previous day
next day
all days

View: session overviewtalk overview

09:00-10:00 Session 10A: Wednesday, October 14th (Среда, 14 октября)

RCAI-2020: Intelligent Systems I (КИИ-2020: Интеллектуальные системы I)

Igor Fominykh (MPEI, Russia)
Valeriya Gribova (Institute of Automation and Control Processes, Russian Academy of Sciences, Russia)
Karina Shakhgeldyan (Vladivostok State University of Economics, Russia)
Boris Geltser (Far Eastern Federal University, School of Biomedicine, Russia)
Владислав Рублев (Дальневосточный федеральный университет, Школа биомедицины, Russia)
Александра Кригер (Vladivostok State University of Economics, Russia)
Василий Широбоков (Vladivostok State University of Economics, Russia)
Algorithm for Selecting Predictors of Hospital Mortality After Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting

ABSTRACT. The aim of the study is to develop an algorithm for selecting and evaluating the informative value of predictors for predicting intrahospital mortality in patients with coronary heart disease after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). Materials and methods. A retrospective analysis of 866 electronic case histories of patients operated on for coronary heart disease using the CABG was performed. The studied cohort of patients consisted of two groups. The first of them included 35 (4%) patients who died during the first 30 days after CABG, the second - 831 (96%) with a favorable outcome of the operation. We analyzed 99 factors, including the results of clinical, laboratory and instrumental studies obtained before CABG. Intrahospital mortality predictors were distinguished by a multi-stage selection procedure with analysis of statistical hypotheses and calculation of weight coefficients of one-factor models. For the selection and verification of predictors, machine learning (ML) methods were used: multivariate logistic regression (LR), random forest (RF) and artificial neural networks (ANN). The accuracy of the models was evaluated by three quality metrics: the area under the ROC curve (AUC), sensitivity and specificity. Cross-validation of models was performed on test samples. Results. The predictor selection algorithm consisted of several stages. At the first two stages, a statistical analysis was carried out, the odds and weight ratios of the univariate LR models were calculated, which made it possible to identify the most obvious risk factors for intrahospital mortality. At the third stage, multivariate LR models were developed, which included the predictors highlighted at the first stage and having statistical significance (p-value <0.05). The models based on RF and ANS developed at the third stage allowed not only to build more accurate forecasting tools, but also to verify 5 additional predictors of intrahospital mortality. To select the best model, a combined quality indicator was proposed. Conclusion: Using modern methods of MO allowed to develop an algorithm for selecting predictors and highly accurate models for predicting intrahospital mortality after CABG.

Valeria Gribova (IACP FEB RAS, Russia)
Yuriy Kulchin (IACP FEB RAS, Russia)
Alexander Nikitin (IACP FEB RAS, Russia)
Vadim Timchenko (IACP FEB RAS, Russia)
The Concept of Support for Laser-Based Additive Manufacturing on the Basis of Artificial Intelligence Methods
PRESENTER: Vadim Timchenko

ABSTRACT. A general concept of software and information support for laser-based additive manufacturing of metal parts from powder compositions is proposed. It is based on an ontological two-level approach to the formation of knowledge about the processes of laser additive manufacturing. At such approach, the ontology is clearly separated from the knowledge base. So, domain specialists can create and maintain knowledge without intermediaries in terms and representation that they understand. The conceptual architecture of the decision support software for laser-based additive manufacturing processes is presented. Its information and software components are described. Information components are ontologies, databases of laser-based additive manufacturing system components, databases of materials for additive manufacturing, knowledge base and case database. Software components are decision support system based on both knowledge and cases and tool for cases structuring. There are also external tools for mathematical modelling of directed energy deposition physico-chemical processes. When making decisions, it is proposed to use a hybrid approach that combines machine learning methods and knowledge engineering methods.

Valeriya Gribova (Institute of Automation and Control Processes, Russian Academy of Sciences, Russia)
Elena Shalfeeva (Institute of Automation and Control Processes, Russian Academy of Sciences, Russia)
Системы на основе онтологических баз знаний как основа для создания современных систем искусственного интеллекта
PRESENTER: Valeriya Gribova

ABSTRACT. Информационные технологии востребованы во многих областях промышленности, социальной сферы, образования, науки, государственного управления и др. Несмотря на их уже активное использование, потенциал систем поддержки принятия решений, в том числе основанных на методах искусственного интеллекта раскрыт недостаточно. Что мешает активному внедрению искусственного интеллекта в отрасли с интеллектуальной деятельностью, какие системы искусственного интеллекта необходимы и на каких принципах и моделях их построение может оказаться наиболее эффективным? Ответам на эти вопросы посвящен доклад.

09:00-10:00 Session 10B: Wednesday, October 14th (Среда, 14 октября)

Neuroinfo-2020:  Neurobiology and Neurobionics (Нейроинформатика-2020: Нейробиология и нейробионика)

Alexander Ratushnyak (Institute of Computational Technologies, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, Russia)
Daria Golubeva (СПбПУ, Russia)
Anton Chizhov (Физико-технический институт им. А.Ф. Иоффе РАН, Санкт-Петербург, Russia)
Sergey Malkin (Институт эволюционной физиологии и биохимии им. И.М. Сеченова РАН, Санкт-Петербург, Russia)
Computational Model of the Effect of Glutamate Transporters EAAT2 on Postsynaptic Signals
PRESENTER: Daria Golubeva

ABSTRACT. A specific transporter EAAT2 is playing the key role in glutamate removal from the extracellular space by its reuptake. The aim of this work was to mathematically describe the contribution of EAAT2 to the functioning of AMPA and NMDA receptors. It was shown that the processes of rapid removal of glutamate from the synaptic cleft by diffusion and subsequent elimination from extracellular space through the EAAT2, play a pivotal role in the formation of the synaptic response.

Vladimir Maiorov (M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Biological Faculty, Russia)
Model of the Cognitive Map in the Hippocampus, Uniting the Place- and Head- Direction Cells

ABSTRACT. Using an example of a simple neural network, it is shown, how, on the basis of bidirectional synaptic plasticity due to the interaction of the AMPA and NMDA receptors depending on the level of the postsynaptic potential, the generalized signal of head direction cells acquires the ability to activate a certain specific sequence (trajectory of excitation) of place- and/or grid cells.

Alexander Ratushnyak (Федеральный исследовательский центр информационных и вычислительных технологий, Новосибирск, Russia)
Ilia Malachin (Федеральный исследовательский центр информационных и вычислительных технологий, Новосибирск, Russia)
Tatyana Zapara (Федеральный исследовательский центр информационных и вычислительных технологий, Новосибирск, Russia)
Modeling of Biologically Inspired Information Systems Through the Evolution of Simple Agents

ABSTRACT. To create new generations of biologically inspired information systems, actual knowledge of the structurally functional properties of their biological prototypes is required. Obtaining such knowledge is carried out by theoretical and experimental methods. An experimental analysis of nerve cells — molecular information machines is also not very productive due to methodological difficulties that turn into fundamental ones due to their diversity. Attempts to mathematical modeling of even the simplest of existing biological systems in view of their extreme and irreducible complexity are limited by the capabilities of the methodology and the performance of existing information complexes. In this paper, an attempt is made to create a model agent as a basic element of living systems. This model is based on ideas about the physical nature of living systems of their origin and evolution. A model of the environment is being developed in which the functioning and evolution of the agent is possible. A search and experimental analysis of probable pre-archaeal elements of nerve cells was carried out. The possibility of creating a physical model of a non-entropic agent is considered. An increase in the complexity of the model of such agents and the environment of their existence is possible within the limits of the capabilities of instrumental modeling. The formation of networks of higher levels from such agents will make it possible to bring their properties closer to biological prototypes

09:00-10:00 Session 10C: Wednesday, October 14th (Среда, 14 октября)

МККН+РФО: Сенсорные компоненты когнитивных процессов (ICCS + Physio: Sensory Components of Cognitive Processes)

Гурген Арамович Согоян (НИУ ВШЭ, НТУ "Сириус", Russia)
Дария Федоровна Клеева (НИУ ВШЭ, НТУ "Сириус", Russia)
Кирилл Сергеевич Смирнов (Институт высшей нервной деятельности и нейрофизиологии РАН, НТУ "Сириус", Russia)
Анна Борисовна Ребрейкина (Институт высшей нервной деятельности и нейрофизиологии РАН, НТУ "Сириус", Russia)
Ольга Владимировна Сысоева (Институт высшей нервной деятельности и нейрофизиологии РАН, НТУ "Сириус", Russia)
The Effect of Auditory High-Frequency Stimulation on the Processing of Auditory Stimuli in the Brain

ABSTRACT. Current work is devoted to the investigation of long-term and short-term changes of event-related potential after high-frequency (HF) auditory stimulation (26 Hz) in adults. Odd-ball paradigm with standard and deviant signals repeated 3 times, before HF stimulation, immediately after stimulation and 7-34 days after stimulation while participants watched the silent movie. The N1 and MMN components change were not observed for the stimulus that was used for HF stimulation (1020 Hz), meanwhile, a decrease of N1 amplitude was identified for other stimuli (1000 and 980 Hz). These changes refer to plastic rearrangements in the auditory cortex, which might be related to lateral inhibition. Observed effects had short-term patterns and did not preserve on the second test after 7-34 days. Current results are perspective for future investigations in the pathological state with deficient plasticity and bridge works on the cellular level and the systemic level of the brain.

Denis Yavna (Southern Federal University, Russia)
Vitaly Babenko (Southern Federal University, Russia)
Kristina Ikonopistseva (Southern Federal University, Russia)
Attracting Visual Attention to Spatial Texture Heterogeneities and Parameters of the Evoked N2pc Component
PRESENTER: Denis Yavna

ABSTRACT. This work was performed as the part of a more global work on the development of the saliency model which takes into account nonlocal spatial heterogeneities in the texture. The main goal of the study is to determine whether the modulation of orientation or spatial frequency has a higher priority for human attention. The N2pc component was used as a measure of attracting attention. It was found that the modulations of orientation have priority over the spatial frequency modulations.

Vitaly Babenko (Southern Federal University, Russia)
Denis Yavna (Southern Federal University, Russia)
Polina Anokhina (Southern Federal University, Russia)
The Role of Nonlocal Contrast in Face Detection and Identification of Emotions
PRESENTER: Vitaly Babenko

ABSTRACT. The purpose of the study is to determine preattentive mechanisms extracting information which is useful for the perception of facial expression. Face images were created from areas with different amplitude of contrast modulation. It was found that the higher the contrast of the regions from which the face is formed, the more accurately the emotion is determined. It is concluded that the areas with the greatest contrast are more informative for the perception of facial expression, and second-order visual filters are able to preattentively extract these areas from the image.

Stanislav Kozlovskiy (Lomonosov Moscow State University, Russia)
Anton Rogachev (Lomonosov Moscow State University, Russia)
The Role of Areas of Ventral Visual Cortex in Color and Shape Information Processing

ABSTRACT. Introduction. Large amount of data suggest that various characteristics of visual stimuli are processed by the ventral part of the visual cortex. Although the areas of the brain responsible for the perception of complex objects such as faces are fairly well established, it was more difficult to localize cortex areas that process simpler visual characteristics such as the color and shape of objects. For example, there is conflicting data on the role of the hV4 area (human V4) in visual perception: some studies have found that this area is involved exclusively in the processing of color information (Bannert & Bartels, 2018) or other characteristics of stimuli (Seymour et al., 2010). Other studies show that the color and shape information is processed in other areas of the ventral visual cortex (Wade et al., 2002). We suggest that the reason for this discrepancy is due to the peculiarities of experimental procedures. In most studies, experimental schemes are designed so that subjects perceive stimuli passively, without performing any task. In our opinion, perception is an active process that depends on the task being performed by a person at the moment. In our study, the subjects were given a task in which they were required to select and remember individual characteristics of visual stimuli. The aim of the study is to identify areas of the ventral visual cortex involved in processing the color and shape of stimuli.

Methods. The subjects (N = 22, M = 19.6 years, SD = 1.84) were presented with the picture of color blot for 400 ms time period (there were 8 different shapes and 9 colors). The task was to remember either the color or shape, or both characteristics together. In the control series, the same stimuli were presented, but the task was to count the number of figures with a certain color. EEG was recorded (19 channels, 10-20% system) and evoked potentials (ERP) were calculated for presenting an image with a figure in each of the series. Based on the results obtained, the sources of brain activity were localized via Brainstorm (Tadel et al., 2011) using the dSPM algorithm (Dale et al., 2000). For further analysis, we selected 8 areas of the ventral visual cortex: V3v, V4, VO1, and VO2 in both hemispheres. Coordinates of areas boundaries according to Wang et al. (2014) were adapted for Brainstorm. Using the Granger causality estimation method (Seth et al., 2015), causal relationships between these areas of the ventral visual cortex were calculated (see fig. 1).

Results and discussion. Both the experimental and control series show activation of VO2 areas in both hemispheres. We assume that the mutual activation of VO2 is associated with the perception of stimuli as already familiar because the experimental design with ERP involves multiple presentation of similar stimuli. In addition, the VO2 area is closely related to the parahippocampal cortex associated with the recognition processes (Aminoff et al., 2013). In the series where color was required to be remembered (both separately and in combination with the form), a strong relationship was found between the V3v and hV4 areas, which we associate with the processing of color information. Finally, in series where the shape of stimuli was required to be remembered, there are strong connections between the VO1 areas of both hemispheres. We propose that these connections is related to the processing of shape information. In addition, in a series in which both color and shape were required to be remembered at the same time, there are bidirectional connections between the hV4 and VO1, which can be associated with the integration of these visual characteristics to form of a holistic image of perception, because the subject's attention is focused not on a single characteristic of the stimulus, but on the stimulus as a whole. Conclusion. Our study clarifies the role of areas of the ventral visual cortex in the perception of color and shape of objects. We suggest that the hV4 area is related with processing color information, the VO1 area is related with processing the shape of objects, and the integration of their activity is related with the formation of a holistic image of perception that combines all the characteristics at once. The research was financially supported by the Russian Science Foundation, project No 19-18-00474

References Aminoff E.M., Kveraga K., & Bar M. (2013). The role of the parahippocampal cortex in cognition. Trends in cognitive sciences, 17(8), 379-390. Bannert M.M., Bartels A. (2018). Human V4 activity patterns predict behavioral performance in imagery of object color. Journal of Neuroscience, 38(15), 3657-3668. Dale A.M., Liu A.K. et al. (2000). Dynamic statistical parametric mapping: combining fMRI and MEG for high-resolution imaging of cortical activity. Neuron, 26(1), 55-67. Seth A.K., Barrett A.B., & Barnett L. (2015). Granger causality analysis in neuroscience and neuroimaging. Journal of Neuroscience, 35(8), 3293-3297. Seymour K., Clifford C.W. et al. (2010). Coding and binding of color and form in visual cortex. Cerebral cortex, 20(8), 1946-1954. Tadel F., Baillet S. et al. (2011). Brainstorm: a user-friendly application for MEG/EEG analysis. Computational intelligence and neuroscience, 2011. Wade A.R., Brewer A.A. et al. (2002). Functional measurements of human ventral occipital cortex: retinotopy and colour. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B: Biological Sciences, 357(1424), 963-973. Wang L., Mruczek R.E. et al. (2015). Probabilistic maps of visual topography in human cortex. Cerebral cortex, 25(10), 3911-3931.

09:00-10:00 Session 10D: Wednesday, October 14th (Среда, 14 октября)

МККН+РФО: Эффект установки-прайминга в когнитивных процессах (ICCS + Physio: Priming Effect in Cognitive Processes)

Yury M. Serdyukov (Far Eastern State Transporn University, Russia)

ABSTRACT. One can surmise that the subjective reality exists during the state of clinical death, and we can infer the features of the latter, from the state of Near-Death Experience (NDE), the essence and content of which are manifold and diverse, since they span a wide variety of experiences - from the total absence of images, existential horror and vital depression to euphoria. Oneiric experiences in NDE are constituted by a number of factors, firstly, by the spontaneous activity of the brain capable of creating vague images and sensations; capable of partially memorizing them without fully comprehending the perceived images. Secondly, they are shaped by the most deeply imbedded and regular patterns and habits, attachments and impressions. Thirdly, there are innate psychical structures which are believed to be formed in the prenatal period. And finally, one may deduce that the formation of the oneiric experiences in NDE is affected by the activation of specific genetic structures, the process that is inevitable in the conditions of the most acute and severe stress, - which clinical death, ultimately, is.

Валерия Карпинская (Санкт-Петербургский государственный университет, Russia)
Всеволод Ляховецкий (Лаборатория Физиологии Движения Института физиологии им. И.П. Павлова РАН, Russia)
Юрий Шилов (Самарский государственный университет, Russia)
The Perceptual Set Effect in the Motor Estimation Task of Visual Stimuli

ABSTRACT. The effect of the perceptual set was studied using the different stimulii of different length and the motor estimation task. The subjects estimated the length of pairs of segments located one above the other, presented on the touch screen. The task was to draw the line (as it was on the screen) with the index finger of their right hand. Movements were carried out from right to left, from top to bottom. In the set series, we used the pair of the segments of different lengths, in the test series - equal segments. We did not find classical perceptual set effect in the task of the motor estimation of the line length. This result is consistent with the hypothesis of two subsystems of visual perception, according to which direct actions with objects do not require the use of memory, and therefore the contrast or assimilation effects could be find.

Mariia Shestova (Lomonosov Moscow State University, Russia)
Affective Priming and Decision-Making in the Economic Game

ABSTRACT. Emotions have been rarely studied in economic models; however, their contribution to economic decision-making (DM) is underestimated. The present paper is based on the model of multiply regulation of DM (by an interaction between the cognitive and emotional-personal process) and investigates the influence of emotions through affective priming on DM in the economic game – Trust Game (TG). The sample was comprised of 71 Russian students (34 male and 37 female, aged between 17 to 39, M_age= 20,8; SD = 4,8). The masked prime paradigm was used in the experiment. Prime pictures were of different durations (conscious or unconscious) and valence (positive, neutral or negative). Participants played TG with a three computer players, which were differed by the strategy (imitator, detective, vindictive) and they were asked to make a choice “trust” or “cheat” by clicking on one of the buttons. The results reveal that the player and the priming influenced DM and gain, but prime stimulus duration influenced neither DM, nor win. These findings advance current knowledge of changing in human economic behaviour under emotion impact.

Yuri Kholodny (National Research Center "Kurchatov Institute", Russia)
Sergey Kartashov (National Research Center "Kurchatov Institute", Russia)
Denis Malakhov (National Research Center "Kurchatov Institute", Russia)
Vyacheslav Orlov (National Research Center "Kurchatov Institute", Russia)
Neurocognitive Mechanisms of Forensic Diagnostics of Hidden Information in a Person
PRESENTER: Yuri Kholodny

ABSTRACT. The research is devoted to the study of neurocognitive processes for forensic purposes, focused on the possible detection of markers that indicate the presence of information that a person is hiding.

09:00-10:00 Session 10E: Wednesday, October 14th (Среда, 14 октября)

МККН+РФО: Физиологические корреляты нарушения когнитивных процессов (ICCS + Physio: Physiological Correlates of Impaired Cognitive Processes)

Aleksandra Maslennikova (IHNA&NF of RAS, Russia)
Galina Portnova (IHNA&NF RAS, Russia)
Natalia Zakharova (GBUZ PKB No.1 DZM, Russia)
Olga Martynova (IHNA&NF of RAS, Russia)
Perception of Multimodal Emotional Stimuli in Schizophrenia

ABSTRACT. In our study, we consider the problem of impaired perception of emotionally significant stimuli in patients with schizophrenia. It is known that impaired perception of emotions by facial expression and voice in patients is associated with a distortion of the early stages of perception, sensory gating and predictive coding mechanisms. It was found that patients with schizophrenia showed significant differences in both the early (P50) and late (N600) components of the induced potential in the perception of deviant stimulus. This may be a marker of violations of the early process of the sensory filter, as well as the later stages of semantic processing of the stimulus.

