partially emerged under the high-water tide, and are found in varying length and width along the western coastline of the Arabian Gulf. Mangrove waterfronts and Parks emerging in Abu Dhabi such as Al Qurm and Jubail Mangrove Park offer the oil rich State an opportunity to create green coastlines waterfront developments healthy, appealing residential environments. This research studies waterfront landscapes and public space in Abu Dhabi that are especially important in the post COVID19 era, such as the urban-landscapes emerging along Al-Maqta Canal and those associated with Mangrove habitations; Eastern Mangroves, Al Qurm and Al-Jubail Island.

16:10-18:00 Session 9F: Spatial planning and practice
Living Structure for Transforming Modern Cities to Be Living or More Living

ABSTRACT. Living structure is defined as a mathematical structure that consists of many substructures with an inherent hierarchy. Across all levels of the hierarchy, there are “far more small substructures than large ones”; we have formulated the notion – or the recurring notion – of far more smalls than larges as scaling law (Jiang 2015). On each level of the hierarchy, there are “more or less similar sized substructures”; the notion of more or less similar is often referred to as Tobler’s law or the first law of geography (Tobler 1970). For example, trees (either alive or dead) and traditional building façades are living structures, as they meet these two laws. In the year 2019, students from architecture schools in Britain published an open letter to the architecture community (Architecture Education Declares 2019), arguing that modern cities or communities are ethically, socially, and ecologically dysfunctional, and subsequently calling for radical reforms of course curriculum. The letter has since attracted over 2400 signatures from students of many countries including UK, USA, and many other European countries. This presentation, to a large extent, a response to the open call and will demonstrate that living structure, initially conceived by Christopher Alexander (2002–2005), can be adopted as the scientific foundation of sustainable urban design and planning, or urban science in general. Living structure theory can be used to transform modern cities to become living or more living, or equivalently to become functional or more functional. References: Alexander C. (2002–2005), The Nature of Order: An essay on the art of building and the nature of the universe, Center for Environmental Structure: Berkeley, CA. Architecture Education Declares (2019), Open Letter to the Architectural Community, https://www.architectureeducationdeclares.com/, 5 June 2019. Jiang B. (2015), Geospatial analysis requires a different way of thinking: The problem of spatial heterogeneity, GeoJournal, 80(1), 1–13. Tobler W. (1970), A computer movie simulating urban growth in the Detroit region, Economic geography, 46(2), 234–240.

A Performance-Based Approach for Using Spatial Indicators in Sustainable Spatial Planning and Placemaking

ABSTRACT. Spatial metrics can play a valuable role in guiding placemaking to achieve sustainable urban forms. Some of them have been applied in performance-based planning for such urban components as transportation and facilities. Many more spatial metrics, especially those used in planning research and applied in sustainable development indicator systems, possess usefulness to placemaking as they pertaining to a place’s social and environmental performance. Integrating reliable and effective spatial metrics or indicators into the placemaking process is to make sure that the resultant physical form is sensitive to local needs and the evaluation of their effectiveness can inform new initiatives. There is great potential. Systematic analysis is needed to help us understand what spatial metrics and indicators are available and how to make good use of them.

This paper explores and expands the roles played by spatial metrics and indicators in all phases of spatial planning – plan making, implementation, and evaluation. Two research questions guide this study: 1. What sustainability goals and objectives are connected to the various performance outcomes that many spatial metrics and indicators can measure? 2. How should these metrics and indictor be used as performance measures to support decision-making in planning and design at different spatial scales? Our research methodology involves two reviews - a literature review of spatial sustainable metrics studied in scientific research and a review of spatial indicators adopted in major sustainable urban development indicator systems. The comparison between the review outputs helps reveal a gap between research and practices and offers ideas of the functions the spatial metrics can perform. We then place spatial planning and placemaking in the DRSIR framework (Driving force – Pressure – State – Impacts – Response), which allows us to examine spatial indicators as instruments to operationalize the causal chains in the interactions between human society and the environment. This examination helps us explore how spatial metrics can serve as measures for performance goals and outcomes at different phases of spatial planning and placemaking.

