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06:00-07:30 Session 11A: Healthcare Symposium: Ergonomics In Surgery 2
The Complexity of Anesthesia Devices
PRESENTER: Sarah Coppola

ABSTRACT. Anesthesia providers use multiple devices to deliver perioperative care. As these devices vary in complexity and possess different failure modes, the sociotechnical system in which they are used must be considered.

Sound as a Surgical Tool: Understanding the Acoustic Biotope of Operating Rooms

ABSTRACT. Operating Rooms (OR) overflow with sounds, yet their functions within the OR are poorly understood. This research provides evidence-based knowledge from other fields to propose to incorporate sound into the clinical workflow. Outcomes will provide strategies to organize sounds in the OR for a better operating environment and improve the wellbeing of patients and clinicians.

Human Factors Integration in Robotic Surgery
PRESENTER: Ken Catchpole

ABSTRACT. We are currently implementing a set of interventions to improve the integration of RAS into operating rooms.

Impact of Audio/Visual Guidance on Novices’ Training with VR Orthopedic Surgical Simulators

ABSTRACT. Minimally invasive surgery, specifically endoscopy, is a vital component in mod-ern surgical healthcare. Due to the challenging nature of operating through a re-stricted endoscopic camera view, novice surgeons must master navigating surgi-cal volumes effectively and efficiently. One of the specific focus areas for these inexperienced surgeons is maintaining the horizon of the camera in the surgical volume. Alongside traditional cadaver training, surgeons use mixed-reality surgi-cal training simulators to improve their surgical skills. In this work, we propose a new method of training novice users in the proper method of maintaining camera horizon alignment in an arthroscopic knee procedure. We ran a study with 21 medical novices on a commercially available surgical simulator. We provided au-tomated verbal cues, digital sine wave audio, or a commercially available visual horizon bar to see if an improvement in performance could be found over the control group that received no additional feedback for the camera horizon. We ex-amined the Overall Workload of the participants, along with the misalignment time of the camera horizon and the procedure time. Results from the study showed that the verbal cues improved procedure time and Overall Workload, and the visual horizon bar improved the horizon misalignment time. Digital sine wave audio was not effective overall.

Virtual and Augmented Reality Display Technology and Its Effect on the Visual System of Elderly and Younger
PRESENTER: Marino Menozzi

ABSTRACT. A visual search task was presented in augmented reality (AR) at a far (2 m) and a near (30 cm) virtual distance to 24 young and 20 elder participants. Performing the task at 30 cm led to an increase in asthenopic symptoms. The increase was more pronounced in the group of young participants. The use of AR in microsurgical interventions with close eye work should therefore be considered with care.

06:00-07:33 Session 11B: Transport EHF Symposium- Connected and Automated Driving: First Results from a Japanese-German Research Cooperation Part 2
Leaving the operational design domain: factors facilitating safe transitions in automated driving

ABSTRACT. The society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) International (2016) has defined six levels of driving-automation, ranging from no automation (Level 0) to full automation (Level 5). When automated vehicles eventually appear on public roads, there would be zones and situations where these vehicles could operate autonomously and zones and situations where they would have to be driven by human drivers. SAE International (2016) denominated the former zones and situations as operational design domains (ODDs). A driver is not required to monitor the environment during level 3/4 automated driving within an ODD, such as a highway, resulting in a degraded awareness of the traffic situation. The vehicle will prompt a takeover request (TOR) when leaving the ODD; for example, when entering rural roads, the driver is expected to develop appropriate situational awareness of the traffic environment, make timely responses to the TOR, and drive the vehicle manually. Therefore, it is crucial to explore factors facilitating driver’s construction of situational awareness and improve driving performance during the transitions of control from automated to manual driving.

Personality Influences on Drivers' Decision to Take Back Manual Control: A Simulator Study on Automated Driving
PRESENTER: Jasmin Leitner

ABSTRACT. Automated driving aims to enhance traffic safety. However, as long as drivers have the opportunity to take back manual control of the automated vehicle, they can disable automation to drive manually at any time. For an increase in traffic safety, this driver-initiated driver control should not occur in safety-critical situations when the automated system works faultlessly. In this driving simulator study, factors influencing the decision to take back manual control of an automated vehicle were investigated. Participants (N = 46) were driven by an automated system on a two-lane country road behind a slow vehicle. The visual range was restricted by fog. Therefore, the automation did not perform an overtaking maneuver. The automation could be disabled by the driver to overtake the preceding vehicle by performing a safety-critical maneuver. The influences of impulsivity and sensation seeking as well as three automation feedback systems on the decision to take back manual control were examined. Results indicated that high sensation seeking as well as high impulsivity were associated with an earlier deactivation of the automation. Though, driver-initiated driver control was not influenced by the different automation feedback systems. This experiment provides insights into factors influencing driver-initiated driver control, which might be useful for the development of automated driving systems and guidelines for automated driving.

Comprehending eHMI Icons Without and Within Context
PRESENTER: Daniel Eisele

ABSTRACT. Traffic context significantly facilitated intuitive comprehension and the learning process of external human machine interface (eHMI) icons in an online experiment (N = 175).

Design of External Human-Machine Interfaces for Different Automated Vehicle Types for the Interaction with Pedestrians on a Shared Space

ABSTRACT. Future traffic will be determined by the joint interaction of automated vehicles and other traffic participants in mixed traffic environments. For an overall safe and efficient traffic flow, the communication between automated vehicles and pedestrians must be ensured. An external human-machine in-terface (eHMI) serves as a communication channel between automated vehicles and other traffic participants. However, it remains unclear how information needs may differ for different vehicle types and how this should be considered in the eHMI design. This experimental online study investigates the pedestrians’ interactions with two different automated vehicle types (car vs. bus) on a shared space. Both vehicles were equipped with the same eHMI communication strategies (mode awareness, intention-based, perception-based, combination) based on a LED light-band eHMI. Short video sequences from a pedestrians’ perspective were shown in which the participants in-teracted with both vehicle types. Results showed that participants felt significantly safer and more comfortable when interacting with the car compared to the bus. Furthermore, participants felt significantly safer and better informed when an eHMI communication strategy was presented vs. mere mode awareness vs. no eHMI at all for both vehicle types (car vs. bus).

Negative Effect of External Human-Machine Interfaces in Automated Vehicles on Pedestrian Crossing Behaviour: A Virtual Reality Experiment

ABSTRACT. Communication between pedestrians and automated vehicles is playing a key role in enhancing the safety of future traffic environment. The current study attempted to suggest new insights into designing external human-machine interfaces (eHMIs) in automated vehicles for traffic safety as examines negative effects of the eHMI on pedestrian crossing behaviour in a situation where an automated vehicle yields to pedestrian. Virtual Reality systems simulated three experimental conditions: baseline (no eHMI), showing “After you” and “I’ll stop” via eHMI on an automated vehicle in residential areas. The experiment using human participants resulted that conveying information via eHMI led pedestrians to do less careful exploratory behaviour toward other traffic. The result also showed the greater number of traffic collisions when the eHMI showed information compared to non-eHMI condition. The findings of this study are also being used to help how to design the eHMI on automated vehicles in shared spaces.

What Automated Vehicle HMIs Should Display?: Driver Response to Critical Situations Where Automation Failed to Detect Traffic Hazards
PRESENTER: Chokiu Leung

ABSTRACT. SUMMATATIVE STATEMENT: This driving simulator study suggests empirical findings that the amount of information and the degree of confidence that driving automation systems were certain of their ability to keep driving safety via human-machine interfaces (HMIs) contribute to drivers’ immediate intervention with vehicle controls when partial driving automation missed hazard detection on a roadway.

How Does Instructed Knowledge Influence Driver’s Decision Making in Conditional Driving Automation?
PRESENTER: Huiping Zhou

ABSTRACT. This study aimed to reveal how instructed knowledge influences human drivers to make decisions in complex driving-task traffic environments when they use conditional driving automation (CDA). A driving simulator experiment was conducted to collect data in resuming car control from automation; 54 individuals (mean age=40.9±16.8 years old) participated. According to the experimental results, imparting knowledge of the request to intervene (RtI) helped to reduce the reaction time (RT) to the RtI to 1.22 seconds on average, but also caused 20% of drivers to resume vehicle control; however, they failed to choose the correct route in terms of the issued route guidance. This ratio was significantly higher than the 3% of drivers who were unfamiliar with the RtI, but were only instructed on the necessity of taking over car control due to functional limitations. On the other hand, 28% of drivers resumed control for responding to the guidance before the system limitation occurred. Further, subjective assessment suggests that the drivers tended to over-rely on their instructed knowledge, and were prone to overlooking other important details when the knowledge was restricted to the specified concept. Conveying knowledge appropriately not only contributes to driver interventions, but also greatly impacts other kinds of decision-making performance.

06:00-07:30 Session 11C: Transport EHF Panel- Current and emerging challenges applying human factors and ergonomics to new technology in transportation (Session sponsored by Huawei)

Panelists: Anjum Naweed, Paul Salmon, Neville Stanton

Current and emerging challenges applying human factors and ergonomics to new technology in transportation

ABSTRACT. This panel session will provide an overview of the current and emerging challenges of new technology in transport systems, across road, rail, aviation and maritime domains. It will provide an opportunity to discuss the role of human factors and ergonomics (HFE) to understand and address existing and future challenges associated with technology introduction across these domains.

06:00-07:32 Session 11D: Activity Theories for Work Analysis and Design Symposium - Work transformation through Integrated Operations and other forms of Remote work: different perspectives of distributed work
Work transformation through Integrated Operations and other forms of Remote work: different perspectives of distributed work
PRESENTER: Luciano Garotti

ABSTRACT. With increased autonomy and automation in the oil and gas business, the reliance upon digital representations of the process conditions that the center/control room follow up becomes increasingly more complex. Remote operations is the natural continuation of what started with integrated operations (IO) some years ago. Remote operations, however, is more than remote control as the operational model/concept is key and ergonomics/Human Factors plays an important role in the designing the systems of this emerging practice. Operational, organizational and information infrastructure issues are key considerations for remote operation including employer-employee relationships and collaboration with vendors.

Analysis of well intervention team meetings: understanding the actual work of integrated operations

ABSTRACT. Given the specificity and complexity of activities related to the Integrated Operations (IO) in well interventions, many studies focused on the development and use of information and communication technologies, with fewer investigations addressing the human and organizational factors related to the actual work of its different actors. To overcome this gap this manuscript present and analyze data that demonstrates the main characteristics of well intervention team meetings and aspects that facilitate or hinder IO work. The strength of this study refers to the generate knowledge about actual work situations related to discussion spaces that bring together different specialists around well intervention projects. The lack of another published research focusing on the sharing of information and the exchange of experience in IO at drilling operations reinforces the relevance of the results of this paper for Ergonomics.

From integrated operations to remote operations: socio-technical challenge for the oil and gas business
PRESENTER: Vidar Hepsø

ABSTRACT. Remote operations started with integrated operations (IO) some years ago where designated tasks and roles were shifted from off- to onshore. Remote operations, however, is more than remote control as the operational model or concept is key: it defines the scope for the tasks to be conducted remote-ly. With this increased ambition and scope, sociotechnical concerns play an increasingly important role. With increased autonomy and automation in the oil and gas business, the reliance upon digital representations of the process conditions that the center/ control room follow up becomes more complex, technically but not the least organizationally and institutionally. Operational, organizational and information infrastructure issues are key considerations for remote operation including employer-employee relation-ships and collaboration with vendors. How will these new centers differ from traditional control rooms and the previous generation of collaboration centers that came with integrated operations 10-15 years ago? What are the key capabilities around which you build scalability and replicability in the design of such control centers? We discuss and empirically illustrate differ-ent configurations of remote operations.

The workplace role in integrated operations: contributions and limits of a collaborative environment

ABSTRACT. The creation of collaborative environments is one of the first practices adopted by companies that intend to implement an integrated operation (IO). The participation of ergonomists in a collaborative environment project for the subsea installations sector of a Brazilian oil and gas company and the subsequent space evaluation during operations prompts reflections on the contributions and limits of this initiative. The research shows that this workplace design, based on a participatory approach, can contribute to greater integrated operations. However, the workplace is only a means, and, in this context, what is at stake is the design of a new work system.

Integrated Operations in times of pandemic: communication at distance and knowledge sharing
PRESENTER: Raquel M. Faraco

ABSTRACT. The social distance imposed by the pandemic required new strategies from experts who support the decision-making for drilling rig operations, guaranteeing the flow of information. However, they have not been shown to ensure the agility provided by physical proximity. This article investigates the limits of remote work and its impact on knowledge transfer during pandemics. Based on the ergonomic work analysis methodology, the research identified that, without face-to-face interaction, the team had to develop new collective and individual strategies to ensure the construction of situational awareness and knowledge transfer. The pandemic situation made it impossible for the ergonomists to monitor the team in person, limiting observation possibilities. The continuity of the research will allow focusing on observing selected events remotely to be validated with the team members involved.

The work of the logisticians and the collective dimension of the Integrated Operations of Logistics in the oil & gas industry
PRESENTER: Fausto L Mascia

ABSTRACT. In this paper, we analyze the work’s collective dimension of the logisticians dedicated to supporting the offshore drilling oil and gas industry, in the context of Integrated Operations (IO). We approach the work of the logistics team focusing on the articulation and activation of collective dimensions within a Logistic Integration Center.

Ergonomic simulation: the work dimension in the integrated operations centres design in the oil industry
PRESENTER: Duarte Francisco

ABSTRACT. This study aims to reflect on how the work dimension can be considered in Integrated Operations (IO) projects through a work simulation from a participatory ergonomic perspective. This research presents a case study of an Onshore Collaborative Centre (OCC) design, where an Ergonomic Work Analysis and three Ergonomics Simulations cycles were performed to support the discussions with workers and managers to create design solutions. The results show the organization of a participatory ergonomics approach in IO projects, which includes the structuring of the participatory dynamics in the design process from the Ergonomic Work Analysis and Simulations. The simulation is a method that can transform work into an important factor both in modifying the project and in technical choices. It also allows for the inclusion of different actors and their perspectives. However, for the simulation to be an effective means of participation, it is necessary to have an integration between the work analysis and the expectations of the project.

06:00-07:30 Session 11E: Health and Safety 2
Supporting the development of safety culture at the managerial level
PRESENTER: Willy Buchmann

ABSTRACT. This paper reports an experience of formative intervention on a group of managers from a household waste collection organization in a French metropolis. In an organizational change management context, the objective is the integration of a safety culture adapted to the work activity. The intervention was based on the ergonomics of the activity in order to design a de-vice allowing material and symbolic transformations in the way safety is managed. To do this, a three-stage process was implemented. Its originality lies in the integration of historical and cultural dimensions in the management of change. This historical-cultural approach offers a new perspective on the problems of work, through a configuration that gives depth to time (which is not only quantitative or chronological), to the articulation of events, and to the different temporalities. It allows us to understand the present and think about the future in the light of individual and collective experience of past successes and failures. We were able to identify that the group of managers was building new approaches to think about and to act on the relationships between change, work activity and safety.

Design thinking: a new approach for OHS professionals to address complex problems

ABSTRACT. Design thinking (DT) provides innovative tools that may be applied to manage complex musculoskeletal or psychosocial problems at work. In this project researchers trained OHS professionals to apply DT tools. The training included organizing and facilitating three design sprint workshops of 3-4 hours duration. The sprint workshops created solutions to complex psychosocial or musculoskeletal problem in a company. The researchers kept track of the progress by observing the workshops and conducting semi-structured interviews. Data was coded and analyzed in accordance with the template analysis method. This paper evaluates the outcome of the design sprint workshop processes. Design thinking tools enabled the OHS professionals to solve complex problems in a different way than they normally would. Two main differences stood out. The first was the DT approach was more participatory and the second that it created a deeper understanding of the problem, before any solutions were created. The sprint workshop process resulted in planned and tested solutions that the companies could subsequently implement.

”RAMP 2.0” – Further Development of the RAMP Tool

ABSTRACT. RAMP (Risk Assessment and Management tool for manual handling – Proac-tively), a freely accessible MSD risk management tool for manual handling work, was launched 2017 to contribute to the reduction of musculoskeletal disorder (MSD) risks for manual handling work-tasks. The tool is currently developed fur-ther, using an iterative participative methodology, to: i) enhance the RAMP tool’s application range, mainly to include hand-intensive work, ii) develop a system version of the tool, and iii) include key performance indicators (KPIs). A needs analysis resulted in 99 identified needs. Regarding i), six needs were assessed as “very important to include” to enhance the application range. A literature study fo-cusing on relevant risk factors and how exposure to them is associated with MSD risks was carried out and first drafts of a model for assessing risks in hand-intensive work are iteratively developed, using feedback from intended users. Re-garding ii), 50 needs and suggestions on what to consider when developing a da-tabased system version of the RAMP tool were identified. Prototypes of parts of the system-version are iteratively developed, using intended users’ feedback. Re-garding iii), the needs analysis resulted in 16 suggested KPIs, including KPIs based solely on RAMP results and KPIs which can be established combining RAMP results and company data. The project is ongoing. An enhanced RAMP tool, RAMP 2.0, with the abovementioned expansions could support MSD risk assessment and risk management in systematic MSD risks reduction work for a wide range of work tasks.

User evaluation of a national e-library for standardized chemotherapy regimens
PRESENTER: Johanna Persson

ABSTRACT. An e-library for standardized chemotherapy regimens has been developed and is, since 2015, available as a national resource for healthcare staff and patients in cancer treatment in Sweden. The library was developed in a user-centered design process and is now evaluated to understand how it is used and if it is used in the intended way. This paper presents the e-library in brief together with preliminary results from the ongoing user evaluation, including results from a web survey, web page statistics, and a heuristic evaluation to identify usability issues. The evaluation is a vital part in assuring that the library works as a patient safety barrier, matches the users’ needs, and that it does not have design flaws that could introduce new risks in the already complex chemotherapy process. The results indicate that the library is being used in the intended way and the users do not have any problems interacting with it. With a broad national usage, the standardized chemotherapy regimens e-library can be a source for organizational and national learning, and a source for continuous improvement of cancer care in Sweden.