Irina Lebedeva (MHRC, Russia)
Alexander Tomyshev (MHRC, Russia)
Vasily Kaleda (MHRC, Russia)
PRESENTER: Irina Lebedeva

ABSTRACT. 57.024:616.89: 612.823.5 И.С. Лебедева, А.С. Томышев, В.Г. Каледа ФГБНУ НЦПЗ, Москва, Россия

Задачей настоящей работы являлось определение корреляций между особенностями спектральной мощности тета-активности и мофрометрическими показателями головного мозга у молодых пациентов с юношеской приступообразной шизофренией. Проведенное межгрупповое сравнение выявило у больных статистически значимую большую спектральную мощность тета-ритма в лобных отделах. Данный показатель коррелировал с объемом скорлупы правого полушария. ЭЭГ, тета-ритм, шизофрения, МРТ

THETA-RHYTHM AND STRUCTURAL BRAIN PECULIARITIES IN SCHIZOPHRENIA 57.024:616.89: 612.823.5 I.S.Lebedeva, A.S.Tomyshev, V.G.Kaleda MHRC, Moscow, Russia

The aim of the study was to determine the correlations between spectral power of theta-rhythm and brain morphometry in young patients with juvenile shift-like schizophrenia. Intergroup comparison revealed significantly higher theta spectral power in frontal leads in patients with schizophrenia. These values correlated with right putamen volume. EEG, theta-rhythm, schizophrenia, MRI

Изменение параметров фоновой ЭЭГ при шизофрении является феноменом, известным десятки лет. Наиболее часто исследователи отмечают повышение индекса или спектральной мощности медленноволновой активности, в том числе, тета-ритма. Причиной этому, очевидно, являются анатомические и\или функциональные аномалии нейронных сетей – генераторов ритмов при данном психическом заболевании, хотя точные причинно-следственные закономерности пока еще не установлены. Биоэлектрическая активность в диапазоне 4-8 Гц является гетерогенной по своим механизмам, но одним из основных ее генераторов выступает гиппокамп, также тета-активность связывают, как правило, с процессами взаимодействия между гиппокампом и префронтальной корой. Задачей настоящей работы являлось определение корреляций между особенностями спектральной мощности тета-активности и мофрометрическими показателями головного мозга у молодых пациентов с юношеской приступообразной шизофренией. Предполагалось, что будут найдены ассоциации между тестируемым нейрофизиологическим показателем и особенностями морфометрии упомянутых выше структур. Материалы и методы. Нейрофизиологическое обследование было проведено у 63 больных мужчины и 60 подобранных по возрасту (16-27) и полу психически здоровых испытуемых без наследственного отягощения по психическим заболеваниям. Все испытуемые были правшами. У 41 пациента и 52 испытуемых из группы контроля было проведено МРТ. Регистрацию ЭЭГ проводили на аппаратно-программном комплексе топографического картирования биопотенциалов мозга (NeuroKM, НМФ «Статокин», Россия). Биоэлектрическую активность регистрировали в состоянии спокойного бодрствования с закрытыми глазами в 16 отведениях (система 10-20, с референтным объединенным ушным электродом). Полоса пропускания составляла 1.6-30 Гц, частота оцифровки - 500 Гц. Для статистического анализа были выбраны величины спектральной мощности в диапазоне тета- ритма (4-8 Гц). МРТ обследование было реализовано на 3Т Philips Achieva (Голландия) в НИИНДХиТ ДЗ г.Москвы (зав. отделением д.м.н., профессор Ахадов Т.А.). T1-взвешенное сканирование проводили с использованием последовательности турбо-полевого эхо (TR 8.2 с, TE 3.7 мс, угол поворота 8 градусов, поле обзора 240 мм, размер вокселя 0.83 × 0.83 × 1.0 мм, межсрезовое расстояние 0). Изображения были обработаны в пакете FreeSurfer (версия 5.3.0, Разбиение церебральной коры на анатомические зоны было проведено с учетом индивидуальной структуры извилин и борозд отдельных испытуемых (атлас Desikan et al., 2006). Для анализа были выбраны показатели толщины областей коры и объемы ряда подкорковых структур. Результаты и обсуждение. Проведенное межгрупповое сравнение выявило у больных статистически значимую большую спектральную мощность тета-ритма (значения, проходящие коррекцию на множественное сравнение, были достигнуты для лобных отделов). Изменение спектральной мощности тета-ритма у пациентов не коррелировало с уровнем психопатологических расстройств (оцениваемых по шкале PANSS) и с длительностью заболевания. Анализ парциальных корреляций (с коррекцией на возраст) обнаружил статистически значимые (но не прошедшие коррекцию на множеств. сравнение) прямые корреляции между СМ тета-ритма в лобных отделах и объемом скорлупы в правом полушарии. Таким образом, высказанная ранее гипотеза о возможных корреляциях между СМ тета-ритма и анатомо-морфологическими особенностями гиппокампа и префронтальной коры не подтвердилась в данной работе. Учитывая, что группы не различались по объему скорлупы, полученные результаты отражают, скорее всего, особенности функциональной связанности в нейрональных сетях, включающих гиппокамп и скорлупу (а также другие зоны стриатума) при шизофрении. Исследование поддержано грантом РФФИ 18-013-01214

Andrey Iznak (Mental Health Research Centre, Russia)
Ekaterina Iznak (Mental Health Research Centre, Russia)
Tatiana Klyushnik (Mental Health Research Centre, Russia)
Svetlana Zozulya (Mental Health Research Centre, Russia)
Igor Oleichik (Mental Health Research Centre, Russia)
Eeg-Correlates of Neuroinflammation and Neuroplasticity Processes in Patients with Depressive-Delusional Conditions
PRESENTER: Andrey Iznak

ABSTRACT. In order to clarify the role of neuroimmune interaction in pathogenesis of mental disorders, a complex of clinical, EEG and neuroimmunological parameters was analyzed in patients with depressive-delusional conditions. Revealed correlations between values of EEG spectral power, immunological markers of neuroinflammation and neuroplasticity, and clinical assessments of patient’s condition emphasize the role of demyelination in pathogenesis and EEG pattern in depressive-delusional conditions.

Natalia Zakharova (Psychiatric Clinical Hospital 1 n. a. N.A. Alekseev of Healthcare Department of Moscow, Russia)
Aleksandra Maslennikova (IHNA&NF RAS, Russia)
Vadim Ushakov (Psychiatric Clinical Hospital 1 n. a. N.A. Alekseev of Healthcare Department of Moscow, Russia)
Neuroimaging of Induced Delusional Disorder

ABSTRACT. The obsolete classification of diseases (DSM-IV, ICD-10) defined induced delusional disorder as a rare form of mental pathology that occurs in individuals with emotional interdependence [WHO, 1992]. In the updated versions of the international classifications of mental disorders, the term is abolished due to the casuistic nature of cases of induced delirium, and the diagnosis is recommended to be encrypted as “chronic delusional disorder” without reference to etiopathogenetic mechanisms. However, in the aspect of nuances of the psychopathological analysis of the mechanism of delirium formation and the establishment of markers for the development of paranoid or paranoid symptoms, the study of cases of induced delirium seems relevant. As a result of an MRI scan with a compatible mother and daughter polygraph in a state of reconvalescence after delusional psychosis, data were obtained on the activation of the brain occupied in delusions. Image analysis indicates a varying degree of involvement of the cerebral cortex in the daughter and mother. Activation of the cerebral cortex of the inducer is significantly more pronounced than in the recipient. The results obtained can serve as a starting point for differential diagnosis and confirmation of the diagnosis of paranoid disorders

09:00-10:00 Session 10F: Wednesday, October 14th (Среда, 14 октября)

МККН+РФО: Зеркальные механизмы в когнитивных процессах (ICCS + Physio: Mirror Mechanisms in Cognitive Processes)

Галина Викторовна Дьяченко (Institute of Linguistics of Russian Academy of Sciences, Russia)
The mirror systems in communication

ABSTRACT. The article deals with conceptualization of the leading adaptive principles in interpersonal communication on the basis of Christian patristics, which are absolute respect for the personality of another person, cutting off one's own will and obedience to one's neighbor. These are the "mirror systems" not already of the body, but of the mental level of a person's behavioral, including communicative, practice.

Natalia Lebedeva (Institute of Higher Nervous Activity and Neurophysiology of RAS, Russia)
Nikita Katermin (Moscow State University, Russia)
Ekaterina Karimova (Institute of Higher Nervous Activity and Neurophysiology of RAS, Russia)
Sabir Burkitbaev (Institute of Higher Nervous Activity and Neurophysiology of RAS, Russia)
The Mirror Neuron System Activity Is Higher with Personal Direct Interaction

ABSTRACT. The mirror neuron system plays a key role in social interaction. Mirror neurons contribute to understanding the goals and motivation of the interlocutor, allow you to "adjust" to his emotional background, are involved in the process of empathy, participate in learning through imitation. It is possible to study the activity of the mirror neuron system (MNS) by registering EEG when performing certain tasks (observing and performing various gestures). In this case, the degree in the mu-rhythm supression of the EEG serves as an indicator of the MNS inclusion in the work. Our research was conducted using two demonstration methods of stimulus material - personally by the experimenter and using a video clip. We have shown that the MNS activation is much higher in a personal demonstration. This may mean that when interacting via video chats, the MNS is not included in the work as effectively as in personal non-direct interaction.

Bushov Yuri (NI Tomsk state University, Russia)
Ushakov Vadim (NIC Kurchatov Institute, Russia)
Svetlik Michael (NI Tomsk state University, Russia)
Kartashov Sergei (NIC Kurchatov Institute, Russia)
Orlov Vyacheslav (NIC Kurchatov Institute, Russia)
Mirror Neurons and Speech
PRESENTER: Bushov Yuri

ABSTRACT. The aim of the research was to study the activity of mirror neurons in humans when observing and pronouncing words, depending on the gender and lateral organization of the brain. EEG mu-rhythm depression, cortical interactions at the frequency of this rhythm, and results of fMRI brain scans were used as markers of mirror neuron activity. The dependence of the activity of mirror neurons on the type and stage of the performed activity, as well as on the gender and lateral organization of the brain was found.

Елена Алексеевна Дорошева (Новосибирский государственный университет, НИИ ФФМ СО РАМН, НГМУ, Russia)
Alexithymia in Mothers of Children with Authism Spectrum Disorders: Primary Deficiency or Protective Mechanism?

ABSTRACT. Features of emotional regulation in parents of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) in relation to regulatory disorders in children are considered. The correlations of alexithymia with anxiety and stress level in groups of mothers of children with ASD (N = 13) and mothers of neurotypical children (N = 12) was investigated. In the first group, much more significant direct correlations of alexithymia with anxiety components (including asthenic component), standard and subjective stress values have been identified. In the second group, alexithymia is significantly directly correlated with the only component of anxiety - protective reactions in social interactions. There is reason to assume that in mothers of children with ASD alexithymia can form as a secondary protective mechanism.

14:00-15:00 Session 11: Wednesday, October 14th (Среда, 14 октября)

United Poster Session ICCS + Physio - every day (Объединенная постерная сессия МККН + РФО - каждый день)

Svetlana Belykh (ФГБОУ ВО Санкт-Петербургский университет ГПС МЧС России, Russia)
Natalia Kasper (State University of Land Use Planning, Russia)
Ekaterina Rukavishnikova (ФГБОУ ВО РГАУ – МСХА имени К.А.Тимирязева, Russia)
Adequacy of Intersensory Connections (Tactile-Visual Transition) as a Professionally Important Quality of a Landscape Design Specialist
PRESENTER: Svetlana Belykh

ABSTRACT. The experimental study, which was attended by 37 students studying landscape architecture and 13 experts, made it possible to confirm the hypothesis: the ability to recreate a visual image by tactile perception, being a professionally important quality of a landscape designer, determines his aesthetic preferences, choice of direction of professional education, his hobby and hobbies. Influence factors: the level of this ability (the overall success of the experimental methodology), as well as the type of errors made during its diagnosis.

Svetlana Belykh (ФГБОУ ВО Санкт-Петербургский университет ГПС МЧС России, Russia)
Andrey Sokolsky (FSBEE HE Saint-Petersburg University of State Fire Service of the EMERCOM of Russia, Russia)
Comparison of Mental Models of Professional Activity of Cadets of the Specialty "Fire Safety" and Professional Firefighters
PRESENTER: Svetlana Belykh

ABSTRACT. In an experimental psychosemantic study, the specificity of the mental model of professional activity of a fire safety specialist among cadets of the "Fire Safety" direction and professional firefighter-rescuers is revealed and a comparison is made. The study involved: 1) cadets of the 2nd and 5th courses of the engineering faculty of the Fire Safety training area at St. Petersburg University of the State Fire Service of the Ministry of Emergencies of Russia. Number: 138 people. 2) Firefighters 1 and 14 of the fire and rescue units of the Petrograd region. Quantity: 42 people.

Tatiana Palikhova (Moscow State M.V. Lomonosov University, Russia)
Arkadyi Pivovarov (Moscow State University, Russia)
Participation of Alpha7 Nicotinic Cholinoreceptors in Transition of Somatosensory Information to Parietal Neurons of a Terrestrial Snail.

ABSTRACT. At a list of cognitive functions alpha7 nicotinic choline-receptors (alpha7nChRs) are discussed in connection with memory, learning, decision making and sensory processing. Mollusks and terrestrial snail Helix pomatia and Helix lucorum in the list present a well-studied object to study the base of these functions - synaptic plasticity. We record intracellularly electrical activity of neurons with giant receptive field identified in parietal ganglia of the snail. The aims of the study was to test participation of alpha7nChRs in compound excitatory postsynaptic potentials evoked by electrical stimulation of mantle schell of a snail in parallel with depolarization evoked by acetylcholine injection during action of several nicotinic choline-blockers. The main result was that alpha7nChRs participate in accordance with the traces of other chemic specificity in sensory information transmission from shell to the parietal neurons of a snail.

Ольга Дятлова (Институт Психологии РАН, Russia)
Мирослава Рыбчинчук (Институт Психологии РАН, Russia)
Игорь Эльман (Институт Психологии РАН, Russia)
Марина Кунашенко (Институт Психологии РАН, Russia)
Transfer Learning and System Organization of Actions in the Process of Solving Mathematical Problems During a Video Lesson.

ABSTRACT. The qualitative pilot study is dedicated to the research of connection between the transfer of learning and the organization of experience in solving school algebraic problems on the theme "The method of intervals" in the situation of the lesson built in the logic of educational online courses. A descriptive cross-case analysis was conducted. Various actions used in the solution by experts and non-experts were singled out. It was initially assumed that the success of problem solving will be associated with the transfer of more analytical ways of action, implementing the solution of problems at each stage. However, it was found that the success of the solution of problems is more connected with the use of actions not directly connected with the specificity of the method of intervals, allowing to optimize and simplify the process of problem solving. Transfer of learning was more connected with spontaneous use of previous skills, formed before experience of problem solving on the given theme and reduction of possible range of actions, where problem solving makes sense. This result is interpreted from the perspective of enactivism and system psychophysiology.

Evgeniya Gavrilova (Moscow State University of psychology and education, Russia)
The Patterns of the Interactions Between Intelligence and Foreign Language Aptitude: the Impact of Language Learning Experience

ABSTRACT. Many studies in differential psychology and psycholinguistics conclude that intelligence seems to be the most important predictor of individual differences in foreign language achievements (Kormos, Sáfár 2008; Robinson 2001). However, some recent empirical findings demonstrate that facilitative effects of intellectual abilities appear to lessen with increasing L2 proficiency (Serafini, Sanz 2015; Гаврилова 2018). Considering the above mentioned empirical facts we conducted this study to analyze the patterns of the interactions between fluid and crystallized intelligence, on one hand, and foreign language aptitude, on the other, more precisely taking participants’ certain language learning experience into account. Three general cognitive abilities including foreign language aptitude, fluid and crystallized intelligence were measured. Fluid intelligence was assessed by Raven’s Progressive Matrices whereas crystallized intelligence was tested by three verbal scales of Intelligence structure test. The new version of the ‘Language Aptitude test’ (hereinafter referred to as LA-test) (Gavrilova 2018) was specially elaborated for the foreign language aptitude measurement. The test included two scales used to assess two different abilities: to translate sentences from one language to the other, and to explicate concrete grammatical rules which are needed to make a correct translation. Participants were exposed to sentences created in invented language ‘Z’. For each sentence its translation example in Russian was presented. After students were got familiar to these examples they had to translate 6 sentences in ‘Z’ language into Russian, and 3 Russian sentences into ‘Z’ language, respectively. They also had to explain the rules of the invented language ‘Z’ afterwards. The rules concerned the ways of how nouns, verbs, and participles can be grammatically changed in ‘Z’ language. 210 L1 Russian students from different linguistic faculties of Moscow universities participated in this study (М=21.18; SD=2.16; 83% of females). In accordance with the main goal of our study, the whole sample was divided into two groups by the language learning experience criterion, namely ‘beginners’ – those who just have started to learn foreign language (1st and 2nd faculties students), and ‘experienced’ students from the last faculties and master degree candidates. No significant differences in means taken from three abilities tests were revealed between two groups of participants. They were almost equal in their intellectual and foreign language attainments no matter which faculty they studied at. We also conducted the correlation analysis to all three researched variables in each group of students. It was shown that foreign language aptitude has robust positive interaction with both fluid (r = 0.41**; p = 0.01) and crystallized intelligence (r = 0.29*; p = 0.03) in the ‘beginners’ group. As for the ‘experienced’ students significant positive correlation coefficients were also found between foreign language aptitude, on one hand, and fluid (r = 0.31*; p = 0.02) and crystallized intelligence (r = 0.44**; p = 0.01), on the other. Thus, positive patterns of the interactions between intelligence and foreign language aptitude can be seen in any cases regardless of participants’ language learning experience. For the next step of the analysis each group of students was additionally divided into two sub-groups with high and middle level of LA-test performance . Therefore four groups of participants formed by two parameters – ‘beginners’ vs. ‘experienced’ students in language learning process, and high vs. middle level of LA-test performance – were taken for the further correlation analysis. Different patterns of the interactions between researched abilities depending on participants’ level of LA-test performance have been revealed. Robust positive correlations of foreign language aptitude with both types of intelligence keep on being significant only in the middle level groups. As for the high level groups certain intellectual ability begins to contribute separately into foreign language attainment. This is fluid intelligence that proceeds to have a strong impact on foreign language aptitude by those ‘beginners’ with the high level of LA-test performance whereas crystallized intelligence remains to be significant for foreign language attainment by ‘experienced’ students with the high level of LA-test performance. The empirical data let us proceed with the certain key conclusions. First, both fluid and crystallized intelligence keep their influence on foreign language aptitude at the different steps of language learning. Second, the impact of a certain intellectual ability is determined only by criterion of the Language Aptitude test performance. It turns out, that participants’ foreign language achievements are mostly directed by fluid intelligence at the very beginning of the language learning process whereas experienced students demonstrate their high foreign language attainments because of the high level of crystallized intelligence. This does not necessarily mean that any dichotomy of two intelligence factors’ effects exists by default. Both types of intelligence are responsible for the whole human’s cognitive functioning including foreign language learning process which is not constant. In this case the patterns of the interactions between intelligence and foreign language aptitude should be considered in their dynamic as a complex cognitive phenomenon.

Sergii Tukaiev (National University of Ukraine on Physical Education and Sports, Ukraine)
Altered Resting State Functional Connectivity at the Alexithymia

ABSTRACT. Introduction: The alexithymia construct is characterized by impairment of emotional processing and reduced interaction between different brain areas during various experimental conditions. Not much is known about permanent alterations of functional connectivity associated with alexithymia in resting state. There was the aim to investigate the resting state cortical networks of alexithymic personality type. Another purpose of the current study was to establish the psychological nature and mechanisms of the occurrence of alexithymia by analyzing its connection with the properties of the nervous system, mental states, and characteristics of the emotional sphere of personality. Methods: 232 volunteers, first-third year students from the Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv aged 18 to 24 years (Mage = 19, SD = 1.13) participated in this study. EEG was registered during the resting state (3 min, closed eyes condition). The interhemispheric and intrahemispheric average coherence across all EEG segments in all frequencies from 0.2-45 Hz was estimated. Psychological testing was performed before the registration of EEG. To determine the level of alexithymia the 26-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-26) was used. In order to measure individual typological characteristics, emotional sphere and mental states of the respondents, the following psycho-diagnostic methods were used: Temperament Diagnostics Test by J. Strelau; Eysenck's Personality Inventory; Taylor Manifest Anxiety Scale; UN Scale (Questionnaire for express diagnostics of neurotization level by L. Wasserman); State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) by C.Spielberger and Y. Hanin; Syndrome of Emotional Burnout by V. Boyko (SEB) and Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI), Leonova`s the Degree of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Test; Lemur-Tessier-Fillion Psychological Stress Measure (PSM-25); Boston the Social Stress Test "Lifestyle Analysis"; Technique of Differential Diagnostics of Depression by V.A. Zhmurov; Aggressive Behaviour Test by E. Illyn and P. Kovalev; Aggression Test by A. Assinger (assessment of aggressiveness in the relationship); Diagnostics of Emotional Response to Environmental Stimuli by V. Boyko. The Mann-Whitney test was carried out to compare the data of independent samples. To determine the type of distribution, the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test is used. Based on the normality of the sample, Pearson's correlation coefficient, and Spearman's rank correlation coefficient were applied. Results & Discussion: Alexithymic personality type was found in 43 volunteers (TAS-26 total score ≥74, alexithymia group). A control group consisted of 113 subjects with a low alexithymia score (TAS-26 total score ≤62,non-alexithymia group). 85 participants formed an intermediate group (TAS-26 total score 62>and<74). The main factors related to alexithymia were a weak nervous system, low-stress resistance, such characteristics of the emotional sphere, as high level of trait anxiety, depression, neuroticism, indirect verbal aggression, low levels of aggression; with mental states as, chronic fatigue, depression, psychological stress. The emotional exhaustion and reduction of personal achievements (MBI), the Resistance Phase (SEB) were the most pronounced within the alexithymia group. In background EEG activity during the development of the alexithymia variations in EEG spatial synchronization were observed in low- and high-frequency EEG components. Alexithymic personality type includes breaking of interhemispheric anterior frontal-frontal (alpha1,2-subbands) and formation central-temporal links (alpha1-subband) (awareness and cognitive processing of incoming information). The left lateralization of intrahemispheric links in alpha3 (occipital-parietal area) and beta (central area) subbands (inner image formation, external attention) was detected. Inter and intrahemispheric coherence in low-frequency EEG components (theta2-subband) indicates the influence of alexithymia on attention focusing, working memory, and emotional processes. It was demonstrated that the topographical reorganization of functional connectivity under alexithymia had specific features reflecting information and emotion-activating processes. The obtained results confirm the adaptation theory of the alexithymia development, according to which, due to the weakness of the nervous system and high trait anxiety, the persons adapt to stressful situations by avoiding and suppressing negative emotions, which eventually creates the impossibility of their verbal description and expression.

Ирина Васильевна Черникова (Национальный исследовательский Томский государственный университет, Russia)
Юлия Владимировна Логиновская (Национальный исследовательский Томский государственный университет, Russia)
The Transcendental Aspect of Cognition in the Learning Process

ABSTRACT. Understanding the issues of learning and thinking is associated with the transcendental dimension of human consciousness. This paper attempts to describe the phenomenon of transcendence in the learning process. The learning process, the growth of subjective knowledge is always fundamental, not only due to logical thinking, but through imagination, the subject forms his spatio-temporal representation, trying to think about something beyond the bounds of our experience. Cognition and learning are presented as transcendental processes, including self-transcendence as the formation of a person, gaining a true identity.

