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06:00-07:05 Session 16A: Healthcare Symposium: Patient Ergonomics in Hospital and Community Settings Part 1: Physical patient ergonomics
Patient Ergonomics in Hospital and Community Settings Symposium Introduction
Mitigation of Risk of Patient Handling during Rehabilitation Tasks
PRESENTER: Melanie Gee

ABSTRACT. There are a variety of risks associated with providing care in healthcare; some are associated with tasks and some are related to the environment. Rehabilitation staff are exposed to high risk patient handling tasks for longer durations when motivating patients through exercises to reach their mobility goals [1]. Meeting these rehabilitation goals while following Fraser Health (FH) safe patient handling policies can be challenging. Mechanical assistive devices can help mitigate risks while offering promising outcomes for patient rehabilitation. We explored how to effectively mitigate the risk of musculoskeletal injury (MSI) due to excessive force and awkward posture of rehabilitation staff during patient rehabilitation activities. The ergonomics team assessed and determined an X-Y ceiling mounted lift with motor locking mechanisms was the most appropriate mechanical assistive device for an in-patient rehabilitation setting based on the identified risk of injury to the rehabilitation team. This equipment was installed and significantly reduced the exposure risk of MSI from excessive forces and awkward posture during rehabilitation activities. Concurrently, patients met their functional goals, resulting in faster recovery and discharge out of hospital. Rehabilitation staff reported numerous positive patient outcomes that may not have been achievable without this equipment. Other benefits reported were related to faster patient recovery times improving patient flow. Rehabilitation staff reported that the X-Y ceiling mounted lifts with motor locking mechanisms are useful tools for tasks like standing tolerance, endurance and gait training. With this equipment, patients and rehabilitation staff can safely achieve their goals while working within FH policies.

Energy Cost and Perception of Degree of Exertion of use of Walking Aid Post Open-Reduction and Internal Fixation of Lower Limb Fracture in Young Adults

ABSTRACT. Walking re-education is usually the first line of rehabilitation post open-reduction and internal fixation of lower extremity fractures. Assistive walking aid is prescribed for the patient while healing and recovery is ongoing. It is important that cost-effective rehabilitation interventions are adopted, which entail prescription of walking aid requiring minimal energy expenditure during rehabilitation phase of management, to guarantee fewer incidences of falls and re-fractures. The present study was a pretest-posttest research design that investigated the energy demand of assistive devices (Axillary Crutch (AC), Standard Walker (SW), and Wheeled Walker (WW) and degree of perceived exertion on fracture patients undergoing rehabilitation. Thirty patients undergoing rehabilitation for fractures of the lower limb were consecutively recruited from Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, with mean age, height and weight of 23 years, 1.66m and 64kg respectively. Subjects were progressed into daily ambulation for nine (9) minutes with each assistive device and their Heart rates (HR), Blood Pressure (BP) were measured for six weeks eight-weeks after post-operative immobilization. Maximum oxygen uptake during training (VO2max) and energy expenditure were estimated from the subjects. Comparative analysis of data was done using descriptive statistics of mean and standard deviation, Kruskal Wallis Test was used to compare the demand of Assistive devices on energy expenditure, VO2max, HR and degree of perceived exertion, with alpha level of significance set at 0.05. There was a significant change in degree of perceived exertion, associated with the use of axillary clutch (AC), compared to that of standard walker (SW) and wheeled walkers (WW) during non-weight bearing. The use of AC during NWB ambulation revealed less energy expenditure, but it may not be appropriate for older population, since the degree of perceived exertion reported by participants was high.

Interface design for users with spinal cord injuries & disorders: An interdisciplinary research program with the US Department of Veterans Affairs

ABSTRACT. Assistive technologies such as environmental control units (ECUs) enhance veterans’ quality of life by enabling them to perform necessary tasks independently. Previous research has identified usability problems regarding the ECU’s multimodal interface. This paper outlines an interdisciplinary team’s program of research across academia, government agencies, and the private sector to evaluate and re-design the ECU interface for improved usability/user experience. The ECU was evaluated in two phases based on established Interface Design principles. First, heuristic analyses were performed to identify significant design issues. Second, modifications were made as the result of these initial analyses, and interactive digital prototypes of both the current and the enhanced ECU versions were developed and implemented to facilitate remote usability testing during the pandemic. The research program is currently in the A/B testing data collection phase to evaluate both interfaces for usability and user experience outcomes across defined tasks. This paper consequently provides an overview of each multidisciplinary partner’s contribution to the program of research, complete with challenges, strategies, and recommendations for practitioners interested in launching their own interdisciplinary projects.

Understanding Patient Work for Ambulation During a Hospital Stay
PRESENTER: Linsey Steege

ABSTRACT. Understanding patient work is critically important for older adult patient engagement as decision makers in their care delivery and helps inform redesign of hospital systems to improve patient outcomes.

06:00-07:00 Session 16B: Transport EHF Symposium - Cities and urban development: opportunities for HFE impact
Cities and urban development: opportunities for HFE impact

ABSTRACT. This symposium will highlight how the scientific legacy of the Human Factors and Ergonomics (HFE) discipline has been contributing to the design and development of our cities and towns.

A human factors and ergonomics systems approach to exploring sensory design for inclusive public space.
PRESENTER: Nicholas Stevens

ABSTRACT. People experience the world around them in vastly different ways through a diverse range of sensory inputs and outputs. The purpose of this research was to explore a sociotechnical systems approach to support sensory urban design and establish an archetype model for public space design and evaluation. The research involved the construction of a Work Domain Analysis, the first phase of the systems analysis approach, Cognitive Work Analysis. The resultant model incorporates key sensory design principles to build an in-depth and integrated understanding of accessible, engaging and inclusive public space. The model was then applied to two existing public spaces to assess the impact of a holistic sensory design approach. Key findings illustrate the importance of integrating sensory design elements into public spaces to achieve increased levels of sensory affordance for all users, regardless of ability.

What Does "Consistent Look and Feel" Mean for Public Transport?
PRESENTER: Airdrie F Long

ABSTRACT. Often the requirement for a ‘Consistent look and feel’ on transport assets is suggested but ill-defined. We developed guidance for a government transport organization for light rail customers and other road users. The benefits of both consistency and difference need to be explored as well as considering how to minimize the dis-advantages of both. For practical purposes in a transport system a number of levels of consistency are appropriate. We suggest a framework that could be applied to any public transport system.

Citizen centered mobility planning: the case of the speed limits reduction of São Paulo highways
PRESENTER: Raquel Cordeiro

ABSTRACT. The mobility data available in any city allows the urban managers to create models for the traffic flow and increase the streets’ safety. However, a small group of technical people often creates these models without the citizens’ participation, the core beneficiary of any public policy. A Human Smart City is only possible with the population engaged in the co-creation of solutions for collective social change. In this paper, we review the case of the speed limits reduction on the two main highways in São Paulo, in 2015. Despite the positive results on accidents and traffic jams indicators, a major part of society did not approve the new policy, and two years later, the speed limits returned to the previous values. This example shows the importance of the population’s participation in the creation of urban policies. Conclusively, we discuss the impact of communication for success in public policy planning and its implementation.

Inclusive Mobility: A Holistic Approach
PRESENTER: Anabela Simoes


A holistic approach to inclusive mobility is based on a broad view of urban mobility using public transport systems, highlighting the entire travel chain and accessibility requests together with safety along the trip. This purpose requires open, resilient, sustainable and reliant transport systems for all. These needs have been felt by numerous public transport users and are now highlighted in these pandemic times requiring resilience and sustainability within the entire community.

06:00-07:00 Session 16C: Slips, Trips and Falls 2 - Japanese Floor and Footwear Friction Focus
High Friction Effect on a Wet Floor by Adding Activated Carbon to Rubber Sole
PRESENTER: Toshiaki Nishi

ABSTRACT. In a rubber friction on a wet floor, the friction coefficient increased by adding activated carbon which enable to form air bubbles on the interface. This high friction effect was remarkable for softer rubber.

Effect of Combining Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Treatments on Slip Resistance for Wet Flat Glass Flooring
PRESENTER: Kei Shibata

ABSTRACT. To improve slip resistance of a flat flooring without any patterns, we proposed a combination of hydrophobic and hydrophilic treatments and investigated the ef-fect of the combination on slip resistance between a flat glass plate and shoe sole under wet conditions. The concept of the combination is to make the hydrophilic area as a refuge for water films or droplets and increase the real dry contact be-tween the hydrophobic area and shoe sole. The hydrophilic area was a circle shape and was allocated in a grid pattern on the hydrophobic sea while seven types of flat-glass-plate specimens were evaluated. Based on the friction test re-sults, it was indicated that the combination of hydrophobic and hydrophilic treat-ments improves the slip resistance when the area of hydrophilic island was mi-nute against the hydrophobic sea. From the observation of contact interface, the trend of the shear strength against the hydrophobic area ratio established the ef-fect of the combination.

Effects of Foot-floor Friction on Trip-induced Falls During Shuffling Gait: A Simulation Study

ABSTRACT. Tripping while walking has been identified as the most common cause of falls among the elderly as they tend to utilize a shuffling gait while walking, which in-creases the risk of falling. Since tripping occurs when toes make unexpected con-tact with objects on the floor, a number of studies have investigated the impact of foot clearance on the risk of tripping. However, only a few studies have examined the effects of foot–floor friction on the risk of tripping. Thus, in this current study, we investigated the effect of foot–floor friction on the probability of trip-induced falls during normal and shuffling gaits in a computational simulation study. We used a computational model with neural rhythm generators and neuromusculoskeletal systems to simulate gait in a self-organized manner. By changing the parameters of the neural rhythm generator, gait parameters such as step length, cadence, and foot clearance were automatically reduced, which simulated the shuffling gait. To alter the foot–floor friction, we changed the spring coefficient ratio of the floor in horizontal and vertical directions. As per our results, it was determined that slip-induced falls occurred under low foot–floor friction conditions in both normal and shuffling gaits, whereas trip-induced falls occurred under high foot–floor friction conditions only with a shuffling gait. These results suggest that optimal foot–floor friction may prevent trip- and slip-induced falls among the elderly.

Estimation of Perceived Hand Force during Static Horizontal Pushing Tasks Using the Zero-Moment Point-Based Balance Control Model
PRESENTER: Atsushi Sugama

ABSTRACT. Many fall accidents occur owing to loss of balance during tasks that involve external forces or reaction impacts. However, few studies have investigated the relationship between perceived hand force and postural balance. This paper proposes a method for estimating perceived hand force based on a model that uses the zero-moment point (ZMP), which is the ideal point of the center of pressure of the foot reaction force. Eleven men manually pushed a wall with maximum force for five seconds. The hand position was controlled using two experimental factors: the height of the pushing hand relative to the body height (35%, 60%, 85%, and 110%) and the distance between the hand and the foot (50%, 75%, and 100% of the upper limb length). The exerted hand forces, foot reaction forces, and whole-body posture were measured and used as input data to the analytical model. The perceived force was scored using the magnitude estimation technique after each trial and was modeled as an equation using the difference of ZMP position with or without hand forces. The ZMP-based model precisely estimated both the exerted force and the perceived force. These results imply that the somatosensory stimulus from soles is not only the key input for the control system for postural balance but also sensory information for force perception during manual pushing tasks.

06:00-07:00 Session 16D: COVID-19 6

ABSTRACT. STATEMENT: The policies that countries develop to face the crisis generated by the COVID-19 pandemic have a strong impact on the consequences it causes. In Cuba, the general strategy to confront the pandemic was directed by the government, which under the guidance of the Ministry of Public Health drew up an action plan based on stages and phases to comply with the strategy, taking into account the evolution of the disease in the country. The analysis carried out allowed us to find the interrelationships between the different organizations involved with influences in the treatment of the pandemic. Among the main organizations involved in this process are the Ministries of Public Health, Construction, Transportation, Information Technology and Communications, Agriculture and Food Industry, which oversaw securing the necessary resources to comply with the actions defined in the stages and phases. Universities and Research Centers also joined this activity with great prominence, contributing the results and knowledge obtained. 

Application of Deep Learning for Ergonomic Data Augmentation and Human State Recognition
PRESENTER: Yoshihiro Banchi

ABSTRACT. SUMMATIVE STATEMENT: This study attempted to expand physiological and psychological data using deep learning. From the verification using the actual experimental results, it was found that the accuracy of recognizing the human state was improved by using the augmented data compared to the case of learning with a small number of original data.

It takes two to tango: communication at work during the COVID-19 pandemic
PRESENTER: Caroline Adam

ABSTRACT. At the beginning of the year 2020, the new coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 trig-gered a worldwide pandemic. To contain the infections, far-reaching measures were taken that had a major impact on social life. The need to keep physical distance has changed the way employees behave and communicate. To better understand how the pandemic is changing the daily work of em-ployees, this paper provides initial insights into the communication in terms of access to information, lack of information, accuracy of the infor-mation received, and satisfaction with the communication relationship with superiors, colleagues and subordinates of university staff in the field of mechanical engineering in Germany during the pandemic. Data collection took place on two occasions when the COVID-19 case numbers in Germa-ny were high. In addition to communication, working conditions and the equipment that employees had at their disposal when working from home were analyzed. Finally, changes in the use of digital working resources were investigated and differences between the two periods of data collection were examined. The results indicate that there is room for improvement regarding working conditions while working from home and that the use of digital means for work changed between the two periods of data collection. Communication in terms of access to information, the accuracy of the information received, and satisfaction with the communication relationship with superiors, as well as the access to information with colleagues, deteriorated between the two data collection periods.

PRESENTER: Christine Ipsen

ABSTRACT. Managers at all levels have been forced to change their managerial activities during COVID-19 lockdowns. This paper describes early findings of a case study of 13 Danish first- and second-line managers’ experiences with distance management during COVID-19. The qualitative study collected data from May to December 2020 during six rounds. The analysis shows that the managers take the responsibility on them to make working from home function for their employees and seek new ways of organizing and manage work from home. They appreciate the flexibility and that meetings have become more ef-ficient but also equal and inclusive. The new role provide them with new skills and tasks. However, distance management also comes with a cost i.e. longer workdays and awk-ward working hours, the tasks are demanding and require planning. The managers miss the social interaction that the office provides and work hard to create a sense of proximity and trust across distance. The study shows that the lockdowns have impacted managers’ experiences of their management job in a positive and negative way. If workplaces are to continue with WFH or hybrid-remote-work workplaces they are to ensure that managers’ wellbeing is safeguarded by new efficient ways of working rather than working harder and longer.

06:00-07:00 Session 16E: Health and Safety Symposium - Machine and System Safety in Digital Transformation Part 3
Psychological Assessment for Bus Captain Selection

ABSTRACT. Bus drivers are parts of a safe transport environment. By selecting suitable humans for driving tasks, a work environment that boosts productivity and minimizes safety issues may be created. This paper reports the development and validation of the Bus Captain Aptitude Test (BCAT) for screening out bus captain applicants who have an inclination to drive aggressively in job selection process. The BCAT consists of 55 questionnaire items based on seven psychological factors which are considered as possible influencers of the disciplinary performance of drivers. A total of 387 bus captains are involved in completing the BCAT. The reliability assessment results show that the internal consistency reliability for all the seven factors in the BCAT is acceptable. Amongst the seven factors, the ‘impulsivity’ factor is significantly and negatively correlated with the disciplinary performance of the existing bus captains, implying a moderate level of the criterion-related validity of the BCAT. The results of reliability assessment and validity testing of the BCAT suggested that it is a psychologically sound instrument for effective bus captain selection.

Machine and System Safety – not without Ergonomics! An expla-nation based on the example of the planning and the construc-tion process of a new tram´s driver´s cabin
PRESENTER: Michael Wichtl

ABSTRACT. For the design and planning process of a new tram´s driver´s cabin an ergonomic evaluation and assessment process was requested by the customer of the vehicles. For this pro-cess it was necessary to establish a process model taking in account that also the driver´s workplace in the tram is affected by the effects of Digital Transformation. In particular, the drivers have a complex MMI (Man Machine Interface). To be able to operate with this inter-face and with the master controller, an ergonomic model had to be set up and optimized including the special experience of the drivers. Therefore a feedback process was established.

