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08:30-09:00Coffee & Refreshments
09:30-10:30 Session 46: Invited Talk
Location: Taub 2
Neuro-Symbolic Adventures on Commonsense Knowledge and Reasoning

ABSTRACT. Neural language models, as they grow in scale, continue to surprise us with utterly nonsensical and counterintuitive errors despite their otherwise remarkable performances on numerous leaderboards. In this talk, I will argue that it is time to challenge the currently dominant paradigm of task-specific supervision built on top of large-scale self-supervised neural networks. First, I will highlight the importance of unsupervised, inference-time algorithms that can make significantly better lemonades out of off-the-shelf neural language models via flexible differentiable reasoning and discrete inference with predicate logic. Next, I will highlight the importance of melding explicit and declarative knowledge encoded in symbolic knowledge graphs with implicit and observed knowledge encoded in neural language models, with newest updates on ATOMIC 10x and distilled COMET, demonstrating a machine-authored KB that wins, for the first time, over a human-authored KB in all criteria: scale, accuracy, and diversity.

10:30-11:00Coffee Break
11:10-12:10 Session 48: Keynote
Information Structures for Privacy and Fairness

ABSTRACT. The increasingly pervasive use of big data and machine learning is raising various ethical issues, in particular privacy and fairness.In this talk, I will discuss some frameworks to understand and mitigate the issues, focusing on iterative methods coming from information theory and statistics.In the area of privacy protection, differential privacy (DP) and its variants are the most successful approaches to date. One of the fundamental issues of DP is how to reconcile the loss of information that it implies with the need to pr eserve the utility of the data. In this regard, a useful tool to recover utility is the Iterative Bayesian Update (IBU), an instance of the famous Expectation-Maximization method from Statistics. I will show that the IBU, combined with the metric version of DP, outperforms the state-of-the art, which is based on algebraic methods combined with the Randomized Response mechanism, widely adopted by the Big Tech industry (Google, Apple, Amazon, ...). Furthermore I will discuss a surprising duality between the IBU and one of the methods used to enhance metric DP, that is the Blahut-Arimoto algorithm from Rate-Distortion Theory. Finally, I will discuss the issue of biased decisions in machine learning, and will show that the IBU can be applied also in this domain to ensure a fairer treatment of disadvantaged groups.


Brief Bio:Catuscia Palamidessi is Director of Research at INRIA Saclay (since 2002), where she leads the team COMETE. She has been Full Professor at the University of Genova, Italy (1994-1997) and Penn State University, USA (1998-2002). Palamidessi's research interests include Privacy, Machine Learning, Fairness, Secure Information Flow, Formal Methods, and Concurrency. In 2019 she has obtained an ERC advanced grant to conduct research on Privacy and Machine Learning. She has been PC chair of various conferences including LICS and ICALP, and PC member of more than 120 international conferences. She is in the Editorial board of several journals, including the IEEE Transactions in Dependable and Secure Computing, Mathematical Structures in Computer Science, Theoretics, the Journal of Logical and Algebraic Methods in Programming and Acta Informatica. She is serving in the Executive Committee of ACM SIGLOG, CONCUR, and CSL.


12:10-12:40 Session 49A: Epistemic Logic
Location: Taub 2
The Topology of Surprise

ABSTRACT. Knowability has a topological interpretation, where a proposition iff it is true in a neighbourhood of the evaluation point. In this paper we show how the Cantor derivative and the topological "perfect core", i.e., the largest dense-in-itself subspace of a topological space, provide a more refined topological model of learnability. In particular, we use these notions to elucidate the surprise exam paradox and similar epistemic puzzles. We then provide a complete deductive calculus and prove PSPACE-completeness of the resulting modal logic.