06:00-07:30 Session 11F: ODAM Symposium - Prospective Ergonomics: Ideating, Thinking, and Designing the Future
Symposium on Prospective Ergonomics: Ideating, Thinking, and Designing the Future.
PRESENTER: Eric Brangier

ABSTRACT. Prospective Ergonomics (PE) is a new branch of Ergonomics that deals with the design of future things. It seeks to detect and define current and future needs in order to design future products, services, processes, and systems that will meet these needs. In doing so, it enlarges the scope of action of ergonomists by opening up a new field of research and professional activities for them. PE is at the confluence of three fields of study: foresight, creativity, and ergonomics.

Capturing Future Trends In Customer Needs For The Design Of Next-Generation Gas Station Services

ABSTRACT. This paper presents the data collection approach that was followed in the initial phase of a Prospective Ergonomics project on the design of future service stations in North America. The data collection involved different stakeholders and consisted of a review of technical documents, field observations, task analyses, and PESTEL analyses. Results show some statistics on the evolution of energy sources for vehicles and on the diversity of services offered at gas stations in Canada. They also highlight some political, social, and technological trends to consider when developing design scenarios for future service stations.

When Design Is Inspired by Theatre: Acting Techniques as Prospective Design Methods
PRESENTER: Isabelle Sperano

ABSTRACT. In acting training, psychophysical exercises are used to strengthen the relationship between mind and body, thus fostering a deeper understanding of the character [1]. Intrigued and inspired by the potential value of these techniques in design contexts, we explored their application for interaction designers as research methods in a pedagogical setting. To do so, we first created a single-session workshop that introduced design students to basic actor movement techniques in the winter of 2019. The goal of the workshop was to help students empathize with their users and discover solutions when designing digital products. Later, in the fall of 2020, we used reflections from the first activity to develop two longer workshops; both consisted of three sessions and were carried out consecutively in two different universities. In this article, we present a case study of those three workshops. After discussing considerations for the evolution of the workshops, we describe how each was conducted. Finally, we share our findings and insights that arose throughout the process.

Exploiting forward-looking data in Prospective Ergonomics: the case of aviation

ABSTRACT. In this study, we investigated different sources of forward-looking data in the domain of aviation and pilot training that are of interest to human factors researchers and practitioners involved in the creation of future artefacts. We show how trends that are emerging for the future as well as unforeseen short-term events, such as the COVID-19 pandemic, impact decisions made on the design of future artefacts in aviation. In this respect, the case of anticipating pilot shortage is examined in relation with the design of a new form of training program: evidence-based training (EBT).

A prospective ergonomics approach for the design of a planning support system in the Road Freight Transport (RFT)
PRESENTER: Eugénie Avril

ABSTRACT. The Road Freight Transport (RFT) sector is continuously evolving, being confronted with intense competition and growing pressure from customers and suppliers, tight delivery times, and many regulations. All these factors lead the RFT sector to face multiple economic, envi-ronmental, and safety challenges. In these companies, the planner has a central position. The tasks of planner include supervising the transport round, keeping contact with the drivers during delivery, providing new instructions when needed, ensuring order follow-up with customers, etc. Such tasks require a high cognitive load which implies difficulties for planners in assessing the consequences of their decisions in terms of economic, environmental, and safety dimensions. In this study, principles of prospective ergonomics have been tested to support the transition from a human-based decision making to a computer-supported deci-sion-making to anticipate the future computer-supported decision-making. We focused on the effect of system transparency and reliability. We confronted six planners with planning problems. We modified information available on planning to provide high and low levels of transparency. Starting from real issues, we also generated reliable and unreliable solutions (for these latter by adding invalid data). For each problem, planners were asked to assess the quality of the proposed solutions and indicators. The results showed than planners give a higher score to reliable scenarios displaying reliable information than to a less reliable scenar-io in which information is modified. This assessment of scenario is more adequate and easier with high transparency than with low transparency of information.

Improve creativity in future-oriented design with the Prospective Persona
PRESENTER: Antoine Martin

ABSTRACT. As ergonomics is confronted with future-oriented design projects, ergonomists must investigate how design could create novel and adapted ideas. In often ill-defined contexts, prospective ergonomics proposes to rely on methods and knowledge related to creativity, to foster the design process. In this paper, we introduce the prospective persona method, which is the implementation of the persona method applied to individuals who experience uses or artefacts that are identified as being precursory. The objective of this persona is to improve con-straints management by adding the description of needs little known to design-ers. The study presented in this paper aims to compare the quality of ideation during a creativity task using ordinary persona, prospective persona or no per-sona. Our results show an effect of prospective persona on creativity. Prospec-tive persona allows for a higher number of new ideas than ordinary persona and is the source of more feasible ideas the non-use of persona. We therefore rec-ommend the use of prospective persona in future-oriented creativity design phase.

06:00-07:30 Session 11G: Neuroergonomics Symposium - Low burden psychophysiological measurement especially for the assessment/improvement of ergonomic factors under the situation of COVID-19
Low burden psychophysiological measurement especially for the assessment/improvement of ergonomic factors under the situation of "with COVID-19"

ABSTRACT. We, PIE Psychophysiology in Ergonomics Japan Chapter, propose to organize a session for presenting and discussing research focusing on practical aspects. In Japan, we have not been able to perform experiments using human participants in recent months due to COVID-19, in particular, experiments in which the experimenter attaches sensors to participants and conducts interviews in a closed laboratory such as a soundproof room cannot be restarted yet. Therefore, as one of the new research styles for “with corona” and “after corona”, we think that it is necessary to establish an experimental method that allows experimenters without having to face the participants. On the other hand, under the auspices of Corona, online (remote) education and work have progressed rapidly. In the situation of stay home, the usage time of PC/tablet and smartphone was extended. The number of online meetings while looking at the screen has increased. These cause physical symptoms such as eye strain and neck and back pain. The Japanese Ergonomics Society proposes preventive measures for this problem in the form of 7 tips...

Effects of character design elements on gaze bias and pupil size fluctuation
PRESENTER: Yuzo Takahashi

ABSTRACT. We experimentally examined the possibility that the user's pupil size fluctuations together with the gaze bias phenomenon may predict the user's preference. The results of our experiment, this combination may estimate the user's mental state about the preference.

Detection of deviations from a calm state of mind using respiratory waveforms and HRV - Aiming to grasp the driver’s condition remotely-
PRESENTER: Chizuru Nakagawa

ABSTRACT. It is important for drivers who are responsible for the lives of passengers to remain in a calm state of mind and body suitable for driving. The objective of this study is to grasp the driver’s state by using physiological data that can be continuously and relatively easily measured. To provide support in a timely manner, changes in the driver’s state must be detected with high time resolution and reliability. The spread of Covid-19 across the world has emphasized the importance of technology to remotely monitor physiological conditions in real time and provide support. This study attempted to improve the accuracy of estimation by using the appropriate indices for individuals. Specifically, we tried to estimate the tension state of drivers using both respiration-wave and ECG data. The results demonstrated that different individuals have different valid indicators and it is possible to improve the accuracy of estimation by using the appropriate indices for each individual.

Low burden measurement of autonomic indices for self-measurement or longtime measurement in the field
PRESENTER: Mieko Ohsuga

ABSTRACT. A low-burden method that allows the heartbeat and respiration to be measured is important for estimating a person’s mental state. We examined the possibility of using smart clothing and a prototype device consisting of a low-cost kit, and as-sess the validity of the acquired data.

Confirmation of the Significance of Facial Images in Online Learning Using Eye Gaze Tracking Measurement
PRESENTER: Satori Hachisuka

ABSTRACT. In this study, we examined the significance of facial images of a lecturer in online learning both quantitatively and qualitatively. We conducted an experiment to confirm how the lecturer's facial image affects the learner's impression and eye gaze duration during online learning. The experiment consisted of an eye gaze tracking measurement and a semi-structured interview for 6 participants. Based on multimedia learning theory, we hypothesized that placing a lecturer’s facial image on display during online learning would improve the impression of the lecture for the learner. However, from the experimental results, the average time ratio for gazing at the lecturer's facial image was 2 % or less. In addition, 83% of the participants answered that it would be better not to have the lecturer's facial image in the semi-structured interview, which was contrary to the hypothesis. The novel point of this paper is that it shows the results of those who have newly experienced online learning and/or online lecture in daily life for approximately one year. This result is one of the important factors in considering the design of online learning, which has rapidly become widespread in recent years.

Contactless and low-burden measurement of physiological signals and comparison of obtained indices

ABSTRACT. It is important for human adaptive systems, especially those living with or having survived the COVID-19 crisis, to obtain the usual human state continuously and non-intrusively. Our research is focused on non-intrusive measurement of physiological signals and a comparison of the methods of measurement and indices thus obtained.

06:00-07:30 Session 11H: Robotics- Human-Robot collaboration (HRC) technologies for reducing Work-related Musculoskeletal Diseases in industry 4.0

The session will start with a workshop of 70 minutes, where 7 speakers (10 minutes each speaker) will take part. At the end of the workshop there will be a panel discussion (20 minutes) with questions and answers. 

Workshop program (70 minutes): Human-Robot collaboration for reducing WMDs in industry 4.0 – The SOPHIA Project

Chairs: Dr. Francesco Draicchio (INAIL - Head of the Physiology and Ergonomics Lab) and Dr. Arash Ajoudani (IIT - Head of Human-Robot Interfaces and Physical Interaction Lab)


Dr. Arash Ajoudani (IIT - SOPHIA project coordinator): the new generation of core robotic technologies for hybrid manufacturing environments – the SOPHIA Project description, aims and findings 

Patricia H. Rosen (Co-Principal Investigator From BauA - Products and Work Systems; Unit Human Factors, Ergonomics):  Human-centred design of hybrid teams – opportunities and challenges 

Dr. Tiwana Varrecchia (INAIL - Researcher of the Physiology and Ergonomic Lab): instrumental-based tools to evaluate the effectiveness of HRC technologies on the reduction of the physical overload 

Prof. Massimo Sartori – (Principal Investigator from University of Twente - Department of Biomechanical Engineering): Human Dynamic Modelling and Online Calibration Tools 

Renée Govaerts – (VUB – PhD Student - Human Physiology and Sports Physiotherapy Research Group):  Work-related musculoskeletal disorders in Europe: Do we need to incorporate mental fatigue as a risk factor? 

Prof. Andrea Cherubini – (Principal Investigator from University of Montpellier, Laboratory of Informatics, Robotics, Microelectronics): Perception systems for flexible human-robot collaboration 

Prof. Matteo Bianchi (Pricipal Inverstigator from University of Pisa - Centro di Ricerca E. Piaggio) – Dr. Giuseppe Averta (Centro di Ricerca E. Piaggio): Modelling human upper limb muscular skeletal system for robotics and advanced Human-Robot-Interaction 


Panel session with debate and questions from audience (30 minutes)

Chairs: Alberto Ranavolo and Sascha Wischniewski

Participants: Patricia Rosen, Francesco Draicchio, Arash Ajoudani, Tiwana Varrecchia, Sascha Wischniewski, Lars Fritzsche, Bram Vanderborght, Massimo Sartori; Andrea Cherubini, Matteo Bianchi, Philipp Albrecht (20 minutes).

Human-Robot collaboration (HRC) technologies for reducing Work-related Musculoskeletal Diseases in industry 4.0

ABSTRACT. The workshop describes the vision of the European project SOPHIA, Socio-Physical Interaction Skills for Cooperative Human-Robot Systems in Agile Production. The project has been founded by European Union programme Horizon 2020 under Grant Agreement No. 871237. The consortium involves European partners from academia research organisations, and Industry. The main goal of the project is to introduce CoBots in industrial scenarios in order to reduce work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMDs) and to improve productivity in industry 4.0. The topics covered in the workshop concern the description of the project and its main goals, the use of instrumental-based tools to evaluate the effectiveness of HRC technologies on the reduction of the physical overload, the role of collaborative robot in industry 4.0 and the physiological models of the human musculoskeletal system. The topics of the panel discussion will be the strengths of the new technologies and the barriers that now exist in their use (costs, lack of confidence in the interaction with workers, problems in assessing the biomechanical risk of workers while interacting with new technologies with current assessment tools, the possibility that these technologies can replace human by creating unemployment etc.).

06:00-07:30 Session 11I: Workshop Ergonomics in Design for All - Design for Disabled

Design for Disabled


Design for Disabled

ABSTRACT. Design for All or Design for Disabled is a relatively new domain in Ergonomics. With ageing populations around the world, it has however recently gained significant interest and momentum. We expect to see more and more disabled, or functionally limited people in the future workforce. Moreover, due to economic strain, it can be expected that future societies will be less likely to afford support for disabled outside the workforce.

Bridging the Gap: An Ergonomically Designed Motorized Tricycle Accessible by Persons with Disability using Anthropometry and Rapid Entire Body Assessment (REBA)

ABSTRACT. Summative Statement: Accessibility of individuals depends on the public transportation available in the area. This study aims to provide a schematic design of a motorized tricycle for all individuals especially Persons with Disabilities (PWDs) who are in need to have city support and to acquire necessities. Keywords: Motorized Tricycle, Public Transportation, Persons with Disabilities I.Statement of the Problem

Developing a standard one-fits-all boarding assistance system as an universal accessibility solution
PRESENTER: Martin Dorynek

ABSTRACT. To make mobility and thus participation in social life accessable for as many people as possible, the present work, therefore, deals with developing a concept for a boarding aid for different means of transport. Many public places and vehicles have not yet been adapted to this goal. In addition, there are differences in height and gap widths, which cannot be technically overcome in any other way. In the long term, many of these public transit vehicles will remain in operation due to their holding time. Besides, new, alternative forms of mobility use virtual stops without the corresponding infrastructure. This is where this work comes in and examines how this challenge could be solved as simply, safely, and cost-efficient as possible without compromising the ergonomic requirements. Particular focus is placed on the later users, who often face these problems in their everyday lives. The central question here was: What expectations and requirements do users have of entry-level systems?

06:00-07:32 Session 11J: HF in Supply Chain Design and Management Symposium - Ergonomics and Work Design in Manual Order Picking Systems
Ergonomics and work design in manual order picking systems
PRESENTER: Jurij Wakula

ABSTRACT. Despite the advancing digitalization and automation, there is still a large amount of manual material handling in order picking systems (Napolitano, 2012; Michel, 2017). Due to heavy weights of the handled products and awkward postures of the pickers while manual picking activities (lifting, carrying of loads, pushing and pulling trolleys), there is a high risk of musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs; Gajšek et al., 2020). For this reason, well-founded planning and design concepts are required that take ergonomic criteria and economic criteria as well into account. So far there have only been a few corresponding scientific studies (Grosse et al., 2017). During this symposium session, methods, approaches, proposed solutions and achieved results for reducing physical (and mental) workload in order picking systems will be presented and discussed.

Dynamic break management in logistics on the basis of individual vital data: Designing the user interface of an AI-based mobile app for employees in order picking

ABSTRACT. Frequently occurring mental and physical workloads as well as increased break absences represent a health risk for warehouse workers and a cost risk for companies in the long term. The project "Dynamic Break Management" aims to maintain health, productivity and safety of warehouse workers with the help of individual break recommendations. Using a sensor wristband, a smartphone application and methods of artificial intelligence (AI), stress is to be predicted on the basis of physiological data and breaks are to be recommended individually. The breaks are coordinated with the company's internal processes. The app is developed in accordance with internationally applicable ergonomics standards. Both, the presentation of information and the interaction between human and technology, should be user-friendly in order to increase the acceptance of the technology application and its regular use. The article gives an overview of the IT architecture of the research project "Dynamic Break Management" and the current state of development. Furthermore, different user interface (UI) concepts for the smartphone app are discussed based on the state of research on the ergonomic design of the UI of apps.

Identifying Ergonomics Best Practices Used in Grocery Distribution Centers Within the United States
PRESENTER: Steven Lavender

ABSTRACT. Grocery distribution operations in the United States continue to experience high rates of musculoskeletal disorders. Through a series of interviews with grocery distribution operations this study has identified several ergonomics practices that have been implemented at some facilities but need to be more widely adopted across the industry.

Framework for Incorporating Human Factors in Production and Logistics Systems

ABSTRACT. There is a growing need to develop a framework incorporating human factors (HF) production and logistics (P&L) systems from long term design and short-term operation perspectives. Such a novel framework enables users to improve the performance, quality, and occupational health conditions in P&L systems which is the focus of this proposal.

Workforce Scheduling for Manual Order Picking Operations Considering both Ergonomic and Economic Indicators
PRESENTER: Alexander Lunin

ABSTRACT. The aim of this paper is to develop a personnel planning model for use in a manual operated warehouse. This model should consider the physical stress besides economic indicators during the planning procedure.

Analysis of the physical workload and ergonomic design of workstations for "goods-to-person" order picking
PRESENTER: Jurij Wakula

ABSTRACT. Goods-to-person picking is a dynamic, semi-automated or fully automated picking method. The main physical workloads are caused by standing work postures and repetitive movements of the upper extremities. This paper presents the results of the ergonomic analysis of the physical work-loads during picking at eight mock-up workstations for intralogistics. Workloads resulting from the standing work postures and repetitive movements of the upper extremities were analyzed and evaluated in laboratory studies using EAWS method and the Captiv Motion Capture system. The weights of the picked prod-ucts, picking frequencies and arrangement of storage and order totes were varied. Results show that order picking with exclusively low load weights (< 3 kg) and not very high picking frequency (< 700 picks/hour) does not lead to high physi-cal stress at the stations. However, higher pick frequencies (> 700 picks/ h) or higher weights result in increased physical workloads (EAWS values > 25 points).