Acting in safety from the design to the implementation of helicopter maintenance
PRESENTER: Camille Murie

ABSTRACT. In order to avoid helicopters accidents, maintainability engineers seek to identify, evaluate and solve what they called “the risks of maintenance er-rors” done by maintenance mechanics, and sometimes pilots performing simple pre-flight maintenance tasks. Here we will argue that beyond trying to avoid errors by following procedures, acting safely involves trade-offs be-tween safety and performance within the engineers’ and mechanics’ activity. This papers show the relations between the mechanics’ and engineers’ work using the Critical Incident interview technique.

Future-Proof Commercial Vehicle Seat and Interiors Development

ABSTRACT. Future-proof commercial vehicle seats and interiors respect user groups with their scope of widely varying and constantly changing requirements, minimizing driver stress and strain by taking current and future use cases into account. This contribution presents user-centered development of commercial vehicle seats and interiors in logistics, agriculture and material handling. It shows how the manufacturer’s development process ensures user involvement in the context of automation and digitalization of commercial vehicle work places. Associated user groups, usability methods and concepts are reported for a multifunctional truck cab interior, agriculture vehicle interiors facilitating a man-machine performance increase, and fork-lift truck seats with “haptic warning” for reducing driver stress.

06:00-07:00 Session 16F: ODAM 4
Heat Stress Management in the Construction Industry: A Socio-Technical Systems Perspective

ABSTRACT. Due to heavy physical outdoor work construction workers’ safety is compromised by climatic heat stress. Heat stress in construction consists of environmental, organizational, technological, and personal elements. Administrative controls, environmental engineering controls, and personal engineering controls are safety interventions in the construction industry adopted to cope with heat stress. Numerous indices, models, and protective guidelines are introduced to measure and manage heat stress. Wet-bulb globe temperature (WBGT), Humidex, thermal work limit (TWL), predicted heat strain (PHS) are common indices used to measure heat stress. Imposing mandatory work-rest regimens is done through regulations as well as organizational work systems. Self-pacing, an alternative method of heat stress management, can be optimized by work system design us-ing self-regulating worker groups. Because of the pragmatic and loosely-coupled nature of the construction industry, the design of self-regulating worker groups needs to be addressed in a socio-technical approach. It would comprise of consultative and substantive worker participation to optimize the work system for the benefit of individual and organization.

Macroergonomics-based Approach for the Management Trainee Program in the Utilities Industry
PRESENTER: Johnamae A. Khow

ABSTRACT. The purpose of this study was to help companies to design a better management trainee program using macroergonomics-based approach. The study used obser-vation and focus group discussion to gather data and assess the management trainee program of a company in the utilities industry in order to propose a new job design for management trainees that might boost employee retention and sat-isfaction among the program graduates even after program graduation. Through qualitative data gathering, this study identified which factors play an important role in keeping management trainees engaged and motivated. With a successful management trainee program, companies might be able to attract high-caliber graduates and train them into becoming future leaders in a more effective and ef-ficient way. The study found that in order to improve the management trainee program, the company should focus on training for individual holistic develop-ment, job rotation within the critical functions, mentorship and feedback for con-tinuous improvement, ownership and responsibility, performance evaluation, job enrichment, and job enlargement

06:00-07:02 Session 16G: EWAT Symposium - Issues and Perspectives in Engineering: Practices for its development and ergonomics
Issues and Perspectives in engineering the discussion on the practices for its development and for ergonomics: a proposal for an exchange from the French Speaking Ergonomics Society’s (SELF) Junior Practices in Reflection committee
PRESENTER: Alexis Chambel

ABSTRACT. This symposium will bring together members of the French and Peruvian offices of the Junior Practices in Reflection (JPR) Committee of the French Speaking Ergonomics Society ( Société d’Ergonomie de Langue Française, SELF) and a participant from outside the offices to present the actions carried out by the commission with the aim of supporting the professional development of novice ergonomists.

Creation of the Junior Practices in Reflection committee of the French Speaking Ergonomics Society: historical genesis and theorical foundation of the exchange on practice
PRESENTER: Alexis Chambel

ABSTRACT. This article is part of a wider symposium which aims to present what has been developed by the Junior Practices in Reflection Committee of the French Speaking Ergonomics Society (SELF) in terms of exchange on prac-tice. It is the first communication of a symposium and focuses more specifically on the genesis of the Committee. We will first develop the needs that led to its emergence, then the conceptual anchoring, particularly the use of the storytelling that is mobilised. Finally, the various actions that have been implemented since its creation will be developed.

Contributions and construction of the professional storytelling within the framework of a Junior Practices in Reflection Day: the example of a design project in a municipality

ABSTRACT. This article is the second of a four-step symposium presenting the activity of the Junior Practices in Reflection Committee (JPR). It presents a bibliograph-ical review and an example of a storytelling by a young practitioner that take place within the framework of the JPRs. A design project is presented for a school registration reception in a municipality. It will present the methodolo-gy implemented with the project’s actors, the tools used and its role in the project. All to consider the constraints of the agents and the public received and to ensure a quality of service. A professional storytelling, like the one presented, is used as a fulcrum for the discussion between junior practition-ers.

Building spaces for discussion: getting the diversity of practices speak
PRESENTER: Alexis Chambel

ABSTRACT. This article aims at explaining the setting up and the progress of the Junior Practice in Reflection Committee of the SELF’s “day of exchange on prac-tices”. Here we describe how the day took place in February 2020 in Paris. We are going to explain how the engineering of the discussion is organized and what effects are expected when we are talking about the practice of er-gonomics. Beyond this description, our approach is to document about the engineering discussion around the implementation of a reflexivity on the practice among novice ergonomists.

The exchange on practice: an issue for the development of novice ergonomists in Peru in a context where practices of ergonomic are heterogeneous
PRESENTER: Alexis Chambel

ABSTRACT. Ergonomics in Peru is influenced by a very heterogeneous practice: the ergo-nomics of activity and human factors. In this context, the JPR days in Peru allow novice practitioners to share their practices and make them evolve.

06:00-07:00 Session 16H: Workshop - The European Machinery Directive : a challenge for manufacturers and users
The European Machinery Directive : a challenge for manufacturers and users
PRESENTER: Bernard Michez

ABSTRACT. The objective of the European “machinery” directive (EC/2006/42 directive) is the free movement of products in the 27 member states of the European Union, pro-vided that they comply with the minimum health and safety requirements for the users of these machines. All equipment imported into Europe must meet these re-quirements. Ergonomics and human factors are at the core this directive, as an increasing number of design and operation factors are considered. For instance, a condition to satisfy is the “reasonably forecastable misuse”. Once it is explained, it becomes very clear, and it is a condition for any product to be sold in Europe. Ergonomics 4.0 have many strong points to valorize about this directive, and all machine builder has to deal with this directive in order to be successful in Europe. The industrial and commercial implications of the Directive are therefore, increas-ingly meaningful for both manufacturers within and outside Europe. This paper summaries the workshop on the EU machinery directive organized by FEES representatives in the frame of the IEA 2021 Congress.

06:00-07:02 Session 16I: Ergonomics in Design for All Symposium - Opportunities and Challenges of Digital Technologies for Inclusion Part 2
Opportunities and Challenges of Digital Technologies for Inclusion
PRESENTER: Maurizio Caon

ABSTRACT. Digital technologies are profoundly changing our daily life and our society more in general. This transformation brings new opportunities and challenges also in terms of inclusion. Indeed, some technologies can present barriers in terms of adoption and accessibility; for this reason it is important to elaborate new methodologies that can guide the design process in order to be more inclusive. At the same time, digital services and products can empower citizens to fight social exclusion, or assist people with disabilities for enabling them to perform activities that they have not been able to do before, or to increase participation of disadvantaged people in social and economic activities. This paper shows the current trends in terms of design applied to digital technologies and highlights the importance and urgency of this topic calling all researchers from academia and industry for action to leverage “design for all” methods in order to increase inclusion in our connected world.

Improving Accessibility and Inclusiveness of Digital Mobility Solutions: a European Approach
PRESENTER: Sabina Giorgi

ABSTRACT. This paper presents the main results of the co-creation activities carried out in the first phase of INDIMO (INclusive DIgital MObility solutions), a three-year EU-funded Horizon 2020 project that aims to extend the benefits of digital mobility and delivery solutions to vulnerable people that current-ly face barriers in using such solutions due to physical, cognitive and so-cio-economic limitations. On the one hand, results concern needs, capabili-ties and requirements of vulnerable-to-exclusion users and non-users of digital mobility and delivery services that have been collected in the five pilot sites of the project. On the other hand, findings highlight drivers and barriers for the development and deployment of inclusive and accessible digital mobility services from the viewpoint of developers, operators and policy makers. These results are the basis for the development of the main outcome of the project, i.e. the Inclusive Digital Mobility Toolbox.

Digital technologies as opportunity for facilitating social inclusion and multicultural dialogue

ABSTRACT. Cities worldwide increasingly reflect the cultural diversity of a globalized society as the result of the immigration of people with different backgrounds. The social and cultural barriers evocate an inequality access and, mostly, use of urban spaces in contemporary cities. On the other hand, at the same rhythm of these socio-cultural changes, the cities are undergoing the radical changing by information and communication technologies to improve the various aspects of the cities such as: the quality of life for their citizens, the local economy, environment, and interaction with government, in an increasingly smart perspective. These technological and socio-cultural changes can find a common and fertile ground in urban spaces with the approach of inclusive design. The development of product-service systems, that derives from the progressive growth of digital technologies, applied in the urban environment, have the potential for further studies, research and projects in terms of design for inclusion of cultural diversity. In our knowledge, there is still a lack of design solutions aimed to multicultural inclusion in urban areas through the use of digital technologies. Based on Research through Design methodological approach, the tools of human-centered design and service design thinking were used for the development of a pilot case, M-eating, an EU-funded research project. M-eating is conceived with the goal of designing digital technologies-embedded urban furniture system aimed at facilitating social inclusion, multicultural dialogue and conviviality. The present paper concludes with a holistic and new approach for design for inclusion of cultural diversity in urban space.

A study on the acceptance towards blockchain-based access to biobanks’ services using UTAUT2 with ITM and perceived risk
PRESENTER: Fouad Hannoun

ABSTRACT. The blockchain technology offers reliability, decentralization, security and credibility. Blockchain solutions can be based on smart contracts and on the use of utility tokens which may represent a utility of a company like limited fashion items, cars, car parts or even human biological samples stored in biobanks. However, decentralization comes with responsibilities: people must take care of storing those tokens in a safe place (commonly denominated as “wallets”) knowing that losing a wallet or wallet key means losing the owned tokens. This concept is still new to people and might sound scary. The success of such services relies on the extent of customers intending to adopt them and very few studies target this intention. The current research proposes a model combining of the unified theory of acceptance and usage of technology (UTAUT2) with the initial trust model (ITM) and the perceived risk construct in order to evaluate the factors affecting the behaviour and use intention of people towards a blockchain technology that enables access to biobank services. An online questionnaire was built and sent to swiss university students. The 72 results showed that simplifying the access to blockchain-based technologies will facilitate inclusion, enabling people with lower digital literacy to access these technologies.

Social Presence Despite Isolation - Insights into the Relation Between Psychological Distance and Sensory Synchronization in Computer-Mediated Communication
PRESENTER: Stina Becker

ABSTRACT. Whilst social distancing (e.g., during a pandemic), electronic communication al-lows users to keep in touch with social contacts, thereby fulfilling needs for hu-man interaction. Accordingly, it is important to examine social closeness in the context of computer-mediated communication in more detail and to take a closer look at the relation between the feeling of presence to achieve the maximum potential for such communication. In this paper we introduce the concept of sensory synchronization as a predictor for perceived social presence. To this end, social activities conducted virtually during the Covid-19 pandemic were surveyed and analyzed to understand the connection between a feeling of presence and possible sensory synchronization of communication partners. Context of activities were collected in preliminary interviews and examined more closely in an online sur-vey (N = 234). Most frequently reported activities included video calls, playing virtual games and virtual meals. The results showed that there is a significant positive correlation between sensory synchronization and social presence in all activity categories. The activity categories significantly explain different variances of the evaluated social presence and sensory synchronization. The results of this work motivate further research on the topic of sensory synchronization and social presence. New predictors in social presence research were identified and a questionnaire for the assessment of sensory synchronization and social presence was developed.

06:00-07:00 Session 16J: Digital Human Modelling 4
Application of Finite Element Based Design Method for Facial Mask

ABSTRACT. A wearable product requires an ergonomic shape for a good fit. 3D body scan images can provide useful information for considering fit between the human body and a product, but it is complex to be used in a traditional product design process. To use the 3D body scan images simply and effectively in the product design process, a novel virtual fit analysis technique is needed.

A Conceptual Framework of DHM Enablers for Ergonomics 4.0
PRESENTER: Gunther Paul

ABSTRACT. Industry 4.0 lends itself to an ecosystem of human factors and ergonomics (HFE) related new concepts, such as Mining 4.0, Safety 4.0, Operator 4.0 and Ergonomics 4.0 which we studied here. Industry 4.0 refers to system elements such as Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS) and Augmented Reality/Virtual Reality (AR/VR), connections through the Internet of Things (IoT) and storage on Cloud Platforms (CP) to facilitate Cognitive Computing (CC) analysis and knowledge extraction. While the Industry 4.0 concept is centred around data, it also provides a platform to integrate the human operator with other elements of a system. Industry 4.0 and Ergonomics thus appear integrated and suggest the development of an Ergonomics 4.0 concept. This study searched and reviewed publications focusing on the enablers of Ergonomics 4.0. We identified their main elements and relationships with a focus on Digital Human Modelling (DHM). We systemized, clustered and synthesized the reviewed information and generated a taxonomy of Ergonomics 4.0 under the lens of digital human modelling using semantic analysis. We conclude that Ergonomics 4.0 is an essential part of Industry 4.0 and that DHM is a key enabler for Ergonomics 4.0.

Development of a Hand Template Model for Ergonomic Grip Design
PRESENTER: Hayoung Jung

ABSTRACT. A posable, scalable, and deformable 3D hand template model which can be efficiently used for post-processing and feature extraction of 3D hand scan is developed for ergonomic grip design. The meshes of body surface and bones, joint centers, a link structure, skinning weights, segments, and landmarks are incorporated as the components of the hand template model.

Probabilistic Human-System-Integration (HIS) Models
PRESENTER: Ephraim Suhir

ABSTRACT. Three probabilistic analytical (“mathematical”) human-system-integration (HSI) models and their application in ergonomics engineering are addressed. The general concepts are illustrated by numerical examples. It is concluded that such models should always be considered, in addition to computer simulations, in every critical HSI effort.

06:00-07:02 Session 16K: Gender and Work Symposium - Gender and occupational risks: exposure, perception and coping strategies - Part 1
Symposium Gender and occupational risks: exposure, perception and coping strategies- Part 1
PRESENTER: Sandrine Caroly

ABSTRACT. It is known that women and men hold different jobs, and this division of labour may explain a part of the observed differences on risk management. There is also a division of tasks within jobs and companies, which may further explain the different occupational health and safety risks. Methods used to make links between sex/gender and risks, from both risk perception and risk management perspectives, can be quantitative, qualitative or mixed. They could be based on questionnaires, interviews, observations, individual or collective self-confrontations, etc.

Dynamic Workstation Exposure: Does sex Affect Response?

ABSTRACT. In the literature, little is known about the vagal response during exposure to a sit-stand workstation. This study measured the vagal response to exposure to a dynamic workstation that moved between sitting and standing heights for different regular durations and documented sex-related response. Fourteen workers (43.6 ± 4.0 years of age; 16.1 ± 4.1 years of experience) who work normally with computers (seven women, seven men of working age) were exposed to a dynamic workstation in their everyday office work environment. Heart rate variability (HRV) was used to measure the vagal activity with SD1, SD2 and MeanRR indicators, and questionnaires measured musculoskeletal health. Indicator of overall physiological response (HRV) to a dynamic workstation appears to be related to sex among a cohort of experienced office workers, where women showed a higher vagal response than men, and men had a decrease in body regions with musculoskeletal discomfort. More attention should provide to sex-specific responses to a dynamic workstation.

Working conditions in educational establishments: research on ergonomics and gender among teachers in pandemic context
PRESENTER: Pamela Astudillo

ABSTRACT. SUMMATIVE STATEMENT: The education sector in Chile is in full transformation due to the pandemic2 situation and there is a lack of evidence on ergonomic working conditions and gender.

When the arrival of women challenges the approach to risk
PRESENTER: Sandrine Caroly

ABSTRACT. In line with the willingness to reduce inequalities in women's access to traditionally male occupations, in France, as in many other countries of the world, policies in favour of women are being implemented. Supported by legal texts, quota systems or positive discrimination, women are gradually entering positions to which they were only a minority. For professional firefighters, the arrival of women is disrupting the androcentric environment in which the organization and equipment have always been designed by and for men.