Сергей Бурмистров (Самарский национальный исследовательский университет имени академика С.П. Королева, Russia)
Одновременное усвоение несвязанных последовательностей

ABSTRACT. Введение: экспериментальное исследование посвящено проблеме одновременной неосознаваемой переработки несвязанных между собой потоков информации. Анализировалась разработанность данной проблемы в русле имплицитного усвоения последовательностей (sequence learning). Основная цель исследования – установление эффекта имплицитного усвоения двух некоррелированных перцептивных последовательностей. Материалы и методы: проведено два эксперимента с использованием задач «Double-dimension serial reaction task». В качестве стимульного материала использовались четыре стрелки («вверх», «вниз», «влево», «вправо»), которые были окрашены в четыре разных цвета. В эксперименте 1 испытуемые реагировали на направление стрелок, игнорируя цвет. В эксперименте 2 сначала требовалось реагировать на направление стрелок, затем на цвет. В обоих экспериментах последовательности стрелок и цвета определялись независимыми правилами построения. Результаты исследования: в эксперименте 1 было обнаружено увеличение времени реакции при изменении последовательности чередования релевантного параметра стимулов («направление стрелок»). Изменение последовательности иррелевантного параметра («цвет стрелок») не отразилось на выполнении задания. В эксперименте 2 изменение релевантного параметра стимулов также вызвало задержку во времени реакции. Кроме того, испытуемые, усвоившие иррелевантную закономерность при решении первой задачи (реагирование на направление стрелок), показали большую динамику сокращения времени реакции во второй задаче (реагирование на цвет). Обсуждение и заключение: эксперимент 1 показал имплицитное усвоение релевантной последовательности и отсутствие значимого влияния на результат иррелевантной последовательности. Эксперимент 2 показал, что изменение релевантного параметра задачи позволяет обнаружить эффект усвоения другой последовательности. Обнаруженные результаты свидетельствуют об эффекте имплицитного усвоения последовательностей некоррелированного типа, что, в свою очередь, демонстрирует способность когнитивной системы одновременно перерабатывать несколько потоков организованной информации вне сознательного контроля. При этом значимое влияние на решение актуальной задачи оказывает только знание релевантной закономерности.

Сергей Щербаков (Башкирский государственный университет, Russia)
Situational Interdependence and the Personality Traits of Students

ABSTRACT. Based on the principles of dyadic analysis proposed by Thibault and Kelly, we developed a methodology in which students were offered a set of twelve conflict situations, where each of them subjects are offered alternative ways out of conflict. Respondents assessed the optimality of all four options for resolving the conflict for both themselves and the imaginary opponent in points from 1 to 7. In our work, we calculated three major indexes of codependence: (a) the level of subjective control (actor control); b) the level of perceived influence of the partner (partner control); c) the level of mutual control (joint control). We have suggested that codependence is a situational characteristic of an individual that is not related to the personality properties of respondents. As a result of nonparametric correlation analysis on Spearman, the only significant positive correlation between consciousness and the level of subjective control equal to 0,53 (p<=0.05) was found.

Zhanna Garakh (Institute of Higher Nervous Activity and Neurophysiology of RAS, Russia)
Ekaterina Larionova (Institute of Higher Nervous Activity and Neurophysiology of RAS, Russia)
Valeria Strelets (Institute of Higher Nervous Activity and Neurophysiology of RAS, Russia)
Yuliya Zaytseva (National Institute of Mental Health, 3rd Faculty of Medicine, Charles University in Prague, Czechia)
Event-Related Synchronization of Theta and Gamma Eeg Rhythms During Reading in Schizophrenic Patients
PRESENTER: Zhanna Garakh

ABSTRACT. We studied event-related synchronization of theta and gamma EEG rhythms during reading of semantic (words) and meaningless (pseudowords) verbal information in implicit and two explicit tasks in patients with paranoid schizophrenia (n = 37) and healthy controls (n = 81). The group of patients showed a decrease in the synchronization of theta rhythm in left ventral temporo-occipital cortex during reading in all experimental tasks mainly on the stimulus "word" as compared to controls. In addition, the detected violations of theta synchronization in patients with schizophrenia were associated with the severity of negative psychopathological symptoms. In patients with schizophrenia, the synchronization of gamma rhythm was greater during reading of pseudowords than during reading of words, in conditions when ‘word’ was a target stimulus. This may indicate that patients with schizophrenia exhibit an unjustified appropriation of significance to non-significant stimuli and reduced ability to perceive relevant information in patients with schizophrenia. Thus, anomalies of oscillatory activity in the theta and gamma ranges may underlie the deficit of linguistic processing in paranoid schizophrenia.

Ксения Игоревна Кунникова (Уральский федеральный университет имени первого Президента России Б.Н. Ельцина, Russia)
Александр Игоревич Котюсов (Уральский федеральный университет имени первого Президента России Б.Н. Ельцина, Russia)
Visual Perception of Social Information in Young Preterm Children

ABSTRACT. The current paper is devoted to the analysis of visual attention and face orienting in children under two years of age who were born prematurely. The cross-sectional study was carried out in the next age points: 5, 10, 14 and 24 months. The experimental group included 64 children with prematurity and with gestational age of 28 to 36 weeks, the control group consisted of 102 normative infants. Groups were matched for corrected age. To evaluate the visual perception of faces among the array of distractors, the eye-tracking was used. The significant differences in looking time at all distractors were founded in participants at 14 months of age; preterm infants were less stable in keeping their attention on objects. Comparison of groups aged 24 months showed trend differences in the number of valid trials (p = 0.082) and the percentage of trials with a first gaze to face-noise (p = 0.063). There were no significant differences in the visual perception of faces in participants at all ages.

Александра Валерьевна Чистопольская (ЯрГУ им. П.Г.Демидова, Russia)
Владимир Дмитриевич Илюшичев (ЯрГУ им. П.Г.Демидова, Russia)
The Role of Articulatory Imitation in Solving Problems with Lexical Choice

ABSTRACT. We were interested in the role of imitation mechanisms in choosing a letter in a word with a pass. Our hypothesis is largely based on the work of the Italian neuroscientist Marco Iacoboni, namely, his theory of minimal neural architecture of imitation. The theory assumes that there is an individual pattern of neuronal activation for each action (Iacoboni, 2005). Thus, we believe that stimulating the corresponding pattern by imitating the position of the lips and tongue will contribute to the choice of a word determined by the choice of the letter whose pronunciation is accompanied by these positions. In our study, the influence of the degree of articulatory pattern expression on lexical choice was experimentally tested. Statistically significant results were obtained on the degree of coincidence of the letter selection in the task for word addition and articulatory pattern in groups with expressed and unexpressed articulatory pattern.

Алена Андреевна Коган (МГУ имени М. В. Ломоносова, Russia)
Галина Яковлевна Меньшикова (МГУ имени М. В. Ломоносова, Russia)
Visual Search of Facial Expressions in People with Different Levels of Emotional Intelligence

ABSTRACT. Currently, the study of emotional intelligence (EI) and the processes behind it are of great interest. The aim of the present study was to examine the features of the visual search for expressions in people with different levels of EI using the technology of eye tracking. It was assumed that participants with a high level of EI, would find the target stimulus faster and would have longer fixations and fewer saccades. 24 people had participated in this experiment. The experiment consisted of two parts: assessing the level of emotional intelligence using the MSCEIT v2.0 test (Sergienko, Vetrova) and the EmIn questionnaire (Lyusin). After that participants performed the task of visual search for facial expressions, during which eye movements were recorded. The following indicators were recorded: reaction time, average duration of fixations, and average number of saccades. Significant differences were found in the speed of searching for expressions of “anger” and “fear” for participants with high and low levels of EI, acquired by the MSCEIT test. For participants with high and low EI, acquired by the EmIn questionnaire, no differences were found. Contradictory results were found in the analysis of the duration of fixations. The results suggest a tendency to a shorter duration of fixations for people with high EI according to Emin, while for people with high EI according to MSCEIT there is a tendency to a longer duration of fixations and fewer saccades.

Yana Panikratova (Mental Health Research Center, Russia)
Irina Lebedeva (Mental Health Research Center, Russia)
Daria Bazhenova (Lomonosov Moscow State University, Russia)
Denis Tikhonov (Mental Health Research Center, Russia)
Vasily Kaleda (Mental Health Research Center, Russia)
Functional Connectivity Within Frontoparietal Network in Healthy Individuals and Schizophrenia Patients with High and Poor Executive Functions
PRESENTER: Yana Panikratova

ABSTRACT. Background. Cognitive variability is a prominent feature of schizophrenia. In this regard, executive functions (EF) are worth considering. First, they are related to successful adaptation (Barkley, 2001); second, EF deficit is critical in schizophrenia (Orellana & Slachevsky, 2013); at last, EF are associated with functional outcome of the disorder (Berberian et al., 2019). Next, EF deficits which are present but less severe in genetic and clinical risk groups (Szoke et al., 2005; Ucok et al., 2013), as well as a considerable inter-individual EF heterogeneity in healthy individuals (HI) (Miyake and Friedman, 2012), allow to suggest that higher EF might contribute to resilience against schizophrenia. Therefore, it seems interesting to identify HI, who are similar to schizophrenia patients (SP) in EF state, and explore their specific patterns. However, discrete heterogeneity by similarity-discrepancy axe is still paid insufficient attention in clinical psychophysiological studies. Therefore, we aimed to identify subgroups of HI and SP, similar or different in EF, and to explore associations of EF variability with functional connectivity (FC) within frontoparietal network, the core network underlying EF. Method. Twenty-five male patients at the early stage of schizophrenia spectrum disorders (mean age 20.8 ± 3.23) and 26 healthy males (mean age 25.17 ± 3.46) underwent a neuropsychological assessment of EF and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI) . The neuropsychological assessment consisted of 4 Verbal Fluency (VF) tasks (letter, category, category switching VF, and free associations) as well as Color-Word Interference test (CWIT) (Delis et al., 2001). CWIT is a modified Stroop task, designed for the assessment of inhibition. VF tasks load Common as well as specific EF; a participant was asked to name as many words as possible according to the instruction in 1 min. These tasks were chosen as SP demonstrate impaired performance on VF (Liang et al., 2016) and poor response inhibition (Fryer et al., 2019). K-means clustering based on EF variables was used to divide all participants into 2 groups with better and worse EF. The fMRI images were acquired using a 3.0 T Philips Ingenia scanner. During rsfMRI (5 min) participants were asked to fix their gaze on a white cross in the center of grey field and to avoid consistent thinking about one topic. After pre-processing, the rsfMRI data were analyzed using Conn v.17b ( Head-motion artifacts were corrected and fMRI data were bandpass filtered (0.008–0.09 Hz). FC within frontoparietal network (9 key nodes; was compared between 4 groups: HI/SP with better/worse EF (one-way ANCOVA; p <.05, false discovery rate [FDR] corrected over the total number of connections included in the analysis). Separate analyses were conducted for each hemisphere. Age was included as a covariate. Results. Two derived clusters (n = 21 and n = 30) differed in productivity of all VF tasks and performance time of CWIT (ANOVA, p < .05). Cluster 1 with worse EF predominantly consisted of patients (15 SP, 6 HI), while Cluster 2 with better EF was mostly comprised of HI (20 HI, 10 SP). There were no age differences between the clusters, therefore, age did not influence clustering. Differences between the 4 groups were revealed in FC between the components in cingulate and lateral PFC in the left hemisphere (F (3, 44) = 4.95; p-uncorrected = .0048, p [FDR] = .0475). Post hoc analysis revealed that SP with poorer EF had stronger positive FC than HI with higher EF. Noteworthy, HI with poorer EF demonstrated stronger positive FC than HI and SP with better EF. Discussion. The finding that almost a half of the SP were clustered in the higher EF group points to considerable EF heterogeneity in schizophrenia, consistent with literature (Bora et al., 2016; Keri and Janka, 2004; Raffard and Bayard, 2012). A cluster mainly comprised of SP with worse EF included a small group of HI, which is not surprising because of substantial inter-individual EF heterogeneity in HI (Miyake and Friedman, 2012). Noteworthy, patients and HI within one EF cluster were also similar in their pattern of FC between the lateral PFC and cingulate cortex, crucial regions for EF (Gilbert and Burgess, 2008). Since higher EF are argued to be associated with more successful adaptation (Barkley, 2001), similarity in several associated parameters might highlight some important underlying constructs, for instance, adjustment. Future studies should clarify this. Consistently, HI and SP with diverse EF state were also different in their FC pattern. Differences between SP with worse EF and HI with better EF, which represent two edge points of the continuum, in the terms of FC between lateral PFC and cingulate cortex, coincide with the data about altered coupling of these regions in schizophrenia (Cui et al., 2015). However, we also obtained a prominent result that HI with worse EF were more similar to SP than to another HI group in terms of FC; moreover, this FC pattern was even more pronounced in HI compared to SP. Further studies are needed to clarify if the increased FC between cingulate and lateral PFC nodes of the frontoparietal network is either a schizophrenia endophenotype, associated with EF deficit, or a resilience mechanism against schizophrenia, successful in some cases and unsuccessful in other.

Elena Lupenko (Institute of Experimental Psychology, Moscow State University of Psychology & Education, Russia)
The Perception of a Human Personality Depending on His/Her Ethnic Affiliation, When the Person Is Depicted in Different Ways

ABSTRACT. The representations of observers about the personality of a person depicted in an art portrait and photograph, depending on his/her ethnicity, were experimentally studied. The data obtained indicate that a different image method leads to different perceptions of the individual. In the case of the perception of different race persons, the different image method plays a more significant role than in the perception of persons of their own race and can act as a marker of these differences. Racial affiliation is one of the important variables that can change the structure of assessments of the personality of a perceived person.

Elena Pokrovskaya (TUSUR, Russia)
Margarita Raitina (TUSUR, Russia)
Cross-Cultural Interaction as a Context for Internationalization of the Educational Environment

ABSTRACT. The article deals with the issues of a harmonious international environment formation in the education by studying the cross-cultural interaction of its participants. Research tasks allow analyzing cultural constants, determining personal meanings, and justifying an individual's value system. It is concluded that it is important to identify mechanisms of diffusion that contribute to the processes of adaptation "individual-external group-University", socializing and establishing incentives that encourage ethno-inclusive behavior, limiting exclusive manifestations.

Kirill Smirnov (Institute of Higher Nervous Activity and Neurophysiology of RAS, Russia)
Evgenia Sitnikova (Institute of Higher Nervous Activity and Neurophysiology of RAS, Russia)
Cognitive Impairment in WAG/Rij Rat Model of Absence Epilepsy as Assessed with the Automatic IntelliCage System
PRESENTER: Kirill Smirnov

ABSTRACT. It is known that children with absence epilepsy most often suffer from attention deficit and neurocognitive impairment that lead to academic and other functional difficulties. Although children may become seizure-free with a normalized EEG with the use of the most efficacious medication, they still have neurocognitive problems. Therefore, it is likely that (1) genetic predisposition to absence epilepsy links to cognitive dysfunctions and (2) neurocognitive dysfunction is linked on the severity of absence epilepsy. Here we tested this hypothesis by measuring cognitive abilities in epileptic and non-epileptic subjects of an inbred strain genetically predisposed to absence epilepsy (WAG/Rij rat strain). We found that despite genetic predisposition to epilepsy, non-epileptic subjects showed better performance in comparison to epileptic ones. Our data suggest that severity of absence epilepsy in genetically prone subjects is linked to neurocognitive dysfunction. It is still uncertain weather genetic predisposition to absence epilepsy is a core factor causing cognitive deficit.This study was supported by the RFBR (grant № 19-015-00242a).

Anastasia Petrakova (National Research University High School of Economic, Russia)
Yuri Mikadze (Moscow State Lomonosov University; Pirogov Medical University; Center for cerebrovascular pathology and stroke, Russia)
When Do We Perceive the Face as a Social Stimulus, and When as a Physical Object?

ABSTRACT. Face perception, one of most important social abilities, can be defined as the ability to perceive the face as a gestalt, along with all of its parts and the relations between them. This face specific strategy has been called “configural processing”. One of actual trends in face cognition research – using of unfamiliar faces without non-specific features (e.g. ears, hair etc.) – leads to controversy, whether this kind of stimulus material demonstrate ecological validity. In present paper, we propose a verification option using the classical experimental paradigm “partial-whole recognition” (successful recognition of face features when presented in the context of a whole face in comparison to their isolated presentation). This classic effect was demonstrated using unfamiliar faces, with non-specific features, and after the learning phase. Further, it has been shown, that after some modifications of this paradigm (using of unfamiliar faces without non-specific features and without a series of familiarization), the effect disappears. The question is, whether the familiarization phase, or nonspecific features predict configural processing. In our study, we have shown that the main parameter is the absence of non-specific features. The results may be helpful for planning future research.

Yuri Skobtsov (Saint Petersburg State University of Aerospace Instrumentation, Russia)
From Genetic Algorithms to Computational Intelligence

ABSTRACT. It is shown the evolution of lecture courses of modern sections of artificial intelligence such as: genetic algorithms, evolutionary computing, computational intelligence. The main components of computational intelligence are considered: evolutionary computing, artificial neural networks, fuzzy systems, swarm algorithms, artificial immune systems. Hybrid intelligent systems are built on their basis by a combination of the presented paradigms. The interdisciplinary nature of computational intelligence and its application are noted.

Игорь Феликсович Михайлов (Институт философии РАН, Russia)
Predictive Mind, Pragmatism and 4E-Cognition: How Philosophy Can Claim Excuse from Cognitive Science

ABSTRACT. Predictive mind’, or ‘predictive coding’ is, as they say, one of the most influential and explanatory-powerful cognitive approach nowadays. The theory is based on positing a set of generative models in the brain that are responsible for producing what may be taken as possible representations of the environment. An important role is played by the concept of active inference. In philosophy, Robert Brandom's inferentialism offers a kind of bottom-up semantics by stating that the meaning of a sentence is a function of its sub-sentential constituents. It is closely connected to pragmatism that, generally, promotes enactivist ideas in what concerns human mind. In the paper, I outline the way of matching PM-theories with enactive and embodies approaches through adopting philosophical premises of inferentialism and pragmatism.

Сергей Юрьевич Коровкин (ЯрГУ им. П.Г. Демидова, Russia)
Анна Джумберовна Савинова (ЯрГУ им. П.Г. Демидова, Russia)
The Effectiveness of Metacognitive Hints in Insight Problem Solving

ABSTRACT. One of difficulties in investigation of insight problem solving is that these problems are not easily influenced by verbal hints. Moreover, participants cannot verbally report about problem solving (Schooler, Ohlsson, Brooks, 1993) or evaluate their degree of progress to the answer (Metcalfe, Wiebe 1987). In this study we suppose that metacognitive hints will be more effective. The hints may be helpful to participants in a progress monitoring, in a understanding of contradictions and conflicts of insight problem. To test this hypothesis, we conducted the experiment. Participants had to solve the insight problem under one of 2 conditions: a) control – experimenter periodically told participants supportive statements (for example, “Continue to solve”, “You can”); b) experimental – experimenter periodically told participants metacognitive hints (for example, “What prevents to solve the problem?”, “What else can you use?”). We compared the number of solvers in each group who could solve the problem within 15 minutes. As the result, we found that the insight problem is more likely to be solved in the condition with metacognitive hints than in the condition with supportive statements. The result indicates that an incentive to conflict analysis plays a greater role in insight problem solving compared to the motivation to the solution.

Anastasya Bylina (National Research Tomsk State University, Russia)
Eleonora Novikova (National Research Tomsk State University, Russia)
Accidental Humor as an Object of Experimental Research

ABSTRACT. The present research aims to study the accidental humor perception. Funny price tags photos were used as the material. In the case of accidental humor the frame structure of a price tag’s text changes (replacement or addition of a slot within a frame) and this allows to reveal semantic oppositions, for example, decent – indecent, profitable – unprofitable etc. We assume that some semantic oppositions have greater impact on comic effect strength than others. The psycholinguistic experiment conducted by means of questionnaire made in Google Forms and in-depth interview were as research methods.

Алина Вячеславовна Васильева (Лаборатория лингвистической антропологии, Томский государственный университет, Russia)
Зоя Ивановна Резанова (Лаборатория лингвистической антропологии, Томский государственный университет, Russia)
Peculiarities of Emotional Words Cognitive Processing by Turkic-Russian Bilinguals: an Experimental Study

ABSTRACT. This paper describes research results of studying the peculiarities of emotional words cognitive processing by Russian native speakers and Turkic-Russian bilinguals. In the course of several series of psycholinguistic experiments, it was found that both groups of the experiments participants have similar sensitivity to emotionality and also process emotional and neutral units in a similar way, but different factors influence cognitive processing. The results obtained are presumably explained by the studied type of bilingualism - early unbalanced with the L2 dominance.

Alexios Kouzalis (Higher School of Economics, Russia)
Ksenia Konopkina (Higher School of Economics, Russia)
Marie Arsalidou (Higher School of Economics, Russia)
Functional Neuroimaging of Self-Ratings Associated Cognitive Effort
PRESENTER: Alexios Kouzalis

ABSTRACT. Many of our everyday senses, such as the taste of our morning coffee (Pritchard et al., 1999), the sense of our heart beat after a long run (Williamson et al., 1999) and cravings of chocolate, relate to the insular cortex (Pelchat et al., 2004). Notably, the insula does not relate only to our senses, its authority expands to deeper layers of our consciousness (Craig & Craig, 2009). It modulates the cognitive mechanisms that we utilize to make important cognitive decisions (Uddin, 2015) and the degree of conscious awareness we have regarding our inner emotional state (Seeley et al., 2007). The current research is focused on the contribution of the insula on the higher order function of metacognition related to mathematical operations. Metacognition is our ability to be self-reflective regarding our own thinking and knowing (Fisher, 1998). The prefix meta leads us to assume that reflecting upon our own cognition comes, in time, after cognition itself (Demetriou et al., 1993). The prefrontal cortex is mainly responsible for metacognitive processes but evidence suggest the insular and anterior cingulate cortices are also involved in this process though their interaction with the prefrontal cortex (Fleming & Dolan, 2012).Math problem solving has been used to investigate individual differences in metacognition by exploring how individuals perceive their own math performance (Legg & Locker Jr, 2009). A relation was also identified between metacognition and degree of success in math problem solving (Lucangeli et al., 1997). Although a relation exists between mathematical performance and metacognition, the semantic nature of this relation is poorly understood. The purpose of the current study is to investigate the degree of implication of the insula to meta-cognition as it relates subjective ratings cognitive effort when performing mathematical problems of different complexity.