The influence of an ergonomic storage location assignment on human strain in manual order picking
PRESENTER: Tim Steinebach

ABSTRACT. Order picking is the most labor-intensive task in a warehouse with high risks for the development of musculoskeletal disorders. However, ergonomic planning models in order picking are still rare. This article presents a new ergonomic stor-age location assignment (SLA) algorithm based on a biomechanical model (“The Dortmunder”) which reduces the mechanical load of the lumbar spine. In order picking experiments in a laboratory with 12 subjects the derived ergo-nomic SLA is compared to a SLA minimizing the travel distance of the operator. For the evaluation of the physiological strain of the operators in both approaches, the subjects are equipped with an EMG-System, measuring electrical activity of four muscles of the back and the shoulder-arm system. Furthermore, perceived exertion (Borg RPE scale) and the cycle time needed to complete all picks are col-lected. The mean and dynamic electrical activity is significantly lower in almost all exam-ined muscles with the ergonomic SLA. Also, the perceived exertion at the end of the picking trial is significantly reduced with the ergonomic SLA. The cycle time recorded shows no difference between the two assignment strategies. The storage location assignment algorithm presented here is able to reduce the physiological strain and perceived exertion of operators. Further studies are rec-ommended to evaluate, if it can be used in real warehouses to reduce the risk of developing musculoskeletal disorders without losing efficiency.

06:00-07:30 Session 11K: Gender and Work Symposium - Approaching ergonomic interventions with a sex/gender lens: Designing training for ergonomists
Approaching ergonomic interventions with a sex/gender lens: Designing training for ergonomists
PRESENTER: Jessica Riel

ABSTRACT. This symposium is organized by the Gender & Work Technical committee of the IEA. It aims to share recent works about the inclusion of sex/gender considerations in the training of future ergonomists.

Methods for Considering Sex and Gender During Intervention-research Studies: What do Researchers Say?

ABSTRACT. SUMMATIVE STATEMENT: The purpose of this research is to analyze methods used in occupational health and safety (OHS) intervention studies to integrate gender sensitive approaches to occupational injury prevention. This work will enable the development of guidelines for the occupational health scientific community and will contribute to the training content of future ergonomists.

Social and technical skill-based strategies: how can ergonomists consider sex and gender in their interventions ?
PRESENTER: Martin Chadoin

ABSTRACT. This conference is a part of GESTE team’s work, which aims to understand the consideration of sex/gender in knowledge transfer interventions in occupational and environmental health.

Training M.Sc. Students in Ergonomics to Integrate a Sex / Gender-Sensitive Approach
PRESENTER: Marion Inigo

ABSTRACT. We trained M.Sc. students learning a work activity-centered approach to ergonomics to use a sex- and gender-sensitive lens. Such a lens is useful for ergonomic analysis because gender can affect exposure to some workplace health determinants. Sex and gender training was given in two sessions during students' final year, as part of an intervention internship. We present here three categories for potential sex and gender inclusion in an ergonomics intervention. These categories are: (1) investigating and modeling work activity by integrating sex and gender; (2) implementing solutions with consideration of sex and gender; (3) exchanging with stakeholders on sex/gender issues. We propose that these categories could be useful for examining work activity-centered ergonomic interventions. Student questionnaires revealed that they were satisfied with this training, thought it useful for their practice, and felt that they were well-trained. They rated the training as important and ethically relevant for all ergonomists. However, students did not feel they integrated sex and gender enough in their interventions and they perceived some obstacles to integration. Our results nevertheless support the idea that improving knowledge around sex and gender could be a lever for more inclusive and health-centered ergonomics interventions.

Is Training About sex / Gender Considerations Applied by Future Ergonomists? A Multiple case-Study
PRESENTER: Marie Laberge

ABSTRACT. This lecture will present findings from an evaluation of the consideration of sex/gender by Master’s level students in ergonomics during their final internship.

The “Woke” Ergonomist: How Can We, How Should we Improve Gender Equality as well as Health?
PRESENTER: Karen Messing

ABSTRACT. Many workplaces segregate jobs, tasks, and responsibilities by gender, with negative effects on workers’ health. Ergonomists can play a visible or a more subtle role in transforming these situations. Our experiences lead us to ask how to approach gender issues in interventions, how to deal with resistance from employers and employees, and how ergonomists’ interest in social justice can inform our practice.

06:00-07:30 Session 11L: Practitioner 4 and Discussion Time

This session contains 2 podium presentations, with time left for discussions amongst practitioners in addition to question time.

Overcoming the challenges of remote home office assessments
PRESENTER: Josie Blake

ABSTRACT. MAIN MESSAGE: During the 2020 pandemic, ergonomists were asked to support office employees working at hastily assembled home offices. This paper describes an approach to completing objective, effective office assessments without in-person contact.

Shifting Participatory Design Approaches During COVID-19 and Beyond: A Maritime Case
PRESENTER: Steven Mallam

ABSTRACT. An essential part of a successful participatory design program is the continuous and iterative interaction between project stakeholders, and particularly end-users, throughout design development. We present the deviations and lessons learned from implementing participatory design processes of a Human-Machine Interface (HMI) design project for ship’s bridge equipment throughout the spread of COVID-19.

06:00-07:30 Session 11M: Agriculture 1
Work Safety Interventions and Threat Complexity: A Formative Investigation into Why Farmers Do Not Act Safely

ABSTRACT. Fear appeals are a common tactic used in work safety interventions to motivate farmers to adopt safer behaviors. However fear appeals tend to be ineffective when developed without a firm grasp of the cognitive processes underlying behavioral change.

New Approaches for Safe Use of Quad Bikes in Swedish Agriculture and Forestry

ABSTRACT. Quad bikes (also named quads and all-terrain vehicles, ATVs) are common among farmers and forest owners, family members and employees. Quads are useful but also quite dangerous, due to the risk of a roll over with possible injury and even a fatality. In Sweden there has been a number of different initiatives to make the use of quads safer. Among these approaches there is a new national strategy involving all main stakeholders and a number of recent and on-going research projects.

Smart Farming: Application of Internet of Things (IoT) Systems
PRESENTER: Chander Prakash

ABSTRACT. IoT is a new trending technology that enables digitalization and modernization in every field. Things connected to the cloud makes the entire system smart. We have using the IoT system in every way of life: Smart city, Smart homes, Smart supply chain, Smart retail, Wearables, Con-necting health, Smart grid, Smart industry, and smart farming. In the current scenario, the rapid population growth has increased the production demand and consequently, the pressure among farmers also increased to satisfy customer demand. Certainly, the automation and advanced machinery may lead to speed up the farm activities to increase productivity. The most important part of the IoT system is using sensor devices that collect cloud-based data which is interpreted to get the desired analysis. For the smart agriculture system, sensors play a major role collect data to measure NPK values, plant health, detect diseases and other soil properties. This paper is focused on the exploratory study in the agriculture sector to enhance smart technologies. This future research plan delivers a sample scope for future interdisciplinary science on smart farm-ing, digital agriculture, precision farming, and agriculture 4.0.

Development and Evaluation of an Attachable Anti-Vibration Handle for Blueberry Hand Shaker
PRESENTER: Jashwant Thota

ABSTRACT. This study focuses on reducing the hand-arm vibration (HAV) produced by a blueberry hand shaker by developing an attachable anti-vibration handle. This development is mainly for small and medium scale farms as they cannot afford the fully automatic machine.

Agriculture in transition: New strategies for the promotion of occupational health and safety
PRESENTER: Kari Anne Holte

ABSTRACT. It is well documented that farming is a high-risk industry in terms of fatalities and injuries, and with numerous risk factors associated with operating the farm. It has also proved difficult to find evidence for the effectiveness of interventions. Moreover, farming is in transition, with ongoing technological transformations as well becoming increasingly more globalized. Thus, new perspectives that allow for more systemic understandings in the management and promotion of occupa-tional health and safety (OHS) are needed. Our main objective is to present an in-tegrated theoretical understanding of the farm as an enterprise and an integrated element in the political-economic agricultural system. The main question is how can farmers organize and manage the farm, in order to simultaneously improve efficiency, quality and OHS based on systemic models for OHS and a systemic understanding of the political-economical system of Norwegian agriculture? The framework is adapted to the Norwegian agricultural context, with ongoing trans-formations both technologically and organizationally, including visions and plans set by Norwegian agriculture itself. However, the framework can be applied irre-spective of national context.

Multidisciplinary Approach Ergonomics and Law : A Resource to Improve the Design of Agricultural Equipment and to Reduce the Situations of Pesticide Exposure
PRESENTER: Marion Albert

ABSTRACT. The use of equipment intended at spraying pesticides includes many issues and variabilities encountered by farmers, causing pesticide exposure. This stems from the fact that farmers’ real needs are poorly taken into account during the design process, as well as during the drafting process of regulatory documents used by designers.

06:00-07:30 Session 11N: Slips, Trips and Falls Symposium - The Future of Footwear Friction
The Future of Footwear Friction
PRESENTER: Kurt Beschorner

ABSTRACT. New technology that enhance our understanding of shoe-floor mechanics has opened new opportunities to address slip and fall accidents. Footwear has been identified as one of a few critical factors capable of reducing individual’s risk. Thus, this moment is ripe to finally begin to reduce the burden of slips, trips, and fall events. New technology can be broadly categorized into: 1) new human-centered methods for characterizing interactions between the footwear and the user; 2) new experimental methods for characterizing friction mechanics; and 3) new modeling methods for predicting footwear friction performance. These emerging technologies have the potential to elevate friction and traction performance of footwear and enhance information available to ergonomics professional to match appropriate footwear to applications. However, the deployment of these technologies is only beginning to guide footwear design and consumer behaviors. Thus, the footwear manufacturers perspective in implementing new technology will also be presented. In this interactive symposium, we will A) present information regarding emerging technologies in addition to its benefits and limitations; and B) survey the audience, disaggregated by industry sector, in order to obtain new data on the potential for these technologies to be accepted and implemented by professionals. This data will be analyzed during the conference and presented in the slips, trips, and falls session later in the conference.

07:30-07:45AM Break 1
07:45-08:45 Session 12A: Slips, Trips and Falls 1 - North American Footwear Focus
What if We Are Capturing the Wrong Peak When Calculating the Required Coefficient of Friction?
PRESENTER: Kurt Beschorner

ABSTRACT. Methods for calculating the required coefficient of friction, a common metric used to predict individual slip risk, may be incorrectly selecting the wrong peak during gait. In this abstract, we present evidence suggesting that an earlier time point should be selected. The rationale for selecting an earlier time point is that the available friction is also time-dependent and predicting slipping onset requires consideration of the time-dependence for both variables.

Determining the risk of slipping with slip-resistant footwear
PRESENTER: Davood Dadkhah

ABSTRACT. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between the risk of slipping on a level wet ice surface and the scores provided from the Maximum Achievable Angle (MAA) footwear test. The numbers of slips experienced by nine participants each wearing three boots (MAA scores 0, 6, 11) were analyzed using logistic regression to determine how the risk of slipping (RoS) changed with the MAA score. Our findings showed that the risk of slipping was 0.03 (1 in 33 steps) for the best boot with an MAA score of 11, 0.25 (1 in 4) for the boot with an MAA score of 6, and 0.51 (1 in 2) for the boot with an MAA score of 0.

Gait Descriptive Metrics are not Associated with Shoe Wear Rate
PRESENTER: Sarah Griffin

ABSTRACT. This study explored the relationship between gait descriptive factors (cadence, walking speed, and step length) and shoe wear rate, as these parameters have been associated with gait kinetics. There was no correlation found – indicating that shoe-floor kinetics are a better indication of wear rate than the gait factors.

Traction Performance Across Wear Varies By Shoe Type
PRESENTER: Sarah Hemler

ABSTRACT. This study found that traction performance (under-shoe friction and fluid dispersion) of naturally worn shoes decreased with wear. The reduction rate of friction varied across two shoe types. Wear should be considered when evaluating shoe traction performance.

07:45-08:45 Session 12B: Healthcare 9 (Session Sponsored by HIROC)
Clinical Decision-making in Lower-limb Prosthetic Prescription: Influence of Gait Analysis

ABSTRACT. Prosthetists’ decision-making abilities during gait analysis are critical to a successful prosthetic prescription. However, subjective variability in observational gait analysis poses serious challenges with treatment planning, ultimately resulting in poor decision-making and prosthetic prescription. This work examines the decision-making of three prosthetists based on observational and quantitative gait analyses of an amputee.

Achieving Balance Between Work System Barriers and Faciltators in the Use of an Augmented Reality Mobile Application

ABSTRACT. We studied work system facilitators and barriers experienced by users of augmented reality smartphone application that teaches users about a standardized pediatric code cart. Some work system facilitators balanced barriers, creating a balanced system; however, some actually exacerbated barriers, creating unintended consequences.

Detecting Abnormalities on Displays of Patient Information
PRESENTER: Sydney Fleishman

ABSTRACT. This project tested a new physiological information display that aims to improve a clinician’s ability to detect vital sign abnormalities before those abnormalities trigger an alarm. The configural display integrates information about heart rate, blood pressure, and blood oxygen saturation into a visual representation of the patient’s current state relative to alarm and “pre-alarm” thresholds. Eight participants were asked to monitor patient displays for six different types of emergency events under three display configurations (numerical, configural, and both) and two levels of cognitive load. The numerical display showed color-coded numerical values of each of the three patient parameters. Emergency events involved abnormal values of heart rate, blood pressure, blood oxygen saturation that occurred approximately every thirty seconds during six ten-minute patient monitoring blocks. Cognitive load was manipulated using an N-back task with two levels (N = 1 and N = 2). Emergency event detection was faster when both the configural display and numerical display were present than when only the numerical display was present Furthermore, a combined display showing both the numerical and configural information required the fewest number of alarms to facilitate correct detection of emergency events. In addition, reaction times to emergency events were slower in the high cognitive load condition than in the low cognitive load condition. These results suggest that the combination of numerical and configural displays has the potential to reduce the number of threshold alarms and reduce the time it takes clinicians to respond to emergency events.

Comparing Update Assessment Results in EMRs between Inside and Outside the Patient Room in an Intensive Care Unit
PRESENTER: Alireza Kasaie

ABSTRACT. The primary objective of this study is to analyze the different patterns of electron-ic medical record (EMR) documentation corresponding to updating assessment results and how these patterns would be different inside and outside the patient room in a medical intensive care unit. In this study, the real-time measurement system data was used to analyze ICU nurses’ workflow related to the EMR doc-umentation. After that, multiple hierarchical task analysis charts were developed to find different EMR documentation patterns for assessment results. The results revealed that the patterns of EMR documentation were significantly different in terms of average process time. The findings from this study might identify the ar-eas of EMR where improvements can be made by preventing disruptions, incom-pleteness, and inappropriate charting and optimizing the EMR process efficiency in a medical ICU.

07:45-08:45 Session 12C: MSD 4 - Physical Methods
Ergonomic risk assessment in kerbside waste collection through dynamic REBA protocol

ABSTRACT. SUMMATIVE STATEMENT: Literature suggests that kerbside waste collection shows high risks of biomechanical overload related to several body joints in many countries: Brazil, Denmark, Taiwan, Netherlands, United States, Iran, Great Britain, Turkey, Italy.

CAD and MODAPTS Models for Assessing Localized Fatigue

ABSTRACT. This work demonstrates the use of CAD-based workstation models that describe the spatial aspects and predetermined time systems, specifically MODAPTS, that show the temporal aspects of a given job provide an underlying model assessing localized fatigue with respect to the ACGIH TLV®. This work shows that CAD and predetermined time systems can provide an underlying model for predicting and interpreting WMSD risk. It also provides a framework for interpreting observation-based results, for identifying specific risk factors, and for designing engineering interventions.

Validation of the OCRA Checklist score as predictive of the occurrence of UL-WMSDs in workers exposed to manual repetitive tasks

ABSTRACT. ISO 11228-3 and ISO TR 12295 recommend the OCRA Checklist as a useful method for screening exposure to manual repetitive tasks. The aim of this study is to define forecasting models for the expected prevalence of UL-WMSDs in groups of exposed workers based on the OCRA Checklist scores. A database of 11,734 workers divided into 30 groups featuring different exposure levels and different prevalences of UL-WMSDs was analyzed. The association between the independent variable “Checklist score” (CK) and the dependent variable “% of workers with UL-WMSDs” (PA) was researched: a convincing association (R2 = 0.86) resulted from the linear regression equation PA=0.742(±0.055) x CK, which may be used (within defined limits) as a model for forecasting the occur-rence of UL-WMSDs based on the OCRA Checklist score. By using pre-established OCRA Checklist key-values, macro-groups with different exposure levels were created and the Prevalence Odds Ratio (POR) of each group was computed versus the “non-significant exposure” group. The POR for “border-line”, “low”, “medium” and “high” exposure groups was respectively 2.18, 2.77, 4.36 and 3.78. These results confirm the overall effectiveness of the current classification of the OCRA Checklist scores, while also suggesting that an OCRA Checklist score of 16 should be the cutoff for identifying low and medium exposure.

Effects of using a passive back exoskeleton on muscle activity, posture and perceived discomfort when working in a static forward bent position

ABSTRACT. Evaluating the Laevo® back supporting exoskeleton in a 90-second work task with a static forward bent upper body posture changed muscle activity, posture and perceived discomfort only to a minor extent, from which we cannot conclude the exoskeleton induces any preventive or adverse effects in static work tasks.