Sitting, standing and moving among male and female grocery store workers

ABSTRACT. Accelerometry measurements on 37 grocery store workers showed that the average worker spent about 50% of the work time standing, about 30% sitting, and about 20% moving. Female workers sat a little more and stood less than their male colleagues, to a large extend explained by a gendered distribution of work tasks. While the extents of sitting and standing may not be critical to health for the average worker, and the considerable time spent moving even beneficial, the gendered structure of work was remarkable.

06:00-07:00 Session 16L: Sustainable Development 2
Supporting Interaction with CO2 as a Resource with Individual Carbon Footprint Trackers as Everyday Assistants
PRESENTER: Tim Schrills

ABSTRACT. A massive reduction in CO2 emissions is needed to reach the Paris climate goals on many societal levels- including individual consumer decisions. In contrast to resources as time or money, it is challenging to monitor one’s own impact on CO2 emissions. Designing digital assistants to provide users with information about their CO2 footprint could improve CO2 literacy (i.e., mental models), enabling individual behavioural change. We reviewed how characteristics of human bounded rationality (c.f. behavioural economics), such as temporal discounting, hamper effective interaction with CO2 as a resource. We examined user requirements for a carbon footprint tracker in an online study with 249 participants. Our study suggests CO2 tracking apps should encompass three types of functions: presentation of concrete CO2 emissions at a product or action level, direct comparisons between decision alternatives, and the proposal of better alternatives.

Uncovering sustainable system-of-systems elements in the design of a greywater treatment system for urban informal settlements

ABSTRACT. PROBLEM STATEMENT: Urban informal settlements are a common feature of many cities in developing countries that arise when rapid urbanisation is not supported by adequate social and physical infrastructure. While some infrastructure such as water and electricity supplies are relatively easy to retrofit in an urban informal settlement, some infrastructure (such as sewerage and greywater removal) is notoriously difficult to implement once an informal settlement has established itself. While not an ideal solution, sewerage is often dealt with through the provision of portable toilets. However, greywater often ends up in the streets, rivers, or makeshift gullies. Water quality testing of the greywater in the urban informal settlement under investigation in Setswetla, Johannesburg, has shown that the water quality in the streets, river, and gullies is a significant health hazard. In a participatory, iterative, co-design project the participants have implemented small, sub-surface, constructed wetlands. As the human factors and ergonomics (HFE) specialists on this project, we have spent the last year evaluating participant interactions with each design iteration to provide input into subsequent design modifications.

Eco-Drivers and Eco-Automation: A Case Study with Hybrid Electric Vehicle Drivers

ABSTRACT. Although the implications of increasingly automated road transport for driver be-havior are often studied from the perspective of safety and comfort, automation is also expected to increase energy efficiency and thus contribute to environmental sustainability. However, drivers’ interaction with automated systems that opti-mize the vehicle’s energy efficiency by controlling the energy flows has not yet been well understood. Based on the perspective of user-energy interaction, the present research constitutes a first case study in this respect, focusing on hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) drivers. Results from an online questionnaire study with 121 HEV drivers indicated high user diversity in the interaction with the eco-automation, ranging from complete reliance to active disengagement of eco-automation. These interaction patterns were significantly related to differences in fuel efficiency, as well as the drivers perceived trust and knowledge of the eco-automation. The study provides evidence for the relevance of understanding driv-ers’ interaction with eco-automation to ensure the sustainability of future road transport.

Buyer Networking in Supplier HSEQ Development – A Macroergonomics Analysis in a CSR Framework
PRESENTER: Arto Reiman

ABSTRACT. Process industries focus on their core processes whilst certain activities are bought as outsourced services from a variety of suppliers. Corporate social responsibility highlights the need to manage and develop suppliers’ HSEQ capabilities. This study focuses on large Finnish industrial companies’ HSEQ cluster, and its’ actions for supplier development. This study includes inter-views for large Finnish industrial companies and a database analysis on a sample of supplier audit reports. A macroergonomics analysis is conducted to show how the observations made in the audits, i.e. identified development topics or deviations, are of internal origin and mainly identify issues related to suppliers’ management processes and health and safety performance. In addition, suppliers’ own stakeholder management practices and processes were questioned in some cases. This study shows that this current HSEQ as-sessment practice by the cluster somewhat strongly identifies issues related to CSR. Yet, some development topics and future research aspects are identi-fied that could help in tying the assessment procedure better with CSR.

06:00-07:00 Session 16M: Systems HF/E 1
Validation of Ergonomic Criteria for the Evaluation of Simplex Systems
PRESENTER: Viviane Perret

ABSTRACT. The increasing complexity of interconnected systems, organizations and environmental instability open on one hand new functional features and unexpected levels of systemic efficiency, but on the other hand leads to great challenges to maintain a good level of usability. We assume that the complex systems should be adapted to human capacities and goals through a structural integration of such complexity by the interactive systems. These systems should be both: structurally complex from technological and organizational standpoint; and conceptually simple from operator’s standpoint, in other words it should be simplex. In order to design an efficient balance between complexity and simplexity a new kind of user centered methods are necessary. But, current available methods in ergonomics to assess Human-Simplex System Interactions (HSSI) are limited in the field of Human Oriented Approach of Complexity, al- so called Human System Integration (HSI). In this paper, we present an experimental assessment of an evaluation method based on a set of Ergonomic Criteria able to support human factors specialists during an inspection task of complex systems. This experimental study aimed to assess if these Ergonomic Criteria are useful and efficient. Thirty-one HSI Designers performed an ergonomic inspection of two Simplex Systems in order to capture a maximum of usability / assistance flaws. The results show that the criteria are reliable and valid. The use of these Criteria allowed to identify more flaws and also more flaws shared between assessors. Nevertheless, the satisfaction results revealed the need to improve the level of maturity of these criteria.

Situation Awareness and Automated Shuttles: A Multi-Road User Analysis

ABSTRACT. Automated shuttles are currently being trialed as a new transport solution howev-er to date there has been a lack of studies investigating how other road users in-teract with these new types of vehicles. The aim of this study was to understand the situation awareness (SA) of road users (driver, cyclist, motorcyclist, pedestri-an) interacting with an automated shuttle on a public road. Naturalistic data were collected, and the Event Analysis of Systemic Teamwork was used to develop task, social and information networks for a scenario when all four road user types interacted with the automated shuttle at a T-intersection. The findings provide ear-ly insights into SA of different road users when interacting with automated shut-tles at unsignalized intersections. Such insights could be used to improve the de-sign of shuttles and road environments to support the SA and decision making of human road users.

Managing the risks of artificial general intelligence with Human Factors and Ergonomics: Prometheus and Ava case studies
PRESENTER: Paul Salmon

ABSTRACT. The next generation of Artificial Intelligence (AI), known as Artificial General Intelligence (AGI) could either revolutionize or destroy humanity. Human Factors and Ergonomics (HFE) has a critical role to play in the design and management of AGI systems. Despite this, there has been little discussion or examination as to how HFE can contribute. We reviewed fifteen categories of HFE method and then considered two hypothetical AGI systems to examine how HFE methods could be deployed to prevent existential threats. The findings suggest that all categories of HFE method can contribute to AGI system design and management; however, areas where methods require modification were identified.

07:00-07:15AM Break 1
07:15-08:45 Session 17: Keynotes 3
Human Systems Integration: The Right Mix of Technology, Organization and People

ABSTRACT. Human Systems Integration (HSI) has become a field of research and practice in its own right, at the intersection of human factors and ergonomics, systems engineering and information technology. HSI is a matter of systems which integrate technical, societal, environmental, economic, and human factors. Human and organizational well-being, performance, safety and security are the heart of our 21st century endeavors where technology, organizations and people should be better harmoniously and sustainably integrated in a holistic way. We are looking for new principles, methods and tools to handle such an HSI. IEA (International Ergonomics Association) and INCOSE (International Council on Systems Engineering) signed a Memorandum of Understanding to bridge the gap between engineering and ergonomics taking a systemic perspective. This is an historical and challenging alliance, often generating both agonistic and antagonistic interactions – this is what life is about! This keynote will address several important issues, including design flexibility, user experience, system knowledge, autonomy of humans and machines, human-centered life-cycled systems engineering, and ultimately finding the right intersection between disciplines such as human factors and ergonomics, systems engineering and information technology.

Measuring and analysing ergonomic demands: which direction to move?

ABSTRACT. Ergonomic prevention is primarily based on reducing classic ergonomic risk factors (e.g., heavy lifting, monotonous work, strenuous work, kneeling, static standing) for musculoskeletal disorders, sick leave, and early retirement. Our knowledge about these ergonomic risk factors is primarily based on questionnaires and workplace observations that suffer from being either inaccurate, potentially biased or expensive. With technological advancement, movement sensors (such as accelerometer-based wearables) that provide accurate measurements of ergonomic risk factors can help solving some of these limitations. However, these movement sensors are still rarely used to identify ergonomic risk factors in large cohorts. The reason could be that they still put a lot of user (eg., returning the sensor, hygiene) and administrative burden (manual analysis, physical attachment). Beside better measurement methods, we also need better analytical approaches to identify ergonomic risk factors that focuses not on ergonomic risk factors in silos but on all ergonomic behaviors.

Conclusion: A paradigm shift towards using more accurate yet feasible methods to measure all ergonomic behaviors and towards focusing on ‘all’ ergonomic behaviors will create solid foundation for ergonomic prevention and promotion.

09:15-09:45AM Break 2
09:15-10:45 Session 18A: Healthcare Symposium: Patient Ergonomics in Hospital and Community Settings Part 2: Theory and methods of patient ergonomics
Classifying Disruptions in Chronic Illness Routines
PRESENTER: Laurie Novak

ABSTRACT. In three ethnographic studies, we explored the types and causes of disruptions of chronic illness routines. In a combined analysis of the raw data, we found the importance of structural support of routines, e.g. other actors, places, and artifacts that reinforce the enactment of the routine. Disruptions can be classified along two dimensions: the extent of impact on structural supports of the routine (few or many) and the extent of failure of the structural support (partial or complete).

A Work Design Approach to Improving Caregiver Work Outcomes
PRESENTER: Nicole Werner

ABSTRACT. Informal caregiving for patients managing chronic health conditions can be conceptualized as a type of work. Caregiving work is often unsupported, which can be associated with negative outcomes such as high levels of stress, burden, and burnout. We used a case study approach to develop a work design framework for caregiving work that can be used to guide future research and efforts toward reducing the negative outcomes of caregiver work.

An Agile Mindset to Drive Innovation in Usability Studies Amidst Difficult Circumstances
PRESENTER: Jordan Hill

ABSTRACT. We adopted an Agile Mindset to quickly and effectively design and deploy a remote solution to continue usability studies with older adults during the COVID-19 pandemic. Other practitioners may consider adopting the Agile approach to overcome challenges that arise in the course of usability projects.

Understanding Patient Ergonomics to Facilitate Participation in Health Research

ABSTRACT. Effectively recruiting patients remains a challenge in health research. Use of human factors and ergonomics (HF/E) principles and methods may help address these challenges. In particular, understanding patient ergonomics issues in study design and implementation may facilitate patient participation and engagement of a diverse set of patients in research.

Quantifying Patient Workload

ABSTRACT. Much of patient self-care work can be tedious and impede positive care outcome. Human factors has a deep history of expertise in studying people at work. The future of improving healthcare and patient experience should include the studying, and more specifically the quantification, of patient work.

PRESENTER: Rich Holden

ABSTRACT. Patient ergonomics is, simply put, the science (and design) of patient work. Patient work is the effortful, goal-driven, and consequential health-related activity performed by patients, families, and others independently or in concert with healthcare professionals. Patient work is hard work, occurs in context, unfolds as a journey, is a team effort, is distributed, goes beyond disease, can be invisible, and is not experienced invariably. Patient work, whether occurring in hospitals, homes, communities, or other settings, can benefit from the application of cognitive, physical, and organizational human factors theories and methods.

09:15-10:45 Session 18B: Transport EHF Panel - Humans and Automation: The Role of Human Factors in International Regulations for Automated Vehicles
PRESENTER: Peter Burns

ABSTRACT. Automated vehicles (i.e., self-driving cars) promise to improve safety, efficiency and mobility. However, there is a common fallacy that replacing humans with automation can improve system performance (Lee & Seppelt, 2009). Automating vehicles may fail to achieve these expected benefits because, rather than simply replacing the human, automation changes driver roles and adds new tasks. This is particularly problematic when drivers are expected to compensate for the limitations of immature technologies. Recognizing this challenge for the safe user-centred design of automated driving systems, there is demand for human factors input to the development of international regulations for this technology. A group of human factors experts was established to provide support to the United Nations in their efforts to establish policies and regulations for automated driving systems. The group is named Human Factors in International Regulations for Automated Driving Systems (HF-IRADS) and is affiliated with the International Ergonomics Association (IEA). This special session will consist of members of the HF-IRADS group who are engaged in research and standards development in the area of human factors for automated vehicles. The panel will present highlights of recent activities and key human factors challenges for automated driving systems. Discussion topics will include: calibrating user trust in automation, safe transfer of control between driver and automation, driver-vehicle interfaces to display automation status and operational design domain, acceptable non-driving activities, driver availability monitoring, signaling and communication with other road users, and remote operation.

Moderator: Peter Burns Panelists: Klaus Bengler, Rino Brouwer, Oliver Carsten, Marieke Martens

09:15-10:45 Session 18C: Workshop Human Slip-based Tribometer Standards Update on ASTM Committee F13
Workshop Human slip-based tribometer standards - An update on progress in ASTM Committee F13
PRESENTER: Benjamin Elkin

ABSTRACT. Walkway tribometers are devices that measure the friction of floor surfaces using a specified test foot. In practice, they are used to measure the available friction—or slipperiness—of floors and walkway surfaces, often in the presence of a wet contaminant. There are various types of tribometers and various international standards addressing their use for the measurement and evaluation of walkway slip resistance. Although friction is a critical factor in evaluating the safety of new and existing walkways, tribometers and their measurements remain challenging to interpret in the context of human slips. ASTM Committee F13 on Pedestrian/Walkway Safety and Footwear has previously established approaches for human slip-based tribometer standards (Powers et al., 2010; ASTM F2508-16e1). This workshop covers recent progress in human slip research and tribometer testing to develop a suite of reference surfaces based on human slip risk for tribometer use, validation and interpretation.

09:15-10:45 Session 18D: Ergonomic and Professional Certification Panel - Ergonomics Standards: Salient Features and Updates

Presenters in this session will be Christopher Reid, Hyegjoo Choi-Rokas, Amrita Maguire and David Rempel

Ergonomics Standards: Salient Features and Updates

ABSTRACT. Ergonomics standards are essential to human factors and ergonomics profession as they provide guidelines and promote best practices for a variety of end-users, thus assisting them in improving their productivity and wellbeing. Intent of this workshop is to educate and update researchers and practitioners in understanding and utilizing selected ergonomics standards due to their potential impact on ergonomics, safety, and wellbeing at the workplace.

09:15-10:45 Session 18E: DHM Symposium- Analytical tools for workplace design while considering both ergonomics and productivity
Analytical tools for workplace design while considering both ergonomics and productivity
PRESENTER: Raziel Riemer

ABSTRACT. Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) are responsible for 30% of work lost days. The financial impact of these injuries not only includes worker’s compensation, but replacement workers, training and expensive fixes to the workplace, the result is annual costs of $45–54 billion in the U.S. alone (Bureau of Labor Statistics (2015), National Academy of Sciences, (2001). Therefore, when designing a workplace that includes human-machine systems (HMS) it is important to consider the risk of injury and its impact on the workers’ productivity. In many cases the role of ergonomics is to evaluate a given workplace design and determine if the performed task represent an acceptable risk level of injury or fatigue (La Delfa and Potvin, 2017).

09:15-10:45 Session 18F: ODAM Panel- Return on Investment for Human Factors / Ergonomics Initiatives & Interventions
Return on Investment for Human Factors / Ergonomics Initiatives & Interventions
PRESENTER: Blake McGowan

ABSTRACT. A Special Session (90-minutes) Panel Discussion with international research and industry experts. Panelists will discuss the keys to communicating the value and return on investment of a formalized human factors / ergonomics (HF/E) initiative, as well as the value of individual HFE interventions.