Retrofitting Existing Urban space Implementing neighborhoods parks and Walkability in Abu Dhabi City

ABSTRACT. Sometime in 1969, His Highness Sheikh Zayed, the late founding father of United Arab Emirates has giving rise to Abu Dhabi city master plan to start seeing main streets in 1974. H. H. wanted a modern city to perform the functions of a capital of the anticipated federation. As it will be a full-fledged city, it has been planned for a population growth of 250,000 in 20 years; today the population of Abu Dhabi is 3,360000 with a yearly growth of 4.4%. The initial concepts were based on sustainable neighborhood units, which have changed today. In this paper and based on the main principles of neighborhood sustainability, and our conviction that city parks increase health, social connection, aid the environment and have positive impacts on the local economy, we are proposing an Architectural and Environmental study targeting the improvement of the few existing neighborhoods parks and the implementation of new model of park within the existing context of Abu Dhabi city center. The research is thought as a retrofitting operation of dense urban space taking in consideration the variety of population presenting 75 per cent of expats, the parking problems with the exceptional growth in the number of cars and the improvement of walk-ability. The paper is structured on three main themes, first a survey of the existing Abu Dhabi city center urban space including its existing parks. The second point highlights the standards of successful neighborhoods parks to provide complementary action to improve the existing parks. The third point is a proposal of a suitable architectural model to implement neighborhoods parks in the existing context of Abu Dhabi City center; this model will provide adaptability in the different urban context.

KEYWORDS: Urban Design, Space Optimization, Neighborhoods Parks, Sustainable Design.

Modelling and analysing 3D urban colourscapes to support environmental design [from 6A]

ABSTRACT. Introduction Similar to soundscape, lightscape and smellscape, colourscape, as an important environmental system to express the colour theme in landscape context, not only plays an important role in environmental recognition but also influences the emotional well-being of urban residents. Therefore, a quantitative method considering human spatial visual perception for measuring urban colourscapes has a great significance for supporting healthier urban planning and design, for it not only enables us to evaluate urban colourscape more objectively and quantitatively but also provides a new paradigm for studying urban colourscape in 3D spatial context. However, there are relatively few historical studies in the conception of urban colourscape, especially concerning its 3D measurement. On one hand, due to the subjective perception of urban colourscape and the complexity of built and physical environment, the quantitative measurement of 3D urban colourscape has always been a very challenging theme; on the other hand, almost all landscape metrics and spatial analytical methods are based on a 2D landscape GIS with a vector or raster data format, though the 3D form of landscape has better expression of the spatial geometry. This indicates a need for quantitative measurement of 3D urban colourscape and its corresponding spatial analytical methods. The primary aim of this study is to improve the environmental design by developing a novel methodological approach for quantifying 3D colourscape by using 3D modelling and spatial analysis.

Methodology To implement the quantitative measurement of 3D urban colourscape and its corresponding spatial analytical methods, a comprehensive array of 3D urban colourscape metrics will be creatively designed first, basing on a conceptual framework developed from a multidisciplinary literature review. Then, an explicit 3D urban colourscape database, consisting of high-resolution colour data and spatial data, will be built and transferred by 3D modelling software. After that, this 3D urban colourscape database will be analysed according to the designed metrics with the aid of programming. This phase can be broken down into three specific steps: processing the input data (from the database), driving the computation algorithms (by programming) and visualizing the output result. At last, this project is not a purely empirical study but will use a case study area for producing three-dimensional data and allowing professional participation into theoretical validation.

Preliminary results The preliminary study is mainly focused on tackling two research questions. The first one is how to design the 3D urban colourscape metrics. According to the theoretical framework developed from a multidisciplinary literature review, 3D urban colourscape metrics were defined from hierarchy, scale and perception perspectives. The preliminary results included several basic concepts of 3D urban colourscape metrics, not the final presentations. The other one is how to generate an explicit 3D urban colourscape database with high resolution of colour data and spatial data. The pilot study took place in Oxford Road, Manchester, which is the main street across universities and is abundant in urban colourscape. First, the 3D urban streetscape with high resolution was successfully extracted from online resources and saved separately as spatial information and colour information. Next, with the aid of algorithms, the extracted 3D urban streetscape model was perfectly processed in a programming environment for further analysis. The next step will be the implementation of computation concerning spatial analysis.