07:45-08:45 Session 12D: COVID-19 5
Case Study: Keys and Limitations to In-person Usability Testing During COVID-19 (withdrawn)
PRESENTER: Jeremy Honig

ABSTRACT. Two in-person usability evaluations were conducted over the Summer of 2020 during the COVID-19 pandemic to evaluate drug delivery device systems, with people with disease, caregivers, and healthcare professionals as the study participants. This paper is to share precautions and safety measures taken, keys for safe and successful in-person usability testing, and watch-outs for how this could affect the usability testing results.

COVID-19LL: A Systematic Approach to Identify Best Practices and Lessons Learned in German Economic Sectors
PRESENTER: Klaus Bengler

ABSTRACT. Due to the coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 outbreak, which led to a worldwide pandemic, many companies were forced to rethink and redefine the working conditions for their employees and the networks with their business partners to secure their productivity and economic survival. Many of these developments have been discussed even before the pandemic as a necessary reaction to economic and societal conditions that are increasingly volatile, uncertain, complex and ambiguous. A situation that has become known by the acronym VUCA. The pandemic has accelerated and changed numerous of those developments. Through the systematic analysis of lessons learned during the pandemic, the BMBF-funded research project COVID19LL aims to identify successful solutions and measures that have emerged in three different German regions (Bavaria, North Rhine-Westphalia and Saxony). The aim of the project is to identify the problems companies and organizations face and what they have learned from the change process thus far. The project thus aims to ascertain whether innovative and digital forms of work created by the pandemic could lead to positive impulses, which might prove successful in the working world in the medium and long term and the extent to which these can be transferred to other industries. This paper presents the methodological approach and outlines first results of interviews with employers and employee representatives as well as company representatives in order to identify best practices and lessons learned.

Ergonomics in the Time of the Coronavirus

ABSTRACT. The eruption of the SARS-CoV-2 virus in March 2020 created an unprecedented situation in workplaces as a whole, and universities were no exception. It has been necessary to learn about the new virus and to adapt preventive measures to a multifaceted environment in order to protect not only students, but also professors, support staff and managerial personnel. The aim of this paper is to describe the interventions of an ergonomics advisor in occupational health, with a view to presenting the contribution made by activity analysis, co-construction as part of a project approach, and the application of the precautionary principle in responding to the pandemic.

07:45-08:45 Session 12E: Health and Safety Symposium - Machine and System Safety in Digital Transformation Part 2
Ergo4All: a risk assessment and ergonomic guidance tool
PRESENTER: Quentin Bourret

ABSTRACT. Occupational Ergonomics related aspects have a significant impact in the manufacturing world, from Musculoskeletal Disorders (MSD) to quality is-sues; it is an important knowledge domain in manufacturing organizations. This paper presents a new decision tree called Ergo4AllTM aimed at giving er-gonomic guidance to manufacturing engineers while designing workstations in 3D. Combined with the Smart Posturing EngineTM (SPETM) technology, which generates posture automatically in a 3D environment, Ergo4AllTM analyses the potential risk of developing MSD by workers. It then provides guidance to the user on changes to the workstation that will lower the ergo-nomics risks. The goal of this decision tree is to provide simple ergonomic guidance to en-gineer that do not have training in ergonomics. The Ergo4AllTM decision tree was designed as a rapid assessment tool for people designing workstations early in the virtual design process. This by no means replaces the expertise of a certified ergonomist.

HFE in Ever-changing Industrial Scenario

ABSTRACT. It is well recognized that inclusion of Human Factors and Ergonomics (HFE) in early design phase not only reduces overall cost, but also improves operational safety and operator well-being. However, in industry, particularly in manufacturing, majority of the time, active inclusion of HFE principles or involving ergonomics experts happens in much later stages (after reported incidents-reactive approach). Hence, it becomes challenging to control the problem at the root level. The aim of this paper is to re-emphasize the importance of HFE and its inclusion at early design phase, especially when manufacturing facilities are being set up, in order to optimize system safety focusing into human needs. Through real-world case scenarios the relevance of the scope was presented.

A Systemic Overview of Factors Affecting the Cognitive Performance of Industrial Manual Assembly Workers
PRESENTER: Cecilia Berlin

ABSTRACT. In paced assembly lines, cognitive processing is required from assembly workers to perform correct and timely assembly of complex products with varying specifications. This interview study involving 75 industrial as-semblers, design- and manufacturing engineers explores how assemblers’ cognitive performance is influenced by multiple factors within the contexts of product design, production setup and assembly. Our results indicate that both positive and negative effects on assemblers’ cognitive performance can stem from task design, timing, physical loading demands, extrinsic motiva-tion factors, teamwork and the assembly “interface” design. Among design- and manufacturing engineers, two mindsets emerged: (i) a product-centred mindset relying on assemblers having sufficient experience, knowledge, and assembly instructions, (ii) an assembler-focused mindset characterised by an iterative and collaborative development process to ensure easy-to-assemble solutions, and avoid errors, delays and costly re-work. Despite organizational differences and conditions between the companies that took part in the study, the results are largely consistent.

Ergonomic Redesign of an Industrial Control Panel
PRESENTER: Reza Osqueizadeh

ABSTRACT. Control rooms can be considered as complex socio-technical systems, representing significant levels of human-machine interactions (Wu, Yuan, Li, Song, & Sang, 2016). In certain situations, due to the complex nature of the work, the existing interfaces and already prepared procedures do not meet the dynamic requirements of operator's cognitive demands, making the control tasks unnecessarily difficult (Gatto, Mól, Luquetti dos Santos, Jorge, & Legey, 2013)

07:45-08:45 Session 12F: ODAM 2
Safety Leadership in Two Types of Safety-Critical Systems

ABSTRACT. In safety-critical systems, such as aviation systems, nuclear power plants and hospitals, system failures can cause loss of life, environmental and property damage. Safety-critical systems consists of loose or tight interactions, they are more or less complex, and these characteristics affect the system’s ability to prevent and overcome emerging system failures. The demand for good safety cultures, and safe and efficient work within these types of systems highlight the crucial role of safety leadership. This paper reports on findings from a small pilot study with the aim of exploring whether safety leadership in practice differs according to the built in properties of complexity and coupling in safety-critical organizations. Based on a literature review on safety leadership, interviews were conducted with one leader at a nuclear power plant, and one at a university hospital. The two systems can be viewed to have separate characters and differences in the way work is performed. Contrasts existed between safety leadership within the nuclear power plant and the hospital setting concerning flexibility in the organizations. The hospital setting were more suitable for adaptability and flexibility in relation to dynamical decision hierarchies. The nuclear power plant setting was viewed as more rigid with tightly coupled interactions, and the leadership and safety culture might be extra crucial within this system. Nevertheless, both interviewees promoted a transformational and inspirational leadership style. However, transactional leadership was preferable in critical situations.

A reflexive method to evaluate a new safety management program
PRESENTER: Vincent Boccara

ABSTRACT. This communication aimed to present a reflexive method to evaluate how a new safety management program is being implemented in the daily practices of managers. This method was built during an experimentation in a partnership research (E-safety project), in order to be then deployed by the managers and safety actors of the railways company. We conducted a study according to five steps: 1) preparation phase with the sponsor of the evaluation, 2) kick-off meeting with the director of one of the company's infrastructure maintenance facilities, 3) data collection by semi-structured interviews, 4) analysis of the data collected and 5) co-construction of a diagnosis on the implementation of the safety program in the daily practices. Here, we focus on the step three. Participants were twelve managers representing the four levels of the management line of this site and two support services. More the results concerning the assessment of the safety program, we aimed to present the method, its principles, the type of quantitative and qualitative analysis conducted and figures. These results then lead to discuss the interest of moving towards a constructive approach of safety.

Attitude towards artificial intelligence in a leadership role

ABSTRACT. The current development of AI technologies shows that in the future it will be possible to help people with certain problems by analyzing data sets but also to support them with more complex tasks. For example, AI has already been implemented in some companies to take over routine tasks in the HR department or to assist managers with administrative tasks so that they can focus on essential tasks. Thus, this interview study was designed to answer the main research question of what attitudes people have toward AI as a manager. N = 32 subjects from different industries participated in the interview (16 male and 16 female; mean age 36.74, SD =12.42), of which 14 had leadership responsibilities and 18 had no employee responsibilities. It was found that tech-savvy individuals find it difficult to envision AI technologies in both work context and leadership. If it ever comes to that, the subjects want a transparent application that supports them and gives them space for interpersonal interactions with a human supervisor. Further research in this area is needed.

Sharing an autonomous taxi without a driver through Guided Imaginary Projection to identify sources of (dis)comfort
PRESENTER: Beatrice Cahour

ABSTRACT. Future shared robot taxis should reduce traffic congestion in cities, and in order to design services adapted to the needs of users, the sources of comfort and discomfort must be specified. In order to project people into the use of this future mobility, the technique of Guided Imaginary Projection was used with 40 men and women between 22 and 66 years of age. It made it possible to specify the effect produced by the absence of a driver, a driver who usually takes on the role of mediator who reassures, organizes and manages the unexpected events. Recommendations for the design of such services were drafted.

07:45-08:47 Session 12G: Activity Theories for Work Analysis & Design + Sustainable Development Symposium - Developing ergonomic practices to address sustainability issues: from companies to territories Part 1

Developing ergonomic practices to address sustainability issues: from companies to territories

Developing ergonomic practices to address sustainability issues: from companies to territories
PRESENTER: Pascal Béguin

ABSTRACT. The aim of this symposium is to contribute, from the point of view of the working issues involved in sustainable development, to a better definition of concepts, modes of functioning and methods for analysis and action at the territorial level.

Servicialisation and sustainability : the new perimeters of the work situation

ABSTRACT. The industrial model is based on the divisibility: of production (production line, line work), of the product (assembly of elements) and of the economic process (clear distinction between the phases/plans of strategy, design and production). Such a model thinks of work in terms of operation: elementary segment of action, stabilised and reproduced identically at an optimised rate. In this context, the "activity" is cut into sequences, with no other horizon than the reiteration of the same, meaningless, and does not open up to any experience likely to carry a perspective of emancipation. In truth, no activity, in the sense that ergonomics aims to enhance, is "thinkable", let alone "developpable" within this paradigm. In such a narrow framework, ergonomics is inevitably forced to accept the current industrial economic model as a context that limits its field of intervention in terms of imperative constraints that cannot be changed - and, in fact, ergonomics has long been deployed in a logic of development and resistance within a perimeter held by management, which expected nothing from it and from which it could expect nothing ... -. It is only fairly recently that ergonomic intervention has begun to question the economic status of work, and that it has begun to look at management no longer as a context, but as a field of intervention. This presupposed that it learnt to take its bearings on the limits, contradictions, tensions and therefore the challenges of the neoclassical industrial economic model in place, such as those which point through the rise in economic demands and expectations, but which are just as much societal, sustainable development and servicialisation.

Food well-being: territory, work and cooperation
PRESENTER: Francisco Duarte

ABSTRACT. The magnitude of the current health and economic crisis has highlighted the criticality of the food sector for life and social stability. Production and consumption represent critical environmental impacts on soil degradation, water pollution, and biodiversity reduction. The generation of waste is also significant. In addition to these territorial impacts, food can create several funda-mental functionalities such as work, health, services and social relationships. This article presents an analysis, based on the Functional and Cooperative Economy (FCE) approach, of two initiatives that cooperate for food well-being in Rio de Janeiro, the first related to food production and distribution, and the second to collection and treatment of organic waste. The objective is to characterize the challenges and limits of these initiatives' current economic model and build guidelines for transforming their economic models. Through collective dynamics and interactions with company managers, the importance of a higher articulation of these initiatives with beneficiaries and territorial actors, capable of increasing the relevance of the solutions offered about their expectations and needs, and an evolution of functionalities and performances of uses. This collective engagement will allow the sharing of material and immaterial resources, in a convergence of interests and actors that act in the service of a territorial project with economic, social, societal and environmental intentions.

Inter-organizational design for sustainable transition in agri-food systems: the case of the Paris-Saclay territory
PRESENTER: Chloé Le Bail

ABSTRACT. To reach their desirable vision of what actors mean by sustainable agri-food systems, transition processes take place in which the work activities evolve. The present paper investigates such an evolution through the conceptual framework of organizational design in ergonomics. It aims to understand how evolves the work of actors involved in the transition towards more “localized” production, distribution and consumption of food. We propose to consider the sustainability transition of agri-food systems as an inter-organizational design process, a process by which people redesign rules that guide coordination between organizations. We approach local food systems at the territorial scale to grasp the news forms of coordination in their cultural, spatial, economic, technical, political and ecological context. We consider the inter-organizational design process as the meso-level of actions, which articulates with the micro-level (work activities) as well as the macro-level (public policies, norms in food consumption). The paper presents the case of the association C, which manages catering for a public organization in the Paris-Saclay Plateau. We investigate the ecosystem of actors of the association C, as well as the way by which the catering manager develops and redesigns coordination at the various levels of actions.

Situated Relational Networks: Empowerment and Entrepreneurship in The Rocinha Slum
PRESENTER: Felipe Loureiro

ABSTRACT. The paper presents a qualitative study on entrepreneurship in the Rocinha slum, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, from the perspective of the effectuation approach developed by Saras Sarasvathy. Effectuation is the key for interpreting four case studies focused on the social, economic, and cultural relationships between the slum and the north-eastern region of Brazil – the origin of many of Rocinha's residents. The interviews indicated the importance of relational links between Rocinha and Northeast of Brazil either in the slum's economic dynamism or its identity affirmation, an aspect revealed in one interview with an entrepreneur who sends the rent income to relatives in the Northeast, for example. As a possible unfolding of future research, the effectuation approach seems adequate for the study, not only for startups, but also for the operation of such initiatives in those contexts marked by radical uncertainties, as is the Rocinha slum in Rio de Janeiro.

07:45-08:45 Session 12H: Human Factors in Robotics 2
Don’t Forget The Human In Human Robot Collaboration - Ensuring job quality in human robot collaboration (HRC) – three manufacturing use-cases
PRESENTER: Frank Krause

ABSTRACT. Cobots or collaborative robots take over certain operator tasks. Technical challenges in creating a true collaborative setting are large with the risk of forgetting the cobot’s partner: the worker. We present three manufacturing use-cases in which positive and negative effects on job quality have been researched.

Human-Robot Collaboration During Assembly Tasks: The Cognitive Effects of Collaborative Assembly Workstation Features
PRESENTER: Federico Fraboni

ABSTRACT. This experimental study is set out to explore the effects of collaborative robotic system features on workers perceived cognitive workload, usability and visual attention. This work’s primary objective is to identify strategies for lowering workers’ cognitive workload and increase usability when collaborating with robots in assembly tasks, ultimately fostering safety and performance. Perceived cognitive workload significantly decreased, and usability increased with the manipulation of workstation elements as well as the conditions of human interaction. Individual differences across participants suggest that robots should be capable of adjusting their behaviour according to the specific user.

Human Factors Considerations for Healthcare Robotics
PRESENTER: Alix Dorfman

ABSTRACT. Robotic innovations continue to transform healthcare. Today, healthcare professionals and lay users can leverage technologies such as autonomous systems (e.g., image-guided robotic devices), tele-operative systems (e.g., remotely-operated surgical equipment), and augmentative systems (e.g., rehabilitation exoskeletons) to bolster patient care. Although these systems are used to detect and treat various stages of disease and/or injury, they all must be able to be used in a safe and effective manner. Human factors practitioners can achieve this by accounting for both human factors principles and processes during the design and development process.

Results from the third European Survey of Enterprises on New and Emerging Risks on Human-Robot Interaction

ABSTRACT. Representative data of the third European Survey of Enterprises on New and Emerging Risks (ESENER-3) shows that about 3.5% of the more than 45000 interviewed enterprises have implemented direct human-robot interaction (HRI). The distribution varies noticeably between countries and once the enterprises are separated according to their industry branches. This diverse landscape of direct HRI in Europe goes along with specific risks and challenges that are considered being linked to occupational safety and health: need for training, fear of jobs loss, flexibility requirements for employees regarding working time and work place as well as repetitive movements.

07:45-08:45 Session 12I: Ergonomics in Design for All Symposium - Opportunities and Challenges of Digital Technologies for Inclusion Part 1
Designing smart ring for the health of the elderly: the CloudIA project
PRESENTER: Mattia Pistolesi

ABSTRACT. This paper describes the design and development of a wearable device, able to monitor physiological data, movement and falls, for fragile older person who require health care. Some approaches of Universal Design and Human-Centred Design were used, which allowed to evaluate and design the interaction between the person and the system. From a design point of view, studies on wearability and the most appropriate landmarks of the human body were carried out, suitable for monitoring heartbeat, movement and falls. From an engineering point of view, the main challenge was the miniaturization of the electronic components for the development of a wearable device to be placed on a small surface of the body, able to allow the performance of daily activities without altering the natural movements of the user, also considering the physical limitations of older and fragile people. Our results indicate how digital technologies, specifically wearable, can be a resource to support the independence and psycho-physical well-being of old people. The next step of the research program concerns the experimentation with a significant sample of typical users (elderly and socio-health professionals), both in nursing home and at home.

Designing the University Of Manitoba Technology for Assisted Living Project (TALP): A Collaborative Approach to Supporting Aging in Place

ABSTRACT. Emerging technologies are critical to support older adults to live independent-ly and safely at home. This manuscript describes the collaborative approach used to build the “University of Manitoba Technology for Assisted Living Project” (TALP), a research and assessment facility dedicated to independent and safe living for older adults.