Aleksei Starodubtchev (SPbGU, Russia)
Conflict Detection as a Trigger for Stroop-Interference

ABSTRACT. The hypothesis is tested that for Stroop effect it is necessary to categorize the stimulus as conflicted. We used stimuli which conflict is difficult to detect quickly. Under these conditions, the stimulus is categorized as conflicted, if previously there were already conflict stimuli. In experiment 1, the difference between conflict and non-conflict stimuli was observed only when they were presented in different blocks. In experiment 2, it was shown that a block of conflict stimuli slows down the processing speed of the next block of nonconflictual stimuli. In experiment 3, a significant interference effect was shown if the method we used provided conditions for rapid detection of the conflicting stimulus. It is concluded that the value of interference is strongly influenced by the "control strategy" of subjects.

Yulia Neroznikova (Lomonosov Moscow State University, Russia)
Alexander Vartanov (Lomonosov Moscow State University, Russia)
The Role of the Hypothalamus in Empathy Mechanisms

ABSTRACT. Objective. The objective of the study is an electrophysiology of the prosocial behavior. During the experiment 29 distinct brain structures were analysed by the new “virtual implanted electrode” method. In this method electrical activity was measured for the situation when the empathy behavior was activated. A comparison between the empathy situations and the ‘first-person’ experience has been performed separately for reactions of men and women.

Method: Two methods were used: 1) Test-questionnaires of prosocial behavior: "Measurement of prosocial trends" (G. Carlo and B. A. Randall), the Altruism scale (F. Rushton), Method for the empathy study of I.M. Yusupov; 2) An electrophysiological experiment with registration of a 19-channel EEG (according to the 10-20% system on a Neuro-KM electroencephalograph) consisted of 2 series. Data of 55 participants (28 women and 27 men, including participants in the EEG experiment) were obtained from the test questionnaires. The EEG experiment participants (N = 16, average age = 19.6, SD = 1.8, 6 females, 10 males) were presented with images of two persons playing the game “stone-paper-scissors”, EP were analyzed at the time of the images presentation with different outcomes (6 different options, accompanied by facial expressions change) over a period of time from 200 ms to the beginning 500 ms after the stimulus. In the first series, the instruction was required to bet on one of the two playing persons, i.e. he was interested in success and experienced “in the first person”. In the second series, the instruction was required to determine for himself the “close” participant and empathize with him throughout the series, i.e. presumably experiencing empathy for him. Incentives were presented 50 times in random order and were the same in the first and second series; single potentials were analyzed for all subjects together. Results: The results of the questionnaires were tabulated and processed by Factor Analysis. Six factors were identified that accounted for 41.45% of the total variance of the data. The factors received following interpretation: F1 - “Altruistic”, F2 - “Publicity”, F3 - “Emergency prosocial behavior”, F4 - “Conformist prosocial behavior”, F5 - “Anonymous prosocial behavior”, F6 - “Emotional prosocial behavior”. Comparison by Student's T-test showed a significant (p <0.05) difference between men and women in factor 2 “Publicity” (men are more public than women) and in factor 6 “Emotional prosocial behavior” (females are more emotional than males). These differences are manifested both in the entire sample under study and in the sample of subjects who participated in the EEG experiment. In connection with the results obtained, EP for each of the studied brain structures were also compared separately for the males and females’ group in the experimental series. A well-defined potential was found in the hypothalamus (Fig. 1), which is more pronounced in the male group in the series requiring personal inclusion compared to the empathy series in components N100, N250 and N400 (differences are significant, p <0.05). In the female group, these components are less pronounced, but even here in the series for empathy their amplitude is significantly less (p <0.05 in late latency) than in the series requiring personal participation. Potentials were also found in the right Insula (Fig. 2) and the left Hippocampus (Fig. 3). At the same time, they are pronounced and differ more strongly between the male’s series. Certain activity was also found associated with the studied factors of gender and empathy in such structures as the midbrain, Medula Oblongata, left Thalamus, Putamen, left Caudati nucleus, Ventral striatum. Moreover, activity in Amygdala and Cingulate cortex (BA 32) was most weakly expressed. Conclusions: The hypothalamus is involved in nonspecific regulation of cognitive activity more actively in tasks that cause increased personal experience, which are more pronounced in male due to their publicity and less emotional prosocial behavior, while the manifestation of empathy leads to its lesser activity. The same dependence is found for Insula, and for the Hippocampus, and other of the above structures.

Marina Zheltukhina (Volgograd State Socio-Pedagogical University; Moscow City University, Russia)
Olga Shabalina (Volgograd State Technical University, Russia)
Cognitive-Discursive Practices in a Gaming AR Environment: Through Interdisciplinary Resources to Artificial Intelligence

ABSTRACT. The work examines cognitive-discursive practices in a gaming AR environment. The example of cultural and historical discourse reveals the possibility of using interdisciplinary resources in the process of its research (development of a gaming AR app for cognitive and discursive study of the architectural heritage of Tsaritsin).

Анастасия Константиновна Ляшенко (НИУ ВШЭ, Russia)
Marie Arsalidou (НИУ ВШЭ; York University, Canada)
Colour Matching Task: Replicability and Reliability in Primary School Children in Moscow

ABSTRACT. Mental-attentional capacity tasks, developed within the Theory of Constructive Operators (TCO; Pascual-Leone, 1970), are designed to detect changes throughout cognitive development and ensure culture fairness of the result (Pascual-Leone, 2000). The goal of the current study was to verify replicability and reliability of a computerized parametric task assessing mental-attentional capacity – the Colour Matching Task (Arsalidou & Im-Bolter, 2017) based on the data from 360 children recruited from primary Moscow schools . Results showed that mental-attentional capacity of this sample was comparable with what was found in other countries (Arsalidou et al., 2010; Powell et al., 2014). Moreover, analysis of accuracy relieved equivalence between performance on the first portion of trials (e.g., Run 1) and the second one (Run 2) in both parts of the tasks (CMT-Balloons and CMT-Clowns). These findings and significant differences among the grades and levels of difficulty contribute to the conclusion of reliability of the task.

Sofia Krasnoshchekova (Institute for Linguistic Studies RAS, Russia)
Elena Galkina (Pavlov Institute of Physiology RAS, Russia)
Causality and Means of Its Expression in Narratives Produced by Speakers of Different Language Proficiency Levels

ABSTRACT. The study presents a comparison of the linguistic expression of causal relations in bilingual and monolingual children with typical and atypical speech development and adult speakers. The semantics of causative situations becomes more complicated with the speaker’s age. All children mostly describe events related only by sequence in time and explained characters’ behavior by external reasons. Adults differ from children but are similar to each other, speaking more about subjective, indirect reasons of characters’ actions or states. Оn the other hand, all bilinguals performed less well than monolinguals (including SLI) in the linguistic parameters of causality such as length of causative chains, frequency and variety of verbal means. Cognitive development affects only the semantic of the causal situation described by the speakers, while language proficiency has more influence on the expression of causality in both adult and children narrators.

Валентина Валентиновна Бурлан (Санкт-Петербургский государственный университет, Russia)
Валерия Александровна Гершкович (Санкт-Петербургский государственный университет, Russia)
The Effect of Semantic Gist Activation in Deese-Roediger-Mcdermott Paradigm on the Level of Unconscious Plagiarism

ABSTRACT. The goal of the present research was to study the influence of semantic gist activation on the level of unconscious plagiarism. To operationalize the gist representation, we used the DRM-paradigm (Roediger & McDermott, 1995). We tested the hypothesis that misattribution of the critical lure (gist) to oneself (that is unconscious plagiarism) would depend on its place within the DRM-list: we assumed that the extent of unconscious plagiarism would be higher if the critical lure is at the end of the list (activated gist representation) in comparison with its place in the middle of the list (less probability of gist activation) and in the beginning of the list (no gist). According to the results, the rate of unconscious plagiarism was the same in the all experimental conditions.

Alexey Sokolov (Московский институт психоанализа, Russia)
Учет серыми крысами веса своего тела при взаимодействии с внешними объектами

ABSTRACT. Эксперимент был нацелен на изучение способности серых крыс использовать вес собственного тела для оценки прочности опоры для передвижения. Для достижения приманки в экспериментальной установке крысам необходимо было пройти по одному из трех мостиков, соединявших стартовую позицию и место расположения приманки. При этом лишь один из них был прочно фиксирован и выдерживал вес животного, а два других проваливались под весом крысы. 8 из 25 крыс смогли сформировать навык решения данной задачи. Мы полагаем, что это свидетельствует о том, что крысы способны учитывать вес собственного тела.

Anna Pavlova (Moscow State University of Psychology and Education, Russia)
Anastasia Nikolaeva (Moscow State University of Psychology and Education, Russia)
Valeriya Skavronskaya (Moscow State University of Psychology and Education, Russia)
Nikita Tyulenev (Moscow State University of Psychology and Education, Russia)
Andrey Prokofyev (Moscow State University of Psychology and Education, Russia)
Tatiana Stroganova (Moscow State University of Psychology and Education, Russia)
Boris Chernyshev (Moscow State University of Psychology and Education, Russia)
Acquisition of Association Between Pseudowords and Actions Is Related to the Post-Movement Increase in Beta-Band Oscillations
PRESENTER: Anna Pavlova

ABSTRACT. Action words remain a popular model in neurocognitive studies of embodied cognition. In this paper, we studied how novel pseudowords acquire meaning through repeated pairing with the body part movements. Using magnetoencephalography, we compared the dynamics of beta (15-30 Hz) oscillations (BO) during 1) random exploratory movements at the beginning of the training session; 2) targeted movements at the end of the training session; 3) self-paced movements. BO were suppressed before movement onset in all three experimental conditions with maximal suppression during the exploratory movements and the minimal one - during the self-paced movements. Thus, the depth of beta suppression was in perfect correspondence with the selection load onto the movement initiation system in each of the conditions. Furthermore, only the targeted movements at the end of the training were followed by a sharp increase in BO. We assume that the increased BO reflect the cortical inhibition, which contributes to retention of the newly formed movement-pseudoword association.

Светлана Дорофеева (Национальный исследовательский университет «Высшая школа экономики», Russia)
Виктория Решетникова (Национальный исследовательский университет «Высшая школа экономики», Russia)
Екатерина Искра (Национальный исследовательский университет «Высшая школа экономики», Центр патологии речи и нейрореабилитации, Russia)
Дарья Горанская (Национальный исследовательский университет «Высшая школа экономики», Russia)
Андрей Зырянов (Национальный исследовательский университет «Высшая школа экономики», Russia)
Елизавета Гордеева (Национальный исследовательский университет «Высшая школа экономики», Russia)
Маргарита Серебрякова (Центр патологии речи и нейрореабилитации, Russia)
Татьяна Ахутина (МГУ имени М.В. Ломоносова, Russia)
Ольга Драгой (Национальный исследовательский университет «Высшая школа экономики», Федеральный центр мозга и нейротехнологий, Russia)
Исследование фонологического дефицита у русскоязычных детей с дислексией

ABSTRACT. Исследования связи фонологического дефицита и нарушений чтения на материале английского языка проводятся в течение десятилетий (Swan & Goswami, 1997; Hogan et. al., 2005, Wagner & Torgesen, 1987). Несмотря на то, что было показано, что чтение на кириллице отличается от чтения на латинице (Laurinavichyute et al., 2019), до сих пор влияние нарушений фонологической обработки на чтение не изучалось экспериментально на материале языков с кириллической письменностью – как в русском. Чтобы восполнить этот пробел, мы исследовали навыки фонологической обработки у русскоязычных детей младшего школьного возраста с дислексией, а также проанализировали связь фонологического дефицита со скоростью чтения. В исследовании приняли участие 100 монолингвальных русскоговорящих детей, 55 детей с диагностированной клиническими специалистами Центра патологии речи и нейрореабилитации дислексией, подтвержденной субнормативными показателями чтения, и 45 детей без дислексии с нормативными показателями чтения. У всех детей было нормальное или скорректированное до нормального зрение, нормальных слух, нормативные показатели уровня невербального интеллекта, оцененные с помощью цветных прогрессивных матриц Равена (Равен, 2004), родители подтвердили отсутствие истории неврологических заболеваний. Развитие навыков чтения оценивалось с помощью Стандартизированной методики исследования навыков чтения (СМИНЧ, Корнев, Ишимова, 2010), сравнение с нормативными показателями производилось на основе актуальных данных для СМИНЧ (Дорофеева и др., 2019).Уровень фонологической обработки оценивался с помощью стандартизированной батареи фонологических тестов ЗАРЯ (Звуковой Анализ Русского Языка, Дорофеева и др., 2018), являющейся автоматизированным приложением для планшета системы Android и состоящей из семи субтестов («Дискриминация фонем», «Лексическое решение», «Повторение псевдослов», «Наличие звука в слове», «Первый звук в слове», «Количество звуков в слове», «Замена звука в псевдослове»). Статистический анализ показал, что две группы детей (с дислексией и типично осваивающих чтение), не различаясь статистически значимо по возрасту, показателям невербального интеллекта и успешности выполнения двух самых простых фонологических тестов батареи ЗАРЯ («Дискриминация фонем» и «Лексическое решение»), значимо различаются по скорости чтения (t(98)=-9.72, p=0.001) и успешности выполнения всех более сложных фонологических тестов: «Повторение псевдослов» (t(98)=-3.76, p=0.001), «Первый звук в слове» (t(98)=-4.93, p=0.001), «Наличие звука в слове» (t(98)=-3.59, p=0.001), «Количество звуков в слове» (t(98)=-3.33, p=0.001), «Замена звука в псевдослове» (t(98)=-3.54, p=0.001). Кроме того, корреляционный анализ в объединенной группе 100 детей с и без дислексии показал, что скорость чтения значимо положительно коррелирует только с успешностью в самых сложных фонологических субтестах: «Наличие звука в слове» (r=51,p<0.001), «Количество звуков в слове» (r=43, p<0.001) и «Замена звука в псевдослове» (r=52, p<0.001). Таким образом, мы впервые показали, что по мере усложнения задания за счет повышенного вовлечения фонологической рабочей памяти или манипуляций фонологическим материалом способность фонологических тестов предсказывать скорость чтения увеличивается, с наибольшей предсказательной способностью у самых сложных тестов. Полученные результаты имеют непосредственное значение как для дальнейших междисциплинарных исследований дислексии, так и для клинической практики. В соответствии с этими результатами, различение детей с дислексией, имеющих нарушения фонологической обработки и не имеющих таковых, должны базироваться на результатах тестирования именно сложными фонологическими тестами как наиболее показательными и дискриминативными.

1 Работа выполнена при финансовой поддержке РФФИ, проект No. 17-29-09122.

Irina Korkina (Higher School of Economics, Russia)
Nina Ladinskaya (Higher School of Economics, Russia)
Victoria Reshetnikova (Higher School of Economics, Russia)
Anastasiya Lopukhina (Higher School of Economics, Russia)
Grammatical Roles Assignment in Russian Language by Children Age 3 to 7
PRESENTER: Irina Korkina

ABSTRACT. Previous studies had shown that for assignment of grammatical roles in inflected languages with free word order children until the age of 4 prefer to assign subject role to the first noun, even if it has oblique case. We expected that in our research Russian-speaking children age 3 to 4 would make more mistakes in sentences with inverted word order compared to direct one, and that sentences with instrumental third argument would cause more difficulties compared to sentences with propositional third argument for children age 3 to 6. Overall 150 children divided into 5 age groups participated in our experiment. We used comprehension sentence-picture matching and production with structural priming tasks while manipulating number of arguments (1, 2 or 3), word order (direct or inverted) and type of third argument (prepositional or instrumental) in stimuli sentences. Our results show that Russian-speaking children can correctly assign grammatical roles in sentences with inverted word order by the age of 3, but struggle with prepositional and instrumental arguments until the age of 7, with prepositional arguments producing more mistakes than instrumental.

Elena Ulybina (RANEPA, Russia)
The Influence of Additional and Non-Complementary Images of the Rich and the Poor on Faith in a Just World.

ABSTRACT. According to the theory of justification of Jost systems (Jost, 2018), people strive to maintain the status quo and consider the world fair, which is realized not least through accessibility heuristics (Hussak, Cimpian, 2015). The study analyzes the contribution of a subjective assessment of the typicality of complementary and non-complementary stereotypes of the poor and rich in their level of belief in a just world (BJW). The results showed that after the presentation of complementary stereotypes does not affect the level of BJW, but the presentation of non-complementary ones significantly reduces. The influence of stereotypes on the level of BJW is mediated by a subjective assessment of the typical image of the poor

Daria Kostanyan (Faculty of Psychology, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Russia)
Stanislav Kozlovskiy (Faculty of Psychology, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Russia)
Anton Rogachev (Faculty of Psychology, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Russia)
Low-Frequency Brain Oscillations at Different Levels of Decision Making
PRESENTER: Daria Kostanyan

ABSTRACT. Introduction. Decision making is defined as the process of choosing between two or more alternatives. This process can be carried out at different levels. Thus, D. Kahneman distinguishes two systems: system 1 (responsible for impulsive, spontaneous decisions) and system 2 ( responsible for rational solutions) (Kahneman, 2011). The decision-making process is fairly well studied in psychology and psychophysiology, however, the number of studies of this process at different levels is not so extensive, so the brain mechanisms are not well established. In our study, we attempted to research the electrical activity of the brain at different levels of decision making.

Methods. The study involved 7 healthy right-handed participants aged 20 to 28 years. Matrices of schematic black-and-white images of various objects were presented. The study include three sessions. In the first session, an image of the subject were presented for 500 ms. After 700 ms, a 2x2 image matrix was presented for 1500 ms, in this matrix participant had to indicate the position of the previously presented object.In the second sesion, the 2x2 matrices were presented for 3000 ms with an 900 ms interval . It was required to select an image that is redundant (an analogue of the “Fourth Extra” technique). In the third session, just like in the second one, 2x2 matrices were presented, but it was necessary to choose the image that the subject liked more. Each series used 140 unique matrices. During the sessions of studies, EEG was recorded from 19 chanails (10-20% system). "Brainsys" program was used for EEG registration, processing and analysis.

Results. Differences were revealed between the power of the delta oscillation (0,5 - 4 Hz) for three experimental conditions (see Fig. 1). In the control sesion, which required a decision at the perceptual level (correlation of the stored image and its selection from the presented ones), an increase in the power of the delta rhythm along the occipital and parietal leads is observed. In two experimental sessions requiring decisions (in the second series based on categorization and logical conclusions, in the third based on subjective preferences), the power of the delta activity was amplified in the frontal and fronto-central leads (especially in the second series) and was lowered in the occipital leads. The lateralization of the spectral power of the rhythm was also revealed when decision making process was based on subjective preferences.

Discussion and conclusions. Our results are consistent with the literature: it has been shown that the power of the delta oscillation is enhanced in tasks that require more cognitive control and attention (Harmony, 2013). An increase in the power of the delta activity is also associated with the activation of working memory, which is required in the second session of our study (Başar et al., 1999). In addition, an increase in the power of the delta oscillation in the frontal leads and attenuation in the occipital leads is associated with a shift in attention to the task, abstracted from current sensory experience (Başar et al., 2000). Thus, in our study, we revealed the specificity of the electrical activity of the brain at the different levels of decision making. Performing a task requiring perceptual categorization is accompanied by an increase in the power of the delta activity in the occipital leads (which can be connected with Kahneman's system 1). When “moving away” from current sensory information and involving working memory in the process, the focus of delta activity shifts to the frontal parts of the brain (system 2). Decision making at the different levels of categorization affects the severity of the delta oscillation.

References Harmony, T. (2013). The functional significance of delta oscillations in cognitive processing. Frontiers in integrative neuroscience, 7, 83. Başar, E., Başar-Eroğlu, C., Karakaş, S., & Schürmann, M. (1999). Are cognitive processes manifested in event-related gamma, alpha, theta and delta oscillations in the EEG?. Neuroscience letters, 259(3), 165-168. Başar, E., Başar-Eroğlu, C., Karakaş, S., & Schürmann, M. (2000). Brain oscillations in perception and memory. International journal of psychophysiology, 35(2-3), 95-124. Kahneman, D. (2011). Thinking, fast and slow. Macmillan.

Evgeny Khoze (Moscow State University of Psychology and Education (MSUPE), Russia)
Characteristics of Underlying Emotions in Assessment of Dynamic Expressions of Complex Emotions

ABSTRACT. The characteristics of 20 dynamic expressions of complex emotions have been refined. Profiles of differentiated assessments of basic emotions have been constructed. It has been shown that regardless of the modality, intensity, and valence of complex emotion, the emotional profiles of different models exhibiting the same emotion, in the assessments of basic emotions may be similar, And indirectly, in the signs of basic emotion, Berriose’s assumptions that complex emotions may have certain expressions. And we’ve also got rating profiles that differ, both in the individual characteristics and in the estimates of the underlying emotions in the sum of the three sub-scales.

Evgeny Khoze (Moscow State University of Psychology and Education (MSUPE), Russia)
Olga Korolkova (Moscow State University of Psychology and Education (MSUPE), Russia)
Cross-Cultural Perceptions of Basic Emotional Expressions of the Face
PRESENTER: Evgeny Khoze

ABSTRACT. Cultural features of perception of basic emotional expressions of the person from the VEPAL base (Kurakova 2012) are studied in the work. The stimulating material - the expression of six basic emotions and the neutral face of a male model of a Caucasian-led race - was evaluated by the participants of the study on the «Scale of differential emotions» K. Izard. Overall, the differences identified between the estimates of Russian, European and Asian participants showed a greater intensity of perceived emotions in Russian and European residents than in Asians. The results showed that despite the similarity in the perception of emotional expression in general, there were some differences in the intensity of different perceived emotional characteristics, which manifested themselves in the cultural dependency of observers.