09:15-10:45 Session 18G: Systems HF/E- Panel - Fatigue Risk Assessment and Control : A Risk Based Approach
Fatigue Risk Assessment and Control: A Risk Based Approach

ABSTRACT. It is generally well accepted fatigue can increase the likelihood of human errors and subsequent safety incidents. Managing fatigue-related risks has proven challenging, but such risks are indeed manageable. Oftentimes, the starting point to assess and control fatigue-related risk is the individual, with attempts to assess an individual's level of sleepiness and/or sleep hygiene. With this approach, countermeasures such as restricted hours of service or mandatory breaks of a certain frequency may be used. While some of these measures can be helpful, they may not be as effective or sustainable in reducing fatigue-related risks associated with performing work as more risk-based approaches.

This paper presents an alternative view on fatigue-related risk in a workplace setting, which may have implications for how it can be managed. One view holds that fatigue itself is a hazard, whereas as the other suggests it is a contributory factor. In the presence of workplace hazards, fatigue can escalate the potential for errors and safety incidents. This paper outlines a high-level fatigue risk assessment process that begins with identifying and prioritizing workplace tasks that are particularly vulnerable to fatigue-related performance impairment, such as safety critical work activities that involve vigilance, calculations, or recalling detailed information. The next steps are to assess (a) how fatigue may link with workplace hazards to escalate the potential for harm,(b) determine the possible consequences in those scenarios, and (c) then control both the workplace hazard(s) and factors that may decrease alertness with effective control measures.

09:15-10:45 Session 18H: Visual Ergonomics & Ergonomics in Design for All Symposium: Accessibility and Usability for All: Indoor Visual Environments

This 90-minute symposium includes 5 papers about the usability of indoor visual environments. The purpose is to exchange knowledge among visual ergonomists, accessibility experts, architects and designers to improve accessibility and usability of the built environment.


ABSTRACT. This 90-minute symposium includes 5 papers about the usability of indoor visual environments. The purpose is to exchange knowledge among visual ergonomists, accessibility experts, architects and designers to improve accessibility and usability of the built environment.

Luminance Contrast Standards, the Boy Who Could, and Visionary Pathfinders
PRESENTER: Penny Galbraith

ABSTRACT. Visual contrast is crucial to how users experience their environment. While this has been recognized in standards, which utilize the light reflectance value, there is no universally acknowledged method of measuring and calculating luminance contrast, particularly on site. Past standards’ developments have only partially addressed some issues. This paper highlights how the standards have evolved and the work of pathfinders seeking to achieve better outcomes in our environment and society. Issues such as bulky measuring equipment and poor translation of lab measured LRVs to on-site measurements, have hindered provision and maintenance of compliant facilities. Practitioner frustration led to recent research to develop a portable measuring tool as well as to develop a validated image analysis algorithm to allow ready measurement of LRV on site. Issues remain that LRV alone is inadequate to reflect user experience. Further research is suggested to assist improve some parameters, but particularly luminance contract calculation methods.

Preferences of people with vision impairment with respect to visibility of elements in the built environment
PRESENTER: Mei Ying Boon

ABSTRACT. The qualities of the built environment impact on the ability of people with vision impairment to move safely through the environment. It is important to revisit the evidence of the relationship between vision and the visibility of elements in the built environment to ensure accessibility standards and design guidelines are consistent with the latest evidence base. This paper reviews mixed method (qualitative and quantitative) research into visual and non-visual factors known to be implicated in injurious incidents in people with vision impairment. The evidence base for the visibility of simulated and real environmental elements such as stairs, doors, door handles, light switches, tactile ground surface indicators, traffic cones, road line markings and pedestrians will be reviewed. The evidence suggests that luminance contrasts of approximately 2.5x current contrast standards, as current standards vary, would allow people with up to severe vision impairment to see objects of the dimensions of tactile ground surface indicators with ease. If people who are categorised as being blind by WHO are considered, about 3x current contrast standards may be required. If lower contrasts are used, alternative provisions should be made to assist people with vision impairment to navigate the space safely.

Dynamic Signs: Appropriate contrast and speed for older adults and low vision

ABSTRACT. The effects of contrast and speed of dynamic signs of visibility were experimentally examined. Thirty young adults, 30 older adults, and 20 persons with low vision participated in the experiment, wherein images of five different categories, namely lines, Japanese words, English words, simple figures, numbers, and pictograms were presented with varying speed and contrast. According to the results, an appropriate range of the speed and contrast of the dynamic signs was obtained considering older adults and persons with low vision. For persons with low vision, the results indicated an appropriate speed of 1.09 or less with a contrast of 0.89 or higher. In addition, it was found that the correct response rate of dynamic signs for young adults is high regardless of the visibility rating, whereas the correct response rate for persons with low vision is lower than that of young and older adults, even under conditions of “easy to see.” The results of this study will be applied to the descriptions of accessibility that are a part of a series of dynamic sign standards under development.

Do you see what I see? Simulating vision impairment to assist design of the built environment

ABSTRACT. Simulation tools have been used within the ophthalmic industry for many years to illustrate vision conditions to normal-sighted people, as well as used in research to measure how vision impairment can affect gait, navigation and hazard identification.

Simulations could be used to communicate the implications of vision impairment to designers of the built-environment. This could improve designs to make them more inclusive for people with vision impairment.

Good Lighting and Visual Contrast to Improve Accessibility in the Built Environment – a Literary Study

ABSTRACT. In the general context of accessibility, the theme of considering the needs of people with visual impairments and of older people, by means of adequate lighting and visu-al contrast of building elements, is growing in importance and in interest by stake-holders. The authors describe the parameters mostly used to assess visual contrast. The discussion focuses on the alternative between the use of the LRV (Light Reflec-tance Value) and the CIE Y tristimulus value, but also on the algorithms which best quantify the visual contrast between two adjacent surfaces, according with human perception. Attention is also devoted to the distinction between the assessment of the reflectance properties of building elements in the laboratory, and the check of the luminance contrast in the field. The paper compares some international and national accessibility standards, examining the quantities considered for the expression of visual contrast (e.g. luminance, LRV, CIE Y tristimulus value) and the algorithms used to quantify visual contrast. The comparison highlights a growing tendency to abandon the LRV difference formula, focusing on formulas using a ratio, which are more suited to simulate human perception. For the future, the authors suggest that the TGs working at “vertical” international and national standards, containing references to accessibility for people with visual impairments, take into account this new approach, which is to be considered as an important step forward for the evaluation of visual contrast.

09:15-10:45 Session 18I: MSD Symposium - Hand intensive work: Where is the problem and how should we evaluate it?
Hand intensive work – where is the problem and how should we evaluate it?
PRESENTER: Jennie Jackson

ABSTRACT. This symposium will present five studies that have assessed different types of hand intensive work, each with a different exposure assessment approach – in terms of body part of interest, type of measurement, and analysis method – and will culminate in a panel discussion on 'where' we should look and 'how' we should assess exposure when it comes to hand intensive work.

Minimally invasive surgery is hand intensive work for the surgeon – does robotic-assisted laparoscopy mitigate the problem?
PRESENTER: Tina Dalager

ABSTRACT. Minimally invasive surgery is hand intensive work, either performed with laparoscopic tools or in a robotic console and has been shown to induce muscular fatigue and musculoskeletal pain. Robotic-assisted surgery has been suggested to mitigate the high physical ergonomic demands in surgery. EMG measures of the forearm muscles showed in an amplitude distribution probability function analysis, a higher static, median and peak muscle activity level during conventional laparoscopy compared with robotic-assisted laparoscopy. However, when we applied a more detailed exposure variation analysis, robotic-assisted laparoscopy showed long-term static muscle activity compared to a more variable muscle activity pattern in conventional laparoscopy. Thus, robotic-assisted laparoscopy does not alleviate the hand intensive work in surgery.

The Effects of Passive Arm-support Exoskeleton Use on Motor Performance and Coordination
PRESENTER: Divya Srinivasan

ABSTRACT. This study examined how muscle synergies used to control the arm while performing simulated overhead drilling were modified, when using a passive arm-support exoskeleton to perform the task (compared to a no-exoskeleton control condition).

Evaluating prolonged, fatiguing arm and hand intensive work

ABSTRACT. Assessment of hand and shoulder tasks present with many degrees of freedom, prompting a seemingly infinite number of variables to evaluate. Task performance may be maintained with increased variability, however, capturing the effects through worker movement and muscle activity have proved to be somewhat of a moving target. This communication highlights our most recent attempt to assess trade-offs in joint moments.

Same-Same or Different? Assessing Exposure Across Repetitive, Hand-Intensive Work Tasks at a Commercial Laundromat.
PRESENTER: Jennie Jackson

ABSTRACT. Trapezius and forearm muscle exposures in hand-intensive commercial laundry tasks proved sufficiently variable for job rotation to represent a viable solution to increase exposure variation at work, even if mean exposures were sometimes similar.

A low-cost sensor-based smartphone app for wrist velocity measurements
PRESENTER: Mikael Forsman

ABSTRACT. A quantitative wrist angular velocity to wrist-related disorders relation have been reported in hand intensive work. This velocity has been complicated to measure. A new sensors and smartphone method was developed and tested. The results indicate the prototype as a promising tool, which in the future may support researchers and practitioners in exposure quantification and risk assessment of hand intensive repetitive work tasks.

09:15-10:45 Session 18J: EWAT 1
What is a good scenario in vocational training design?

ABSTRACT. The notion of scenario runs through many more or less formalized currents in the domain of vocational training design. However, the notion of scenario and scriptwriting (i.e., scenario design) does not seem to have stabilized well in ergonomics and in the field of vocational training. With this in mind, we con-ducted a systematic review of the scientific literature in the field of vocational training in order to better understand how authors define these notions of scenario and scriptwriting and how they report on them in their publications. Using the systematic literature review methodology PRISMA, we identified a corpus of 91 scientific articles over the period 2000-2019 from an initial corpus of 1051 articles. We present here the first results of this work by highlighting the main aspects of the definitions attributed to the concept of scenario. We then focus on 17 characteristics which govern what the authors consider to be a “good scenario”. Finally, we focus on the most quoted characteristics of a good scenario: realism.

Ergonomic Analysis of the Material and Sterilization Center in a Private Brazilian Hospital
PRESENTER: Angelica Juns

ABSTRACT. The Center for Material and Sterilization of the Surgical Center of the Sírio Li-banês Hospital, the focus of this study, presents data showing a high incidence of absenteeism related to musculoskeletal illness. The present work is a primary study with a qualitative research-action design, with a methodological approach in Ergonomic Workplace Analysis (EWA), aiming to raise an overview of the working conditions that supports improvements for the sector. Of the 44 workers participants 61.36% consider the conditions of comfort of the environment and workstations in the sector to be good or excellent. In the focal groups throughout the workers there was a unanimity regarding their professional fulfillment in the MSC, they referred that they would not trade their jobs for any other. However, ten physical and organizational aspects were identified by workers as work-stations with ergonomic problems that need to be improved in order to be more suitable and comfortable, with their respective recommendations. As well, it is relevant too for workers to approach the psychosocial aspects of their labor: high-lighting their professional identity and recognition within the Material and Sterili-zation Center, the Hospital and Nursing.

How to train for everyday work - A comparative study of non-technical skill training
PRESENTER: Steven C. Mallam

ABSTRACT. This paper presents a comparative study of training of non-technical skills in the maritime and lignite power domains. Non-technical skills (NTS) are the cognitive, social and personal resource skills that complement technical skills in operations within high-risk domains. Training NTS is essential to maintain safety in operational contexts, such as onboard a merchant vessel or in the operation of a lignite power plant. Contextual interviews and ob-servations have been conducted across 8 operator training courses, three maritime and five lignite power. The results indicate that the training ap-proaches and their execution differs greatly despite having a common theo-retical basis. While training in the observed maritime courses often com-bined longer theoretical lectures with group exercises and high-fidelity simulations, the focus of the training remained on the use of specific NTS techniques or tools to prevent accidents and incidents. In contrast to this approach, the training in the lignite power domain primarily focused on how to integrate selected NTS into daily operations. While the lignite train-ing also utilized incident examples and shorter lectures, the focus remained on simulating everyday work tasks and to apply newly learned practices as part of routine operations and standard operational procedures. Further, trainees in the lignite training courses were empowered to take charge of their learning processes, as parts of the training let them recreate situations from their work within the simulator. This article highlights lessons learned from each domain with the goal of improving training practices for NTS in high-risk operations.

Co-design of a Learning Analytics tool by computer scientists and teachers, the delicate emergence of a common world
PRESENTER: Joël Person

ABSTRACT. We present here the first part of an ongoing study conducted at a French high school, about the co-design of tools exploiting Learning Analytics by teachers and Computer Sciences researchers. The device implemented by the IT special-ists hardly meets the conditions that would allow for an effective participation of stakeholders in the design process. The object planned to be designed turns out to be disconnected from the real activity of teachers.

Feedback on the use of virtual reality in training: the case of fire intervention trainers
PRESENTER: Sarah Morélot

ABSTRACT. Fire is a major disaster whose human and material cost can be extremely high. Over the last few years, new technologies have been used to develop ever more effective firefighting and prevention tools. Indeed, the emergence of VTE offers new prospects for improving fire safety. These technologies make it possible to free oneself from the constraints of reality and open up the field of possibilities.

09:15-10:45 Session 18K: Gender and Work Symposium - Gender and occupational risks: exposure, perception and coping strategies - Part 2
Symposium Gender and occupational risks: exposure, perception and coping strategies- Part 2
PRESENTER: Marie Laberge

ABSTRACT. Occupational health data show that women and men face different risks, even when they work in the same fields. Is this result attributable to sex (biological and physiological differences) or to gender (social roles, power relationships, norms, and expected behaviors)?

The Arrival of Women in a Male Environment: Methodological Questions to Explore the High Mountain Guide’s Relationship to Risk
PRESENTER: Sandrine Caroly

ABSTRACT. In male-dominated high-risk jobs, the introduction of women may question the relationship to risk and help change the way the profession is represented. The methodology adopted must be careful to overstep sex/gender stereotypes in an effort to understand risk management regulations.

When gender perceptions harms the work collective and contributes to psychosocial risks: the case of teachers of a predominantly female profession in vocational training in Quebec

ABSTRACT. As part of a research integrating gender and aimed at documenting the collective dimension of work in vocational training, we conducted individual and collective interviews with 30 teachers of different profiles. Qualitative analysis of the data shows that the professional skills required for teaching in one of the predominantly female trades we have studied seems to be less recognized by directors of vocational training centers what affects interactions between teachers and therefore the work collective. This paper will highlight how gender affects work activity by reducing the operational leeway necessary for teachers to establish consistency in teaching and student assessment and contributes to psychosocial risks.

Protection of pregnant healthcare workers and gender equality
PRESENTER: Isabelle Probst

ABSTRACT. This communication analyses the experience of workers regarding maternity protection policies, in light of health protection, pregnancy-work conciliation and gender discrimination.

The Rules, the Strategies and Gender Regarding safety

ABSTRACT. The constraints faced by women and men at work deserve to be apprehended for the development of more effective prevention solutions regarding chemical exposure and occupational cancer. So far, the constraints, as so as the re-sources mobilize by the people at work to preserve productive and safety ac-tivity, are not included to the design of the prevention of chemical exposures. As part of a research-intervention on occupational chemical risk prevention, we mobilized ergotoxicology. This approach, which aims to involve workers in the analysis of chemical risk work situations, from a chemical metrology in-tegrated into the work activity, has made it possible to document essential el-ement to build the prevention at different scale. The intervention demonstrat-ed that the documentation of the strategies developed by workers according gender (in order to save their bodies, reduce the discomfort of the presence of chemical substances, put into words the impact of work on health or to pre-serve and protect others workers) could help to better prevent chemical ex-posures, particularly indirect chemical exposures. The results also show that the methodology for analyzing risk situations which makes it possible to build prevention at different levels (operation, company, state) deserves to be enriched in order to document the gendered strategies from which to think about the design of safety situations (at work and in its continuity).