12:10-12:40 Session 49B: Knowledge Graphs
Location: Taub 3
Open Relation Extraction With Non-existent and Multi-span Relationships
PRESENTER: Huifan Yang

ABSTRACT. Open relation extraction (ORE) aims to assign semantic relationships among arguments, essential to the automatic construction of knowledge graphs (KG). The previous ORE methods and some benchmark datasets consider a relation between two arguments as definitely existing and in a simple single-span form, neglecting possible non-existent relationships and flexible, expressive multi-span relations. However, detecting non-existent relations is necessary for a pipelined information extraction system (first performing named entity recognition then relation extraction), and multi-span relationships contribute to the diversity of connections in KGs. To fulfill the practical demands of ORE, we design a novel Query-based Multi-head Open Relation Extractor (QuORE) to extract single/multi-span relations and detect non-existent relationships effectively. Moreover, we re-construct some public datasets covering English and Chinese to derive augmented and multi-span relation tuples. Extensive experiment results show that our method outperforms the state-of-the-art ORE model LOREM in the extraction of existing single/multi-span relations and the overall performances on four datasets with non-existent relationships. Our code and data are publicly available.

12:30-14:00Lunch Break

Lunch will be held in Taub lobby (CP, LICS, ICLP) and in The Grand Water Research Institute (KR, FSCD, SAT).

14:00-15:30 Session 50E: Multi-Agent Systems
Location: Taub 2
Verification and Realizability in Finite-Horizon Multiagent Systems

ABSTRACT. The problems of \emph{verification} and \emph{realizability} are two central themes in the analysis of reactive systems. When multiagent systems are considered, these problems have natural analogues of existence (nonemptiness) of pure-strategy Nash equilibria and verification of pure-strategy Nash equilibria. Recently, this body of work has begun to include finite-horizon temporal goals. With finite-horizon temporal goals, there is a natural hierarchy of goal representation, ranging from deterministic finite automata (DFA), to nondeterministic finite automata (NFA), and to alternating finite automata (AFA), with a worst-case exponential gap between each successive representation. Previous works showed that the realizability problem with DFA goals was PSPACE-complete, while the realizability problem with temporal logic goals is in 2EXPTIME. In this work we study both the realizability and the verification problems with respect to various goal representations. We first show that the realizability problem for AFA goals is 2EXPTIME-complete, thus establishing a strict complexity gap between realizability with respect to DFA goals and with respect to AFA goals. We then contrast this complexity gap with the complexity of the verification problem, where we show that verification with respect to DFA goals, NFA goals, and AFA goals are all PSPACE-complete.

Towards an Enthymeme-Based Communication Framework in Multi-Agent Systems

ABSTRACT. Communication is one of the most important aspects of multi-agent systems. Among the different communication techniques applied to multi-agent systems, argumentation-based approaches have received special interest from the community, because allowing agents to exchange arguments provides a rich form of communication. In contrast to the benefits that argumentation-based techniques provide to multi-agent communication, extra weight on the communication infrastructure results from the additional information exchanged by agents, which could restrict the practical use of such techniques. In this work, we propose an argumentation framework whereby agents are able to exchange shorter messages when engaging in dialogues by omitting information that is common knowledge (e.g., information about a shared multi-agent organisation). In particular, we focus on using enthymemes, shared argumentation schemes (i.e., reasoning patterns from which arguments are instantiated), and common organisational knowledge to build an enthymeme-based communication framework. We show that our approach addresses some of Grice's maxims, in particular that agents can be brief in communication, without any loss in the content of the intended arguments.

Automatic Synthesis of Dynamic Norms for Multi-Agent Systems
PRESENTER: Giuseppe Perelli

ABSTRACT. Norms have been widely proposed to coordinate and regulate multi-agent systems (MAS) behaviour. We consider the problem of synthesising and revising the set of norms in a normative MAS to satisfy a design objective expressed in Alternating Time Temporal Logic (ATL*). ATL* is a well-established language for strategic reasoning, which allows the specification of norms that constrain the strategic behaviour of agents. We focus on dynamic norms, that is, norms corresponding to Mealy machines, that allow us to place different constraints on the agents' behaviour depending on the state of the norm and the state of the underlying MAS. We show that synthesising dynamic norms is (k + 1)-EXPTIME, where k is the alternation depth of quantifiers in the ATL* specification. Note that for typical cases of interest, k is either 1 or 2. We also study the problem of removing existing norms to satisfy a new objective, which we show to be 2EXPTIME-Complete.