Алла Богурина (БрГУ, Belarus)
Георгий Лосик (ОИПИ НАН Беларуси, Belarus)
Компьютер и восприятие объектов вариативной формы

ABSTRACT. В статье освещается проблема восприятия предметов с вариативной формой в условиях сильной компьютеризации жизни школьников в рамках образовательного процесса. В связи с компьютеризацией, активным процессом внедрения электронно-вычислительной техники во все сферы жизнедеятельности, у человека атрофируется навык восприятия мягкого предмета, так как человек систематически ежедневно совершает движения «рывками» на клавиатуре ноутбука, компьютера или мобильного телефона. Ранее люди изучали мир предметов преимущественно с помощью зрения и путем тактильных прикосновений, сейчас же, любую интересующую информацию о предмете можно легко найти в сети Интернет, это ценное и значимое достижение науки, однако имеется и ряд недостатков. Такой быстрый поиск экономит время, но не позволяет изучить свойства предмет, получить опыт взаимодействия с предметом. Для изучения трехмерных объектов необходимы целенаправленные перцептивные действия с предметом и участие зрения при изучении его.

14:30-16:50 Session 12A: Wednesday, October 14th (Среда, 14 октября)

RCAI-2020: Robotics and Multi-agent Systems (КИИ-2020: Робототехника and многоагентные системы)

Valery Karpov (National Research Centre “Kurchatov Insitute”, Russia)
Valery Tarassov (Bauman Moscow State technical University, Russia)
Anton Andreychuk (Federal Research Center “Computer Science and Control” of Russian Academy of Sciences, Russia)
Multi-Agent Path Finding with Kinematic Constraints via Conflict Based Search

ABSTRACT. The paper considers a problem of planning a set of collision-free trajectories for a group of mobile agents operating in the shared environment, i.e. multi-agent path-finding (MAPF). A modification of the Continuous Conflict Based Search (CCBS) algorithm is proposed that takes kinematic constraints into account. The resultant planner explicitly supports rotation actions as well as agents of different sizes and moving speeds. Thus, it is more suitable for a range of practical applications involving real robots subject to kinematic constraints. An extensive empirical evaluation is conducted in which the suggest algorithm is compared to the state-of-the art multi-agent path planners. The results of this evaluation provide a clear evidence that the proposed method is as efficient as predecessor that is limited to translation-only action model.

Andrey Bokovoy (Institute for Systems Analysis of Federal Research Centre "Computer Science and Control" of Russian Academy of Sciences, Russia)
Kirill Muravyev (MIPT, Russia)
Konstantin Yakovlev (Federal Research Center "Computer Science and Control" of Russian Academy of Sciencies, Russia)
Map-Merging Algorithms for Visual SLAM: Feasibility Study and Empirical Evaluation
PRESENTER: Andrey Bokovoy

ABSTRACT. Simultaneous localization and mapping, especially the vision-based (vSLAM), is a challenging problem in modern robotics and computer vision that is extensively researched. State-of-the-art vSLAM algorithms are capable of constructing accurate-enough maps for a mobile robot to perform an autonomous navigation in an unknown environment. In this work, we are interested in an important problem related to vSLAM, i.e. map merging, that might appear in various practically important cases, e.g. in multi-robot coverage scenario. This problem asks whether different vSLAM maps can be merged into a consistent single map. We examine the existing 2D and 3D map-merging algorithms and conduct an extensive empirical evaluation in realistic simulated environment (Habitat). Both qualitative and quantitative comparison is carried out and the obtained results are reported and analyzed.

Anton Misnik (Inter-state educational institution of higher education “Belarusian-Russian university” Mogilev, Belarus, Belarus)
Siarhei Prakapenka (National Research University "MPEI" Moscow, Russia, Belarus)
Sergey Krutolevich (Inter-state educational institution of higher education “Belarusian-Russian university” Mogilev, Belarus, Belarus)
Technique for Development of Information-Analytical Processes in Cyber-Physical Systems Based on Neural-Fuzzy Petri Nets
PRESENTER: Anton Misnik

ABSTRACT. The article is devoted to the technique for development information-analytical processes in cyber-physical systems based on the proposed variety of neuro-fuzzy Petri nets, which includes generalized stages of formalization, modeling, analysis and modification of information-analytical processes. The proposed technique allows to diagnose and determine the reachability of various events of information-analytical processes, their cyclicality, as well as to eliminate the bottlenecks of processes. This, in turn, allows to identify and avoid complicating processes, creating unnecessary processes, reduce the number of false messages about the inadmissibility of their execution, and as a result, prevent possible errors in the development of information-analytical processes. The proposed technique can also be used to monitor the status of information-analytical processes in cyber-physical systems and control them.

Oleg Lebedev (Southern Federal University, Russia)
Robert Bartini (Southern Federal University, Russia)
Hybrid Algorithm for Planning a Trajectory of a Mobile Object
PRESENTER: Oleg Lebedev

ABSTRACT. The work presents a hybrid algorithm for planning the movement of an object in a space containing obstacles. The algorithm is based on the integration of wave and swarm algorithms. The presence of intelligence allows the object to act in conditions of uncertainty. Planning can be carried out in two-dimensional and three-dimensional spaces. The experiments of motion planning confirmed the effectiveness of the presented hybrid algorithm.

Valery Karpov (National Research Centre “Kurchatov Insitute”, Russia)
Can a Robot Be a Moral Agent?

ABSTRACT. Issues of the ethically aligned design of intelligent/autonomous systems have now moved into the fields of normative and technical regulation. If a system must make ethically determined decisions, then it must be recognized as a moral agent. This paper provides a list of the properties of a moral agent and shows not only that an artificial agent can have such properties, but also that they are technically determined as manifestations of adaptive mechanisms. In particular, it is shown that mechanisms such as the presence of the “I” component in the sign-oriented picture of the agent’s world, the presence of an emotional-needs architecture, and the mechanism for comparing the observed conspecific with the “I” make it possible to realize the phenomena of social learning and a property such as empathy.

Liudmila Zhilyakova (Trapeznikov Institute of Control Sciences, Russian Academy of Sciences, Russia)
Small Networks of MIMO-Agents with Two Activity Types

ABSTRACT. We study a formal model describing network interaction of heterogeneous agents with many inputs and many outputs (MIMO agents). The paper presents a continuation of the research. The introduced model has a large number of parameters, which complicates its analytical study. The simulation demonstrated that by varying the values of agent parameters, it is possible to achieve fundamentally differ-ent dynamics of nodes activity in a network. For different parameters, it is possible to obtain the predominance of one activity type in the whole network, the periodic change of different types, attenuation, and the involvement of the entire network, or its parts, in the stationary activity of one or different types. This research is devoted to the analytical study of the reduced model to determine the key properties for generating various kinds of behavior. The model itself has also undergone some significant changes. We consider small networks of agents and describe the conditions under which they can generate stable activity patterns. We introduce the concepts of ensemble and rhythmic activity generator for several activity types.

Valery Tarasov (Bauman Moscow State Technical University, Russia)
Yuriy Gapanuyk (Bauman Moscow State Technica University, Russia)
Complex Graphs in the Modeling of Multi-Agent Systems: from Goal-Resource Networks to Fuzzy Metagraphs*
PRESENTER: Valery Tarasov

ABSTRACT. Two basic trends in specifying and studying complex graphs and networks to model multi-agent systems are discussed. The authors associate the complexity of graphs with such factors as heterogeneity, hierarchy, granularity, hybrid structure, emergence, capacity to cope with uncertainty or fuzziness. In this context some basic representations of fuzzy graphs and metagraphs are considered, models of nested and interval-valued fuzzy metagraphs are intro-duced. An example of heterogeneous network called goal-resource network is given on the basis of detailed agent architecture and their types classification. Some goal-resource networks with colored vertices to show the interactions between agents of different types are proposed. The metagraph interpretation of such a network is suggested too.

14:30-16:50 Session 12B: Wednesday, October 14th (Среда, 14 октября)

Neuroinfo-2020:  Applications of Neural Networks (Нейроинформатика-2020: Нейросетевые системы обработки данных, распознавания образов и управления)

Vladislav Dorofeev (Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, Russia)
Yuriy Fedorenko (Bauman Moscow State Technical University, Russia)
Using a Sparse Neural Network to Predict Clicks Probabilities in Online Advertising

ABSTRACT. In the paper, we consider the task of selection personalized advertisement for Internet users in the targeted advertising system. In fact, this leads to the regression problem; when for an arbitrary user U, it is necessary to predict the click probability on a set of banners B1 ... Bn in order to select the most suitable banners. The real values of the predicted probabilities are also important because they may be used in an auction between different advertising systems on a number of sites. Since the users’ interests and the set of banners are often changing, it is necessary to train the model in online mode. In addition, large advertising systems have to deal with a large amount of data that needs to be processed in real-time. This limits the complexity of the applicable models. Therefore, linear models that are well suited for dynamic learning remain popular for this task. However, data are rarely linearly separable, and therefore, when using such models, it is required to construct derivative features, for example, by hashing combinations of the original features. A serious drawback is that you need to select these combinations manually. In this paper, it is proposed to use a neural network with specialized architecture to avoid this problem. Special attention is paid to the analysis of the results on the test set, for which a specialized statistical testing technique is used. The results of testing showed that a neural network model with automatically constructed features works equally with logistic regression with manually selected combinations for hashing.

Alexander Rezanov (Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (National Research University), Russia)
Dmitry Yudin (Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (National Research University), Russia)
Deep Neural Networks for Ortophoto-Based Vehicle Localization

ABSTRACT. Navigation of unmanned vehicle especially using orthophoto is a topic of active research. This paper is dedicated to study of different methods of orthophoto-based localization methods. For this task new dataset was created. It consists of pairs of ground level and bird’s eye view images collected on polygon. Different deep network approaches to localization were used: 1) embedding-based, 2) based on synthesized bird’s eye view and masked cross-correlation in map subwindow. The second approach has demonstrated good applicability for the proposed dataset. Mean absolute error of localization on known scenes reached 1 m. The average total time of bird’s eye view generation and subsequent localization is from 0.1 s to 0.2 s. This is an acceptable quality for the task solution and its further use as part of the navigation systems of unmanned vehicles.

Artur Podtikhov (National Research University Higher School of Economics, Russia)
Makhmud Shaban (National Research University Higher School of Economics, Russia)
Alexey Kovalev (National Research University Higher School of Economics, Russia)
Aleksandr Panov (Federal Research Center “Computer Science and Control” of the Russian Academyof Sciences, Russia)
Error Analysis for Visual Question Answering
PRESENTER: Makhmud Shaban

ABSTRACT. In recent years, the task of visual question answering (VQA) at the intersection of computer vision and natural language processing is gaining interest in the scientific community. Even though modern systems achieve good results on standard datasets, these results are far from what is achieved in CV or NLP separately, for example, in problems of classification or machine translation. One of the reasons for this phenomenon is the difficulty of modelling interaction between modalities, which is partially solved by using the attention mechanism, as, for example, in the models used in this paper. Another reason lies in the statement of the problem itself. In addition to the problems inherited from CV and NLP, there are problems associated with the variety of situations shown in the picture and the possible questions for them. In this paper, we analyze errors for the state-of-the-art approaches and separate them into several classes: text recognition errors, answer structure, entity counting, type of the answer, and ambiguity of an answer. Text recognition errors occur when answering a question like “what is written in ..?” and associated with the representation of the image. Errors in the answer structure are associated with the reduction of the VQA to the classification task. Entity counting is a known weakness of current models. A typical situation of errors in the type of answer is when the model answers the “Yes/No” question in a different way. Errors from the ambiguity of an answer class occur when the model produces an answer that is correct in meaning but does not coincide with the formulation of the ground truth. Addressing these types of errors will lead to the overall improvement of VQA systems.

Matvei Andreev (Lomonosov Moscow State University, Department of Chemistry, Russia)
Alexander Efitorov (Lomonosov Moscow State University, Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, Russia)
Valeriy Krivetskiy (Lomonosov Moscow State University, Department of Chemistry, Russia)
Metal Oxide Gas Sensors Response Processing by Statistical Shape Analysis and Machine Learning Algorithm for Industrial Safety Applications
PRESENTER: Matvei Andreev

ABSTRACT. Development of new signal processing approaches is essential for improvement of the reliability of metal oxide gas sensor performance in real atmospheric condi-tions. Advantages statistical shape analysis method are presented in comparison to simple pre-processing techniques in the task of selective detection of hydrogen and propane. Deep learning artificial neural network based machine learning pro-cess was used as classification algorithm. An enhanced accuracy of identification at a concentration range of 30-1000 ppm under variable real atmospheric condi-tions has been demonstrated using working temperature modulated metal oxide gas sensor. Laboratory sample of sensor based on Au and Pd modified nanocrys-talline SnO2 was used.

Nurlan Mamedov (Higher School of Economics (National Research University), Perm, Russia, Russia)
Sofia Kulikova (Higher School of Economics (National Research University), Perm, Russia, Russia)
Victor Drobakha (Perm State Medical University named after academician E. A. Wagner, Russia)
Automatic Segmentation of Acute Stroke Lesions Using Convolutional Neural Networks and Histograms of Ori-Ented Gradients
PRESENTER: Nurlan Mamedov

ABSTRACT. In this work, research was based on the recognition of lesions of stroke in MRI images of FLAIR type. The main tools used in the study were convolution neural networks (CNN) and histograms of oriented gradients (HOG). To train the neu-ral network, 706 FLAIR MRI images of real patients were collected and labeled. During the testing of the program implementing the algorithm, it was found out that the histogram of oriented gradients method was ineffective in clarifying the edges of the lesion. To replace the HOG technology, a method was developed based on calculating the average value of pixel intensity in the area of lesion. The result is a program that shows an average value of 0.554 by Dice score. The de-veloped program can be used as a digital assistant for physicians who identify the lesions of stroke on MRI images and for training physicians in radiology and neurology. With the help of the developed technology it is possible to reduce the time of detection of the stroke lesions, reduce variability of results, increase their reproducibility and process a huge amount of data.

Igor Saenko (Saint-Petersburg Institute for Information and Automation of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Russia)
Fadey Scorik (Military Communication Academy, Russia)
Igor Kotenko (Saint-Petersburg Institute for Information and Automation of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Russia)
Combined Neural Network for Assessing the State of Computer Network Elements
PRESENTER: Igor Kotenko

ABSTRACT. Monitoring the status of computer networks is an integral part of network administration processes. The number of nodes in modern networks is constantly increasing, the topology is becoming more complicated. It is becoming increasingly difficult for a system administrator to timely identify and eliminate contingencies. Specialized intelligent support systems or specialized knowledge bases can help in this task. As a rule, the basic of these systems are artifical neural networks. The paper considers the structure of a combined neural network, focused on solving the problem of assessing the state of computer network elements. Three training methods are considered: the stochastic gradient descent, the adaptive learning rate method, and the adaptive inertia method. The results of an experimental evaluation of various options for implementing a combined neural network and its training methods are presented. The results showed a fairly high accuracy of calculations, good adaptability and the possibility of application in a fairly wide range of computer network configurations.

15:00-17:00 Session 13A: Wednesday, October 14th (Среда, 14 октября)

МККН+РФО: Мозг и сознание. Часть 2 (ICCS + Physio: Brain and Consciousness. Part 2)

М. А. Пирадов (ФГБНУ «Научный центр неврологии», г. Москва, Russia)
Н. А. Супонева (ФГБНУ «Научный центр неврологии», г. Москва, Russia)
Ю. В. Рябинкина (ФГБНУ «Научный центр неврологии», г. Москва, Russia)
Д. О. Синицын (ФГБНУ «Научный центр неврологии», г. Москва, Russia)
И. С. Бакулин (ФГБНУ «Научный центр неврологии», г. Москва, Russia)
А. Г. Пойдашева (ФГБНУ «Научный центр неврологии», г. Москва, Russia)
Д. В. Сергеев (ФГБНУ «Научный центр неврологии», г. Москва, Russia)
Е. И. Кремнева (ФГБНУ «Научный центр неврологии», г. Москва, Russia)
С. Н. Морозова (ФГБНУ «Научный центр неврологии», г. Москва, Russia)
Е. Г. Язева (ФГБНУ «Научный центр неврологии», г. Москва, Russia)
Л. А. Легостаева (ФГБНУ «Научный центр неврологии», г. Москва, Russia)
А. Н. Сергеева (ФГБНУ «Научный центр неврологии», г. Москва, Russia)
К. А. Ильина (ФГБНУ «Научный центр неврологии», г. Москва, Russia)
М. С. Ковязина (ФГБНУ «Научный центр неврологии», г. Москва; МГУ имени М. В. Ломоносова, факультет психологии, Russia)
Н. А. Варако (ФГБНУ «Научный центр неврологии», г. Москва; МГУ имени М. В. Ломоносова, факультет психологии, Russia)
А. С. Черкасова (ФГБНУ «Научный центр неврологии», г. Москва; МГУ имени М. В. Ломоносова, факультет психологии, Russia)
Study of Chronic Post-Comatose States: on the Way to Understanding the Phenomenon of Consciousness

ABSTRACT. Chronic disorders of consciousness (DOC; i.e., vegetative state and minimally consciousness state) develop in patients surviving coma after severe brain damage. Characteristic clinical feature of these syndromes is the dissociation between preserved wakefulness and complete or almost complete absence of awareness. Advanced diagnostic technologies provide us with valuable insights into pathophysiology of chronic DOC, and structural and/or functional disconnection of elements of brain networks that are essential for information processing is believed to be its major underlying cause. Depending on the study modality, findings may include global or more localized decrease of cortical metabolism on PET scanning, or abnormal structural or functional connectivity on DTI or fMRI, as well as low-differentiated/disintegrated TMS-EEG responses, etc. Understanding the mechanisms of chronic DOC leads us to the deeper knowledge about the phenomenon of human consciousness

Kseniia A. Ilina (Lomonosov Moscow State University, Research Center of Neurology, Russia)
Yulia V. Ryabinkina (Research Center of Neurology, Russia)
Maria S. Kovyazina (Lomonosov Moscow State University, Russia)
Natalia A. Varako (Lomonosov Moscow State University, Russia)
Anastasiia N. Cherkasova (Lomonosov Moscow State University, Russia)
Elena I. Kremneva (Research Center of Neurology, Russia)
Andrey A. Belkin (Ural State Medical University, Russia)
Natalia A. Suponeva (Research Center of Neurology, Russia)
Mikhail A. Piradov (Research Center of Neurology, Russia)
Chronic Disorders of Consciousness and " Covert Cognition" Phenomenon
PRESENTER: Kseniia A. Ilina


М. А. Пирадов (ФГБНУ «Научный центр неврологии», г. Москва, Russia)
Н. А. Супонева (ФГБНУ «Научный центр неврологии», г. Москва, Russia)
А. Г. Пойдашева (ФГБНУ «Научный центр неврологии», г. Москва, Russia)
И. С. Бакулин (ФГБНУ «Научный центр неврологии», г. Москва, Russia)
Д. О. Синицын (ФГБНУ «Научный центр неврологии», г. Москва, Russia)
Ю. В. Рябинкина (ФГБНУ «Научный центр неврологии», г. Москва, Russia)
Е. И. Кремнева (ФГБНУ «Научный центр неврологии», г. Москва, Russia)
С. Н. Морозова (ФГБНУ «Научный центр неврологии», г. Москва, Russia)
Е. Г. Язева (ФГБНУ «Научный центр неврологии», г. Москва, Russia)
Л. А. Легостаева (ФГБНУ «Научный центр неврологии», г. Москва, Russia)
Д. В. Сергеев (ФГБНУ «Научный центр неврологии», г. Москва, Russia)
А. Н. Сергеева (ФГБНУ «Научный центр неврологии», г. Москва, Russia)
К. А. Ильина (ФГБНУ «Научный центр неврологии», г. Москва, Russia)
Assessment of TMS-EEG-Derived Perturbation Complexity Index (PCI) in Patients with Chronic Disorders of Consciousness

ABSTRACT. Development of approaches to objective assessment of consciousness experience in patients with chronic disorders of consciousness (DOC; i.e., vegetative state [VS] and minimally consciousness state [MCS]) is one of the most important direction in this study area. TMS-EEG-derived perturbation complexity index (PCI), which expresses in a numerical form the response of cortical neurons to the magnetic stimulation, allows differentiating unconscious states and states with preserved consciousness. Here, we applied the TMS-EEG technique with PCI calculation in chronic DOC patients. Data were obtained for 38 cases (20 VS patients, median CRS-R score 6 [5;6]; 18 MCS, median CRS-R score 13 [11;18]). In 66% MCS patients PCI value was within the range of 0.31-0.50, i.e., above the PCI* threshold value = 0.31 for absence or presence of consciousness; in 6 patients PCI values ranged from 0.17 to 0.30, which may be due to the variability of TMS-EEG responses in patients with severe structural brain lesions. In 90% VS patients PCI values ranged from 0.1 to 0.29, i.e., below PCI*=0.31. In addition, 2 VS patients demonstrated complex differentiated responses while having no clinical signs of conscious activity. PCI values correlated with the results of clinical assessment (CRS-R total score; Spearman r = 0.59, p=0.0002). Despite the sophisticated process of data collection and processing, TMS-EEG with PCI calculation may be viewed as a reliable method of an objective assessment of the presence or absence of consciousness in DOC patients. Of particular interest are VS patients with complex response that may potentially indicate some preserved consciousness activity which is not accessible during clinical evaluation.