Inclusion Design and Functionalities of a Personalized Virtual Coach for Wellbeing to Facilitate a Universal Access for Older Adults
PRESENTER: Mira El Kamali

ABSTRACT. The current research proposes a technological system “NESTORE” designed for and with older adults in four different countries in order to improve and sustain their wellbeing. The system personalized activities and architecture, co-designed interfaces, and its multilingual aspect aim to establish an ‘inclusion’ criterion based on the us-er’s sociocultural profile and health condition.

Seniors’ Perception of Smart Speakers: Challenges and Opportunities Elicited in the Silver&Home Living Lab

ABSTRACT. As the European population is getting older, there is an increasing need in maintaining older adults living independently at home. Vocal assistants may offer various services that can be beneficial for senior citizens. In the con-text of the Silver&Home living lab, we tested the Google Home Smart speak-er connected to smart lighting installation with 7 people to understand the strengths, weaknesses and possible usage for improving the quality of life of older adults. The test and the questions asked to participants were framed ac-cording to the Unified Theory on Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT2). Participants generally appreciated the interaction with the smart speaker, although they also identified some barriers, such as the “OK Google” wakeword or the assistant speaking too fast for some answers. Fi-nally, they considered it particularly adapted to people living alone.

07:45-08:50 Session 12J: Gender and Work Symposium - Ergonomic studies of atypical work and vulnerable population through a sex/gender lens: Toward better understanding of context and risks, for better prevention.
Ergonomic studies of atypical work and vulnerable population through a sex/gender lens: Toward better understanding of context and risks, for better prevention.
PRESENTER: Jessica Riel

ABSTRACT. This symposium is organized by members of the IEA Technical Committee “Gender & Work” who are also researchers at the CINBIOSE Research Center. It will be a special opportunity to hear the results of the most recent research and interventions in ergonomics considering gender in the context of different kinds of atypical work/workers and risks associated with them. In the new world of work, ergonomists must adapt their practice to atypical work contexts, calls for diversity with ensuing management challenges. They need to be aware of the specificity of atypical work context and more attentive to vulnerable workers.

Gendered Experience of Work-Family Balance in the Construction Industry: Different Exposures and Strategies, Shared Concerns

ABSTRACT. This presentation addresses work-family balance among on-site workers in the construction industry and informs on the influence of inflexible work design in conveying stereotypes that can impact the sustainability and equity of workplace interventions.

Agile Development of Prevention Tools in Occupational Health and Safety: A Gender Consideration
PRESENTER: Myriam Bérubé

ABSTRACT. The Work-Oriented Training Path (WOTP) is a Quebec school program of-fering people aged 15 to 21 to develop their employability by alternating between school and internships. Among other tasks, teachers in this pro-gram must ensure that students are healthy and safe in their work environ-ment. Our team wishes to develop new technological tools to address this role. The work activity of the WOTP teachers is complex and modulated by several determinants. It could be assisted by technological tools, which will change this activity in a way that can be anticipated through the Future Activity Approach. The tools must also consider the influences of sex and gender in occupational health and safety prevention. The design team has proposed an Agile approach for the technology’s development. A methodo-logical questioning is necessary to assess the capacity of these three ap-proaches to be mobilized in an integrated way. To do so, a content analysis of articles describing the methods has been carried out (Future Activity Approach, Gender-Based Analysis +, Agile methods). They all promote an iterative approach with flexible steps. In theory, the stages of these ap-proaches can be superimposed. Their combination address some of their re-spective criticisms and could have an added value. Since they come from different fields of expertise, combining them could be challenging; it re-quires a multidisciplinary approach that is not always available. The com-bination represents an advantage in the face of a complex work situation in-fluenced by sex and gender, for which a technology development is being considered.

Considering sex/gender in the Design of a Technology-Supported work Injury Prevention Model Among Adolescents with Learning Difficulties
PRESENTER: Marie Laberge

ABSTRACT. Adolescents with a low education level and learning difficulties are particularly vulnerable to work injuries. In Québec (Canada), these adolescents can take part in the Work-Oriented Training Path (WOTP) program, where they have the op-portunity to develop general employability skills, by spending half of their school time doing a pre-work traineeship. This communication aims to describe, through a sex/gender lens, Occupational Health & Safety (OHS) prevention activities among key stakeholders involved in the WOTP, and to document their needs for new technological OHS resources. We used multiple data sources to collect school principals, teachers, and students opinions. School principals mentioned they are quite far from the students’ day-to-day OHS considerations, despite ac-knowledging that they have some responsibilities in this matter. They did not per-ceive any issues related to sex/gender and OHS. Teachers expressed feeling per-sonally concerned by OHS, but they focused mainly on students’ attitudes and behaviors. They mention that they treat men and women students similarly, but they recognize that some workplaces have specific issues in terms of OHS (e.g. garage, hairdressing salon); however, it is uncertain whether they see any gen-dered trends in this observation. Male teachers seem more proactive in involving companies in prevention with their students. Finally, students can identify several hazards in their traineeship workplace. Male students tend to name a larger num-ber of potential dangers, but only women name stress and anxiety as specific haz-ards. Men usually report receiving more OHS training than women, throughout their traineeship.

“This Is a Job for Women, Isn’t It?”: The Evolution of a Traditional Gendered Occupational Segmentation in a Portuguese Industrial Cluster
PRESENTER: Mariana Macedo

ABSTRACT. Cork industry is most expressive in Portugal. However, within the sector, the activity is very differentiated, either when it is looked at from a gender perspective or from the point of view of its automation-driven evolution. The cork stoppers are manufactured by men, whereas their selection is performed by women. Our study presents findings based on fieldwork carried out in two Portuguese cork processing companies. While the limitations of automation in avoiding the waste of cork have perpetuated up to now the use of manual drills by men, the working methods in the selection activity performed exclusively by women are being reconfigured due to automation. The recent introduction of new automated machines is built upon the female workers’ experience, requiring from them new “uses of oneself”. With these changes, some risks remain barely visible, and their impacts on health are still unrecognized, despite the importance of these work practices in the “revaluation” of a unique industrial territory.

Work-related musculoskeletal disorders interventions in a seasonal work context: A scoping review of sex and gender considerations
PRESENTER: Marie-Eve Major

ABSTRACT. Many industry sectors that involve a large proportion of seasonal workers are characterized by working conditions that are demanding from a musculoskeletal perspective and by a gendered and sex-based division of labor. This paper aims to address the important issue of musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) among seasonal workers by examining recommendations and interventions undertaken to prevent MSDs within a context of seasonal work and by assessing how sex and gender are considered. A scoping review was conducted in seven scientific databases and into ergonomics and occupational health and safety websites using descriptors and keywords (English and French). A total of 16 documents were included. Findings show six main categories of transformation targets, with the most reported category being the one on technical devices/physical environment. Only a few studies incorporated a sex/gender analysis and considered the influence of the seasonal context in the intervention-research study design. Indeed, the few studies that did investigate sex/gender mainly approached the idea in terms of inter-individual differences between the workers when designing an intervention to meet physiological needs. Only a few studies also looked at how sex/gender exposed workers differently in terms of working activity or other related dimensions in these types of atypical working contexts. Our study illustrates the need to address occupational health inequalities in a seasonal work context in order to better design interventions for this underserved and understudied population.

07:45-08:45 Session 12K: Agriculture 2
Manual Handling Task of Bovine Quarters Among Delivery Operators in a Chilean Slaughterhouse Company: A Case Study with Ergonomic Approximation

ABSTRACT. Few studies in the South American context, and none in Chile, have been carried out in bovine slaughterhouse workers. However, the little evidence available mainly in North America and Europe is consistent with our findings, regarding the demands at the lumbar level, upper limbs and physical workload and the determinants of work activity. Objectives: Identify and describe the risk factors for WMSDs associated with Manual Handling of meat products, as well as other risk, the demand for physical work and biomechanical load, in truck loading and unloading activities in a slaughterhouse company and the determinants of work activity for the intervention. Material and Methods: Case study, observational descriptive cross-sectional design with mixed approach, considers the analysis of lumbar force moment, kinematic analysis and measurement of cardiac frequency to determine the physiological workload, verbalizations, perceptions and observation of work activity Results: The Manual Handling of meat products exceeds 3400N of disc compression in L4-L5 and L5-S1 level, the % HRR is over 40% and the activity is determined by the type of working day, the organization of the distribution and the lack of means support mechanics for loading and unloading trucks. Conclusions. Manual Handling tasks in this industry are physically very demanding and improving these working conditions represents a major challenge for prevention and ergonomics.

Farmer experiences with exoskeletons during farm tasks
PRESENTER: Catherine Trask

ABSTRACT. After using a passive back-supporting exoskeleton for several work tasks, farmers completed interviews to describe their experience and perceptions. While productivity gains were central, themes important to successful exoskeleton use also included health, safety, comfort, mobility, ease of use, and jobs and timing.

Farm machinery operator egress: Investigating adherence to safety guidelines following whole-body vibration in a laboratory model
PRESENTER: David Kingston

ABSTRACT. Experienced operators primarily performed machinery egress facing out from the cabin. A one-hour exposure to whole-body vibration (WBV) did not alter points of contact (PoC) behaviour or task duration when performing facing out egress in this experimental model.

08:45-09:15AM Break 2
09:15-10:45 Session 13: Keynotes 2 (This session is sponsored by Aptima)

Keynote session including 

Trust in Automation and Autonomy - Presented by Dr. Peter Hancock

AI:  Tool or Teammate?  Human-Centered Perspectives on Human-AI Interactions - Dr. Ben Shneiderman and Mr. Daniel Serfaty, CEO Aptima 


Trust in Automation and Autonomy

ABSTRACT. This presentation will evaluate the ways in which humans trust, distrust, and mistrust the automated and growingly autonomous systems with which they interact. Examples will be drawn from the realm of ground transportation and the manifest increase in semiautomated vehicles now represented upon our roadways. Similarly, examples and case studies will be emphasized from the realm of aviation in which the ‘unknowability’ of all states of systems operations serves to impact the level of trust expressed. Some degree of resolution through the enactment of systemic ‘transparency’ will be considered and ways to design, create, and implement interfaces to achieve the goal of operational transparency will be discussed. Comparisons will be made between how humans trust each other versus how humans trust machines, and whether the former processes are considered desirable for the latter form of interaction. Finally, some glimpses of the future of human operators working with growingly autonomous systems will consider the nature of coming forms of interaction and whether and how various forms of human affective state assessment will play into such combinational operations.

AI: Tool or Teammate? Human-Centered Perspectives on Human-AI Interactions
PRESENTER: Ben Shneiderman

ABSTRACT. Join Professor Ben Shneiderman and Aptima’s Founder Daniel Serfaty for a lively debate on one of the most important technological challenges of our time: the synergy between human expertise and artificial intelligence.  While arguing whether AI should be viewed as an advanced tool or as a teammate, they will provide some practical systems design guidance on how to thoughtfully augment human performance with AI devices. 

11:45-12:45 Session 14A: Patient Safety Design Competition (Sponsored by HIROC)

Finalist from the ergonomics track (1): Industrial Ergonomic Assessment of Trillium Hospital Oncology Department.

Presented by Amar Latchman, Joseph Campos, and John Naismith from Ryerson University

Finalist from the UX/HCI Track (2): Nura: A Postpartum Mental Health Tool.

Presented by Audrey Benmergui, Maeesha Biswas, Alyssa Iglar, and Karen Zhao from University of Toronto


Judges:  Ken Catchpole, Susan Hallbeck, Pascale Carayon

Patient Safety Design Competition
PRESENTER: Mark Chignell

ABSTRACT. This paper reports on the Patient Safety Research and Application Competition that was held in conjunction with the 2021 International Ergonomics Association Conference. The objectives of this competition were to: (1) Formulate research problem statements and innovative solutions to improve patient safety through the application of human factors/ergonomics (HF/E) to the healthcare system, (2) Showcase how the HF/E approach to this topic can lead to a useful, usable, and satisfying user experience while simultaneously improving outcomes relating to both functional and non-functional requirements, and (3) Provide an effective way of engaging students and early career researchers in IEA activities and initiatives. After reviewing the patient safety topics that motivated the design competition, we then report on the work carried out by the two finalists in the competition, and discuss lessons learned. We propose the continued use of design competitions in the future to motivate and showcase ergonomic problem-solving design by students and early career researchers and practitioners.

11:45-12:45 Session 14B: Healthcare 10 - COVID-19 (Session Sponsored by HIROC)
An analysis of usability levels of ventilators during Covid-19: a case study
PRESENTER: Mattia Pistolesi

ABSTRACT. The aim of this study was to investigate the usability levels of some pul-monary ventilators during emergency pandemic caused by COVID-19 for some hospitals of Tuscany Region. The study involved 30 anesthetists with varying age and experience, 5 hospitals of Tuscany Region and 3 different model of pulmonary ventilators. To quantify the usability levels of medical devices the Post-Study System Usability Questionnaire (PSSUQ) was used. The PSSQU was submitted to the operators using the Google Forms plat-form. This tool allowed us to asses user satisfaction for 4 different dimen-sions of usability: Overall PSSQU (user satisfaction), system usefulness (SYUSE), information quality (INFOQUAL) and interface quality (INTERQUAL). Overall, the PSSQU subscale scores show a high overall usability. The re-sults indicate a positive reliability of the pulmonary ventilators studied, although for 2 out of 30 subjects surveyed, the PSSQU subscale score is less than 50%. The PSSQU proved to be a replicable tool for the different ventilator models in use in hospitals, and effective for measuring the usabil-ity of pulmonary ventilators, including performance, usability problems and user satisfaction. The results, although on average high, highlight the need for doctors to have: clearer and more detailed error messages, more usable and less chaotic graph-ic user interface (GUI), lighter and more intuitive mechanical ventilators during assembly and disassembly of components.

Resilience, safety and health: reflections about Covid-19´ assistance

ABSTRACT. There are growing concerns about how healthcare systems can adapt in times of crisis. The overarching challenge lies in how resilience engineering could be used to analyze and improve the performance of healthcare systems con-cerning the Covid-19. This study aims to describe the relationship between resilience potentials and health and safety aspects and its consequences on quality and resilience in healthcare systems. This study has a quantitative methodological approach using a survey with the Resilience Analysis Grid as an approach to analyzing organizational resilience based on the idea that four potential (responding, monitoring, learning and anticipating) influence patient safety, occupational health and safety and resilient system performance. As for this study results, anticipating and monitoring, overall resilience and oc-cupational health and safety are the variables that need more attention in healthcare systems. This study has a dyad of contributions, as a practice, evaluate the resilience in a pandemic time, and as theoretical, the identifica-tion of the importance of resilience four potential connections in healthcare systems.

The Lived Experience of Nurses Wearing Facemasks during COVID-19 Pandemic: An Ergonomic Study.
PRESENTER: Mohamed Mokdad

ABSTRACT. In times of pandemics, people are required to wear personal protective equipment especially facemasks to minimize exposure to hazards. The pur-pose of facemasks is to prevent the transmission of viruses through the respiratory system from one person to another. Besides their advantages, they have disadvantages too. They may cause facial complications and negatively affect communication. Wearing a facemask is considered a new experience around the world. Therefore, it is useful to know the experience of people who wear it, especially for long periods. This research aims to study the experience of nurses who wore facemasks for extended hours. Researchers used the phenomenological method that explores the meaning that individuals give to the experiences they have had towards a particular phenomenon. The sample consisted of fifteen (15) adult nurses who were intentionally chosen from one hospital in the city of Oran (Algeria). Researchers used face-to-face semi-structured interviews with nurses. The following question: “What was your experience as a nurse wearing a facemask while working for more than eight hours a day?” was asked to each of them. Nurses were encouraged to speak freely while expressing their experience. The analysis of the nurses' experience while wearing the facemask showed they were embodied in four major themes which are: 1- Health and safety concerns (headache and face wounds), 2- Physical ergonomic concerns (facemask design and anthropometric data), 3- Communication ergonomics concerns (communication disturbances) and 4- Aesthetic ergonomics (Appearance and Color). The research concluded with a discussion of all these four themes.

11:45-12:45 Session 14C: MSD 5
Monocular Body Asymmetry Angle Estimation Using Deep Learning Computer Vision Algorithms
PRESENTER: Zhengyang Lou

ABSTRACT. This paper addresses the challenging problem of estimating body asymmetry angle, a key and unique parameter for implementing the Revised NIOSH Lifting Equation (RNLE), from a single video. The body asymmetry angle was first approximated by the angle between the unit vectors formed by the wrist and hip from 3D motion capture (MoCap). State-of-the-art computer-vison methods were used to estimate 3D body locations from synchronized video and used in calculating asymmetry. The resulting average error, 0.65o (SD=6.37o) compared to MoCap, suggests the method has potential application for body asymmetry angle estimation from a single video camera.

An Improved Computer Vision Method to Detect Object Lifting and Releasing
PRESENTER: Zishuai Zou

ABSTRACT. This study introduces a new method to automatically detect object lifting and releasing, and describes its performance using two sets of lifting videos. The method improved the accuracy of lifting and releasing detection time based on single-frame video analysis by reducing the mean error by 92% and 91%, from 0.624s (SD = 0.42) to -0.049 s (SD = 0.062) for lifting, and from 0.144s (SD = 1.52) to 0.013 s (SD = 0.044) for releasing, compared against previous methods (Wang, et al., 2019). The detection of lifting and releasing is important for automatic analysis of lifting.

The Development of Automated Ergonomic Risk Assessment Tool Based on Computer Vision
PRESENTER: Gourav Nayak

ABSTRACT. The purpose of this study was to develop a deep learning (DL) based posture assessment system that will aid ergonomic experts in conducting RULA-based posture assessment survey in workplaces by reducing time for evaluating postures while producing highly reliable assessment. A statistical test has been conducted to prove reliability of proposed system by computing intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) between traditional and proposed system.