Upper and Lower Limb Work Injuries: A Question of Sex or Gender?
PRESENTER: Silvana Salerno

ABSTRACT. Gender differences in non-vehicle work injuries compensated records in Italy were studied for five years (2014-2018) using Inail (National Institute for Insurance against Injuries at work) Data Records. Results showed 357.306 women injuries and 908.139 men injuries with higher injury rate in both women 11‰ and men 19.1‰ with upper and lower limb differently injured. Upper limb injuries occurred more often among men (women 34% vs 41% men, p<0.05) with hand more injured. Wrist and elbow were significantly injured among women (wrist OR: 2.09; IC95% 2.06-2.13 and elbow OR: 1.46; IC95% 1.42-1.50). A higher women’s injury rate was found in: health care activities (20‰, the highest number of work accidents among women 83.029), cleaning (19‰), transport (17‰) Women reported more wrist fractures in cleaning, wrist dislocation in healthcare and more wrist bruise in post-service activities. Lower limb injuries occurred more often among women (women 30% vs 26% men, p<0.05) with more ankle (OR: 1.06; IC95% 1.05-1.08) and knee (OR: 1.10; IC95% 1.08-1.11), particularly ankle dislocation among cleaners and post-services and bruise of the knee in healthcare activities. The reasons of the high rate of wear and tear of wrist, elbow, ankle and knee among women in analyzed work activities are discussed taking s/g differences into account.

09:15-10:45 Session 18L: Sustainable Development 3
Designing Sustainable Situations

ABSTRACT. This paper aims to illustrate how the debate on sustainable development can be enriched through ergonomics. From our work relating to the reduction of households’ energy consumption, we propose a shift in perspective from behavioral analysis to the study of situated human development over time. The analysis of everyday domestic situations makes it possible to identify both the contexts in which home occupants conduct activities and their experience of real-life situations, with a view to better understanding the mechanisms of energy consumption and reduction obstacles. Based on these criteria, it is possible to design “sustainable situations,” whereby assistive solutions (tools, services) integrating extrinsic energy management objectives can assist actors in everyday situations. The proposed situation transformation entails, on the one hand, the development of adaptive, appropriable systems liable to contribute to in-home energy consumption regulation, and on the other, the development of reflective systems and resource supports to increase energy use awareness and commitments to energy saving. Energy use management is approached here as the result of structural changes across multiple systems (human, technological) emerging from their recurring interactions. By looking at these questions from the perspective of how to facilitate human activity, it is a matter of placing evolving human needs and situations and environmental resource management on an equal footing.

Do user experience time series exhibit complex system properties?

ABSTRACT. We discuss the result of a longitudinal field study on user lived experience dynamics with regards for complex system theory. Time series of long-term user experience dynamics seem to exhibit complex system properties. This calls for further dialog on time complexity.

A Comprehensive Overview on ‘Eco-concepts’ Use from Ergoecology Vision

ABSTRACT. A systematic theoretical-critical review was conducted to establish conceptual similarities and differences around the postulates of eco-productivity, eco-efficiency, and eco-effectiveness, to contribute to the epistemology of Ergoecology. This document shows the scope of the first review phase, which includes articles from 1989 to 2014, on which refinement criteria were used until 18 articles were obtained. Using the conglomerates analysis of the Nvivo-11 software, three groups of authors were obtained, from which it was possible to deduce the differences in approach in a critical reading under the vision of Ergoecology. It was established that there is not enough debate or consensus on eco-productivity; eco-efficiency is the concept most worked on by researchers and eco-effectiveness has been less developed by the scientific community. Emphasis is placed on the general vision of eco-concepts that pursue the understanding of sustainability and its impacts on how to achieve it. It is important to highlight the conceptual differences of the approaches offered by the authors that define each of the eco-concepts, since in some cases they have been misinterpreted without noticing the implications that this may have on the application of the corresponding strategies. It is expected that upon completion of the two review phases, the results will provide clues towards the unification of eco-concepts, allowing the development of effective strategies for sustainability that avoid the prolongation of the rebound effect.

Ergonomics / Human Factors and sustainability: evolution and opportunities

ABSTRACT. The article analyzes the literature that jointly discusses the fields of ergonomics and human factors connected to sustainability (E/HF-S). The aim of the research is to provide relevant information on the evolution of this emerging research area, identifying gaps and future opportunities to consolidate it.

The ergonomics of recycling mattresses in Australia


The study outlines the human factors and ergonomic aspects involved with manually recycling mattresses in the Australian context. Risks in the manual processing of mattress recycling are discussed in the context of an employment strategy (by a social enterprise).

Scaling micronarrative with machine learning to model human and environmental wellbeing in macro, meso and micro systems
PRESENTER: Wendy Elford

ABSTRACT. SUMMATIVE STATEMENT: Ways to link, track and adjust actions to improve human wellbeing often lack scaled qualitative data. We take a systems perspective, combing self-signified narrative from a human sensor network with machine learning to model the broader system, support decisions and reveal progress.

11:45-12:45 Session 19A: Healthcare 12 (Session Sponsored by HIROC)
Home Care Support for Older Adults in England: Perceptions of Quality and Safety Standards

ABSTRACT. Occupational Therapists (OTs), Social Work Managers and practitioners perceptions of the safety risks and quality standards in home care services (packages) that are funded by adult social care for older adults were ex-plored in a descriptive, qualitative study using semi structured interviews and application of the CARE model (Concepts of Applying Resilience En-gineering).Time pressures, skills and knowledge deficits and client depend-ency emerged as key themes impacting the delivery of safe, high quality care for older adults living at home. The next step is to investigate ‘a day in the life of a Home care worker’ and explore the views of independent care pro-viders to develop an understanding of how the design of home care packag-es can be improved to promote safer and higher quality standards of care de-livery.

Resident handlings in eldercare wards: are they associated with the development of musculoskeletal pain among the workers?

ABSTRACT. Little is known about modifiable aspects of resident handlings at ward level and pain development in eldercare workers. In wards with many handlings, interruptions & impediments, workers experienced more frequent and intense musculoskeletal pain over one-year.

Ergonomics in nursing homes: contribution from surface electromiography and cardiomethabolic parameter
PRESENTER: Angela Carta

ABSTRACT. Manual patient handling (MPH) induces high loads on musculoskeletal systems. Different ergonomic approach was proposed to assess and reduce musculoskeletal disorders (MSD). In a nursing home (NH) facility in Northern Italy a pilot ergonomic intervention was carried out. A laboratory protocol was developed and experienced on male voluntaries in order to evaluate issues, usefulness and potential field of implementation.

11:45-12:45 Session 19B: Slips, Trips and Falls 3 - Tribometers: Gaining and Using Useful Data
Evaluation of tribometer measurements on descending slopes: Implications for interpretation of slip resistance testing
PRESENTER: Bradley Rutledge

ABSTRACT. To date, limited research has been performed on whether there is an influence of walkway slope on tribometer measurements. Theoretically, tribometer measurements would need to be adjusted due to gravity. However, since the operating mechanics of some tribometers are not gravity-driven, we sought to evaluate how the measurements of such tribometers would be affected by slope.

Can Tribometers and Testing Protocols Affect Slip Resistance Values and Opinions?
PRESENTER: Timothy Joganich

ABSTRACT. Forensic investigations of slip and fall accidents often entail measuring the slip resistance of the subject floor with tribometers that are of-ten different, which results in expectedly different slip resistance values. Differences in slip resistance measurements obtained on the same floor can be expected when measured with two different tribometers due to the nature of their operation and testing protocol. One such case involved slip resistance testing with two different tribometers using disparate protocols. The measured slip resistance values were substantially different from each other beyond what would be intuitively expected. Nevertheless, specious comparisons were made in this case between the slip resistance values that were measured with two different tribometers. A preliminary laboratory-based study was conducted to investigate the consistency of the differences in slip resistance measurements across floors, which underscores that the proper interpretation of the slip resistance values must be made within the framework of each tribometer.

How Might Slip Resistance Standards Become More Evidence Based?

ABSTRACT. The purpose of slip resistance standards is to enable the specification of floors that will remain sufficiently during an economically reasonable life cycle, as well as to determine their relative safety and ensure their appropri-ate maintenance. It might be presumed that existing standards are evidence-based but where is the evidence to inform public good decision making? While many industries harness the power of historical data and use data ana-lytics to make real time decisions, an appropriate database has yet to be es-tablished for any slip resistance test method variant. The data should ideally pertain to a currently used test, such as the wet pendulum test rather than a past variant that yielded somewhat different results. This paper considers many ways in which various organisations could help to establish evidence-based databases that would then enable data analytics to improve the specifi-cation of floor and ground surfaces, as well as their maintenance. Besides improved life cycle safety performance and reduced maintenance costs, there should also be fewer slip incidents and reduced health costs.

Effect of Test Conditions on COF Measurements on Ice Surfaces Using SATRA STM603 Whole Shoe Tester
PRESENTER: Chantal Gauvin

ABSTRACT. The SATRA STM603 whole shoe tester combined with a refrigerated ice tray to create ice surfaces can be used to measure the coefficient of friction (COF) be-tween footwear and ice. However, performing tests on ice surfaces can be chal-lenging. The objective of this study was to understand better the effect of ice sur-faces (frosted, dry), consecutive runs (1 to 10), and different laboratories (L1, L2) on the COF measurements. The first series of tests was done with two boots on two ice conditions, frosted and smooth dry, in one laboratory. The second series was done with three boots on dry ice, in two laboratories, and the ice temperature was monitored using thermistors. The results of the first series showed that the COFs on the frosted ice declined with the runs until reaching a plateau that converged with the COFs on dry ice. Higher variability was observed with the frosted ice compared to dry ice. The re-sults of the second series showed a slight decrease of the COFs over consecutive runs on dry ice, and a significant difference between labs, associated with the ice temperature and the polish of ice by consecutive runs. This study provided a better understanding of the use and limitations of the SATRA 603ICE ice tray for measuring footwear slip resistance on ice. The method should be further developed, especially the method of controlling the properties of the ice surface, to better simulate ice surfaces in the real-world and to improve the reproducibility of COF measurements.

11:45-12:45 Session 19C: Biomechanics 4: Co-bot Technology
Combining Connected Worker Technology and On-site Intervention Services for Long-term Risk Reduction of Musculoskeletal Disorders
PRESENTER: Bryan Statham

ABSTRACT. Connected worker technology is enabling Ergonomic professionals to quickly pinpoint elevated injury risks across large, diverse or distributed workforces. Integrating wearable technology and advanced data analytics with occupational health service provider organizations has proven to be a hybrid solution that creates a best of breed offering that enables a proactive approach to improved Ergonomics, aiding in the reduction of injury and reinjury. In this case study, a Fortune 25 aerospace manufacturer was able to achieve up to 28% reduction of risk for shoulder injury and 76% for back injury in an area of their operations that had a consistent problem with injuries.

Effects of a Back-Support Exoskeleton on Pelvis-Thorax Kinematics & Coordination During Lifting
PRESENTER: Sivan Almosnino

ABSTRACT. SUMMATIVE STATEMENT: Back support exoskeletons may be of value for alleviating physical demands during performance of manual material handling tasks. We assessed the effects such a device during performance of a lifting task. We found that pelvis-thorax joint position and velocity time series patterns differ when using such devices, but coordination measures did not. Our results can help understand the effects of such devices on lifting technique and assist in determining their usability.

Consequences of a physical assistance on the functional behavior of the shoulder joint during a sagittal flexion.

ABSTRACT. The use of physical assistance for a shoulder elevation in the sagittal plane lower than 90° can limit muscular and mechanical stresses at the origin of tendinopathies associated with subacromial impingement.

Muscle stress when using a handled collaborative robot during an industrial grinding task

ABSTRACT. The use of a handled collaborative robot can reduce muscle stress. However, these benefits depend on the movement performed and may be associated with new constraints.

11:45-12:45 Session 19D: Health and Safety 4
Hierarchical estimation of occupational accident risks in a Brazilian poultry slaughterhouse

ABSTRACT. Work accidents are events that must be controlled in a preventive manner through the planning, organization, and performance evaluation of two implemented control measures. A good performance in Health and Safety at Work is decisive for a company by promoting the reduction of risks of accidents and teaching to their employees, showing results and an internal and external image of the company. Despite being a subject investigated by researchers from different areas in interdisciplinary studies, there is still no emphasis, from an epidemiological point of view, on the different factors and levels (individual and environment) associated with the occurrences of accidents in work environments. The different factors and levels that may be associated with or related to accidents in the most diverse environments and workplaces. This work aims to present the estimates for occupational accidents among workers of a slaughterhouse, considering different factors and levels and using a hierarchical regression modeling. As a result, work accidents were associated with the variables gender; previous work experience in refrigerators; schooling; problems related to the circulatory system and respiratory system; taking breaks during the workday, and rotating activities. In the modeling, it was possible to identify some protective factors (gender, age, time in the company, previous experience in refrigerators, and taking breaks) and risk (schooling, problem related to the circulatory and respiratory system, and performance of rotation) for accidents at work in the company.

Development of Thumb Endurance Curves Applicable for Deadman Switches in Sandblasting Machines
PRESENTER: Arijit Sengupta

ABSTRACT. Thumb operated deadman switches used in sandblasting machines are de-signed to prevent serious bodily injury from unintentional discharge of high velocity sand. The force required to hold down the switch is significant, causing fatigue and pain to set in very quickly in operator’s thumb. The ob-jective of this study was to determine the thumb force capacity and muscle fatigue curves for thumb flexion, applicable for design of these devices. Maximum thumb pressing force (MTPF) and endurance times (ET) for hold-ing down at force levels of 10, 20, 40, and 60 % of MTPF were measured from 10 male and 10 female participants in a lobotomy experiment. The best fit curves of ET as a function of %MTPF were modeled with R2 > 95%. These models should be used in matching the worker strength capacity to the thumb force requirements in deadman switch design to improve safety standards in sandblasting.

Exploring Human Factors Training for the Operating Room: A Review of Offerings for Healthcare Professionals

ABSTRACT. Human factors (HF) training has the potential to improve operating room (OR) safety. This study found that HF education for the OR focuses on nontechnical skills training for perioperative providers. Gaps in teaching systems factors as well as the contributions of the work environment and human physiology to OR performance demonstrate opportunities to further expand HF education for stakeholders at all levels of training.

11:45-12:45 Session 19E: Activity Theories for Work Analysis and Design & ODAM Symposium - New Frontiers of Work, New Researches and Methods, New Perspectives Part 1
Participatory ergonomics mettings on development of an electronic health record for support collaborative care of children and youth

ABSTRACT. Usability studies are focused on heuristics of efficiency, effectiveness, and completeness. However, they generally ignore the content of the work performed. Seeking to overcome this gap this paper aims to present and discuss the role of participatory ergonomics meetings on the development of an EHR for collaborative care of children and youth. As we will present, the construction of a common world will help integrate users to understand different work situations based on this understanding, they could propose solutions to support different phases of care and embracing different professional worlds. This process was developed based on the knowledge about work situations and the dynamics during the collaborative meeting, but also with the support of Intermediary Objects developed by the ergonomist for this purpose

Exploring the impact of COVID-19 on Nurse Workload and Quality of Care via Computerized Simulation
PRESENTER: Sadeem Qureshi

ABSTRACT. COVID-19 is taking a significant toll on front-line healthcare professionals - especially nurses who provide care for patients 24/7. Given the trend for higher acuity levels among the COVID-19 patients and increased infection prevention and control (IPAC) precautions, such as donning and doffing personal protective equipment (PPE), the demands on front-line healthcare professionals have changed. To understand the changes, discrete event simulation (DES) was used to quantify the effects of varying COVID-19 policies on nurse workload and quality of care. We are testing a standard nurse-patient ratio of 1:5 where we vary the number of COVID-19 positive patients in that mix from 1 to 5. Preliminary modeling results show as nurses were assigned to more COVID-19 positive patients, the workload of nurses increased, and quality of care deteriorated. In comparison to the baseline (pre-pandemic) case, distance walked by simulant-nurse, mental workload, direct care time, missed care, missed care delivery time and care task waiting time, increased by up to 40%, 279%, -27%, 132%, 311% and 44%, respectively. The developed approach has implications for design of the healthcare system as a whole, including pandemic planning scenarios.

Working in times of COVID 19: challenges for mental health

ABSTRACT. In this paper we propose a conceptual discussion based on a dialogue between ergonomics and psychodynamics of work (PDW) in order to transform working situations to provide meaning for all protagonists; in regard to the concept that work is central to the lives of the subjects, it is an important path to search for self accomplishment and for the development of different professions, organizations and society. It is a complicated, difficult discussion, since many questions arise; questions that are dangerous, destabilizing, above all incomplete; therefore stimulating. It’s also important to discuss about bleak scenarios workers are experiencing at this moment of our history, in many working situations. What is proposed in this paper is related to a specific issue based on questions related to life at work based on concepts of psychodynamics of work (PDW) and findings that come from actions developed in this field.