Александра Георгиевна Пойдашева (ФГБНУ «Научный центр неврологии», Russia)
Илья Сергеевич Бакулин (ФГБНУ «Научный центр неврологии», Russia)
Дмитрий Юрьевич Лагода (ФГБНУ «Научный центр неврологии», Russia)
Алексей Алексеевич Медынцев (ФГБУН «Институт психологии РАН», Russia)
Дмитрий Олегович Синицын (ФГБНУ «Научный центр неврологии», Russia)
Пётр Николаевич Копнин (ФГБНУ «Научный центр неврологии», Russia)
Людмила Александровна Легостаева (ФГБНУ «Научный центр неврологии», Russia)
Наталья Александровна Супонева (ФГБНУ «Научный центр неврологии», Russia)
Михаил Александрович Пирадов (ФГБНУ «Научный центр неврологии», Russia)
Effects of Online Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation on Modulation of Insight Solving of Anagrams

ABSTRACT. Introduction. Insight is the sudden and unpredictable appearance of a problem’s solution. Insight is thought to be associated with creativity and creative thinking. The solution of anagrams is one of the tasks available for studying insight, which makes it possible to single out the insight and analytical strategies of the solution. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a method allowing to investigate the causal role of stimulated brain area. Online repetitive transcranial magneticstimulation (rTMS) applying during the task performance is widely used approach to disrupt brain regions that are involved it task processing Our aim was to study the online effects of navigated rTMS on insight solutions of anagrams. Materials and methods. Healthy volunteers aged 18 to 55 years who did not have contraindications for MRI and rTMS were included. The study design was approved by the Local Ethics Committee of the Research Center of Neurology. All participants signed an informed consent to participate in the study. Each volunteer underwent 3 sessions of rTMS of left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), right DLPFC and Vertex (Control region) in randomised order with intersession’s interval not less than 48 hours.The following stimulation protocol was used: frequency - 10 Hz, duration of one train - 4 seconds, stimulation intensity - 90% of the resting motor threshold. The presentation and solving of anagrams was synchronized to rTMS train. During each session 35 anagrams were presented. The intertrain interval was not less than 26 seconds. Safety and tolerability was evaluated after each session using self-developed questionnaires. Statistical analysis was performed using software MATLAB R2017a, (Mathworks, Natick, MA, USA). We assess the total number and frequency of insight problem solving, the time spent on the insight problem solving and the percentage of correct answers. Results. 24 volunteers (19 women, age 18.0 [18.0; 23.5] years) were included. Three volunteers were excluded at the screening stage. One volunteer dropped off the study by his own will, the other three volunteers dropped off due to logistical difficulties. No serious adverse events were reported during rTMS. All decisions of one subject fit into the first 9 seconds of presentation of anagrams, so rTMS was not performed at all, and the obtained data were excluded. Thus, the data of 16 healthy volunteers were analyzed. On average, during one session, volunteers experienced 2-3 insights, and they spent about 12 seconds on it. No significant differences were shown depending on the stimulation zone when comparing the studied parameters for the three stimulation protocols, (Friedman test) and when pairwise comparing groups (Wilcoxon test, Sign test). Conclusion. We did not find significant online effects of the navigated rTMS of left and right DLPFC on the frequency of insight solving as well as its speed and accuracy. These results may be associated with a high degree of interindividual frequency variability and relatively low total number of insights. Further research in this area is ongoing, in particular, the study of the offline effects of rTMS on insight solving problem.

Алеся Бычкова (МГУ имени М.В. Ломоносова, Russia)
Ольга Кроткова (ФГАУ «НМИЦ им.ак.Н.Н.Бурденко», Russia)
Елена Ениколопова (МГУ имени М.В. Ломоносова, Russia)
Spontaneous “Stream of Consciousness” During Resting-State fMRI in Patients with Neoplasms of the Chiasmal-Sellar Region.

ABSTRACT. We conducted the research of the content of spontaneously arising thoughts and images during resting state fMRI session in 12 patients with tumors of the chiasmal-sellar region. We compared the results of patients with left-sided (6 people) and right-sided (6 people) tumor location. We used the ReSQ resting state questionnaire (Delamillieure et al. 2010), which estimates the fraction of the time in which a particular category of consciousness flow dominated. Statistically significant differences were revealed in the occurrence of somatic images, sensations and experiences that more often occurred with the right-sided arrangement of the tumor, and auditory images, memories and associations, which often formed with the left-sided arrangement of the volumetric formation. Following the research results we put forward the hypothesis that a voluminous extra-cerebral neoplasm with a compressing effect on the network structures of the passive mode of brain functioning leads to an exaggerated spontaneous emergence of thoughts and images of a hemisphere-specific modality.

Alexander Mironov (Institute of Higher Nervous Activity and Neurophysiology of RAS (IHNA&amp;NPh RAS), Russia)
Artyom Sinin (Institute of Higher Nervous Activity and Neurophysiology of RAS (IHNA&amp;NPh RAS), Russia)
Vladimir Dorokhov (Institute of Higher Nervous Activity and Neurophysiology of RAS (IHNA&amp;NPh RAS), Russia)
Real-Time Communication During Lucid Dreaming as an Experimental Model for Research of Consciousness States

ABSTRACT. Lucid dreaming (LD) is an altered state of consciousness that occurs during REM sleep stage with dreaming and offers a unique model for investigation of neural correlates of secondary consciousness in isolation from wakefulness-specific processes. Due to reduced sensitivity to external stimuli during sleep, LD research relies on delayed communication methods: an experimental subject receives instructions before sleep onset and, while dreaming, confirms lucidity and awareness of a task by performing pre-determined eye movements (or other actions, e.g. breathing). Our investigation aimed to enhance this paradigm with bidirectional real-time communication, opening the way for information-rich experimental designs. In pilot series, the viability of our method was confirmed: one subject was able to perceive auditory instructions, correctly solve the incoming arithmetic tasks and signal answers without waking. Here we validate and generalise the approach with a sample of 10 experienced lucid dreamers. An EEG-based hardware platform capable of decoding eye signals and determining LD state was developed for this purpose. EEG data was acquired during wakefulness and lucid dreaming, with subjects being presented a variety of tasks, including digit span, arithmetic tasks and questions about perceived environment. The results indicate individual differences in ability to perform cognitive tasks during bidirectional communication in lucid dreaming.

15:00-17:00 Session 13B: Wednesday, October 14th (Среда, 14 октября)

МККН+РФО: Когнитивное развитие и обучение детей с особенностями в развитии (ICCS + Physio: Cognitive Development and Learning for Children with Developmental Disabilities)

Кирилл Сергеевич Комаров (Московский Государственный Психолого-Педагогический Университет (МГППУ), Russia)
Дзерасса Эльдаревна Гояева (Московский Государственный Психолого-Педагогический Университет (МГППУ), Russia)
Татьяна Сергеевна Обухова (Московский Государственный Психолого-Педагогический Университет (МГППУ), Russia)
Татьяна Михайловна Овсянникова (Московский Государственный Психолого-Педагогический Университет (МГППУ), Russia)
Андрей Олегович Прокофьев (Московский Государственный Психолого-Педагогический Университет (МГППУ), Russia)
Татьяна Александровна Строганова (Московский Государственный Психолого-Педагогический Университет (МГППУ), Russia)
Елена Владимировна Орехова (Московский Государственный Психолого-Педагогический Университет (МГППУ), Russia)
A Specific Left-Hemisphere Deficit for Processing Periodic Complex Non-Speech Sounds in Children with ASD.

ABSTRACT. A specific left-hemisphere deficit for processing periodic complex non-speech sounds in children with ASD. Komarov K., Goiaeva D., Obukhova T., Ovsiannikova T., Prokofyev A.,Stroganova T.,Orekhova E.*

Moscow State University of Psychology and Education *

Introduction. Abnormal development of speech perception is one of the key symptoms of autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD), but its neural basis remains unknown. It has been hypothesized that speech perception difficulties in children with ASD are associated with a fundamental left hemisphere specialization deficit emerging already in infancy (Eyler et al., 2012). The most common deficiency in speech perception and production in people with ASD is their decreased ability to perceive and express prosody -the pitch of the main tone of the voice. It is known that the perception of pitch in speech and complex non-speech signals depends on the ability of auditory brain system to extract signal’s fundamental frequency ('f0'). The fundamental frequency of harmonic complex tones, unlike f0 of pure tones, is processed outside the primary auditory cortex in the rostral area of the auditory core -‘pitch processing center’ (Patterson et al., 2002), where it is calculated differently in the left and the right hemisphere. The left hemispheric specialization for 'f0' processing is particularly important for speech perception and learning (Schneider et al., 2005). In adults, spectrally complex stimuli with periodic amplitude modulation, such as 40 Hz click trains, trigger characteristic continuous neural responses. Auditory Steady State Response (ASSR) and Sustained Field (SF) in magnetoencephalogram (MEG) (Gutschalk et al, 2004; Ross et al, 2005). SF is localized in the ‘pitch processing center’ and is associated with calculation of pitch, while the other type of response -40 Hz ASSR .reflects neural resonance in the primary auditory cortex. In this paper, we used MEG to test, for the first time, whether the left hemisphere in children with ASD processes the fundamental frequency of temporally modulated complex non-speech auditory signal in atypical way.

Method. MEG responses to a broad-band periodic acoustic signal (sequences of 40 Hz click trains of 500 ms duration) were registered in 35 children with ASD and in 35 'neurotypical' (NT) children aged from 7 to 13 years. To enhance a putative hemispheric asymmetry in neural responses, stimuli were presented monaurally, in the left and right ear in a pseudo-random order. We investigated in children with ASD both types of neural response to sound periodicity – ASSR and SF, which has never been studied before in pediatric population. First, using S-LORETA, we compared localization of ASSR and SF cortical sources in children and adults, and then examined their spatio-temporal dynamics in the auditory cortex of children with ASD as compared with controls. In children with ASD, nonverbal intelligence was tested using Kauffman K-ABC test and their oral language was assessed using Russian Aphasia Test (RAT) (Soloukhina et al., 2019). Severity of behavioral symptoms of autism was assessed through parental questionnaires.

Results and discussion. In children, the basic properties of the continuous auditory responses to periodic 40 Hz click trains were similar to those of adults. Cortical sources of ASSR were located in the primary auditory cortex, whereas SF sources were shifted toward the rostral area of the auditory core (Fig. 1). Both SF and ASSR responses were higher in the hemisphere contralateral to the stimulation, and generally dominated in the right hemisphere. Children with ASD had an abnormally delayed and decreased SF response to periodic clicks, while characteristics of their ASSR did not differ from the normal ones (Fig. 2). Importantly, the continuous building-up of the SF strength was markedly delayed in the left, but not in the right hemisphere of the brain. This selective left-hemispheric delay was highly significant and characterized the vast majority of children with ASD. It was not, however, associated with intelligence level, oral language proficiency, or with severity of communication difficulties. In contrast to the hampered development of SF, the decrease in its maximal amplitude in the left hemisphere in children with ASD was related to lower nonverbal intelligence and with poor speech skills. We suggest that the detected abnormality of the SF reflects a low-level deficiency of the 'pitch processing center' in the left hemisphere. This deficiency may underlie abnormal processing of speech prosody and difficulties with speech perception. To sum up, in support of the initial hypothesis, we found in children with ASD a pronounced and highly significant delay of the neural response to periodic, amplitude-modulated non-speech sound in the rostral area of auditory core region of the left hemisphere. Like the difficulties with perception and production of speech prosody, abnormally slow neural response to fundamental frequency characterized majority of children with ASD. These findings for the first time show that impaired specialization of the left hemisphere in ASD affects processing of non-speech signals. We speculate that deficient low-level processing of fundamental frequency in the ‘pitch processing center' of the left hemisphere may contribute to the abnormal trajectory of speech development in children with ASD.

References Eyler, L. T., Pierce, K., & Courchesne, E. 2012. A failure of left temporal cortex to specialize for language is an early emerging and fundamental property of autism. Brain, 135: 949-960. Gutschalk, A., Patterson, R. D., Scherg, M., Uppenkamp, S., & Rupp, A. 2004. Temporal dynamics of pitch in human auditory cortex. Neuroimage, 22: 755-766. Patterson, R.D., Uppenkamp, S., Johnsrude, I.S., Griffiths, T.D., 2002. The processing of temporal pitch and melody information in auditory cortex. Neuron 36: 767–776. Ross, B., Herdman, A. T., & Pantev, C. 2005. Right hemispheric laterality of human 40 Hz auditory steady-state responses. Cerebral Cortex, 15: 2029-2039. Schneider P, Sluming V, Roberts N, Scherg M, Goebel R, Specht H, Dosch H, Bleeck S, Stippich C, Rupp A. 2005. Structural and functional asymmetry of lateral Heschl’s gyrus reflects pitch perception preference. Nat Neurosci. 8:1241-1247 Soloukhina, O., Ivanova, M., Akinina, Y., Akhutina, T., Dragoy, O. 2015. Development and Standardization of a Test for the Comprehension of Nouns and Verbs in Russian: Data from Individuals with and without Aphasia. The Russian Journal of Cognitive Science, 2:14-21.

Ульяна Андреевна Мамохина (Московский государственный психолого-педагогический университет, Russia)
Дарья Станиславовна Переверзева (Московский государственный психолого-педагогический университет, Russia)
Светлана Анатольевна Тюшкевич (Московский государственный психолого-педагогический университет, Russia)
Камилла Касимовна Данилина (Московский государственный психолого-педагогический университет, Russia)
Наталья Леонидовна Горбачевская (Научный центр психического здоровья, Russia)
A Factor Model of Cognitive Functions in Primary School Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD)

ABSTRACT. A factor model of cognitive functions in primary school children with ASD is proposed. As a result of the factor analysis, three independent factors were obtained: the non-verbal intelligence factor, the factor of sequential information processing, and the working memory factor. The first two factors are correlated with the nonverbal intelligence index, while the working memory factor is not connected with NVI.

Elena Luschekina (Institute of Higher Nervous Activity and Neurophysiology Russian Academy of Sciences, Russia)
Vitaly Luschekin (Moscow Neurology Center, Russia)
Valeria Strelets (Institute of Higher Nervous Activity and Neurophysiology Russian Academy of Sciences, Russia)
Eeg-Correlation of Cognitive Disturbances in Autistic Children
PRESENTER: Elena Luschekina

ABSTRACT. Children with ASD (4.5-7.7 years), were examined using a psychodiagnostic scale with parallel EEG registration. Significant differences from the norm were found. After one-year correction similar repeated measures (imitation, perception, hand- and common motor skills, visual-motor coordination, non- and verbal thinking) were conducted. Children were divided into two sub-groups, one of which was more successful in task performance. Another group was unsuccessful in the same tasks. The links between positive dynamics on psychological tests and changes in bioelectric activity were observed.

Софья Михайловна Гольдина (Национальный исследовательский университет «Высшая школа экономики», Russia)
Анна Кестучё Лауринавичюте (Национальный исследовательский университет «Высшая школа экономики», Russia)
Анастасия Александровна Лопухина (Национальный исследовательский университет «Высшая школа экономики», Russia)
Ольга Викторовна Драгой (Национальный исследовательский университет «Высшая школа экономики», Russia)
Eye Movements While Reading in Russian-Speaking Dyslexic Children

ABSTRACT. This research focuses on the analysis of differences in eye movements while reading between Russian-speaking dyslexic children aged 7-11 and their typically developing peers. We found that dyslexic children fixated longer on long and morphologically complex words and struggled more with saccadic control compared to typically developing children. We also found that dyslexic children read slower if they had trouble with complex phonological processing.

Sergei Oganov (St.Petersburg State Pediatric Medical University, Russia)
Alexander Kornev (St.Petersburg State Pediatric Medical University, Russia)
A Tiered Approach to Reading and Reading Disorders: the Eye Tracking Study in Dyslexic Children
PRESENTER: Sergei Oganov

ABSTRACT. The several research has shown that the text processing components can be divided into 2 levels: 1) low-level processes associated with the word processing (decoding); 2) high-level processes associated with processing of the syntactic and semantic structure of the text (Cain, Oakhill, Bryant, 2004, Nassaji, 2003, Smith, 1994). The aim of the study was to analyze the features of progressive saccades as an indicator of the low-level and high-level reading processes in 9-12 y.o. children with dyslexia. In this study, eye movements were recorded by using an eye tracker system SMI RED500, while children read two scientific texts and two narratives. The oculomotor parameters were analyzed. The results of the study allow us to conclude that the children with dyslexia are characterized not only by impaired word processing skills, but also by impaired high-level processes of text analysis.

Julia Mayorova (MPSU, Russia)
Development of auditory and verbal memory for children with reading disabilities

ABSTRACT. The article presents research results of auditory and verbal memory of second grade schoolchildren with reading disabilities. A recent study revealed that schoolchildren with reading disabilities had a low level of voluntary memorizing of verbal information, which ended up with a small volume of auditory and verbal memory, remembering disorders, an omission of sentence parts, as well as inversions (aural, semantic), distortions, adding words. There was a great susceptibility to interfering influences, which affected the quality of memorization of verbal information. There was also low productivity of delayed word recall, difficulty in remembering the semantic program. At risk schoolchildren for dyslexia have specific peculiarities of memorizing verbal information revealed during the experimental observation. The established correlation of these peculiarities with the technical characteristic and semantic aspect of reading demonstrated the need to develop a methodology aimed at the formation, development and improvement of auditory and verbal memory. The developed direction allows to form, develop and improve auditory and verbal memory relevant both for schoolchildren experiencing difficulties while learning and preschoolers with speech disorders related to a risk group for reading disabilities.

Anastasiia Kaprielova (NRU HSE, Russia)
Anna Laurinavichyute (NRU HSE, Russia)
Anastasiya Lopukhina (NRU HSE, Russia)
Eye-Movements During Reading in Children with Hearing Loss

ABSTRACT. Reading is a complex cognitive skill that plays an important role in the life of every individual. In this study, we analyze eye-tracking data for a unique group of readers – primary school children with hearing loss. We compare their eye-movements with a control group of hearing children of similar age. These two groups of children read the same set of 33 sentences and answered 10 simple comprehension questions while their eye-movements were tracked. The comparison of eye-movements revealed that children with hearing loss use the same reading patterns as hearing efficient readers. Due to the developed peripheral vision and greater parafoveal preview, they display higher probability of skipping a word, their average saccade landing position is closer to the center of the word (hence, to the optimal viewing position), and they have lower probability of fixating a word more than once. Our participants with hearing loss slowed down on longer words less frequently than the hearing, and had shorter reading times – in particular, shorter single fixation durations and gaze durations. However, they also exhibited a number of patterns typical for poor readers: their comprehension question response accuracy was lower comparing to the control group of hearing. The children with hearing loss additionally took part in a visual search experiment assessing their parafoveal preview efficiency and in an online vocabulary test (the data collection is ongoing).

Elena Damyanovich (Mental Health Research Centre, Russia)
Saccade’S Features in Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

ABSTRACT. The results of a comparative analysis of changes in saccade parameters in ADHD children aged 7-12 years in the ontogenetic aspect are presented. The duration of saccades remained at a steadily increased level compared with healthy children, while their latent periods significantly decreased, not reaching the level of the control group. Errors in the assignment were characteristic of both age groups of children with ADHD.

15:00-19:15 Session 13C: Wednesday, October 14th (Среда, 14 октября)

МККН+РФО: Когнитивные механизмы памяти (ICCS + Physio: Cognitive Mechanisms of Memory)

Elena Mikhailova (Institute of Higher Nervous Activity and Neurophysiology RAS, Russia)
Natalya Gerasimenko (Institute of Higher Nervous Activity and Neurophysiology RAS, Russia)
Konstantin Saltykov (Institute of Higher Nervous Activity and Neurophysiology RAS, Russia)
PRESENTER: Elena Mikhailova

ABSTRACT. Сохранение в кратковременной памяти ориентационных характеристик, обнаружение их быстрых изменений обеспечивают стабильность восприятия зрительного пространства, препятствуя его перекалибровке при процессах, неожиданно прерывающих сенсорный вход (саккадические движения глаз, фиксации, окклюзии), поддерживают устойчивость референтных систем мозга, в координатах которых определяется положение объекта в пространстве, планируются движения глаз и конечностей, осуществляется навигационная деятельность. Сформулированная Магнуссеном (Magnussen, 2000) концепция "низкоуровневой перцептивной памяти" (“low-level perceptual memory”) связала этот вид памяти с деятельностью зрительных областей коры, где информация об элементарных признаках зрительного стимула сохраняется в сети независимых сенсорных "хранилищ", настроенных на определенные низкоуровневые признаки. При участии этой сети осуществляется имплицитная дискриминация, которая включает поиск и нахождение сохраненных низкоуровневых нейронных репрезентаций, их сравнение с характеристиками текущего стимула и обнаружение изменений. Два десятилетия экспериментальных исследований существенно дополнили эту модель. Экспериментальные исследования зрительной рабочей памяти предоставили множество фактов в пользу существования распределенной системы, поддерживающей эту функцию, и протяженной от сенсорных до теменной и префронтальной областей [Christophel et al., 2017]. В контексте этих сведений представляется важным оценить функциональную роль и взаимодействие отдельных звеньев нейросети, обеспечивающей рабочую память на ориентации. Большинство известных исследований в этой области направлено на анализ этапа кратковременного удержания информации, тогда как механизмы последующего этапа сличения текущего сигнала с удерживаемом в памяти остаются далеко неясными. Настоящее исследование направлено на анализ роли проекционных и высокоуровневых ассоциативных областей коры в сличении текущей и удерживаемой в памяти ориентаций на экспериментальной модели отставленной дискриминации. Проводили регистрацию высокоплотной (128 канальной) ЭЭГ с последующей обработкой методом связанных с событием потенциалов (ССП), моделированием распределенных дипольных источников ЭЭГ и их статистической обработкой. Для выявления специфичности обнаруженных эффектов для памяти на ориентации, эти данные сравнивали с результатами серии рабочей памяти на пространственные паттерны, представляющие собой триплеты кружков с разным расположением. Основные результаты сводятся к следующему. На раннем сенсорном этапе переработки информации специфическим для рабочей памяти на ориентации показателем несовпадения текущего и удерживаемого в памяти сигналов является высокозначимое повышением амплитуды раннего волнового комплекса Р100/N150 в затылочной коре в сочетании с более слабым нарастанием Р100 в височно-теменной области. Для пространственных паттернов несовпадение вызывало более поздние сдвиги в виде увеличения амплитуды компонента N150 ССП зрительных областей без отчетливого акцента событий в затылочной коре. То есть, ранее обнаружение несовпадения двух ориентаций происходит в проекционной области, нейронные структуры которой настроены на этот признак, и в специфическом для ориентационных характеристик временном интервале (Hubel, Wiesel, 1962; Koelewijn et al., 2011). Анализ ССП на следующем этапе переработки, отражающемся в динамике среднелатентных компонентов ССП - фронтальной негативности N240 и каудальной позитивности Р250 - показал, что информативным показателем несовпадения текущей и удерживаемой в памяти информации является увеличение амплитуды потенциалов, которое одновременно разворачивается во фронтальных и теменно-затылочных областях коры, и не зависит от типа стимула. Вместе с тем, анализ распределенных дипольных источников обнаружил связанную со стимулом специфичность в топографии различий между условиями совпадения и несовпадения. Для ориентаций эти различия носили более локальный характер с вовлечением латеральной затылочной, средневисочной, нижнетеменной областей и оперкулярной зоны нижнелобной коры, расположенных в левом полушарии. Для пространственных паттернов характерна более обширная зона различий, охватывающая латеральную затылочную, височные, пре- и постцентральную, средне- и нижнелобные области, преимущественно в правом полушарии. Таким образом, в модели рабочей памяти показано, что зрительная система кодирует несовпадение двух последовательных ориентаций рано, уже на этапе сенсорного анализа в затылочной коре, что отражает специфику этого эволюционно консервативного зрительного признака. Позже, на этапе развития среднелатентных компонентов корковых потенциалов выявляется определенная универсальность организации нейросети детектирования несовпадений, но с возможностью пластических перестроек, определяемых характером перерабатываемой информации.