Relationships Between The Revised NIOSH Lifting Equation Variables and Computer Vision Estimated Trunk Kiematics
PRESENTER: Runyu Greene

ABSTRACT. This study demonstrated estimating trunk kinematics from videos using a computationally efficient computer vision method, and explored the relationships of these variables with the Revised NIOSH Lifting Equation (RNLE) and low-back pain (LBP). Considerable correlations between some trunk kinematic variables and LBP were revealed, while little correlation between trunk kinematics and the RNLE variables was found. The findings suggest that incorporating trunk kinematics in lifting assessment may improve the assessment of risk for LBP.

11:45-12:45 Session 14D: Biomechanics 3: Manual Materials Handling
The New Liberty Mutual Manual Materials Handling (LM-MMH) Equations
PRESENTER: Jim R. Potvin

ABSTRACT. We propose predictive equations to replace the 14 manual materials handling tables in Snook & Ciriello (1991).

Detecting Subject-Specific Fatigue Related Changes in Lifting Kinematics Using a Machine Learning Approach
PRESENTER: Sheldon Hawley

ABSTRACT. An objective approach to detecting fatigue related changes during a repetitive manual material handling lifting task using machine learning was applied and evaluated.

Objective Identification of High Exposure Lifting Strategy
PRESENTER: Daniel Armstrong

ABSTRACT. The aim of this study was to objectively determine aspects of movement strategy that differed between lifts with high and low resultant biomechanical exposures at both the low back and shoulders. Low exposure lifting strategies minimized the horizontal distance of the body to the load, had greater knee flexion, adopted a wider base of support and maintained more neutral low back and shoulder flexion angles. These findings can inform automated lifting strategy assessment criteria.

Influence of Distance, Pace, Box Height and Mass on the Back Loading During Manual Material Handling

ABSTRACT. Transfer distance, work pace, box height and handled mass were related to back loading. Distance increased cumulative back loading over 1 m. Faster pace reduced cumulative back loading, but increased asymmetric load. Handled mass increased back loading, but had less influence at greater heights.

11:45-12:45 Session 14E: Building and Construction 1
Concrete casting – construction engineers’ attitudes and knowledge about work environment, risk factors, injuries and self-compacting concrete

ABSTRACT. SUMMATIVE STATEMENT: The construction industry is tough. One-hour-interviews were conducted with 6 male building engineers. The results indicate that construction engineers are familiar with risks for accidents, but much less with risks for musculoskeletal disorders, and with hand-arm vibrations. A lack of interest in preventive and alleviating procedures due to perceived higher costs was also indicated.

Social Housing and Working-From-Home: an ergonomic analysis of Brazilian dwelling during the COVID-19 pandemic
PRESENTER: Thaisa Sarmento

ABSTRACT. In Brazil, covid-19 reached 5 million infected people, with more than 200 thousand deaths. It is the 3rd country in the global contamination ranking, behind only the USA and India. Studies have shown that the covid-19 pandemic lethally reached the poorest in the world, those who could not stop working during the social isolation. In Brazil, Valente (2020) published that 20% poorest had twice the chance to be infected than the 20% of the wealthiest people. The study relates living conditions in popular homes during the pandemic and focuses on working-from-home and occupants' new needs from an ergonomics perspective. This research evaluated the ergonomic conditions in a social house dwelling in Brazil. Its users are a young couple and one child, who remained in social isolation for 03 months - from March to June 2020. The analysis included the environmental conditions as comfort, accessibility, habitability, functionality, privacy, and ergonomics. Results highlighted the provisional workstations inside minimal housing and the problems of sharing these workstations between the different users' profiles. Interior dimensions and furniture were not prepared to accommodate working activities for such a long time and simultaneously for the whole family.

Effect of Safety Culture on Safety Citizenship Behaviour of Construction Personnel in China
PRESENTER: Xiangcheng Meng

ABSTRACT. Personnel safety problems on the construction sites are still serious concerns, which need to be particularly emphasized and mitigated. In recent times, safety culture and safety citizenship behavior are considered influential to promote the safety of construction personnel. However, no study has focused on analyzing the correlation between safety culture and safety citizen-ship behavior of construction workers in a quantitative way, and the lack of relevant research can cause obstacles to the safety development of the construction industry. Therefore, this study was carried out to examine the correlation between safety culture and safety citizenship behavior among construction personnel working onsite by conducting a questionnaire survey with 140 respondents in China. The data were analyzed using statistical approaches, such as Pearson correlation analysis, structural equation modeling, and linear regression modeling, that the underlying mechanisms of the influence were verified. The findings provide both practical and theoretical contributions to the industrial field, which highlight the importance of effective relationship exchange and working culture promotion among organizations.

11:45-12:45 Session 14F: ODAM 3
Presenteeism and Voice: Ergonomic Factors for Sports Coaches
PRESENTER: Katie Buckley

ABSTRACT. SUMMATIVE STATEMENT: Sports coaching is critically vocally reliant, and often leads to coaches persisting with coaching when unwell. Diverse ergonomic factors contribute to coaches’ presenteeism behaviors. A systems lens should inform vocal presenteeism for sports coaches.

Moving the Needle on Well-being in the Workplace: A New Horizon for Real Ergonomics

ABSTRACT. COVID-19 drove home the fact that companies are nothing without the well-being of their employees. While the goal of ergonomics is to optimize well-being and overall system performance, many practitioners continue to find themselves focused on safety concerns that are outside of the decision-making process to effect system level design changes that impact well-being. The globally recognized WELL Building Standard version 2 (WELL v2) (International Well Building Institute, 2020) presents an opportunity for ergonomists to work with stakeholders at a macro level to proactively enhance employee well-being in the built environment.

Ergo@Large : Collaborating for the Benefits of HF/E

ABSTRACT. Ergo@Large is a group of passionate and caring people collaborating on a journey to improve health and wellness through a unique Human Factors/Ergonomics collaborative and inclusive approach opened at large to the many professions involving humans at work in Canada. A group of professors, students and experts came together and formed a sub-committee of the Association of Canadian Ergonomist (ACE) to explore the current state and future of Ergonomics. The committee aims at inspiring new approaches and to encourage discoveries. This article explains the creative approach through four different programs: 1- Student Projects, 2- Monitoring/Analyzing, 3- Survey/Tendencies and 4- Redaction/Publishing and steps taken since the creation of the Ergo@Large committee with plans for the next five years. The committee operates virtually facilitating an innovative operation structure based on a hockey team organization to avoid silos and divisions per province but rather regroup the pan Canadian group members in teams regardless of their geographic locations to foster inclusion and collaboration.

Examining “Suitable Seating” In California Using a Macroergonomics Framework

ABSTRACT. An examination of California legal cases on providing “suitable seating” for jobs whose nature of work permits the use of seats shows that many of the legal arguments for and against seating are organization-level issues. More focus is required on the group-level issues related to a line manager’s role of implementing human resource management practices and navigating the employee’s perceptions and reactions to these practices.

11:45-12:45 Session 14G: Activity Theories for Work Analysis and Design & Sustainable Development Symposium - Developing ergonomic practices to address sustainability issues: from companies to territories Part 2
Territory as a Construct of Work Activity and an Operative Dispositive for and Through Action
PRESENTER: Liliana Cunha

ABSTRACT. The relationships between territory and work are still insufficiently explored from the point of view of the work activity [1]. In what way does the territo-ry cease to be only the "ground" where the history of work activities and its protagonists are daily constructed to become a category of analysis? The territory is asymmetric, and it often assumes the status of constraint, as evidenced in the case study in the road passenger transport sector we present here. However, the territory is also acted upon, it is enriched through the ac-tors’ work activity. How does the activity compensate territorial inequalities? How to methodologically apprehend these territorialization processes? The concept of place emerges full of pertinence from this analysis as media-tor and the visible side of these processes. Given their heuristic nature, we identify these places as “markers”, material or symbolic, of how the work activity contributes to the reconfiguration of the territory.

Reasoning territorial projects management through the making of a milieu
PRESENTER: Jeanne Robert

ABSTRACT. The purpose of this communication, based on a project which aims to the revival of an ancestral agricultural production in the South of France (the picking of linden flowers), is to discuss territorial project. Territory can be defined as governance concerns of a given space delimited by its borders. But it appears that this agricultural production can be understood as “the making of a milieu” through the work done with the lime. Our hypothesis is that we need to better articulate these two “spheres”, the territory and the milieu, in order to manage projects at the scale of a geographical area.

Weaving the net: integrating ergonomics and sustainability in a web-based co-creation platform

ABSTRACT. This article presents a platform for gathering information, producing and disseminating knowledge (co-production) on how ergonomics and sustainability interact, and for promoting experience exchange and collaboration among people from academy, company, government and society, interested in the topics and in contributing to solutions (co-design) for sociotechnical/environmental problems. The platform uses social media for public co-production and has a restricted forum space (with a virtual conference room and drawing tools) for co-design by registered participants. The platform is under continuous improvement and is being tested by the ABERGO Macroergonomics Technical Committee.

Co-creation workshops for Innovation in Places: The role of boundary objects

ABSTRACT. The innovation of places is a field of knowledge focused on the design and development of destinations such as regions, tourism, national parks, among others. For that, co-creation workshops involving stakeholders were considered. This article aims to provide a greater understanding of the role of boundary objects used in co-creation workshops, where the knowledge of the participants is integrated into the local innovation processes. This is an exploratory case study, applied to a single Brazilian National Park. It was realized that boundary objects are of great relevance since it facilitates the process in which individuals can, together, transform their knowledge. Among the findings is the possibility of generating intangible knowledge about places, strengthening the engagement of different participants during facilitation, generating insights aligned with the objectives of the workshops, and applying individual knowledge throughout the process of collaboration regardless of previous experience in co-creation.

11:45-12:45 Session 14H: Human Factors in Robotics 3
Sensor-Based Behavior Measurement of Non-Technical Skills in Robotic-Assisted Surgery

ABSTRACT. Non-technical skills (NTS) are cognitive and social skills that can affect safe and efficient task performance. Current methods for NTS assessment require expert raters. A sensing-based tool was developed to objectively assess NTS, and sensor-derived behavioral communication and proximity features achieved an accuracy of 77% in predicting exemplar NTS.

Using Multimodal Data to Predict Surgeon Situation Awareness
PRESENTER: Caroline Cao

ABSTRACT. The use of robotic surgical systems creates new team dynamics in operating rooms and constitutes a major challenge for the development of crucial non-technical skills such as situation awareness (SA). Techniques for assessing SA mostly rely on subjective assessments, observation or interviews; few utilize multimodal measures that combine physiological, behavioural, and subjective indicators. We proposed a conceptual model relating situation awareness with mental workload (MW), stress and communication. To validate this model, we collected subjective feedback, measurable behaviours and physiological signals from surgeons performing a robot-assisted radical prostatectomy procedure. Preliminary results suggest that subjective MW is a better indicator of SA than subjective stress. Physiological measures did not correlate with subjective measures of stress and MW. Results also suggest that some indicators of communication quality associated with various levels of SA tend to be linked with surgical complexity.

A Pilot Study on Auditory Feedback for a Lower-limb Exoskeleton to Increase Walking Safety

ABSTRACT. The ontological feedback is important to ensure the safety when walking. The current lower-limb exoskeleton (LLE) systems are developed widely to assist paraplegia patients without proprioception to stand and walk. Hence, the paraplegia patients can hardly perceive motions and states of their lower limbs. The feedback information from an LLE to the paraplegia wearer can remind the wearer current walking state. They do not need to stare at their feet using visual feedback when walking, which is important to walking safety and remain mental model of exoskeleton. What’s more, visual feedback may result high workload and low safety during paraplegia patients’ walking because they have to change their visual pattern to notice their feet and walking situations. Therefore, this paper conducted several auditory feedback experiments aiming to find out the most adaptive feedback method for the exoskeleton to improve walking safety. Ten healthy subjects were recruited from the University of Electronic Science and Technology of China. Firstly, voice- and music-prompt auditory feedback modes were compared and different prompt lengths/rhythms were set. Then, the advantageous mode was compared with no-feedback mode. In this procedure, different appearance time of the prompts was set in order to ensure the best effectiveness of auditory feedback. The accuracy, reaction time, and subjective assessments of these two auditory feedback modes were compared.

Effective Human-artificial Intelligence Teaming

ABSTRACT. Teamwork, by definition, involves teaming toward a common goal with heterogeneous teammates that have different roles and responsibilities. Coordination and communication are critical. This definition has implications for human-artificial intelligence teaming that may be best modeled as cross-species teaming.

11:45-12:45 Session 14I: Health and Safety 3
Hardiness Personality Disposition and Safety Citizenship Behaviour of Miners in the Ghana’s Mining Industry
PRESENTER: Lilis Surienty

ABSTRACT. Contemporary safety literature points to safety citizenship behaviour (SCB) as a critical prevention behaviour against workplace incidents in today’s high-risk industries. This paper seeks to investigate antecedents of two distinct dimensions of SCB (affiliation-oriented and change-oriented) among miners/employees. The objectives of the study are in threefold: (a) to explore the effect of resilient dispositional hardiness traits on psychological safety; (b) to examine the effect of psychological safety on SCB; and (c) to examine the mediating role of psychological safety on the relationship between hardy traits and SCB. Survey collected from a sample of 316 respondents drawn from six large-scale gold mining companies in Ghana found that, psychological safety has a positive and significant influence on display of SCB among employees. Specifically, hardiness component of commitment, control and challenge were associated with psychological safety, significantly. The result showed that psychological safety mediated the relationship between commitment and control and SCB dimensions which are affiliation-oriented (safety stewardship) and change-oriented (employee safety voice). However, there is no supporting evidence for a mediation of psychological safety for the relationship between challenge hardiness trait and SCB. The findings have important implications for research and practice. In particular, it demonstrates the usefulness of psychological safety and SCB, and its role for developing current and future safety needs of organizations such as the mining companies. It sheds light on the differential effects of hardiness traits, and offers a more nuanced interplay between resilient disposition and SCB.

Occupational Health Assessment of Cement Handlers Exposed to Cement Dust in Enugu Metropolis Using the Micronuclei Assay

ABSTRACT. Cement handlers such as masons, cement loaders and cement sellers are exposed to hazardous agents in cement dust daily over a long period of time. This study evaluated the frequency of nuclear damage to the buccal cells of cement handlers’ exposed to cement dust in Enugu metropolis; by determining the frequencies of micronuclei (MN), binucleate cells (BNC) and Nuclear buds (NB) in exfoliated buccal cells obtained from cement handlers and a control group. A total of 238 apparently healthy male subjects, comprising 38 control subjects, 74 masons, 102 cement loaders, and 24 cement sellers were recruited for the study. A structured questionnaire was used to obtain relevant demographic data and exposure characteristics of participants. Buccal smears were obtained from both cheeks for each participant using a sterile wooden spatula. The smears were evaluated using micronuclei assay . Obtained data were statistically analyzed using descriptive statistics, independent t-test and one -way ANOVA at α=0.05. All the categories of cement handlers had a significantly increased micronuclei frequency when compared to the control subjects. Factors such as age, years in occupation and use of personal protective equipment did not significantly affect the frequency of nuclear abnormalities among the cement handlers while the frequency of MN and BNC was significantly increased by smoking and alcohol consumption habits. Cement handlers may be exposed to toxic substances in cement dust that, when compared to control subjects may have given rise to the observed increase in micronuclei frequency.

A Study of Attitudes and Behaviors in Industries Regarding Implementation of Low-vibrating Machines and Measures to Reduce Vibration Injuries

ABSTRACT. Vibration injuries are the most common approved occupational disease among men in Sweden. Vibration injuries often involves chronic nerve and vascular damage, reduced ability to work, and great personal suffering. In a project, new design solutions have reduced harmful vibrations for several hand-held machines. The machines were tested in demonstration environ-ments in the construction, stone, and steel industry. Preliminary results on the environments’ readiness for implementing the machines in their produc-tion will be reported in this paper. The objectives were to investigate the awareness about vibrations and the level of knowledge and acceptance of low-vibrating machines throughout the organizations. 28 interviews were conducted with persons on several organizational levels in a large steel works, a quarry, two construction companies, a construction machine rental company, and a dental engineering laboratory. Interview results showed that there was a great need for low-vibrating machines because it is the only way to significantly reduce the vibration exposure. The results however also showed a need for an increased awareness about the risks with vibrations and that the understanding and acceptance for new machines is important. Communication between employees and between employees and manage-ment needs to be strengthened. It is important to implement new low-vibrating machines in the organizations through well thought through change processes.

Comparison of dose models for the assessment of spinal load and implications for the calculation of cumulative loading
PRESENTER: Laura Johnen

ABSTRACT. In order to consider several work-related risk factors simultaneously when assessing work-related physical exposure, their relative influence on the resulting physical strain must be considered. An ergonomic assessment method in which multiple risk factors are relevant is by definition the concept of cumulative loading. As there is no standardized calculation method for cumulative loading, the objective of this contribution is to systematically compare different dose models proposed in the literature for the assessment of spinal cumulative loading. The dose models are compared regarding their ability to reflect physical strain resulting from two working tasks. Overall, results show that different work situations can be compared on the basis of cumulative loading estimates only if the same dose model was used for the assessment. Therefore, the results underline the need for a standardized and validated dose model for cumulative loading so that assessment results can be compared to assessment results from other work situations as well as to reference values.