Training of Occupational Health and Safety Professionals in Design Thinking
PRESENTER: Ole Broberg

ABSTRACT. Within realistic time constraints we successfully trained six occupational health and safety professionals in applying a Design Thinking (DT) approach to solve complex musculoskeletal and psychosocial problems at work. DT may be defined by the double diamond model pointing to a non-linear and user-centred problem-solving process iterating through divergent and convergent phases A key characteristic of DT is the ability to frame a problematic situation in new and interesting ways. The training was done in a full-day workshop followed by a learning-by-doing phase in which they planned and completed design sprint workshops in companies. The professionals went from novices into advanced beginners according to the Dreyfus model of skill acquisition. In the overall question of the usefulness of DT in OHS management, the average rating went from 6 before the training course to 9.5 after. In an evaluation of the DT approach on a 1-5 scale they rated design sprints at 3.8 to be more appropriate to manage complex problems than the methods they normally used. However, more experience seems necessary to adopt the DT mind set of an iterative process, in which they need to decide which tools to use in an emergent, nonlinear and iterative fashion.

11:45-12:45 Session 19F: Activity Theories for Work Analysis and Design 2: Methods
Ergonomic-cognitive Analysis of Portal of Costs of the Brazilian Federal Government

ABSTRACT. This research analyzed whether Portal of Costs of the Brazilian Federal Government is ergonomically-cognitively adapted and facilitates the use of different types of users.

The work system: a scale to capture the systemic design activity of farmers in agroecological transition
PRESENTER: Marie Chizallet

ABSTRACT. This paper aims to provide some support for the widespread claim that agroecological transition entails a wide variety of changes for the farmers. It focuses on farmers’ work systems (combining several subsystems: biological and technical, socio-economic, family, and related to the farmers’ character-istics) and shows how agroecological transition deals with every part of these work systems. One case study is used to illustrate how farmers' concerns, which are drivers of change, are constructed at the interface of these subsys-tems. The paper focuses on the Chronicle of Change method (Chizallet et al., 2020) to dissect the work subsystems to which the farmer refers in relation to this concern and to analyze how farmers make their work system evolve in the course of their agroecological transition. The perspective of this research paper is to offer tools and methods to support the agroecological transition of farmers in a systemic approach. It is thus shedding light on the transition from a work point of view and not only from a technical point of view.

Ergonomic intervention and formative intervention: two-way dialogue between two systemic interventionist frameworks

ABSTRACT. This paper is part of an international research project, involving French and Brazilian researchers, named « Innovation and Transformation for Prevention Activity of Professional Risks » (ITAPAR), whose main objective is to produce innovations to transform the activity of work-related prevention. This paper aims to deepen the dialogue efforts undertaken by Vilela et al. (2014; 2019) concerning similarities and complementarities between the interventionist methodologies in activity-oriented ergonomics and formative intervention using the cultural historical activity theory framework applied to work-related prevention.

Responsibility of Action and Situated Cognition in Artefact—User Relationship

ABSTRACT. I discuss the dilution of responsibility of action and the idea of a symmetrical re-lationship between artefacts and humans. In doing so, I argue that meaning mak-ing is an activity unilaterally performed by agents, leading to an asymmetrical re-lationship between agents and artefacts. Therefore, the study of the one who is responsible for the action, the meaning-maker (with the capability to act) is crucial for a theory of action responsibility. The latter should not be transferred to de-rived agents, an abstract brand or impersonal technologies. I propose to study the origin of actions for a better understanding of situated cognition in relation to re-sponsibility. Therefore, the role of artefacts in human actions has to be reconsid-ered, since artefacts acquire functions by means of designing and they do not act for themselves. These issues have consequences for our understanding of situat-ed cognition and for the current debate on responsibility of AI technologies, as well as for work analysis and design

11:45-12:48 Session 19G: Ergonomics in Design for All Symposium - Different Approaches for Inclusive Design
Different Approaches for Inclusive Design

ABSTRACT. The human factor applied to design supports a design focused on real people. This symposium includes contributions on human factors applied to the design of accessible and usable environments, products and systems, and is aimed at confronting and exchanging knowledge among ergonomists, accessibility experts, architects, and designers on the inclusive design issue.

How to increase users of products, services and environments — The concept and methods of accessible design

ABSTRACT. One of the most important concepts of accessible design is to increase users of products, services and environments to cover the widest range of human charac-teristics and capabilities. There are two possible methods on how to do it; one is to provide multiple means of information presentation or operation, and the other is to set design parameters of products etc., so that they accommodate diverse human characteristics and capabilities as much as possible. Both methods are ad-dressed as basic strategies of accessible design to make products more accessible (i.e., used by more people). Conducting and repeating this step, products can reach an ideal goal of being universal. In this paper, the concept and methods of accessible design regarding the increase of users are discussed with some exam-ples.

From Accessibility to Inclusion in People Centered Design

ABSTRACT. The paper discusses synergies and difference in several people centered design approaches, in order to clarify processes and methods focusing on human diver-sity. Thanks to a design methodologies review, common grounds and focus are identified by analyzing theoretical basis and applications to different design con-text, for improving and widening their comprehension and practice. The contribu-tion of Human-Centered Design methods to their application is also discussed

Humane Design for Inclusion
PRESENTER: Audrey Reinert

ABSTRACT. The positive and negative consequences of engineering and technical decisions are unequally distributed across the population. Members of marginalized groups are uniquely vulnerable to the negative consequences while having little structural power to alter policy. As a discipline, Human Factors Engineering occupies a unique position within the engineering and decision-making sciences when it comes to assessing and addressing the ramifications of intentionally and unintentionally exclusionary designs. This paper focuses on how person-centered design philosophies and human factors engineering practices can be used to design humane services that minimize negative consequences.

The inclusive design process for designing an adaptive climbing wall for children with CP
PRESENTER: Chiara Parise

ABSTRACT. The increasing awareness of social diversity has attracted the interest and attention of designers who more than ever before have started to design solutions aimed at enabling everyone to obtain increased independence for performing everyday tasks. The inclusive design approach has been largely applied in adaptive sports, to improve levels of functioning in daily living activities, increase physical capability, physiological capacity, levels of employment, social status and sense of belonging. Designing for inclusiveness is a complex and challenging activity that requires the adoption of a specific inclusive design process to create human-centred solutions based on user desire and needs. The paper shows the inclusive design process adopted to support a design team to identify the inclusive requirements for designing a climbing wall for rehabilitation that considers children’s diversity. This process is presented through a project whose aim is to use the climbing sport as a tool for recreational rehabilitation for children with Cerebral Palsy (CP). The inclusive design approach enables to involve in the design process the CP children and all the relevant actors that deals with their rehabilitation and the climbing sport: the children family, physiotherapists, climbing instructors, professional climbers, and the project researchers. This allowed to identify the design requirement by broadly and deeply considering their needs, desires, knowledge, experience and expertise.

11:45-12:45 Session 19H: Work With Computing Systems 3
Steady Hands - An evaluation on the use of hand tracking in virtual reality training in nursing
PRESENTER: Tino Hentschel

ABSTRACT. Our paper describes the setup and the results of an empirical study on comparison of usability and performance while using two different input methods for training of nursing procedures in virtual reality: hand-held controller input and markerless hand tracking. As part of a research project funded by the German Ministry of Health, our study features the aseptic wound cleansing with tweezers and swabs. Our results indicate that the input method could have no significant impact on performance, but ratings on usability show a trend in favor of controller input.

Digitalization and mobile work in home care nursing – how does it work in everyday practice?
PRESENTER: Johanna Persson

ABSTRACT. In this study we explore what digitally supported, mobile work in home care nursing may look like in practice. The results show that there is a large degree of self-determination among the nurses when it comes to organizing their work and that the digital systems can lead to an increased complexity. The diverse environment encountered in home care (as compared to the more standardized hospital environment) accentuates that digitalization has many sides to it and cannot be treated as a generic homogeneous entity regardless of context and task.

Supporting Pain Management for Mechanically Ventilated Intensive Care Patients Using a Novel Communication Tool

ABSTRACT. Intensive care patients that are weaned from mechanical ventilation are facing substantial communication problems due to their limited ability to communicate verbally. This can lead to stress, misunderstandings, prolonged healing processes and a delirium. This paper describes the development of an application supporting the management of pain which is part of a larger system supporting patient needs. In a Human-centred design process, we analyzed both state of the art and context to narrow down and specify requirements, before we iteratively developed a high-fidelity prototype allowing patients to select and express their pain parame-ters like intensity and location, helping medical staff to initiate appropriate pain management. The prototype was rated positively in an evaluation conducted with 10 nursing and usability experts. Their qualitative feedback also showed some minor usabil-ity issues to be addressed. Building on these positive results, planning processes for studies with former and actual weaning patients can be intensified.

Making Tax eForms Less Taxing - Comparing Evaluation Measures of User-Experience, Usability, and Acceptance in Public Sector eForms
PRESENTER: Mourad Zoubir

ABSTRACT. eForms have become a means to decrease workload and processing speed in the public sector. As eForms go beyond simply “digitally replacing” analogue sys-tems, their potential is not yet exhausted. However, to systematically improve eForms, appropriate tools to tailor eForms to user needs and evaluate their usabil-ity are required. The objective of this paper is to develop and evaluate a user expe-rience questionnaire for eForms. We introduce the eForms User Experience Scale (EFUXS), which is based on the Self-Determination Theory and its three facets (competence, autonomy, and relatedness). To assess the validity of EFUXS, its results were compared with well-known usability (System Usability Scale; Brooke, 1996) and acceptance (simple acceptance scale, van der Laan, 1997) measures. In an online study with a randomized within-subject design, university students (N = 60) evaluated their experience with two versions of the same regis-tration form. These forms were designed to implement the best practices from a governmental guide on eForms or their inverse (“worst practices”). All three scales were able to differentiate between “good” and “bad” tax-form versions. The item-analysis of the EFUXS showed acceptable to excellent internal consistency, item difficulty, and discrimination. The scale correlated with the two comparison measures, indicating convergent validity, while offering additional insights into psychological need fulfilment. This study suggests the viability of the EFUXS as a user experience measure and highlights advantages in its use to improve eForms.

11:45-12:45 Session 19I: EWAT 2
Dialogues with Health Workers in a Hospital to Combat the Pandemic COVID-19
PRESENTER: Simone Oliveira

ABSTRACT. SUMMATIVE STATEMENT: Analysis of the work-health relationship in coping with the Covis-19 pandemic in a public hospital from the realization of Groups of Meetings on Work based on the three pole dynamic device.

Steering group: an action-training tool in the ergonomic work analysis

ABSTRACT. The text analyses steering groups (SGs) in ergonomic actions. The SGs are considered as training and strategy tools by ergonomists. They are also seen in their function of co-training and co-analysis of work and of construction of a common language in interventions, which are part of the training paradigm of actors in and for the analysis of work, for and by action. Its background is the complexity of Ergonomics and Training interventions, the sustainability of the ergonomic action and the reciprocal learning. This is the register of the experience of an ergonomic action accomplished in a coal mining cooperative to discuss its wrongs and rights. The focus is on the relevance of the discussion, as there is little dissemination of structured methodology on SG organization. The main issue is on how to structure SGs in ergonomic work analyses (EWAs) that conciliate transformation of labor situations and training of workers. An ergonomic action with work analysis, SG structuring and Meetings on the Work (MWs) was carried out. The results point out indications to what one has to consider when structuring technical, political and operational steering groups.

Covid-19 Humanitarian First Responders’ Experience: Insights for the Design of Preparedness Training
PRESENTER: Elleke Ketelaars

ABSTRACT. We qualitatively studied significant lived experience and strategies of humanitarian staff responding to the Covid-19 pandemic. We present a dilemma typical of the management of unruly problems in a context of resource shortage. Insights for the design of preparedness training are discussed.

Clandestine activity among care assistants in France: Questions for training?
PRESENTER: Grégory Munoz

ABSTRACT. Our approach focuses on the analysis of the activity of care assistants (CAs) working in residential care facilities for elderly dependents (EHPAD in France). We wonder about the link between activity analysis and training: how could this analysis question training?

11:45-12:45 Session 19J: MSD 7 - Method Validation
Comparison of the 2001 and 2018 ACGIH TLV for Hand Activity and risk of carpal tunnel syndrome across pooled multi-national prospective studies

ABSTRACT. Data from prospective cohort studies in the United States and Italy were combined to compare the 2001 and 2018 ACGIH TLV for Hand Activity for risk of carpal tunnel syndrome(CTS). The 2018 TLV(2018TLV) approach showed a stronger exposure-response relationship with CTS.

Concurrent validation of The Shoulder Tool against physician-diagnosed bicipital tendinosis
PRESENTER: Sean Gallagher

ABSTRACT. The Shoulder Tool, a fatigue failure-based risk assessment tool, exhibited concurrent validity for bicipital tendinosis diagnosed by an occupational medicine physician.

Concurrent validation of the Distal Upper Extremity Tool (DUET) risk assessment tool against the prevalence carpal tunnel syndrome
PRESENTER: Sean Gallagher

ABSTRACT. The Distal Upper Extremity Tool (DUET) risk assessment tool exhibited concurrent validity for carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) diagnosed by an occupational medicine physician.

Ergonomists’ risk assessment procedure after E-learning

ABSTRACT. Knowledge translated from a research project influenced ergonomics practitioners to develop their risk assessment procedure in order to assure a higher quality in risk assessment assignments.

11:45-12:45 Session 19K: Systems HF/E 2
Requirements for Measuring Inspection System Performance
PRESENTER: Colin Drury

ABSTRACT. A recurrent in Ergonomics/Human Factors (EHF) studies of the performance of quality inspection systems is: How to obtain valid measures of system perfor-mance. Such measures are needed to determine whether the whole system meets the enterprise’s needs, and also as a baseline for measuring the effectiveness of interventions, e.g., human/automation integration. The methodology used in the paper was to select, review and analyze the findings of over 50 years of inspec-tion studies (e.g., Drury, 2019) in a variety of domains starting in manufacturing (e.g., See, 2012), but continuing into maintenance, security screening, and medi-cal imaging. In all of these domains a similar need emerges to accurately measure inspection system performance This paper provides an analysis of the issues in-volved, alternatives for measurement and recommendations for a comprehensive approach. The major issues in performance measurement are presented. For most applications we recommend one type of study for human, automated and hybrid systems: the Test Sample method

Matching-based Comprehension of Emergency Safety Symbols Among Filipinos: User-centered Quality Measure

ABSTRACT. In the occurrence of natural calamities and accidents, emergency safety symbol is an implicit comparison to proper usage of equipment and appropriate action to follow. The study aims to investigate the relationships and significant differences among demographic factors, comprehension scores, type of identification re-sponses, and cognitive design features that are all associated to emergency sym-bols. A total of 236 participants accomplished the entire questionnaire. Compre-hensibility design of 15 emergency symbols were investigated through demo-graphic factors (age, gender, and educational attainment), type of identification re-sponses (correct, partially correct, incorrect, and opposite meaning), and cognitive design features (familiarity, simplicity, spatial recognition, and semantic close-ness). The study incorporated descriptive statistics, Pearson correlation analysis, ANOVA, and Tukey Post-Hoc test. Symbols 3, 13, and 15 passed ≥85% com-prehensibility requirement of American National Standards Institute (ANSI). Symbols 2, 3, and 5-11 were classified as critically confusing with greater than 5% “opposite meaning” value. Symbol 3 (93.73%) was the most familiar signage while symbol 5 (62.71%) was the least familiar signage. The simplest sign was symbol 3 (95.51%) and symbol 9 (73.9%) was the most complex. Symbol 3 (93.22%) had the highest value of spatial recognition while symbol 9 (74.15%) had the lowest percentage. Highest semantic closeness was acquired by symbol 15 (92.46%) and the least percentage was obtained by symbol 14 (72.63%). Comprehension scores were significant and positively correlated to familiarity (0.62), semantic closeness (0.61), spatial recognition (0.60), and simplicity (0.52). Gender and educational attainment were significant to comprehension scores. Statistical analysis utilized in the study provided interrelationship between the identified factors relative to comprehensibility of emergency safety symbols.