Christophel T.B., Klink P.C., Spitzer B., Roelfsema P.R., Haynes J.D. 2017. The distributed nature of working memory. Trends Cogn. Sci. 21, 111–124. Hubel D.H., Wiesel T.N. 1962. Receptive fields, binocular interaction and functional architecture in the cat’s visual cortex. J. Physiol. 160, 106-154. Koelewijn L., Dumont J.R., Muthukumaraswamy S.D., Rich A.N., Singh K.D. 2011. Induced and evoked neural correlates of orientation selectivity in human visual cortex. NeuroImage. 54, 2983–2993. Magnussen S.2000. Low-level memory processes in vision. TrendsNeurosci. 23, 247-251.

Валерия Александровна Гершкович (Санкт-Петербургский государственный университет, Russia)
Дарья Владимировна Колосовская (Санкт-Петербургский государственный университет, Russia)
Надежда Владимировна Морошкина (Санкт-Петербургский государственный университет, Russia)
"I Knew It All Along" – Hindsight Bias in Remote Associates Tasks.

ABSTRACT. In our research to study “I knew it all along” phenomenon (or hindsight bias, Fischhoff, 1975) we have chosen the Russian-language version of Remote Associates Test (RAT-Rus, Moroshkina et. al, in press). This material differs from the tasks that have been classically implemented in hindsight research. In our study participants were presented with RAT so that one group did not see the answer (prospective evaluation) while the second one did (retrospective evaluation). Both groups were asked to evaluate would they find the answer to the task by themselves. We consider the results obtained as evidence of hindsight bias that may manifest under the new conditions in the RAT material. In addition, a comparison of prospective judgments with objective solvability showed that prospective evaluation does not significantly deviate from the real probability of solution while retrospective one is highly overestimated

Elena Mnatsakanian (Institute of Higher Nervous Activity and Neurophysiology RAS, Russia)
Object-Specific and Non-Specific Changes of Short-Term Memory in Healthy Aging: Behavioral and High-Density ERP Study

ABSTRACT. ERP and behavioral measures were used to assess the memory changes in healthy aging. Young adults (10 female and 12 male), aged 20-30 years and elder adults (12 female and 12 male), aged 50-70 years took part in this study. We analyzed the age-related changes in memory encoding and short-term maintenance for unfamiliar faces, abstract words, and geometric patterns. There were object-specific and non-specific differences (amplitude reduction or increase) in certain ERP components between young and elder participants. The object-specific age-related differences were found in N170, LPC, and early CNV. The non-specific changes were in P100, P300, N280, and late CNV.

Inga Poletaeva (Lomonossov Moscow State University, Russia)
Olga Perepelkina (Lomonossov Moscow State University, Russia)
Selection for high scores of cognitive abilities in the laboratory mice: successes and pitfalls
PRESENTER: Olga Perepelkina

ABSTRACT. Rodent cognitive abilities are usually analyzed on the basis of animals' learning success using different instrumental or classical conditioning paradigs. Animal cognition in this study implies the ability of an animal to solve elementary logic tasks (the task which animal encounters for the first time, without previous learning). The ability of mice to extrapolate the direction of stimulus movemet after it dissareaps from view (trait 1) and the ability to understand "object permanence" rule (trait 2) were analysed in selection experiments. The selection for trait 1 high scores did not result in statistically significant and stable elevation of it's scores, while animals of the selected line performed significantly better that controls when tested in the puzzle-box trial (trait 2). The data demonstrate that trait 1 successfull solution requires not only the ability to solve the logic task, but also the definite level of trait anxiety and the capacity to suppress innate behavioral biases. At the same time the trait 2 is much more simple in "structure" and seems to be more easy for mice. The complicated genetics of these traits is demondstrated. Experiments performed meet all bioethical requirements of Declaration 2010/63/EU/ Supported by RFBR, grant N 20-015-00287.

Ekaterina Diffine (Faculty of Biology, Moscow State University named after MV Lomonosov, Russia)
Anna Smirnova (Faculty of Biology, Moscow State University named after MV Lomonosov, Russia)
Modified Version of the Aesop Test: Assessment of the Hooded Crows (Corvus Cornix) Ability to Understand Cause-and-Effect Relationships (Preliminary Data)

ABSTRACT. The Aesop’s test is used to assess if children and animals are capable to obtain a decoy floating in a water-filled tube by dropping stones into it. This task aimed at probing their understanding of cause-effect relationships. The meta-analytic techniques had demonstrated that corvid learned from successful (but not unsuccessful) actions however they didn’t solve the task spontaneously (Нennefield et al. 2018). We modified this task to reduce the likelihood of trial-and-error learning: unlike previous experiments, we used 5 tubes instead of 2 or 1 (stones and cork pieces were placed near them). Four of these tubes were filled with water and sand to the different level (⅔ and ⅓), the last one was empty. Due to such modification, we reduced the probability of the first right choice and the influence of trial-and-error learning. All ten crows (six sub-adults and four adults) failed this test - no one threw objects into any of the tubes. Four sub-adult crows were tested in Aesop’s test with one tube and only stones near it and failed this task also. Three sub-adult crows were trained to throw stones into the tube. After that, they were repeatedly tested with 5 tubes and failed this task again. So, neither sub-adult nor adult crows solves this test spontaneously. The sub-adult crows couldn’t manage it even after instrumental learning.

Khalil Gainutdinov (Kazan Federal University, Russia)
Vyatcheslav Andrianov (Kazan Federal University, Russia)
Irina Deryabina (Kazan Federal University, Russia)
Lyudmila Muranova (Kazan Federal University, Russia)
Tatiana Bogodvid (Kazan Federal University, Russia)
Effects of Serotonin Synthesis Impairing by P-Chlorophenylalanine on Contextual Memory Reconsolidation in Snail After Training of Different Intensity

ABSTRACT. It was shown that after training according to protocol 1 using 5 electrical stimuli per day for 5 days, a reminder of the learning environment after injection of pCPA leads to a significant decrease in contextual memory. At the same time, the results obtained during the training according to protocol 2 using 3 electrical stimuli per day for 5 days show that a reminder of the learning environment in snails on the background of pCPA injection does not lead to a significant change in contextual memory.

Вероника Лукьянова (Московский государственный университет имени М. В. Ломоносова, Russia)
Максим Абакумов (ЦКП «Медицинские и биотехнологические нанотехнологии» РНИМУ им. Н.И. Пирогова, Russia)
Ольга Ефимова (Skoltech, Russia)
Василий Малыгин (Московский государственный университет имени М. В. Ломоносова, Russia)
Марина Плескачева (Московский государственный университет имени М. В. Ломоносова, Russia)
The Hippocampus of Wild Rodents: Volume Measuring by Magnetic Resonance Imaging

ABSTRACT. The progress in the study of spatial cognition requires new models and methodological approaches. One of the ways is to study species-specific features of the hippocampus as a key structure in the control of spatial behavior. The comparative study of wild rodents, adapted to different environments, requiring a different spatial memory load, can extend concepts of the hippocampal function obtained in laboratory experiments. The information on wild rodents' hippocampus is extremely poor. Rare findings show variations in the hippocampus sizes, possibly corresponding to the ecology of species. We used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to assess and compare the hippocampal volume in the bank vole (Clethrionomys glareolus), root vole (Microtus oeconomus), yellow-necked mice (Sylvaemus flavicollis), wood mice (S. uralensis), striped field mice (Apodemus agrarius) and the laboratory mice C57BL/6. We found that two vole species dramatically differed in the hippocampal to hemisphere relative volume, compared to other rodents. This fact may reflect differences in their ecology lifestyle, especially, variability in the home range size and foraging type. The relative volume of the hippocampus was nearly the same in 3 wild mouse species and had intermediate values between the bank vole (maximal) and root vole (minimal) indexes. The hippocampal volume in all wild rodents was significantly larger than in C57BL/6 mice. The MRI method provides a great opportunity to assess the hippocampal volume without destructive brain sectioning and gives the opportunity to process the unique wild rodent brain samples for correlative microscopic investigation.

Марина Григорьевна Плескачева (Московский государственный университет им. М.В. Ломоносова, Russia)
Natural Models for Studying the Mechanisms of Spatial Cognition in Animals: Problems and Prospects for the Study of the Hippocampus

ABSTRACT. Recent studies have led to an understanding of the limitations of the experimental approaches used in studying the mechanisms of spatial cognition, in particular, the functions of the hippocampus, and the need to go outside the laboratory. In the natural environment, animals move around the territory, the size of which significantly exceeds the size of laboratory apparatus (mazes, arenas). Model objects should be not only laboratory rats and mice, which have been subjected to artificial selection for a long time, but also wild animals that differ in ecology, sensory abilities, complexity of spatial behavior and spatial memory requirements. A few works in this field have shown a number of promising directions and growth points for a wide study of the mechanisms of spatial cognition. Studies of the morphology and functions of the hippocampus in wild animals are of interest to both zoologists and neurobiologists, and should be developed as part of interdisciplinary projects. These works will undoubtedly complement the results of human studies obtained using navigation technologies in virtual space.

Olga Ivashkina (Institute for advanced brain studies Lomonosov Moscow State University, NRC "Kurchatov Institute", Russia)
Ksenia Toropova (Institute for advanced brain studies Lomonosov Moscow State University, NRC "Kurchatov Institute", Russia)
Anna Gruzdeva (The Max Planck Institute of Neurobiology, Germany)
Olga Rogozhnikova (Institute for advanced brain studies Lomonosov Moscow State University, Russia)
Viktor Plusnin (NRC "Kurchatov Institute", Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, Russia)
Vladimir Sotskov (Institute for Advanced Brain Studies, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Russia)
Ilya Fedotov (Faculty of Physics Lomonosov Moscow State University, Russia)
Konstantin Anokhin (Institute for advanced brain studies Lomonosov Moscow State University, Anokhin Research Institute of Normal Physiology, Russia)
Neuronal Encoding of Object-Type and Object-Place Memories in Mouse Hippocampus and Retrosplenial Cortex
PRESENTER: Olga Ivashkina

ABSTRACT. In this study we investigated the principles of neural coding of space and objects located in it. For this purpose, we used optic imaging techniques and showed that hippocampal neurons encode information about space, including objects in it, but regardless of their type and position, while the retrosplenial cortex neurons demonstrate specific activity for the different types of objects, regardless of their position.

Viktor Plusnin (National Research Center “Kurchatov Institute”, Russia)
Ksenia Toropova (Institute for advanced brain studies, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Russia)
Olga Ivashkina (Institute for advanced brain studies, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Russia)
Konstantin Anokhin (Institute for advanced brain studies, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Russia)
Neuronal Encoding of Individually and Socially Acquired Memories: Patterns of C-Fos Expression and Hippocampal Neuronal Activity in Social Transmission of Food Preference in Mice
PRESENTER: Viktor Plusnin

ABSTRACT. The relationship between individual and social memory acquired by one animal was investigated. The social transmission of food preference paradigm (STFP) performed by Wrenn (2004) was utilized to study social memory. We performed immunohistochemical mapping of the behavior-induced neuronal expression of the of immediate early gene product c-Fos following acquisition and 24-h recall of individual and social memories and identified the brain regions involved in in these two forms of learning. In addition, we registered the calcium activity of CA1 neurons during the acquisition and retrieval of individual and social memories in the same freely moving mice using minimicroscopy and showed the activity of hippocampal CA1 neurons during STFP task.

Evgenia Sitnikova (Institute of Higher Nervous Activity RAS, Russia)
Kirill Smirnov (Institute of Higher Nervous Activity RAS, Russia)
Pathology of the Thalamo-Cortical System Affects Associative Learning in WAG/Rij Rats

ABSTRACT. The thalamo-cortical system is known to be involved in sensory processing and perception. Hypresynchronization in the thalamo-cortical system results to the state of "absence", i.e., a brief and sudden lapse of consciousness. In absence epilepsy, "absences" are associated with the presence of spike-wave discharges in EEG. The occurrance of spike-wave discharges is a manifestation of pathology in the thalamo-cortical system, disturbances of thalamo-cortical rhythmic activity, i.e. dysrhythmia. Patients with absence epilepsy often show cognitive deficit, as well as WAG/Rij rats with genetic predisposition to absence epilepsy. Here we used WAG/Rij rats as a model of thalamo-cortical dysrhythmia. The study was performed in 58 adult male WAG/Rij rats. EEG examination was done at the age of 5 and 7 months. Time-frequency analysis of spike-wave discharges was performed in EEG in order to define thalamo-cortical dysrhythmia. Learning abilities in rats were tested in active avoidance learning at the age of 6 months. It was shown that disturbances of the thalamo-cortical system in WAG/Rij rats affects associative learning, but did not affect consolidation of fear memory. This study was supported by the RFBR (grant № 19-015-00242a).

Svetlana Aksenova (Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Russia)
Anna Batova (Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Russia)
Alexander Bugay (Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Russia)
Ermuhamed Dushanov (Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Russia)
Effect of Mutant Synaptic Nmda Receptors on the Functioning of Hypocampus Neural Networks
PRESENTER: Anna Batova

ABSTRACT. In this paper, we propose a computational approach for modeling the effect of defects in synaptic receptors on the functioning of neural networks in the brain. Ionotropic diheteromeric (GluN1/GluN2A, GluN1/GluN2B) and triheteromeric (GluN1/GluN2A/GluN2B) NMDA glutamate receptors were chosen as an object of study and the molecular-dynamics modeling of the activation process of the full atomic structure of receptor was simulated. The influence of single and double point mutations, as well as structural mutations (deletions) on the structure of the ion channel is considered. The obtained results were applied for analysis of the effect of mutations on the generation of theta and gamma rhythms generated by the CA3 neural network of the hippocampus.

Глеб Взорин (МГУ им. М.В. Ломоносова, Russia)
Букинич Алексей (МГУ им. М.В. Ломоносова, Russia)
Вячеслав Чураков (ФГАОУ ВО Первый МГМУ им. И.М. Сеченова (Сеченовский университет), Russia)
Do, but Not Recognize: an Effect of Drug Sedation on Memory About the Method of Solving the Task

ABSTRACT. In a single experimental scheme we compared influence of the anesthetic “Propofol” at different levels of drug sedation on the processes of consolidation and reconsolidation of declarative and procedural material. This material was unintentionally encoded while solving the problem of visual spatial search and comparison (task “search for differences between pictures”). At the first stage, a day before surgery, patients (N = 7) were presented paired visual stimuli with the task of finding differences. A day later, during surgery, we carried out a contextual reminder for reactivation of stimuli and gave a new task for consolidation condition. Final testing was carried out on the third day. For the consolidation condition there was an effect of a violation of declarative memory while the procedural one remained.

Vladimir Maiorov (M.V.Lomonosov Moscow State University, Biological faculty, Russia)
Hippocampus Function in Search of an Invisible Target

ABSTRACT. Using an example of a simple neural network, it is shown how, on the basis of bidirectional synaptic plasticity due to the interaction of the AMPA and NMDA receptors depending on the level of the postsynaptic potential, the generalized signal of head direction cells acquires the ability to activate a certain specific sequence (trajectory of excitation) of place and / or grid cells.

Isabella Silkis (Institute of Higher Nervous Activity and Neurophysiology, RUS, Russia)
A Hypothetical Mechanism for Movement Choice Based on Dopamine Modulated Interdependent Neuronal Activity in the Neocortex, Thalamus, Basal Ganglia and Cerebellum

ABSTRACT. It was believed that the basal ganglia (BG) and cerebellum perform different functions. However, it was recently found that BG neurons are active in tasks associated exclusively with the cerebellum, and the cerebellum is active in tasks associated with the BG (Bostan and Strick 2018). Mechanisms underlying these effects remained unknown. Neurons of the deep cerebellar nuclei (DCN) were activated during cognitive tasks (Locke et al. 2018). The cerebellum has been proposed to be involved in cognitive activity due to its connections with the medial frontal cortex (Heskje et al. 2019). Since neurons of the output BG nuclei and the cerebellum through the thalamic nuclei innervate the same neocortical areas, both structures have a complementary effect on these areas (Bostan and Strick 2018; Doya 2000). An important feature of the organization of networks connecting the neocortex with the BG and the neocortex with the cerebellum is that loops are closed (Doya 2000). Networks including the cerebellum, BG, thalamus, neocortex, and amygdala are topically organized. Therefore the motor, cognitive, and emotional regions in each network must be interconnected (Bostan and Strick 2018). Earlier, we proposed a mechanism for the functioning of cerebellar neural network (Silkis 2000), and a mechanism for movement selection based on dopamine-dependent modification of the efficacy of synaptic transmission in different parallel cortico-BG-thalamocortical loops (Silkis 2001). When dopamine is released in the input BG nucleus striatum, LTP is induced at strong neocortical inputs to striatonigral cells (due to D1 receptor activation), and LTD is induced at strong neocortical inputs to striatopallidal cells (due to D2 receptor activation). Such modifications lead to synergistic disinhibition through the output BG nuclei of certain groups of thalamic neurons and connected with them motor cortical neurons that determine the performed movement. At the same time other initially weakly activated thalamic and neocortical neurons are inhibited by the BG output (Silkis 2001). Since dopamine is released in response to a conditioned signal and reinforcement, the movement choice is the result of learning. The amygdala and hippocampus, whose output neurons innervate the striatum, also contribute to this choice due to effect on modification of cortico-strialal inputs (Silkis 2015). Given the known data on connections of the cerebellum with the neocortex, BG, thalamus, subthalamic nucleus (STN) and dopaminergic structures (Figure), we assume that following processes may underlie contribution of the cerebellum to motor learning. 1. Disynaptic excitation of striatal spiny neurons by the DCN (through the thalamus) can promote modification of cortico-striatal inputs and therefore facilitate the role of the BG in motor learning. 2. Since DCN neurons innervate the external part of the globus pallidus (GPe), they can influence (via the GPe) the activity of output BG nuclei both directly and disynaptically through the STN, which is reciprocally connected with the GPe, receives excitation from the motor cortex and excites the output BG nuclei. 3. There are dopamine D1 receptors on STN neurons which excite DCN cells. According to modulation rules (Silkis 1998), action at these receptors should lead to LTP at excitatory inputs to the STN neurons and increase their activity. Subsequent rise in DCN neuron firing should increase excitation of thalamic and striatal neurons. 4. Since DCN neurons monosynaptically excite cells in dopaminergic structures, stimulation of DCN should lead to release of dopamine in the striatum and prefrontal cortex, thus facilitating learning. Such effect has recently been demonstrated (Carta et al. 2019). 5. GABAergic cells of the ventral tegmental area innervate the DCN. According to modulation rules (Silkis, 2000), inhibitory input should facilitate the induction of LTP at excitatory inputs to DCN neurons. Subsequent increase in the activity of their target cells in the thalamus, striatum and neocortex must promote the modification of cortico-striatal inputs. 6. According to modulation rules (Silkis 1998), activation of D1 receptors on inhibitory interneurons of the DCN should lead to LTP at excitatory inputs to interneurons, increase in their activity and enlargement the inhibitory effect on glutamatergic output DCN cells. As indicated in paragraph 5, this should facilitate learning, due to increased activity of neurons in the thalamus, striatum and neocortex. In accordance with proposed mechanism, it was shown that blockade of D1 receptors on DCN neurons significantly reduces the activity of frontal cortical neurons and impairs learning (Heskje et al. 2019). It follows from proposed mechanisms that not only the neocortex, thalamus, BG, amygdala, hippocampus, and dopaminergic structures but also the cerebellum are involved in the movement choice during learning.