11:45-12:45 Session 14J: Agriculture 3
Leg Swelling among Colombian Florists

ABSTRACT. This research aimed to analyze leg volume changes in a florists population—a cross-sectional study where lower leg circumference measurements were taken at the beginning and end of an 8-hour workday. Seventeen florists (8 women, 9 men) voluntarily participated; their legs' circumference was measured in 5 segments every 4 cm (20 cm in total) with the Gulick II tape measure to calculate the lower legs' volume. The average volume in both legs increased (right leg 2.12%, left leg 1.83%), with significant changes in both the right (Z=-3.337, p=0.001) and left (Z=-2.769, p=0.006) legs between the start and end of the workday. The left leg volume increased more in women (women: 11.63, men: 6.67, p=0.043). This research shows a significant increase in leg volume in a population of Colombian flower growers during an 8-hour workday. These findings indicate the need to pay more attention to standing work's effects to take preventive actions to improve their working conditions from an ergonomic perspective.

PRESENTER: Daniel Braatz

ABSTRACT. The pineapple culture presents a series of risk factors that represent a serious challenge for the design of personal protective equipment (PPE) suitable for the operations involved in the production process. The objective of the present study was to outline attributes and technical specifications for the design of a set of PPE for workers in the pineapple harvest that are efficient in controlling risk factors and that reach a level of comfort that does not generate rejection of use. For the research, general and systematic observations were made of the work performed by eight workers during the pineapple harvest phase, in addition to the application of semi-structured interviews and a questionnaire. The QFD (Quality Function Deployment) method was partially used to outline the attributes and technical specifications of the PPE, based on the information obtained in the analysis of the work. The results were summarized in an implantation table and in the quality matrix for the development of PPE for the pineapple harvest operation. The main attributes pointed out by the workers were that the PPE does not cause thermal discomfort or hinder the execution of the task. The methodological proposal presented in this article is promising as a basis for the design and development of individual protection equipment suitable for agricultural work.

Ergonomics Intervention Program to Train Water Measurers (Al-Kayyals) for Work at Foggara Irrigation System in Algeria
PRESENTER: Bouhafs Mebarki

ABSTRACT. The Foggara system consists of two main parts: The water obtaining part and the water distribution part. One of the main figures in the management of the Foggara system is the water measurer (Al-Kayyal). Among his work ac-tivities are monitoring the amount of water that flows from Foggara, and measuring the share of each beneficiary. Al-Kayyal should have basic knowledge of math, keep accurate records, be honest, intelligent, and have religious values. Nowadays, most of Al-Kayyals are elderly. They are unable to fulfill the de-mands of water measuring job. As a result, many Foggaras have serious problems to stay functioning in the absence of Al-Kayyal. The aim of the present research is to introduce a training program to train interested young people to do the job of Al-Kayyal. Researchers chose randomly five students who expressed a desire to learn the profession of Al-Kayyal. They are of approximate age (mean age was 22.40 and standard deviation of 1.14 years). The data collection tool was the ergonomics intervention program. The development of the program has gone through four successive phases: preparation, implementation, evaluation and follow-up phases. It consisted of (8) sessions as follows: an introductory session, (5) working sessions to cover both the theoretical and practical parts of the program, a closing session for evaluating the program and a final session for follow-up. The evaluation of the program using both the quantitative (experimental), and the qualitative (Kirkpatrick model) approaches, and the follow-up test have confirmed the program effectiveness.

Development of Underground Posture Assessment Tool (UPAT) for Underground Enclosed Spaces: The Algerian Foggara as an Example
PRESENTER: Bouhafs Mebarki

ABSTRACT. The traditional irrigation system called Foggara is still used at a large scale in the western deserts of Algeria. In order for the Foggaras to survive, they must be maintained. Maintaining Foggara needs a lot of human work along the year, particularly in hot months when the water becomes vital for humans, animals and the palmary as a whole. Foggara maintenance work is usually done underground in wells, tunnels and shafts (confined areas). This research aims to develop an ergonomics assessment tool for working postures in confined underground spaces. Research sample consisted of 13 male subjects working in the Foggara maintenance for many years. The development of the tool has gone through various stages. Researchers were able to build the tool (UPAT) that fits the situation being researched. UPAT has been proven to be valid and reliable, not to be used in this research only, but to be accessible to other researchers to use in similar situations. The use of the tool in the field, showed that Foggara maintenance workers, whether working in wells or in tunnel, adopt different working postures (standing, stooping, squatting, kneeling and crawling), for different time periods. The full picture of what is happening in the maintenance of the Foggara can be extrapolated from these partial results. Therefore, it can be comprehended that this type of work is hazardous, tiring and exhausting as it involves a lot of physical, mental and psychological stress.

13:00-14:30 Session 15A: Healthcare & ODAM Panel - Translating HFE into Action: Lessons from the frontline Part 1

The session includes Christina Krause, Peter Lachman, Sara Albolino and Allison Muniak.  Allison Muniak will not be present in the live session. 

Translating HFE into Action – Lessons from the frontline
PRESENTER: Sara Albolino

ABSTRACT. Human Factors and Ergonomics (HFE) theory and methodology is well estab-lished in many industries. In healthcare it is still in its infancy and not well es-tablished, despite increasing evidence of the need to implement a HFE approach in day to day operations.

The COVID-19 pandemic demonstrated the need to implement HFE theories with clinical teams to ensure safety, be it for patients in clinical care or design of healthcare worker safety, or the procurement of supplies.

The examples of three different settings illustrate the key point of service de-sign, development of situation awareness in clinical teams and the development of a culture of safety .

13:00-14:30 Session 15B: Healthcare 11 - Decision Making (Session Sponsored by HIROC)
Eye-tracking supported identification of the causes of situation awareness loss: A preliminary study

ABSTRACT. The aim of the present study was to identify possible causes of situation awareness loss in anesthesiology residents during a medical procedure, with the support of an eye-tracking device.

Understanding Patterns in Newborn Vital Signs as a Step Towards Design of a Cognitive Aid
PRESENTER: Jelena Zestic

ABSTRACT. Given that there is no direct measurement of crucial physiological and anatomical changes in the first 10 minutes after birth when the newborn transitions to extrauterine life, the similarity (coherence) between expert neonatal clinicians’ interpretations of newborn trajectories might provide insight into those changes.

Usability of a Human Factors-based Clinical Decision Support (CDS) in the Emergency Department: Lessons Learned for Design and Implementation
PRESENTER: Megan Salwei

ABSTRACT. Health IT can improve patient safety; however, the acceptance and use of health IT has faced challenges. We conducted a survey of physicians in the emergency department (ED) to evaluate the use and usability of a CDS designed using human factors (HF) methods and principles. Overall usability of the CDS was high, however, use was low. We identify several barriers to use of the CDS in the clinical environment and describe recommendations for future design and implementation of health IT, such as CDS.

Unmasking Expert Decisions: Naturalistic Decision Making During a Pandemic Outbreak
PRESENTER: Yuval Bitan

ABSTRACT. In the early days of the COVID-19 pandemic, information about the virus was sparse and from questionable sources. Yet, clinicians and hospital administrators had to make decisions under these uncertain conditions, responding to a pandemic outbreak they had never before experienced. This cognitive ethnographic study explores the extent to which the Naturalistic Decision Making (NDM) framework can characterize and account for the decisions made by stakeholders from 10 healthcare organizations at the US, Canada, and Israel during the early stages of the outbreak.

13:00-14:30 Session 15C: MSD 6 - Physical Workload
Development of an evaluation method to study the risks of biomechanical overload as a service focused on the production process of companies operating in the brazilian and international construction industry

ABSTRACT. The civil construction sector has difficulties in applying effective risk assess-ment methods for studying the biomechanical overhead, due to the complex work organization of tasks in situ and lack of ergonomics professionals. The big-gest challenge in this sector is the fact that workers perform variable tasks, not just on a daily basis, but during all work activity (which can be weekly, monthly or even annually). Given that the organization of work in this sector includes a large number of manual tasks, each with a different level of exposure patterns to biomechanical risks, the working structure makes task analysis and risk evalua-tion very complex. This article presents a general model adapted to prevention of musculoskeletal diseases in the construction sector, in order to improve the health and safety of workers. Considering the presence of rotations between sev-eral repetitive tasks that are completed in periods longer than the day (macrocy-cles with annual turnover) the OCRA method (the only one that allows this type of risk analysis) was used. The study of biomechanical overload from manual handling of loads and posture is completed by using the adapted NIOSH method and the TACOs method respectively. The evaluation examples presented con-firm that the methods proposed here for the study of biomechanical overload, both first and second level, allow to obtain risk evaluation also in this complex sector.

A Comparison of Forklift Operator Whole-body Vibration Exposures When Operating Forklifts With And Without A Mast-based Vibration Damping System

ABSTRACT. Forklift operators are frequently exposed to a high level of whole-body vibration (WBV), a leading risk factor for low back pain. The purpose of this study was to determine whether a mast damping system of the forklift was effective in reducing forklift operators’ WBV exposures compared to forklifts without mast damping systems. The results showed that the forklifts with the mast damping system significantly reduced the 8-hour normalized weighted average vibration [A(8)] at the floor and seat level. While the mast damping system significantly reduced vibration dose value [VDV(8)] at the forklift floor, it had a limited effect on the seat-measured VDV(8) exposures. The study findings indicate that a mast damping system may have the potential to reduce forklift operators’ WBV exposures. However, given the differences in the seat-measured A(8) and VDV(8) exposures between fork-lifts, more rigorous evaluations of the forklift and seat suspensions may be merited.

Investigating Workload Issues among Commercial Office Building Janitors
PRESENTER: Stephen Bao

ABSTRACT. Through on-site job task data collection, physical workload are quantified by a matrix of measures. A workload calculator will be constructed for janitorial jobs. This will help managers/supervisors/EHS practitioners to design new jobs, evaluate workload, and identify workload issues.

13:00-14:30 Session 15D: Activity Theories for Work Analysis and Design & Sustainable Development Symposium - Developing ergonomic practices to address sustainability issues: from companies to territories Part 3
Experimenting sustainable orchards: how to cope with different territorial levels?
PRESENTER: Agathe Legendre

ABSTRACT. Research institutes seek solutions to reduce the use of pesticides in fruit production. They redesign new orchards, pesticides free (or nearly). It implies new forms of interactions with the local stakeholders as well as a change in the experimental paradigm and the content of work, with a key role of observations on the agroecosystem. This leads us to distinguish two territorial levels: the “ecological one” and the “sector one”. The first is relat-ed to the territory as a production environment (e.g. climate, type of soils, plants, animals, growers) whereas the second is related to the territory as a geographical space where different players of a production sector are locat-ed. We analyze how these two territorial levels are handled by the experi-mental stations. We discuss how the change in experimental paradigm brings questions to the experimental stations’ workers, regarding territories issues and suggest that giving more centrality to work activity might create new rela-tions between the stations and their territories.

Work activity, a link between logistics networks and «living » territories: the case of express package distribution
PRESENTER: Nadia Heddad

ABSTRACT. This article aims to study the link between the network organization of an express parcel service and work activity in parcel distribution centers. The increase in parcel flows leads to rationalize production on a national and global scale. The organization on this scale is based on the industrial vision of the network as the processing of flows transiting between sites. However, the final sorting for delivery to the recipient obeys a local territorial rationality. In the delivery agencies, space use and circulation, work organization, work intensity and the physical involvement of workers, all adapt to distribute the parcels over a singular territory, despite the variability of volume or type of parcels. The activity of the workers has a normalizing role that allows adaptation to territorial singularities.

The Territorial Dimensions of Solid Waste Management Systems: A global-local dialectic for sustainable work systems
PRESENTER: Marcelo Souza

ABSTRACT. Waste management systems are heavily dependent on the territorial dimensions of waste production from residents and collection and sorting dynamics. Such local anchorage is supposed to be integrated in ergonomic research to improve work conditions and design sustainable work systems. Based on studies led in France and in Brazil, this communication analyzed the effects of the territorial dimensions over the work of the sorters, that raise work systems sustainability challenges for waste sorting facilities in both countries.

13:00-14:30 Session 15E: Building and Construction 2
From Design to Occupancy: Increasing Sustainability in Smart Buildings

ABSTRACT. The design goal of so-called ‘smart buildings’ is to maximise the health and wellbeing of building users while minimising environmental impact through reduced energy consumption. This design intent is often not achieved, however, due to problems with handover communication and other failures in the transitionary processes from design, to construction, to use, and finally to building maintenance. This phenomenon is investigated through the Leeds Living Lab, working with Estates Services at the University of Leeds (in the UK), whose mission is to coordinate the construction and maintenance of the university buildings while embedding renewable technologies, intelligent use and reuse of resources, carbon management, recycling, and waste reduction. The Leeds Living Lab Programme (LLLP) seeks to use the campus as a testbed for collaborative research into sustainable solutions. The research will aim to highlight the challenges that are faced in implementing the campus development projects, with a focus on how the project brief develops through the different architectural and construction stages.

CONSCIOUS ERGONOMICS IN ARCHITECTURE. Energy, matter and form from theory to practice.

ABSTRACT. The built environment positively and/or negatively affects people's well-being and health (MacNaughton, et al., 2017). Scientific evidence supports it from various explanatory paradigms, such as ergonomics, psychology, chemistry, among others. However, while addressing critical issues, it continues to find a lot of negative impacts on humans. The problems may be due to the lack of a systemic perspective, and to the gap that exists between science and project. For the above, it is proposed as a model of action, "Conscious Ergonomics" which "starts from matter as a basis to demonstrate the influence of the environment on human beings" and defines that "The description of the relationships and interactions between the environment and the human being are based on the exchange of Information, defined as coherent energy that allows matter to organize and build the known reality, made up of Energy, Matter and Form”. Framed in a holistic vision that explores the perceived and the unperceived.

Construction Ergonomics: Can the Challenges be Overcome?
PRESENTER: John Smallwood

ABSTRACT. Historical H&S challenges, in terms of a range of issues, continue to be experi-enced, namely not following procedures, unsafe acts, unsafe conditions, non-compliance, untrained workers undertaking work, commencement of activities without conducting hazard identification and risk assessment (HIRA), data gath-ering and recording, monitoring, and ultimately the experience of injuries. Given the abovementioned, and the advent of Industry 4.0, an exploratory quantitative study, which entailed a self-administered questionnaire, was conducted among registered professional (Pr) Construction H&S Agents to determine the H&S challenges experienced, H&S performance, and the potential of Industry 4.0 to contribute to resolving the former cited challenges. The findings indicate that a range of historical challenges, which negatively impact H&S performance, con-tinue to be experienced in construction, and that Industry 4.0 technologies can contribute to resolving the H&S challenges experienced in construction. Conclu-sions include that Industry 4.0 technologies have the potential to contribute to re-solving the H&S challenges experienced in construction. Recommendations in-clude: employer associations, professional associations, and statutory councils should raise the level of awareness relative to the potential implementation of In-dustry 4.0 relative to H&S in construction; case studies should be documented and shared; tertiary construction management education programmes should inte-grate Industry 4.0 into all possible modules, especially H&S-related modules, and continuing professional development (CPD) H&S should address Industry 4.0.

Incorporating Ergonomics into a Construction Safety Management System

ABSTRACT. Ergonomics must be integrated into a construction safety program to reduce the risks associated with musculoskeletal disorders. There is little guidance available on how ergonomics may be added to safety programs nor on the effectiveness of the additional ergonomic activities to reducing risks related to ergonomic exposures over time. This study illustrated the programmatic change process of adapting ergonomic activities into an existing safety management system of a single contractor, and the change in leading indicators, worker awareness, and observed behaviors over a 1.5 year period after delivering the revised program. The results showed improvement in worker awareness and in the leading indicators for attendance and number of trainings, discussion about ergonomics in safety meetings, and the frequency of identification of ergonomic hazards and controls on worker assessments and on management audits. These leading indicators provided information at interim points in time to indicate the need for additional pro-grammatic changes. During this study, there was little change in observed behaviors. Integrating ergonomics into safety programs requires time and resources and change in work exposures occurs gradually over time.

13:00-14:30 Session 15F: ODAM Symposium- Psychosocial Issues, Mental Health and Work Organization
PRESENTER: Ole Broberg

ABSTRACT. Changes over the recent decades have provoked a real crisis of the relationship between work organization and subjectivity, a crisis of the means, which correlates work organization to psychosocial issues. This is an important opportunity to improve the dialogue between different sciences related to production and work. The demands of the society and companies are no longer those which were supported about forty years ago, a increasing amount of sick leaves related to mental health disorders is spread around many countries. This is a very important issue for human factors/ergonomics and specially for Organizational Design and Management [ODAM’s] topics? Since the relationship is not only with health problems but also with the issues regarding subjectivity and efficiency. These issues and factors must be questioned and examined.

Assessment of Psychosocial Risk Factors at Work: A Literature Review on the COPSOQ Evolution

ABSTRACT. The third version of the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ-III) was developed in response to new trends: professional life, theoretical concepts and international experiences. The use of validated questionnaires in the assessment of psychosocial risk factors at work is of great relevance because it contributes to international comparability of data, and consistently and robustly data collection. The present study aims to review the literature about the evolution of validation studies of COPSOQ towards the 3rd version. The literature review was based on scientific articles about the validation of COPSOQ-III. The COPSOQ-III has already been validated in several countries (Germany, Canada, Spain, France, Sweden and Turkey). The psychometric properties assessed more frequently are reliability, ceiling and floor effects, and distinctiveness. In general, the middle version of COPSOQ III showed adequate internal consistency. Regarding construct validity, it is worth to say that COPSOQ does not have a global score based on the item responses to represent a latent construct.