Approach to Measure, Analyse and Develop the User-Centered-Complexity of Technical Products
PRESENTER: Andreas Kaufmann

ABSTRACT. To measure the complexity of the technical product interface literature provides no methodology. This contribution starts with an overview of the state of the art and a categorized summary of the most relevant literature regarding product-related complexity. A methodical approach is presented for measuring human-machine-interface (short: HMI) -complexity including the product complexity and the degree of automation. For both HMI complexity and product complexity, a parameterization is used to obtain a measurable value. With the help of this pa-rameterization a relationship between these three variables could be established. The degree of automation as a variable is used in the form of a balancing buffer to compensate border crossings depending the HMI complexity as well as the product complexity. These borders are individually marked of the respective product in combination with the user group. A brief evaluation of the methodology on the basis of different example products is carried out.

EHF Audits: State of the Art and Lessons Learned
PRESENTER: Colin Drury

ABSTRACT. An ergonomics/human factors (EHF) audit is a methodology for regular review of the fit between people and their working systems. Its objective is to provide proactive guidance on problems or good practices, so that actions can be taken to improve the EHF of a work system, often with an emphasis on safety. An EHF audit can be an appropriate measure of the performance of the EHF function. The objective of this paper is to review the current state of EHF audits from a variety of EHF perspectives and domains, so as to address their value and shortfalls. Audits in the literature and in EHF practice were reviewed (Drury and Dempsey, 2020) by considering the audit’s objective structure and typical questions, as well as noting the balance between breadth, depth and application time. While much of that review concentrated on the data collection instrument, often a checklist or questionnaire, details of how the audit was to be used were noted. This included the sampling scheme and how results of the audit data collection were to be analyzed and presented to management and workforce. The current paper extends the review to lead to lessons learned that can be applied to future audit systems.

11:45-12:45 Session 19L: Healthcare & ODAM Symposium - Translating HFE into Action – Lessons from the frontline Part 2
Difficulties and inefficiencies at the intersection of work-system factors affecting primary care nursing workflows: A workflow analysis using SEIPS 2.0
PRESENTER: April Savoy

ABSTRACT. Misalignment among technology, tasks, and policies adversely affect care processes and outcomes. Using the Systems Engineering Initiative for Patient Safety (SEIPS) 2.0 model, we identified work-system configurations perceived by primary care nurses as difficult or inefficient.

Hospital Unit-Based Risk Factors Linking Patient Safety and Employee Safety
PRESENTER: Nancy Daraiseh

ABSTRACT. Patients and healthcare providers (HCPs) face hazards in a shared hospital environment. But there is little research linking patient and HCP injuries. We address this gap by identifying common risk factors that significantly impact the safety of both patient and HCPs.

Using a Systems Approach to Support the Redesign of an Inpatient Anticoagulant Medication Chart
PRESENTER: Eva-Maria Carman

ABSTRACT. Human factors and a systems approach can offer unique insight into the redesign process of medical charts to enhance usability. This paper describes a mixed method approach utilizing numerous HF tools and theories to support the redesign process for an inpatient anticoagulant medication chart. The system factors and error-producing conditions associated with the use of this chart were identified through a qualitative analysis, using the SEIPS 2.0 model, of 65 reported incidents associated with the use of this chart. To better understand the role of this document at a task level, the task ‘first time prescription of anticoagulant medication’ was analyzed in more detail using Hierarchical Task Analysis and the Systematic Human Error Reduction Approach. The incident report data was then also mapped onto the HTA and SHERPA of the task. Based on studies that applied heuristic analyses and a human factors perspective to chart design and evaluation, key design characteristics were compiled that were used to evaluate the chart. The results from these three different analyses were used to compile recommendations for the next design iteration of this chart.

Human Factors Methods Applied to a Healthcare Information Technology Project
PRESENTER: Matthew Woodward

ABSTRACT. Using a hospital-based improvement project in the UK as a case study, a number of practical human factors/ergonomics (HFE) methods are discussed across four phases of an intervention: analysis, design, implementation and evaluation. The reference project developed and implemented a new web-based referral system which provided shared access to patient details across hospitals. Methods applied were process analysis, software usability studies, prospective hazard analysis (Structured What-If Technique – SWIFT), paper pro formas to collect data in situ, clinical audit and the analysis of electronic health records. The strengths, weaknesses and practical challenges of each are considered. The referral project resulted in an improvement in the quality of clinical referrals and the availability of patient demographic data. It is recommended that HFE projects collect both process and quality data using mixed methods to gain more robust evidence of an intervention’s effects.

13:00-14:30 Session 20A: Pecha Kucha Student Thesis Competition: Little Less Conversation, Little More Action, Please!

Six Pecha Kucha finalists describing their thesis in 20 slides, each for 20 seconds:

- Shofwan Hermanta

- Daniela  Schmid

- Rohmat Khaironi   

- Daniel P Armstrong

- Maksym Khmara

- Christopher A. B. Moore

Little Less Conversation, Little More Action please: The Pecha Kucha Student Thesis Competition

ABSTRACT. Are you tired of listening to presentations that go on and on that put you to sleep? Do you think you can do better? As part of the Student/ECR committee, the IEA2021 is hosting a ‘Pecha Kucha’ (PK) competition for students. This will give students a chance to showcase their overall thesis topics. PK is derived from a Japanese word for ‘chit-chat’ and signifying a concise, fast-paced method of delivering a presentation. PK is a creative and imaginative way to explain com-plex research, within a short time period. The competition will be following the traditional Pecha Kucha format, where participants will be restricted to showing 20 slides, for 20 seconds each, with a total of six minutes and 40 seconds to speak on their thesis topic, in the realm of Ergonomics.

13:00-14:30 Session 20B: Healthcare 13 (Session Sponsored by HIROC)
Establishing successful mobile dialysis experiences: Users’ needs for training programs and monitoring systems

ABSTRACT. This study captures patients’ and care partners’ expectations for training and monitoring procedures before the patients begin using a mobile dialysis device for the self-management of their chronic kidney disease outside of dialysis centers.

Discovering Situational Awareness Training Needs Through Self-Confrontation Interviews Based on Eye-Tracking Videos

ABSTRACT. This proposal shows the identification of anaesthesia residents in situational awareness training needs through self-confrontation interviews based on eye-tracking videos recorded in operating room settings.

Teaching Human Factors through Movies
PRESENTER: Yoel Donchin

ABSTRACT. This is not a research project, but delivery of a concept on how to use movies as an aid to meaningful teaching and to practice observation of “holes in the Swiss cheese” in our system, including a list of film clips that can be used by Human Factors educators.

Assessment Tools to Support Safe Mobilization of Patients

ABSTRACT. The healthcare industry experiences high rates of musculoskeletal injuries (MSIs) of which patient handling (PH) is the leading cause due to the risk of overexertion during the provision of care. One of the goals of the Safe Client Handling (SCH) Program at Fraser Health (FH) is ensuring that early mobilization is part of patient care and that equipment is available to mobilize safely. Healthcare professionals (HCPs) need to have the knowledge and skills to perform initial and ongoing mobility assessments to decrease their risk of injury, improve patient safety and improve care delivery.

13:00-14:30 Session 20C: MSD 8 - Population
Exoskeleton Use: Perspectives and Challenges Based on a National Survey of Construction Workers

ABSTRACT. Construction workers experience high rates of work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs), with the back and shoulder being the most impacted body regions. Exoskeletons are wearable devices that support the physical capacity of the wearer and are a promising and innovative approach to reduce WMSD risks. Survey data collected from various stakeholders in construction are discussed in terms of the perceived benefits, barriers and facilitators of adoption.

Is There Scientific Evidence Supporting the Quebec Institute of Public Health Tools for Rapid Assessment of Physical Work Demands Associated with Work-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders: A Scoping Review
PRESENTER: Haochun Leng

ABSTRACT. This scoping review documents the scientific bases of the tools for rapid assessment of physical work demands associated with work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSD) developed by the Quebec Institute of Public Health Scientific Group on WMSD (SG-WMSD).

Prevention of Work-related Musculoskeletal Disorders in Colombia: A Scenarios Future Study for 2025
PRESENTER: Adriana Rincones

ABSTRACT. This study presents a strategic prospective analysis applied to develop a comprehensive prevention plan to decrease the prevalence of work-related musculoskeletal disorders in Colombia. Using a retrospective and current data analysis approach, researchers studied a) current and past research on the topic of study, b) technological trends and current practices, and c) expert-matter opinion via focused groups to help experts analyze and determine world trends and best approaches to decrease incidence rate of work-related musculoskeletal disorders in Colombia by 2025.

13:00-14:30 Session 20D: Biomechanics 5: Upper Limbs
Arm Force Limits for Above-Shoulder Work
PRESENTER: David Rempel

ABSTRACT. A new model is developed that establishes limits on manual arm forces for above-shoulder work that can be used as a risk assessment or design tool for preventing shoulder fatigue and work-related shoulder injuries such as supraspinatus impingement.

A Biomechanical Analysis of Active Sitting Versus Standing
PRESENTER: Andrew Cardenas

ABSTRACT. The objective of this study was to provide a biomechanical comparison of two different types of active workstations (active chair and standing workstation) versus a static chair.

Influences of Target Distance and Size on Shoulder Stress and Task Performance during Augmented Reality Interactions
PRESENTER: Jaejin Hwang

ABSTRACT. This study evaluated the effects of target distances and sizes on the shoulder stress and task performance during augmented reality (AR) interactions. While the target distance mainly affected shoulder posture and muscle activity, task performance was influenced by both target distances and sizes.

Optimisation of product handle material mechanical properties for improved ergonomics using finite element method and subjective response
PRESENTER: Gregor Harih

ABSTRACT. Finite element method (FEM) is being increasingly used in ergonomics and biomechanics lately, since it can provide various quantitative results, which are otherwise not obtainable, however, it does not provide any results in terms of subjective rating. Therefore, in this paper we investigated to what extent the quantitative results of FEM can be used to predict the subjective comfort rating. We focused on the optimization of the product handle mate-rial parameters to lower the contact pressure while maintaining the stability of the handle in hands. Basic criterion of pressure discomfort threshold has been used for the FEM approach. Deformable meta-material interface layer of a product handle has been manufactured using 3D printing technology based on the obtained results. Additionally, one handle with higher stiffness, one with lower stiffness and handle made from hard plastic have been manu-factured for comparison. A sawing task has been utilized for the evaluation of the subjective comfort rating. Results have shown the material properties of the deformable handle obtained by FEM with optimization yielded in higher comfort rating when compared to the hard-plastic handle while main-taining same stability. Stiffer deformable handle showed slight increase in comfort rating with similar perceived stability, while softer deformable han-dle was rated lower in terms of subjective comfort and provided less stability. Results indicate FEM can be successfully used for initial material parameter identification; however subjective response needs to be considered for fine tuning of the material behavior.

Phase 1: The Cognitive and Physical Demands of using Remote Spinner Knobs on a Healthy Population
PRESENTER: Michelle Cardoso

ABSTRACT. A comparison of three different types of remote spinner knobs (RSKs) was done to further understand the physical, cognitive and physiological adaptations of using RSKs.

13:00-14:30 Session 20E: Health and Safety 5
Risk Behaviors and Self-medication in Active Workers

ABSTRACT. The problem of self-medication at work has different nuances and raises serious questions about work practices. Self-medication behaviours are linked to cultural and social practices, however in workers it was related to pain management and to face the demands of their activity, self-medication can be seen as a resource in itself to maintain productivity at work. This study addressed self-medication behaviours and risk behaviours in three consecutive moments and in complementary perspectives, this in order to understand how they can be related. Specifically, when workers must place work at the center of their interests, leaving apart matters related to health, self-medication is also identified as a practice related to showing efficiency and productivity, especially in work environments where uncertainty about accessibility to work is critical. The study of self-medication in workers also highlights the problem of high consumption of pain medications, institutional data are just the tip of the iceberg, the high consumption of this type of medication indicates a problem that deserves to be studied in depth due to the profound implications for workers and their health, but also for security problems in organizations.

Wearable Sensor-driven Task Segmentation for Electrical Transmission and Distribution Workers
PRESENTER: Lora Cavuoto

ABSTRACT. We investigated a fundamental preprocessing step of wearable sensor data for assessment of the ergonomic risks associated with the activities of electrical transmission and distribution workers. To automate postural risk evaluation, we show that accurate task segmentation can be achieved from a wrist-worn acceleration sensor.

Exploring the structure and content of pro formas for Signal Passed at Danger incidents in Australia and New Zealand
PRESENTER: Anjum Naweed

ABSTRACT. In rail transportation, managing and mitigating the risk of Signal Passed at Danger (SPAD) incidents is a perennial challenge, with causation reflective of a systems issue. However, very little research has evaluated the role of SPAD Pro Formas—the documents used to collect and analyse information during investigation. A total of 208 internal investigation reports were obtained for SPADs occurring over four years (2014-2018) from 10 organisations across Australia and New Zealand. Results revealed large variation across SPAD Pro Formas, and a notable paucity of multifactorial explanations for SPAD causation, creating key questions around organisational learning.

Rapid Assessment on Occupational Health and Safety Issues Faced by Young Workers in Indonesia Construction Sectors

ABSTRACT. The construction sector is a significant contributor to Indonesia's economy. However, this sector is a high-risk industry for Occupational Safety and Health (OSH), especially for young workers. This study aimed to analyze the OSH issues facing young workers in construction, including social & welfare is-sues, the knowledge and perceptions regarding OSH legal requirements, and the implementation. The sample size is 440 young workers aged 15-24 using Slov-in's formula (95% CI). These data were collected from 4 large-scale public and private construction companies; power plants, transportation, residential, and of-fice building projects using a questionnaire by interview, focus group discussion, and field visits to construction industry sites. The majority of respondents were male (86%), 21-24 years old (73,4%), and 1.8% were aged 15-17. 93% worked for >5 days per week. 71.6% worked overtime for <14 hours per week. Another result showed that 83.6% had a single marital status (unmarried), and 54.5% are active smokers with about 11 cigarettes per day. The average smoking history is >5 years (35.8%). 9.8% consume alcoholic beverages, 74.3% sleep for <8 hours per day, and 65.5% regularly exercise. The worker's perception found that 95.2% stated their company had provided OSH information properly. 83% said their company implements OSH's supporting factors (reward, information, rules, and engagement). Also, 74% revealed their company is good in compliance with OSH regulation, adherence in OSH implementation, and budgeting on OSH. There is a need for an occupational health program for young workers, mainly promoting health.

13:00-14:30 Session 20F: Activity Theories for Work Analysis and Design & ODAM Symposium - New Frontiers of Work, New Researches and Methods, New Perspectives Part 2
New Frontiers of Work, New Researches and Methods, New Perspectives
PRESENTER: Pascal Béguin

ABSTRACT. The aim of this joint ODAM-ATWAD open symposium is to invite colleagues (included PhD students) to present topics and works that provide innovative insight in HFE, based on observed or anticipated changes of work setting, organization and activities.

Ergonomics for Real Change: An Initial Look at System Facts and Concerns

ABSTRACT. For ergonomics to create real change, it needs to address the immediate technical problem to be solved as well as the human, organizational, and societal context of the change. This contribution presents a qualitative-interpretative analysis that re-flects on vignettes from real life experiences. These cases will create sketches that will be familiar to ergonomists and change agents in organizations. Using this storytelling format, we will convert the focus of analysis from traditional change strategies to this broader conceptualization of systems. This will include ques-tions about the journey (history) to the scenario, the actors’ motivations, agendas, agency and the organizational causes. Defining matters of fact (MoF) and matters of concern (MoC) is similar to accident investigation analysis as they define proximal and distal causation to the event. The paper suggests a way to conceptu-alize these contextual variables into the ergonomics change process.

Well-being and Efficiency in Financial Sector Analyzed with Multiclass Classification Machine Learning
PRESENTER: Gregor Molan

ABSTRACT. The main research goal is the identification of the most important well-being parameters determining worker’s efficiency in the financial sector from 2005 until 2020 in the time of great changes in the socio-economic situation in Slovenia. Data were collected in 2005, 2010, 2015, and 2020 - key periods of important milestones in economic growths and declines in Slovenia for 2723 financial workers. All data are analyzed using the ML classification method to identify the most important attributes (well-being parameters) determining worker’s efficiency. To prevent possible overfitting and/or underfitting there is a prescribed adequate tree depth for each decision tree as an additional domain knowledge added to the presented ML solution. We chose a binary decision tree learning, that is simple to understand and interpret with an ability to handle both numerical and categorical data.