14:00-14:30 Session 50F: Doctoral Consortium
Location: Taub 3
Matthias König's Thesis: Graph Parameters for Abstract Argumentation
Impact of Logic Paradigms on Abstract Argumentation
Computational Aspects of Structured Argumentation
Do Humans Find Postulates of Belief Change Plausible?
A Conditional Perspective for Reasoning, Revision and Relevance
Deontic Logic for Epistemic Actions
14:30-15:00 Session 51: Doctoral Consortium
Location: Taub 3
Relevance in Reasoning with and Revision of Conditional Beliefs
Doctoral Consortium Application
On Merging of Open-Domain Ontologies
Structure-based ontology extensions
Filippo De Bortoli - Reasoning Efficiently with Description Logics that Count
Data Quality in Ontology-Based Data Access
15:00-15:35 Session 52B: Doctoral Consortium
Location: Taub 3
Decidability Limits of Finite Ontology-Mediated Query Entailment
Towards a Logical Account for Human-Aware Explanation Generation in Model Reconciliation Problems
Logics for Representation and Design of Auctions
Optimisation Methods for Complex Event Recognition
On the learnability of knowledge in language domains
Investigating Novel Representations and Deep Reinforcement Learning for General Game Playing
Data Efficient Paradigms for Personalized Assessment of Taskable AI Systems
15:30-16:00Coffee Break
16:00-17:30 Session 54E: Temporal Reasoning
Location: Taub 2
On the Expressive Power of Intermediate and Conditional Effects in Temporal Planning
PRESENTER: Nicola Gigante

ABSTRACT. Automated planning is the task of finding a sequence of actions that reach a desired goal, given a description of their applicability and their effects on the world. In temporal planning, actions have a duration and can overlap in time. In modern temporal planning formalisms, two features have been introduced which are very useful from a modeling perspective, but are not yet thoroughly understood: intermediate conditions and effects (ICE) and conditional effects. The expressive power of such constructs is yet not well comprehended, especially when time is dense, and no minimum separation is required between mutex events. This paper reveals that both ICE and conditional effects do not add expressive power with regards to common temporal planning formalisms. In particular, we show how they can be compiled away using a polynomial-size encoding that makes no assumptions on the time domain. This encoding advances our understanding of these features, and allow their use with simple temporal planners that lack their support. Moreover, it provides a constructive proof that temporal planning with ICE and conditional effects remains PSPACE-complete.

Unique Characterisability and Learnability of Temporal Instance Queries
PRESENTER: Yury Savateev

ABSTRACT. We aim to determine which temporal instance queries can be uniquely characterised by a (polynomial-size) set of positive and negative temporal data examples. We start by considering queries formulated in fragments of propositional linear temporal logic LTL that correspond to conjunctive queries (CQs) or extensions thereof induced by the until operator. Not all of these queries admit polynomial characterisations, but by imposing a further restriction to path-shaped queries we identify natural classes that do. We then investigate how far the obtained characterisations can be lifted to temporal knowledge graphs queried by 2D languages combining LTL with concepts in description logics EL or ELI (i.e., tree-shaped CQs). While temporal operators in the scope of description logic constructors can destroy polynomial characterisability, we obtain general transfer results for the case when description logic constructors are within the scope of temporal operators. We finally apply our characterisations to establish polynomial learnability of temporal instance queries using membership queries in the active learning framework.

A Gödel calculus for Linear Temporal Logic

ABSTRACT. We consider GTL, a variant of linear temporal logic based on Gödel-Dummett propositional logic. In recent work, we have shown this logic to enjoy natural semantics both as a fuzzy logic and as a superintuitionistic logic. Using semantical methods, the logic was shown to be PSPACE-complete. In this paper we provide a deductive calculus for GTL, and show this calculus to be sound and complete for the above-mentioned semantics.