Work–life Balance of Secondary Schools Teachers in Hong Kong

ABSTRACT. Work–life imbalance is a severe problem amongst most secondary school teachers in Hong Kong due to heavy workloads and long working hours. This paper examines the factors affecting the work–life balance of secondary school teachers in Hong Kong. An online questionnaire survey was conducted and 150 valid responses were received. In factor analysis, the correlations between work–life balance and five determinants, namely, time off for personal life, support from supervisor, support from co-workers, workload and work–family conflict, were assessed. High support from co-workers, low workload and low level of work–family conflict were positively correlated with high levels of work–life balance. The findings of this study could serve as a reference for the Education Bureau and principals to formulate policies to help the teachers cope with their workload problems. The implications for practitioners are provided to enhance work–life balance and wellness amongst teachers.

Transforming work organization in order to promote meaning and mental health: A sustainable perspective

ABSTRACT. In this paper we propose a conceptual discussion based on a dialogue between ergonomics and psychodynamics of work (PDW) in order to transform working situations to provide meaning for all protagonists; in regard to the concept that work is central to the lives of the subjects, it is an important path to search for self accomplishment and for the development of different professions, organizations and society. It is a complicated, difficult discussion, since many questions arise; questions that are dangerous, destabilizing, above all in-complete; therefore stimulating. It’s also important to discuss about bleak sce-narios workers are experiencing at this moment of our history, in many working situations. What is proposed in this paper is related to a specific issue based on questions related to life at work based on concepts of psychodynamics of work (PDW) and findings that come from actions developed in this field.

Organizational Maturity – Organizations Ability to Manage Organizational Performance and Well-being in Tandem
PRESENTER: Christine Ipsen

ABSTRACT. This paper proposes the concept of organizational maturity and a tool to assess the maturity stage of workplaces, i.e. ability to develop and implement preventive efforts and exercise daily management that simultaneously manages both organizational performance and employee well-being.

Promoting women among prison officers: An organizational analysis

ABSTRACT. SUMMATIVE STATEMENT: Prison work is rarely addressed in ergonomic studies. This paper reports on the cooperation between male and female prison officers in a Swiss correctional service. A study was carried out to develop organizational design and management measures, in order to attract and retain women officers by improving their working conditions and opportunities for advancement.

13:00-14:30 Session 15G: Activity Theories for Work Analysis and Design Symposium- Contributions of Activity Ergonomics for Equity Promotion
Contributions of Activity Ergonomics for equity promotion
PRESENTER: Carolina Alonso

ABSTRACT. Nowadays, the world is mobilizing to face the pandemic of the new coronavirus (SARS-Cov-2), whose effects represent a major challenge to public health and consequently unfold in serious social and economic impacts. In addition to the tragic loss of human life caused by the virus, this crisis will also be reflected in the increase in poverty and inequality, which will have more pronounced effects on the elderly, people with disabilities, and with chronic diseases, immigrants and informal workers (ILO, 2020; WHO, 2020).

Monitoring Return to Work Processes at a University Hospital: Ergonomics Contributions

ABSTRACT. This study aims to reflect on the necessary adjustments in the program’s conduct for monitoring removal and return to work (PAART), considering its principles, the reality, and challenges imposed by the pandemic. This is a report on the PAART experience in a medium- and high-complexity hospital during the pandemic. The program was restructured, given the need to under-stand work situations from workers’ and managers’ reports and previous knowledge about hospital dynamics. These reports were retrieved by infor-mation and communication technologies. A total of 571 workers were included in the PAART, and 277 could be contacted. Work organization relocation and changes in the period resulted in disrupted services, modified work routines and teams, and directly affected the implementation of the PAART. This raised concerns about the contributions of activity ergonomics and work ergonomic analysis in unpredictable work context situations. Also, we asked about the possible outcomes of the PAART if observations and analyses of real work situations were maintained. Despite questionings, we understand that the PAART experience in the pandemic is an opportunity for theoretical and methodological reflections.

The Work of Live Line Electicians: Postural Analysis in Vegetation Pruning Task

ABSTRACT. The paper aims to present an analysis about pruning vegetation with hydraulic pole pruner, a task considered critical, performed by Live Line Electricians (LLE). The research was carried out at an advanced power station, located in the countryside of São Paulo/Brazil through the application in Ergonomics, Biomechanics and Cybernetics methods. It was possible to identify the critical determinants of the activity under study through the Activity Ergonomics, as well as to explain the physical issues through the movements simulation (biomechanics) in terms of medium and high pruning that confer bigger postural problems, especially of the trunk and upper limbs, validated by cybernetic analysis (3D), which allowed quantifying such elements in order to create demands for the tools design to alleviate this condition. It is suggested that the articulation between qualitative and quantitative analyses, explained here through the methods triangulation, although anchored in different epistemological keys, provide more complex and broad understandings about the working reality and the possibilities of transformation

Work dimensions of the inclusion of autistic people: an integrative literature review

ABSTRACT. This paper analyzes evidence on how the literature approaches the work dimension in the process of inclusion of autistic people. A bibliographic search was made at different healthcare databases and following the exclusion of the duplicates and applying the inclusion/exclusion criteria 47 papers were reviewed by the authors. This literature review showed that autistic people can be more disadvantaged in the workplace than (other) disabled people which shows that attitudinal barriers can be more limiting than infrastructural ones. Moreover, there is a lot of focus on the autistic worker needing to adapt to work. Studies focusing on workplace changes point to the use of sensory accommodations without describing them. In this aspect, studies based on Activity Ergonomics might strategically fill this gap, since they develop solutions based on actual work situations, including the point of view of autistic workers on the challenges they face in their daily work, as well as on the appropriateness of the accommodations to be developed for them. Given this scenario, and knowing that the inclusion of disabled people is a right, it is a duty of researchers who study and discuss work processes, like ergonomists, to further research how inclusion can be ensured, so that appropriate techniques can be adapted not only for a ‘disability’ but also for individuals. The development of studies that deepen our knowledge of workplace inclusion for disabled people and promote equity is absolutely necessary for the full inclusion of autistic people at work.

The Invisible Risk in the Work of Live Line Electricians

ABSTRACT. The article’s purpose is to analyze the psychosocial risks involved in the Live Line Electricians (LLE) work and the collective risk management strategies. The research was carried out with workers who perform electrical structures maintenance in an advanced power station belonging to a private sector electric company, located in the countryside of São Paulo/Brazil. For this, it was used as a methodological resource the first stages application of Ergonomic Analysis of Work (AET). Psychosocial risks, also called invisible risk, which generates fear and anxiety, are associated with a job when a large tasks volume are involved, an intensified and dangerous routine, thermal constraints, repetitive movements, great cognitive load for the planning and replanning execution, action synchronicity between the team(s) and assertive and safe decision-making for the preservation of life.

Reflections on the activity perspective in hospital work permanence actions during COVID-19

ABSTRACT. The situation that emerged from recognizing the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020 required a university hospital’s efforts to reorganize the work and care activities in this period. This study aims to present actions to support workers’ permanence in the hospital context at work in pandemic times. The development of actions was based on the activity ergonomics and, therefore, recommended recognizing actions in real work situations involving workers directly. The interventions covered 14 sectors, involving 140 workers. During the actions, the team recorded the activities in a field diary to document the care provided and prepared reports with the identified demands, which were organized into five categories: i) information and communication management, ii) the establishment, improvement, or continuous monitoring of protocols, iii) hospital workers’ health care, iv) establishment of collective spaces to refresh and align conducts; and v) adequacy of work conditions and processes. The interventions with hospital workers in the COVID-19 pandemic contributed to the exchange of experiences and knowledge between same-sector and inter-sector workers and sharing perspectives regarding work dynamics. The foundation of the actions in activity ergonomics has contributed to increasing the visibility of situations that pre-existed the pandemic and structured a new perspective on health and work in the hospital, recognizing the active participation of workers.

13:00-14:30 Session 15H: Work With Computing Systems 2
Reliability of Heuristic Assessment during Usability Analysis
PRESENTER: Cindy Kheng

ABSTRACT. Scientific reliability --- the degree to which a research method produces stable and consistent results --- represents a major linchpin of tenable scientific research. A number of different studies support the conclusion that usability testing of software interfaces lacks scientific reliability (Jacobsen et al., 1998; Jordan, 2017). The present report augments this conclusion with findings that heuristic evaluation, the second major pillar of usability analysis, also lacks reliability. We conclude that a key priority of “usability science” should be to initiate a systematic program of inquiry to investigate the degree to which this term has meaning.

User Needs for Digital Creativity Support Systems in an Occupational Context
PRESENTER: Lorenz Prasch

ABSTRACT. In a two-step study, an interview followed by an online questionnaire, we investigated the potential and user needs for systems that can support hu-mans in the context of creative work. We found that participants usually fol-low a general creative process in problem identification, preparation, idea generation and idea evaluation, while frequently jumping and iterating be-tween those phases. Interviewees as well as survey participants had greater difficulties in divergent thinking as opposed to convergent thinking and used convergent thinking more often in their daily work. Since advice from col-leagues was most frequently sought out during the idea generation phase, this phase provides the greatest opportunity for a creativity support system. Most participants work primarily using computers and digital tools, both alone as well as in teams. It was mentioned that especially information re-search can be very time consuming. Therefore, from a user’s point of view, development of an inspirational assistant that can facilitate research as well as collaboration in a digital way seems to be the most promising approach for creativity support systems for creative workers.

Value Systems in the Design Process: Issues for Ergonomics (withdrawn)
PRESENTER: Chloé Le Bail

ABSTRACT. This paper presents and discusses a generic framework on values in collaborative design. On this basis, two key issues for ergonomics research on design will be explored.

Explainable AI for Entertainment: Issues on Video on Demand Platforms
PRESENTER: Cinthia Ruiz

ABSTRACT. With the proliferation of Artificial Intelligence-based systems, several questions arise involving ethical principles. In addition, the human-centered approach takes the focus on the user experience with these systems and studies user needs. A growing issue is the relationship between the transparency of these systems and the trust of users, since most systems are considered black-boxes. In this scenario, the Explainable Artificial Intelligence (XAI) emerges, with the proposal to explain the rationale of the decision making of the algorithms. XAI then starts to gain space in systems that involve high risk, such as health. Our research aims to discuss the importance of transparency to improve the user experience with recommendation mechanisms for entertainment, such as Video on Demand (VoD) platforms. In addition, we intent to raise the adjacent consequences of including XAI, such as improving the control and trust of VoD platforms. For this, we conducted an exploratory research method named Directed Storytelling. The study was conducted with thirty-one participants, all users of VoD platforms, regardless of time and frequency of use of this kind of systems. We note that people understand that there is an automated mechanism making recommendations for content in a personalized way for them, based on their browsing history, but the rules are not explicit. Thus, many users are suspicious of being manipulated by the system's recommendations and resort to external recommendations, such as tips from third parties or Internet searches through specialized channels.

Trade-Offs of Users and Non-Users of Life-Logging – Desire for Support vs. Potential Barriers
PRESENTER: Laura Burbach

ABSTRACT. Understanding why (non-) users are motivated to use life-logging devices requires to consider wishes and concerns associated with life-logging as well as the influence of personality on usage motivation. We analyze whether the intention to use life-logging is more strongly influenced by the desire for support or by potential barriers with the first having a positive impact and the latter a negative one. Further, we investigate how some personality traits influence the desire for support and potential barriers. Our study shows that the desire for support is more important for the motivation to use life-logging, than potential barriers. Regarding personality traits, motives for physical activity showed the highest influence on the desire for support of users and non-users of life-logging. For users, their need for privacy also influences their desire for support. Barriers are primarily influenced by privacy concerns. In future, when introducing life-logging devices, the potential to support users to pursue goals and privacy concerns of potential users should be particularly considered.

13:00-14:30 Session 15I: MSD & Biomechanics - COVID-19 Home Office Work
Telework during the COVID-19 outbreak in Sweden: Effects on time spent sitting, standing, moving and sleeping in office workers
PRESENTER: David M Hallman

ABSTRACT. Telework during the COVID-19 pandemic is associated with more sleep time, but does not appear to influence time spent in sitting, standing and moving among office workers in Sweden.

Exposure to regular sit-stand changes during office work changes limb posture
PRESENTER: Nancy Black

ABSTRACT. SUMMATIVE STATEMENT: Some significant variations in upper arm and lower limb average deviations occurred amongst 16 office-based workers exposed to extended periods working with sit-stand regularly varying table surface. Mousing arm was particularly affected by exposure. Considering Pre-Post, Pre-Post-100% and five alternating sit-stand periods, shin flexion and left thigh abduction varied uniformly. The greatest number of significant segmental angular variations occurred when considering 50% to 100% standing.

Work-home system analysis and musculoskeletal discomfort of workers in Covid-19 pandemic context

ABSTRACT. The study aimed to analyse work-home system factors and their connection with workers’ comfort, musculoskeletal discomfort (MSD) and perceived quality of work. Methods: A virtual survey was given to 196 administrative workers of a bank in Lima Peru. The survey consisted of four sections: consent form, sociodemographic data, risk factors of the work system and questions about comfort and MSD. Descriptive data was presented in percentages and associations were established with the chi-square statistic test. The significance level was 0.05. Results: The rate of musculoskeletal discomfort reached 96%, the most frequent body regions being the neck (91%), upper back (89%) and lower back region (89%). Regarding the work-home system, 49% of the study subjects worked in the bedroom and/or the living room, 32% had a desk, 18% used an adjustable chair, 37% worked at a dining table and 34% indicated that domestic activities overlapped with their work activities. The workers’ greatest perceived benefit was spending time with their families (59%). MSD was associated mainly with organisational factors (p<0.01). Comfort was associated with the backrest and type of seat, along with factors related to the environment and work tasks (p<0.05). Conclusion: Work-home systems are not prepared for performing office work. They raise MSD rates and reduce the quality of work, as perceived by workers. Spending time with family acted as a protective and negative factor.

13:00-14:30 Session 15J: Agriculture 4
Musculoskeletal symptoms and postural analysis of lettuce farmers

ABSTRACT. This study identifies the musculoskeletal symptoms of agricultural workers, specifically lettuce farmers. Data was collected in a lettuce farm in Cavite, Philip-pines, questionnaire, and direct observation was used. There are 50 participants in the study, including twenty-two greenhouse workers, eleven soil mixing workers, nine nursery workers, and eight fermentation workers. Prevalence of musculo-skeletal symptoms in the shoulder (80%), lower back (70%), neck (64%), and hand/wrist (73%) is high for all occupation groups. 92% of the participants were reported to have work interference due to musculoskeletal symptoms. The severi-ty of musculoskeletal symptoms was typical for the lower back, upper back, shoul-der, and neck. The overall mean of the farmer’s Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA) score was 6.4, which corresponds to RULA action level 3, highlighting that the current working posture of farmers must have a further investigation or needed change soon. Association between socio- demographic results and mus-culoskeletal symptoms are identified using logistic regression analyses.

Interaction Analysis And Usability Adjustments In Conceptual Design Of A Generic Tractor Cabin

ABSTRACT. SUMMATIVE STATEMENT: Tractor cabin’s should take into account the variability of user’s needs and limitations, while considering their safety and comfort. We propose a new design for a generic tractor cabin as a result of applying ergonomic strategies and design principles on four sections of the tractor´s cabin: frontal panel, multipurpose accessories area, lever system, and the seat. The result simplifies the components, increases control for the user, accessibility, and performance, as it provides visual, biomechanics, posture, and tool simplification refinements.



A tractor design that does not consider the characteristics and limitations of the driver can cause him/her interaction problems. Therefore, we propose ergonomic recommendations based on literature research for the redesign of a tractor cabin, to improve the usability between the driver and its components.

Improvements of a Tractor Cab’s Usability Based on Interaction Analysis and Ergonomics Adjustments

ABSTRACT. Being one of the main tools used in agriculture, tractors still cause physical fatigue in users and demand high cognitive processes. The main goal of this project is to detect interaction problems between the user and a chosen tractor cabin with the objective of applying ergonomic adjustments in order to improve the tractor’s usability. As a result of applying ergonomic intervention strategies combined with design methods, a conceptual redesign for the main elements form the interior of a tractor cab: the front panel, the levers dashboard, and the seat was proposed.

14:30-15:30 Culinary Workshop

Hosted by Karen Yaworsky of Move Stretch Nourish

The Culinary Workshop is a whole foods-based cooking demonstration.  Creating nutrient-dense easy to prepare dishes that contain no gluten, dairy, or refined sugar. Two quick refreshing recipes will be shared especially designed for participants.   South western black bean salad with an Avocado Cilantro dressing ( which could be done by 20 minutes. Raw lemon cheesecake, a super quick dessert recipe which could be completed by only 15 minutes from start to finish. 

14:30-15:30 BCIT Make+ Product Development Lab

Hosted by Johanne Mattie of BCIT

The MAKE+ group at the British Columbia Institute of Technology is a team of multidisciplinary researchers focused on product and process development, evaluation, applied research projects, and education.  We work on both industry and grant funded initiatives, helping move ideas to the next level. Our areas of expertise include evaluation, ergonomic assessments, health, consumer, and industrial technology development, automation and electronics. Come join us for a virtual tour. We will show you some of our exciting projects and give you a behind the scenes tour of our facilities, including our:  - Full Scale Fabrication Lab: includes CNC machining, waterjet and laser cutting, and 3D printing; - Motion Capture Lab: with extensive physiological monitoring capabilities; - Soft Shop wearables lab:  with textile fabrication technologies that allow integration of sensors and textiles; - Simulation facilities:  for evaluation of prototypes and products with extensive data collection equipment

14:45-15:45 Healthcare Technical Committee Meeting

Join the meeting of the TC Healthcare Ergonomics. Everyone working in this field is very welcome!

We will update on our activities and HEPS2022, and present the new chair. Looking forward to seeing many of you!


We will use zoom:


15:00-18:00 ACE Social Time on REMO

Association of Canadian Ergonomists (ACE) Social Time

Feel free to join us on the 7th floor in REMO for a casual social event.  Bring your own snacks.