A changing world: challenges related to flexible / precarious work

ABSTRACT. One of the first challenges we face in this article is to define “precarious”. There is a lot of talk about job insecurity, as if it were a recent process, and therefore it is something relatively new in labor relations and production strategies in the capitalist world. We do not agree with this, even if it is not the intention of the authors, to place this process in contemporary times; it is something very old and, perhaps, something that has always existed when people had to work dominated by others. On the other hand, the advent of neoliberalism exacerbated these processes; even more when financial issues more and more govern production systems. So there is a lot to worry about when dealing with the issue of precariousness, since, as they become more accelerated and intense, these processes have an immense repercussion on the health of workers and also on social relations, also constituting a risk greater breakdown among the society.

Need-seeking: Creating, discovering or recovering needs?

ABSTRACT. Need-seeker approach, which orients new product development towards the satisfaction of future needs, has been recognized as one of the most efficient innovation strategies to date. But finding future needs to address remains a challenge for companies, entrepreneurs and practitioners, as they lack a methodological framework to structure their approach. In this chapter, we first elaborate on three paradigms for need-seeking: discovery of future needs, creation of new needs, and recovery of fundamental needs. We then provide examples of methods supporting each paradigm, and tentatively position them in terms of reliability and affordability, so that innovation teams can make informed choices in their application. Thereby, we expect to contribute to the field of prospective ergonomics and its concrete implementation, as well as to the promotion of radical innovation based on needs and uses rather than based solely on technology.

Beyond Human Factors and Ergonomics: An inter-professional model of practice to optimize function, workplace design and conditions

ABSTRACT. Using an integrated, collaborative and holistic approach in the understanding and solution implementation to Human Factors and Ergonomics is essential as employees face increasing demands, experience complex conditions and are required to perform at higher levels of function. This paper highlights the positive impacts of instilling a model of practice that promotes successful collaboration between employees, employers and Subject Matter Experts (SME) with the aim of improving employees and industry’s health while contributing to the enhancement of the science of Human Factors Ergonomics, Occupational Therapy, Traditional and Alternative Medicines. Inspired by the Industrial Athlete model first introduced at the Boeing company in 2005 to support their factory workers, the authors have developed a more comprehensive and holistic model based on lessons learned where SMEs and experts from various disciplines collaborate from the onset by using their unique professional lens to address workers and workplace related injuries and solve Human Factors and Ergonomics issues to ensure optimal and sustainable results [1, 2]. Utilizing an interdisciplinary model of practice promotes the offering of services that are built on trust, knowledge transfer and expertise which benefit the employees’ health and well-being and allows for successful implementation of strategies, directives and changes, while ensuring that both employees and employers access professional support from industry experts and assuring that their respective needs are identified at program inception. This collaborative approach allows for a seamless integration of disciplines that aim to benefit workers in their ability to excel in their role while receiving the care they need efficiently.

13:00-14:30 Session 20G: ODAM Special Session - The scope of ergonomics / human factors practice at WorkSafeBC
The scope of ergonomic/human factor practice at WorkSafeBC
PRESENTER: Emma Christensen

ABSTRACT. WorkSafeBC is the occupational health and safety regulatory agency of British Columbia (BC) and employs six ergonomists. This session will highlight the value in which the ergonomists deliver to WorkSafeBC internally to corporate staff and externally to industry stakeholders. The panel session will provide opportunities for questions and discussions from participants to explore how they can begin or adopt innovative ideas and practices to advance safety in their own organizations. Learning objectives include:

  1. How the WorkSafeBC ergonomists have successfully applied Human Factors/Ergonomics (HFE) principles in their scope of practice with industry and also with internal staff.
  2. How to best collaborate with different departments and stakeholders to improve engagement and leverage the application of HFE principles.

All ergonomists aim to reduce injury and optimize workplace performance. Four of them work with a variety of industry sectors – directly with employers, workers, and health & safety associations in BC. Two other ergonomists work with the wide array of internal WorkSafeBC employees and have been an integral part of developing a successful corporate health, safety and wellness program.  Each panelist will speak to their own scope of applying the science of HFE, highlighting successes and challenges in their work engagements.

13:00-14:30 Session 20H: Work With Computing Systems 4
How Deferral Rate Can Affect Human Performance and Trust Perception? A Human-AI Joint Face-Detection Task
PRESENTER: Pouria Salehi

ABSTRACT. This pilot study investigates how human performance outcomes and trust perception are affected by human-AI interaction structure and deferral rate in a face-matching task. The more that an AI agent deferred to a person, the higher the person’s signal detection sensitivity, the lower the throughput, workload, and trust.

Framework for the Future of Aided Navigation
PRESENTER: Adam J. Reiner

ABSTRACT. We have developed a new framework for navigation aids that focuses on how spatial information can be presented with advances in display technology. Our framework focuses on the relationship between the navigator and spatial information within an aid in two ways, i) perspective or scene-dependence of the aid’s presentation, and ii) the aid’s ability to sense and adapt to the navigator’s context. Examples of aids in each category are provided and their effect on navigation tasks is discussed.

Users' error recovery strategies in the interaction with Voice Assistants (VAs)
PRESENTER: Isabela Motta

ABSTRACT. Errors in interactions with Voice Assistants (VAs) are still recurrent, but evidence shows that users try to repair interactions by applying error recovery strategies and that such tactics are affected by VA responses. Although previous studies have addressed this matter in voice-based interfaces, VAs have specific characteristics that demand new investigations. Thus, this study aimed to understand the relationship between different types of VA responses and users’ error recovery strategies. We conducted usability tests followed by debriefing sessions with VA users and identified categories of VA responses and user behavior. Our findings echo previous studies that pointed to VA responses as a source of understanding about the VA. While speech recognition issues were dealt with changes in pronunciation and repetition, participants approached unintended feature execution with exploratory behavior. Finally, when users received instructions on how to proceed, they followed recovery paths, indicating the importance of support for error handling. However, our findings show that HF/E specialists need to carefully design such guidance to accommodate users’ preferences and achieve successful recoveries.

13:00-14:30 Session 20I: EWAT 3
Identification of sensitive driving situations to guide the design of a learning tool for automated vehicle drivers
PRESENTER: Hugo Cusanno

ABSTRACT. This paper presents a research process aiming at studying the activity of drivers in automated vehicles (AV). To do this, we carried out in situ ob-servations and conducted interviews with two different populations: pro-fessional and novice drivers in automated driving (AD). The results ob-tained by triangulation highlight a series of "sensitive" situations specific to automated driving. The clinical analysis of these situations shows changes in the relations and mediations involved. Some of them have common characteristics, making it possible to classify the sensitive situations identi-fied. These changes require a potential adaptation of "traditional" driving schemes, necessary for the appropriation of the AV by the drivers. These results allow us to provide recommendations for improving AV prototypes, and to consider the design of a learning tool to support the appropriation of these systems. This device should, at a minimum, make it possible to famil-iarize vehicle drivers with sensitive driving situations, in order to initiate the transformation of their schemes upstream, and to cognitively relieve them in real driving situations.

Developing a Training Action for Primary School Teachers by Doubly Considering (their) Work
PRESENTER: Ana Rodrigues

ABSTRACT. This paper aims to describe the development of a training action for primary school teachers, considering and respecting their real work activity, with the purpose of discuss with them the relevance of integrating into their teaching activity with their students a reflection about work, considering issues of gender, age, and health in the work contexts. This study was developed in the scope of an action-research project, in partnership with Porto City Council, and involved the development and pilot implementation of an in-person training action, with 4 primary teachers within 2 different public schools in Portugal. Customized tools were built with the purpose of bringing teachers’ work activity to be discussed in the training action. The teachers involved evaluated the training’ contents and tools as being very appropriate; felt that their work activity was respected and that the training action was well articulated with what was foreseen. These results point towards the benefit of discussing with teachers the contents to be developed with children and to how this process can be done. At the same time, having this discussion about work for teachers to explore the topic with their students resulted in a reflection about their own work activity and the conditions for its realisation. This project constituted a practical application of doubly considering the work activity of primary school teachers as the starting point to the design of a contextualized training action.

Impact of High Production Demands in Knowledge Transmission and Learning: contributions of Work Activity Analysis
PRESENTER: Claudia Pereira

ABSTRACT. Production demands are one of the constraints that challenges work activity, knowledge transmission and learning in workplace. In order to understand, through the analysis of real work activity, how working conditions within a context based on a pull flow model interferes with knowledge transmission and learning, a case study was conducted within a specific and cru-cial function in a Lithograph production line in a Portuguese metalomechanic company. Data was collected through the analysis of the real work activity of Printing Lithographers (PL) and Auxiliary Printing Lithographers (APL). Data show that PL is a function with high variability and fluctuating demands, in a pull flow logic, that affects knowledge transmission and learning opportunities: these occurs through brief/momentary explanations and demonstrations during production, depending on current problems and on PL’ availability. The results underpin the pertinence and originality of the study in terms of under-standing the impact that certain working conditions have on knowledge transmis-sion and learning in pull flow organizations, particularly in the Portuguese con-text, and contributes also to scientific enrichment about the importance of using work analysis in real work contexts.

Four Principles for the Design and Support of “Good Enough” Simulations for Crisis Management Novices
PRESENTER: Elleke Ketelaars

ABSTRACT. We analysed two novice crisis managers' lived experience of a typical low-fidelity simulation. As an alternative to costly high-fidelity simulations, we propose a conceptualisation of the idea of "good enough simulation" and suggest subsequent simulation design propositions.

13:00-14:30 Session 20J: Slips, Trips and Falls 4 - Code, Stairs and Safety
Do stairs with visual cues lead to fewer missteps?
PRESENTER: Stephen Thorpe

ABSTRACT. This preliminary work considers alternatives to proprietary nosings, which could be equally effective at visually highlighting the edges of nosings. This paper considers two alternative designs: contrasting floor covering on alternate steps and localised LED lighting on alternate steps. The work illustrates how the two conditions compare visually against the baseline condition of a stair without nosing markings (typical in domestic settings) and a stair with contrasting proprietary nosings (typical of a public setting). It also explores the possibility of further experimental research which will consider the measurement of changes in gait which might result from the addition of visual nosing highlighting.

Misuse of Codes, Standards and References in forensic ambulation-safety analysis

ABSTRACT. In United States jurisprudence, Reasonable Certainty is one of the criteria for the admissibility of expert opinion in litigation. One element of establishing Reasonable Certainty can be that it comports with a code requirement, a vol-untary-consensus standard, a handbook practice or, in their absence, with Ac-ceptable Practice. From there, and importantly, that the claimed requirement, standard or practice is causally related to the accident under analysis. A key element in using a code, standard, or reference in the Reasonably-Certain ru-bric is that all substantive elements, including temporality, must be met. The key elements in showing that something comports with Acceptable Practice are, in addition to the elements listed above, that the Acceptable Practice in fact exists beyond the imagination of the interested expert. Ignoring any of these elements, often deliberately, turns what should be dispositively signifi-cant elements of litigation into a meaningless check-box item. It has been my experience that many forensic practitioners simply ignore all this, citing for-one-reason-or-another irrelevant code and standards in their desire to give the work the appearance of a mantle of authority. That this is inappropriate is hopefully obvious.

Why, How, and How Effectively Do USA and Canadian Building Codes Address Two Leading Fall Sites in Homes?

ABSTRACT. Despite abundant evidence, the most effective, ethics-driven, fall prevention and mitigation interventions have not been widely employed for new home settings in the USA and Canada in the last five decades. The Canadian and the two US model codes organizations came into existence independently and more or less in isolation with different histories, influential constituencies and procedures that developed in different places. Progress on fall prevention and mitigation efforts has been influenced by what can be thought of as an organizational personality or culture. With one exception, the National Fire Protection Association, NFPA, these organizations’ codes and standards have generally been, at best, slow and, at worst, opposed to adopting fall prevention and mitigation requirements. Also, these organizations affect not just safety, but usability of homes and all other built environmental settings. For example, for stairways serving people in their homes, the most appropriate, minimum requirements should be based on public building requirements for stairways. Most generally, the three organizations operate in three very different political and cultural contexts that greatly influence their overall activity which is focused on differing emphasis on organization-funded and facilitated research, education, training, safety document production, and quality control generally.

13:00-14:30 Session 20K: Visual Ergonomics 1
Prevalence and determinants of computer vision syndrome in Italian workers

ABSTRACT. Computer vision syndrome (CVS) is a common occupational health issue but its definition, diagnosis and surveillance are often debatable. The Italian version of the validated Spanish CVS-Q©, was administered to 238 Italian workers using video display units (VDU), to estimate prevalence and potential risk factors for CVS. The prevalence of CVS was 67.2%. Female sex, intensive use of VDU at work and the use of optical correction to work significantly increased the probability of CVS.

Visual Symptoms and Risk Assessment Using Visual Ergonomics Risk Assessment Method (VERAM)

ABSTRACT. A visual environment impaired by e.g. glare can cause eyestrain, visual symp-toms and musculoskeletal strain. A Visual Ergonomics Risk Assessment Method (VERAM) consisting of both a subjective questionnaire and an ob-jective risk assessment, have been used at 217 workplaces, mainly computer work. VERAM can be used to examine and prevent deficiencies and increase wellbeing as well as detecting risks in the visual work environment and sug-gest measures that can be used to reduce the risks. The questionnaire showed that eyestrain, visual symptoms and musculoskeletal strain are common among Swedish workers. The overall risk assessments for glare and amount of illuminance on work surface are divided into three categories, green – no risk, yellow – risk, and red – high risk. Risk of glare and insufficient illumi-nance was present at 66 % and 49 % of the assessed workplaces, respectively. When the risk of glare and illuminance levels was rated as red, the frequency of the subjective strain was higher.

Dynamic Signs: Field Test to Install Signs Around the Stairs
PRESENTER: Reiko Sakata

ABSTRACT. This paper discusses the safety requirements to install dynamic signs around the stairs in the facility, in order to safely install and design dynamic signs in consideration of human cognitive characteristics. This paper discusses safety requirements when installing dynamic signs. The discussion is based on the results of observing behavior and measuring lines of sight of facility users in field tests where signs are installed around the stairs inside an event facility. The results reported in this paper shows that the dynamic signs provided on the floor at the bottom of the stairs exhibited a guiding effect on the facility users as they went down the stairs. Also, when the behavior of facility users going up and down stairs was observed, no congestion or contact accidents were caused due to people reading the content of the dynamic signs on the floor, or being preoccupied by the signs. However, facility users moved while watching the sign by central vision for a short time of approximately 2 secs. or less, and it was found that there is a possibility of misrecognition if the sign presentation position is not within the visual field during movement.

Dynamic Signs: Multiple Attributes Determining Visibility
PRESENTER: Hiroshi Watanabe

ABSTRACT. Dynamic signs are an information presentation technology that changes the visual attributes of information displayed in public spaces in order to improve its visibility. With the development of new projector and display technologies, dynamic signs are already being put into practical use. However, it has not yet been established what kinds of signs should and should not be used. To ensure the continued development of dynamic signage as a new form of infrastructure, it is necessary to avoid unintended negative effects resulting from lack of systematic use. It is therefore important to accumulate ergonomic data that can be used toward the establishment of requirements for safe and easy-to-read dynamic signs. This study aims to elucidate visual requirements for signs that provide human traffic-flow guidance, which is one application of dynamic signage. The primary information provided by human traffic-flow guidance signs are the direction and distance to a destination. Herein, we consider the signage placement conditions and attributes required to convey this information, including interactions with aging effects. In this paper, we introduce the results from ergonomic experiments using immersive virtual reality that can be used as quantitative criteria for the visual de-sign of dynamic signs.

Visual Ergonomics in Control Room Environments

ABSTRACT. Visual conditions in 20 control rooms were evaluated. Results show that operators experience higher visual requirements and more eye related problems where there was contrast glare, repeated changes in focusing distances, and poor screen contrast.


Hosted by Steven Fischer, PhD

This virtual tour overviews the research program and technical capabilities of the Occupational Biomechanics and Ergonomics Lab (OBEL) at the University of Waterloo. The self-guided virtual tour will showcase current research thrusts which aim to: better understand determinants of occupational performance, advance functional capacity assessment, advance digital human modeling, and to inform better, safer products. Additionally, viewers will be able to work through a 360° tour of the physical lab space highlighting the equipment and capabilities available to support OBEL research.

15:00-18:00 ACE Social Time on REMO

Association of Canadian Ergonomists (ACE) Social Time

Feel free to join us on the 7th floor in REMO for a casual social event.  Bring your own snacks.