16:00-17:30 Session 54F: Description Logics
Location: Taub 3
Counting queries over ELHI⊥ ontologies
PRESENTER: Quentin Manière

ABSTRACT. While ontology-mediated query answering most often adopts (unions of) conjunctive queries as the query language, some recent works have explored the use of counting queries coupled with DL-Lite ontologies. The aim of the present paper is to extend the study of counting queries to Horn description logics outside the DL-Lite family. Through a combination of novel techniques, adaptations of existing constructions, and new connections to closed predicates, we achieve a complete picture of the data and combined complexity of answering counting conjunctive queries (CCQs) and cardinality queries (a restricted class of CCQs) in ELHI⊥ and its various sublogics. Notably, we show that CCQ answering is 2EXP-complete in combined complexity for ELHI⊥ and every sublogic that extends EL or DL-Lite-pos-H. Our study not only provides the first results for counting queries beyond DL-Lite, but it also closes some open questions about the combined complexity of CCQ answering in DL-Lite.

Ontology-Mediated Querying on Databases of Bounded Cliquewidth
PRESENTER: Lukas Schulze

ABSTRACT. We study the evaluation of ontology-mediated queries (OMQs) on databases of bounded cliquewidth from the viewpoint of parameterized complexity theory, using as the parameter the size of the OMQ (plus the cliquewidth, in upper complexity bounds, for increased generality). As the ontology language, we use the description logics ALC and ALCI and the guarded two-variable fragment GF2 of first-order logic. Queries are atomic queries (AQs), conjunctive queries (CQs), and unions of CQs. All resulting OMQ problems are fixed-parameter linear (FPL) and we provide a careful analysis of the dependence of the running time on the parameter, exhibiting several interesting effects. For instance, GF2 with AQs requires double exponential running time unless the exponential time hypothesis (ETH) fails, while OMQ evaluation on unrestricted databases is only ExpTime-complete in this setting. For ALCI, in contrast, single exponential running time suffices. Interestingly, this is due to the lower succinctness of ALCI rather than to its lower expressive power.

Finite Entailment of UCRPQs over ALC Ontologies
PRESENTER: Albert Gutowski

ABSTRACT. We investigate the problem of finite entailment of ontology-mediated queries. We consider the expressive query language, unions of conjunctive regular path queries (UCRPQs), extending the well-known class of union of conjunctive queries, with regular expressions over roles. We look at ontologies formulated using the description logic ALC, and show a tight 2ExpTime upper bound for entailment of UCRPQs. At the core of our decision procedure, there is a novel automata-based technique introducing a stratification of interpretations induced by the deterministic finite automaton underlying the input UCRPQ.

17:30-18:30 Session 55: Logic Lounge
Thinking Fast and Slow in AI

ABSTRACT. Current AI systems lack several important human capabilities, such as adaptability, generalizability, self-control, consistency, common sense, and causal reasoning. We believe that existing cognitive theories of human decision making, such as the thinking fast and slow theory, can provide insights on how to advance AI systems towards some of these capabilities. In this talk, I will present the work done by IBM and collaborators in this space, including the definition of a general architecture that is based on fast/slow solvers and a metacognitive component. I will then present experimental results on the behavior of an instance of this architecture, for AI systems that make decisions about navigating in a constrained environment. The results will show how combining the fast and slow decision modalities allows the system to evolve over time and gradually pass from slow to fast thinking with enough experience, and that this greatly helps in decision quality, resource consumption, and efficiency.


Francesca Rossi is an IBM Fellow and the IBM AI Ethics Global Leader. She is a computer scientist with over 30 years of experience in AI research. Before joining IBM, she has been a professor of computer science at the University of Padova, Italy, for 20 years. Her research interests focus on artificial intelligence, specifically they include constraint reasoning, preferences, multi-agent systems, computational social choice, and collective decision making. She is also interested in ethical issues in the development and behavior of AI systems, in particular for decision support systems for group decision making. She is a fellow of both AAAI and of EurAI and she has been president of IJCAI and the Editor in Chief of the Journal of AI Research. She will be the next president of AAAI. She co-leads the IBM AI ethics board and she actively participate in many global multi-stakeholder initiatives on AI ethics. She is a member of the board of directors of the Partnership on AI and the industry representative in the steering committee of the Global Partnership on AI. She is a fellow of both the worldwide association of AI (AAAI) and of the European one (EurAI), and she will be the next president of AAAI from July 2022.