Bostan A. C., Strick P. L. 2018. The basal ganglia and the cerebellum: nodes in an integrated network. Nat. Rev. Neurosci. 19, 338-350. Carta I., Chen C. H., Schott A. L., Dorizan S., Khodakhah K. 2019. Cerebellar modulation of the reward circuitry and social behavior. Science. 363, eaav0581. Doya K. 2000. Complementary roles of basal ganglia and cerebellum in learning and motor control. Curr. Opin. Neurobiol. 10, 732–739 . Heskje J., Heslin K., De Corte B. J., Walsh K. P., Kim Y., Han S., Carlson E. S., Parke K. L. 2020. Cerebellar D1DR-expressing neurons modulate the frontal cortex during timing tasks. Neurobiol. Learn. Mem. 170, 107067. Locke T. M., Soden M. E., Miller S. M., Hunker A., Knakal C., Licholai J. A., Keene C. D., Zweifel L. S., Carlson E. S. 2018. Dopamine D(1) receptor-positive neurons in the lateral nucleus of the cerebellum contribute to cognitive behavior. Biol. Psychiatry. 84, 401-412. Silkis I.G. 1998. The unitary modification rules for neural networks with excitatory and inhibitory synaptic plasticity. Biosystems 48, 205-213. Silkis I.G. 2000. Interrelated modification of excitatory and inhibitory synapses in three-layer olivary-cerebellar neural network. Biosystems 54, 141-149. Silkis I.G. 2001. The cortico-basal ganglia-thalamocortical circuit with synaptic plasticity. II. Mechanism of synergistic modulation of thalamic activity via the direct and indirect pathways through the basal ganglia. Biosystems 59, 7-14. Silkis I.G. 2015. Mechanisms of the interdependent influences of the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, and amygdala on the functioning of the basal ganglia and the selection of behavior. Neurosci. Behav.Physiol. 45, 729-742.

Irina Smirnitskaya (..., Russia)
Is the Reinforcement Learning Theory Well Suited to Fit the Functioning of the Cerebral Cortex-Basal Ganglia System?

ABSTRACT. The research of W Schultz in the late 1980s and the early 1990s of the effect of uncertainty in reward delivery in the behavioral experiments with monkey on the release of dopamine by dopaminergic structures of the midbrain [1, 2] highlighted the analogy between the amount of phasic dopamine release by dopaminergic structures and the reward prediction error of the RL theory [3]. After that the functioning of the cortex-basal ganglia system is analysed as a possible Reinforcement learning (RL) [4] network. This system is an array of partly connected parallel loops. The basal ganglia is divided into dorsal and ventral subdivisions. In accordance with their functions we can further distinguish four parts in it: dorsolateral striatum, dorsomedial striatum, nucleus accumbens core, nucleus accumbens medial shell. The part of the whole cerebral cortex-basal ganglia system with a center in the dorsolateral striatum may represent action a, used in RL theory, with the center in dorsomedial striatum represent action value Q(s,a,), with nucleus accumbens core contain state value V(s), the part of this system based on nucleus accumbens medial shell calculates policy π, but in different way than RL theory does.

Vladimir Gavrilov (Institute of Psychology RAS, Russia)
Observational Learning, Co-Operation and Empathy in Rats

ABSTRACT. We studied learning by observation, cooperation, and empathy in Long Evans rats in instrumental food-acquisition behavior. The rate of learning and changes in behavior, as well as amplitudes and latencies of EEG fluctuations averaged from pedal pressing and head lowering into the feeder, were compared when rats implemented the same behavior alone and together.

17:00-19:00 Session 14A: Wednesday, October 14th (Среда, 14 октября)

RCAI-2020: Non-classical Logics, Fuzzy Models, and Soft Computing (КИИ-2020: Неклассические логики, нечеткие модели и мягкие вычисления)

Vadim Borisov (The Branch of National Research University "Moscow Power Engineering Institute" in Smolensk, Russia)
Sergey Kovalev (RSTU, Russia)
Sergey S. Kurbatov (Research Centre of Electronic Computing, Russia, Moscow, Russia)
Igor B. Fominykh (National Research University "MPEI", Russia, Moscow, Russia)
Aleksandr B. Vorobyev (National Research University "MPEI", Russia, Moscow, Russia)
Ontology-Controlled Geometric Solver

ABSTRACT. The paper describes an ontology-controlled geometric solver. The solver functions as part of an integrated problem-solving system with a natural language interface. It is implemented in a prototype version of the system for the “school geometry” subject area. We described the solver interaction with the system linguistic processor, ontology, and the graphic component. We provided examples demonstrating automated solving non-trivial geometric problems formulated in a natural language. We suggested using cognitive structures in the dialogue for an effective linguistic analysis and building up a correct drawing.

Ilya Ivanov (Voronezh State University, Russia)
Sergey Makhortov (Voronezh State University, Russia)
Reduction of the Reasoning Model in a Production System with an Extended Set of Operations
PRESENTER: Ilya Ivanov

ABSTRACT. LP-structure over distributive lattice is considered as an algebraic model of a production system with an extended set of propositional logic’s operations. The model is equivalently transformed (reduced) to a simpler model – LP-structure over atom-based lattice. The obtained results open prospects of the dissemination of the earlier developed approaches to the knowledge representation and management in production systems with a single logical operation to a class of production systems with an extended set of logical operations.

Gerald Plesniewicz (National Research University MPEI, Russia)
Abduction with Estimates for Statements in Fuzzy Propositional Logic

ABSTRACT. Estimates are expressions of the form φ ≥ r, φ > r, φ ≤ r, φ < r, φ ≤ ψ or φ < ψ where φ and ψ are propositional formulas and r is a real number from the unit interval [0,1]. We consider the classic fuzzy interpretations of for-mulas φ, i.e., those based on the t-norm min{x, y} and negation 1 – x. Such in-terpretations is naturally extended to estimates. Logic of estimates LE is the set of all Boolean compositions of estimates that are interpreted with the usual sense of the propositional connectives. We have developed, for the logic LE, a com-plete system of inference rules in the style of analytic tableaux. It is shown how to apply the rules for abduction in the logic LE

Victor Luferov (Branch of the National Research University Moscow Power Engineering Institute in Smolensk, Russia)
Vadim Borisov (Branch of the National Research University Moscow Power Engineering Institute in Smolensk, Russia)
Forecasting Method of Multidimensional Time Series Based on Neuro-Fuzzy Cognitive Temporal Models
PRESENTER: Victor Luferov

ABSTRACT. In the article there are Neuro-Fuzzy Cognitive Temporal Models (NFCTM) de-scribed. Those provide accounting of indirect and indirect mutual impact of all the multidimensional time series (MTS) components with their temporary delays relative to each other and are oriented on forecasting of multidimensional time se-ries. Neuro-Fuzzy Cognitive Temporal Componental Models, which provide the formation of forecasted values of the MTS components with the temporary de-lays demanded, are used in NFCTM concepts in order to accomplish the temporal transformation. There is the way of NFCTM coordinated training described, which consists in Neuro-Fuzzy Componental Temporary Models for each of the NFCTM component and also in coherence of these Neuro-Fuzzy Componental Temporary Models (NFCTM) between each other. There is an MTS forecasting method offered in condition of unreliability the nonlinearity of the interaction, partial inconsistency and interdependence of the MTS components, that is based on NFCTM. There are experimental studies conducted and the results of using the proposed method are presented on the example of the problem of multidimen-sional forecasting of the state of the urban environment in Moscow. The use of the proposed method may be in demand to provide reliable forecasting of the state of the urban environment in various regions of Russia and other countries, in-cluding into account the complex epidemiological situation.

Sergey Kovalev (JSC NIIAS, Russia)
Anna Kolodenkova (Samara State Technical University, Russia)
Andrey Sukhanov (JSC NIIAS, Russia)
Incremental Structure-Evolving Intelligent Systems with Advanced Interpretational Properties
PRESENTER: Sergey Kovalev

ABSTRACT. The paper considers some problems related to interpretability of fuzzy evolv-ing systems and online design and optimization methods for such systems under streaming data control. In the proposed online approach, the main cri-teria are the modeling accuracy, which is based on mean squared error min-imization, and the set of the interpretability criteria, some of which are the complexity and the consistency of the knowledge base from fuzzy system. The novel incremental algorithm of fuzzy model structure reformation based on subtractive clustering procedure. The possibility of development of the novel immunological approach to intelligent data processing based on pro-posed evolving systems is considered.

Aleksandr Shabelnikov (JSC NIIAS Rostov, Russia)
Sergey Kovalev (JSC NIIAS Rostov branch, Russia)
Knowledge Extraction from Data Streams Based on Flexible Fuzzy-Neural Systems
PRESENTER: Sergey Kovalev

ABSTRACT. The paper proposes a novel architecture of flexible fuzzy-neural network for on-line processing of streaming data in order to extract interpreted knowledge. The structure and parameters of the neural-fuzzy network are adapted in incremental mode under the control of streaming data. The flexible property of fuzzy network provides the possibility of structural adaptation through smooth adjustment of flexibility parameters and increases the interpretability of the trained model. The extraction of knowledge from streaming data is carried out by interpreting fuzzy neurons in the network structure in the form of readable fuzzy rules that are elements of dynamic knowledge generated in on-line mode

17:00-19:00 Session 14B: Wednesday, October 14th (Среда, 14 октября)

Neuroinfo-2020:  Cognitive Sciences and Brain-Computer Interface (Нейроинформатика-2020: Нейронные сети и когнитивные науки. Интерфейс "мозг-компьютер")

Alexander Lebedev (Scientific Research Institute for System Analysis of Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia)
Irina Knyazeva (Saint-Petersburg State University, Russia)
Yulia Boytsova (N.P. Bechtereva Institute of the Human Brain, Russian Academy of Sciences, Russia)
Nikolay Makarenko (Central Observatory at RAS, Russia)
Sergey Danko (N.P. Bechtereva Institute of the Human Brain, Russian Academy of Sciences, Russia)
Revealing Differences in Resting States Through Phase Synchronization Analysis. Eyes Open, Eyes Closed in Lighting and Darkness Condition.
PRESENTER: Irina Knyazeva

ABSTRACT. Modern neuroimaging studies have shown that there are significant differences in the brain activity zones during resting states with open and closed eyes in light and dark circumstances. Our previous EEG studies also showed that these states demonstrate differences in the power spectrum and between- channel coherence, both in light and dark conditions. This work continues our previous studies. Here we increased the group of subjects and focused on the estimation of changes in the spatial between-channel coherence. We explored the following conditions: the resting state with closed eyes in the dark, the resting state with opened eyes in the dark, and the resting state with opened eyes in the light with eyes focused on the screen. To characterize the distinctions between each pair of states, we used individual differences in the phase synchronization. We calculated them for each pair of channels for a set of seven frequencies corresponding to the main rhythms. The size effect and its level of uncertainty were estimated using the Bayesian approach.

Daria Tikhomirova (National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute), Russia)
Alexei V. Samsonovich (National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute), United States)
Empathy Facilitates Human Recognition of Artificial Intelligence Agents in a Social-Emotional Videogame

ABSTRACT. In this work, we continued our study of the human emotional sphere (Tikhomirova et al., 2019) based on the platform we created earlier - the Teleport video game (Azarnov et al., 2018), which allows anonymous social interaction of actors of different nature - both people and automata. It was suggested earlier that the level of empathy is interconnected with the ability to identify artificial intelligence agents in a socio-emotional videogame. The present study was undertaken to verify this idea. The resulting correlation constellation presented in this paper illustrates the relationship between the number of errors associated with misidentification of a person as a bot and a bot as a person, on the one hand, and the level of empathy and empathy channels on the other hand. The outcome supports the hypothesis. In addition, a comparison was made between a person and a bot on 6 personality factors.

Alexander Efitorov (D.V.Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, M.V.Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia, Russia)
Vladimir Shirokii (D.V.Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, M.V.Lomonosov Moscow State University, Russia)
Vyacheslav Orlov (NRC "Kurchatov Institute", Russia)
Vadim Ushakov (NRNU MEPhI, Russia)
Sergey A. Dolenko (D.V.Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, M.V.Lomonosov Moscow State University, Russia)
The Solution to the Problem of Classifying High-Dimension fMRI Data Based on the Spark Platform

ABSTRACT. This paper compares approaches to solving the classification problem based on fMRI data of the original dimension using the big data platform Spark. The original data is 4D fMRI time series with time resolution (TR) = 0.5 s for one sample recording. Participants have to solve 6 tasks, requiring activating various types of thinking, during 30 min session. A large number of subjects and a short time resolution generated the dataset with more than 85 000 samples, which allowed applying machine learning methods to solve this problem, instead of classical statistical maps. The random forest model was used to solve the binary classification problem. The paper analyzes model performance dependence upon time during the problem-solving sessions.

Andrey Afonin (Belgorod State National Research University, Russia)
Rustam Asadullayev (Belgorod State National Research University, Russia)
Mariya Sitnikova (Belgorod State National Research University, Russia)
Anatoly Shamraev (Belgorod State National Research University, Russia)
Rehabilitation System for Paralyzed Disabled People Based on Eye Tracker and fNIRS Tomograph
PRESENTER: Andrey Afonin

ABSTRACT. The article considers the rehabilitation system for paralyzed disabled people based on a service robotic arm with a control system using an eye tracker and functional near-infrared optical spectroscopy tomograph (fNIRS). With the help of an eye tracker a disabled person can control the trajectory of the robotic arm's grip with the help of eye movements, and use the fNIRS to set additional commands, for example, switch control planes or control the grip of the robotic arm. Recognition of tomographic signals using artificial neural networks. Patient safety will be ensured by a vision system and mechanical safety elements. The experiments showed the possibility of implementing such a sys-tem. A model of the system based on a desktop robotic arm with a spherical co-ordinate system has been created. The use of such a system will allow paralyzed people with disabilities to take care of themselves

Сергей Плотников (Институт проблем машиноведения РАН, Санкт-Петербург, Russia)
Юрий Кропотов (Институт мозга человека им. Н.П. Бехтеревой РАН, Санкт-Петербург, Russia)
Михаил Липкович (Институт проблем машиноведения РАН, Санкт-Петербург, Russia)
Данила Семенов (Институт проблем машиноведения РАН, Санкт-Петербург, Russia)
Александр Фрадков (Институт проблем машиноведения РАН, Санкт-Петербург, Russia)
Neurofeedback Algorithm Based on Artificial Intelligence Methods

ABSTRACT. A new approach to the design of neurofeedback systems based on the implementation of artificial intelligence tools is proposed. The concept of control of mobile objects based on neurofeedback and a neural network benchmark are described, including equipment and software developed in IPME RAS to implement the proposed concept.

Anastasia Alekseeva (Национальный медицинский исследовательский центр нейрохирургии имени академика Н.Н. Бурденко, Russia)
Olga Krotkova (Национальный медицинский исследовательский центр нейрохирургии имени академика Н.Н. Бурденко, Russia)
Mikhail Galkin (Национальный медицинский исследовательский центр нейрохирургии имени академика Н.Н. Бурденко, Russia)
Maria Kaverina (Национальный медицинский исследовательский центр нейрохирургии имени академика Н.Н. Бурденко, Russia)
Gleb Danilov (Национальный медицинский исследовательский центр нейрохирургии имени академика Н.Н. Бурденко, Russia)
Qualitative Assessments as One of the Options for Transforming Multifactorial Dynamics in the Cognitive Sphere

ABSTRACT. Qualitative analysis is proposed as a stage in the analysis of multifactorial dynamics in the cognitive sphere in patients receiving radiotherapy. Qualitative assessments for the dynamics of cognitive status made it possible to establish the unevenness of functional changes in the hemispheres under the influence of ionizing radiation: the earlier onset of multidirectional dynamics when exposed to the right hemisphere and the greater inertia of the initial individual indicators when exposed to the left hemisphere.

17:00-19:35 Session 14C: Wednesday, October 14th (Среда, 14 октября)

МККН+РФО: Кодирование сигнала и моделирование когнитивных процессов (ICCS + Physio: Signal Coding and Cognitive Modeling)

Евгений Витяев (Институт математики им. С.Л.Соболева, Russia)
Representation of "Natural" Concepts and Classes by the Hypernet of the (Probabilistic) Formal Concepts

ABSTRACT. The purpose of this work is to show that probabilistic formal concepts have a deeper meaning than the restoration of formal concepts in conditions of noise. Probabilistic formal concepts model the “natural” concepts explored in cognitive sciences. In the works of Rosch 1973 and Rehder 2003, it is shown that in “natural” concepts a highly correlated structure of features of objects of the external world is reflected, which can be represented by the “causal models” that are fairly accurately formalized by probabilistic formal concepts.

Георгий Лосик (ОИПИ НАН Беларуси, Belarus)
Александр Черноризов (МГУ, Belarus)
Александр Вартанов (МГУ, Belarus)
Кодирование в мозге сигналов номером канала в рамках векторной психофизиологии

ABSTRACT. В психофизиологии сформировалось самостоятельное направление, использующее понятие вектора в объяснении сенсорных и моторных процессов. Оно получило название «векторная психофизиология». Наряду со многими нетрадиционными объяснениями работы нервной системы высших животных, это направление особо специализируется в объяснении нейронного механизма оценки психикой сходств и различий стимулов и реакций. В психологии мало объяснить механизм формирования эталона стимула или реакции. Важно вскрыть ещё и механизм сравнения стимулов, метрику близости разных стимулов. Именно в метрике сходства и различия обнажается антропологическая и социальная компонента целесообразности для организма то ли различать, то ли отождествлять два объективно различающихся стимула.

Vladimir Red'Ko (Scientific Research Institute for System Analysis, Russian Academy of Sciences, Russia)
Approaches to Modeling an Autonomous Agent That Is Capable to Cognize the Laws of Nature

ABSTRACT. Approaches to modeling an autonomous agent that is capable to cognize the laws of nature are proposed. As an initial step, a computer model of an agent cognizing causal relationships between situations in the outside world was constructed and investigated. It is shown that an agent with an internal feeling of causality is able to anticipate significant future situations and to spend its internal resource economically.

Vitaly Verkhlyutov (Institute of Higher Nervous Activity and Neurophysiology of the Russian Academy of Science, Moscow,Russian, Russia)
Evgenii Burlakov (Tambov State University, Tambov, Russian, Russia)
Vadim Ushakov (National Research Center «Kurchatov Institute», Moscow; National Research Nuclear University MEPhI, Moscow, Russia)
Selection of Brain Traveling Waves Parameters by the Method of Simulation Templates Comparison with Experimental Eeg and Meg

ABSTRACT. Radial traveling waves of local currents on the folded surface of the human cerebral cortex were simulated. The potentials and magnetic fields on the surface of the head were calculated by individual MRI. Model EEGs and MEGs were compared with experimental data using two-dimensional correlation. The maximum values of correlation coefficients were determined for traveling wave velocities of 0.1 and 0.2 m/sec with the epicenters in the occipital lobes of the brain, including regions of V1, V2. In these cases, a leap in the levels of maximal correlations in time and space was observed. At the speed of 6 m/sec, the maximal values were smallest, and the change in the level of correlations was smoothened. The results of the study demonstrate the advantage of the intra-cortical hypothesis of the brain traveling waves.

Stankevich Lev (Saint-Petersburg institite of informatics and automatization of RAS, Russia)
Artificial Brain and Artificial Mind for Humanoid Robots

ABSTRACT. In this work a problem of artificial brain and artificial mind for humanoid robots creation with cognitive technologies is discussed. Cognitive functions of multimodal perception and behaviors formation are proposed to realize using network computational means of logical and associative processing information. Creative functions of hypotheses forming, new behavior models creating, and new knowledge generating are proposed to realize using neuromorphic means of processing pattern information. It is discussed probable organization of the robot’ artificial brain, that models psychical processes related with thinking and consciousness and forming artificial mind of the humanoid robot.

Artemiy Kotov (Kurchatov Institute, RSUH, Russia)
Cognitive Architecture for a Companion Robot: Speech Comprehension and Real-World Awareness

ABSTRACT. Companion robots should perceive speech, recognize objects in the real world, and further react with speech utterances and nonverbal communicative cues. Robots should also remember the interaction history and accumulate knowledge from different text sources: news, blogs, and e-mails. We design a conceptual representation system for a companion robot, able to support this list of interactive tasks. The system includes speech processing component and operates with semantic representations as sets of semantic markers, assigned to valencies. The reaction support system inherits a classic production architecture and consists of scripts, sensitive to rational or emotional stimuli. The general architecture is based on parallel processing of scripts, it may trigger several behavioral reactions to each stimulus, and further combine the outputs of these scripts on a robot to enrich its communicative behavior. Semantic representations and scripts are also used to index incoming utterances are store them in a memory base. We also demonstrate interaction of semantics and reactions with a prototype of visual recognition system for the tasks of face detection and automatic support of Tangram puzzle solution.

Mikhail Mazurov (Russian University of Economics. G. V. Plekhanov, Russia)
Modeling the Cognitive Properties of the Brain'S Thalamus as a System with Self-Organized Criticality and Threshold Synchronization of Neural Networks

ABSTRACT. have not

Mikhail Mazurov (Russian University of Economics. G. V. Plekhanov, Russia)
Modeling the Formation and Connection of Reflexes: Conditioned, Complex Conditioned, Categorical, Imprinting

ABSTRACT. The formation and general properties of conditioned reflex (CR), complex various orders, categorical, imprinting are considered. A relevant mathematical model for the formation of CR of all types is proposed. Physiological mechanisms are taken into account when forming temporary connections, the role of repetition processes during training, the selective nature of the processes of forming temporary connections. The resulting model allows us to predict the process of formation of CR, to predict the dynamics of its development

Vladimir Maiorov (M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Biological Faculty, Russia)
Associative Links in the Conditional Reflex

ABSTRACT. The conditional reflex turned out to be much more complicated than you might have thought. Bayesian formula more accurately expresses the conditions necessary for the development of a conditional reflex. Pavlovian synapse - a synapse with bidirectional plasticity and inhibition of inputs upon excitation of the postsynaptic neuron. Naturally implements the impossibility of reverse conditioning and the effects of blocking and overshadowing. Associative links are considered providing goal-directed actions (R->O), habits, conditioned reinforcement, specific Pavlovian-to-instrumental transfer (sPIT) and reinstatement (O->R). A list of brain structures necessary for implementation of these links is presented."

Anna Zinina (National Research Center «Kurchatov Institute», Russia)
Lyudmila Zaydelman (National Research Center «Kurchatov Institute», Russia)
Nikita Arinkin (National Research Center «Kurchatov Institute», Russia)
Artemy Kotov (Kurchatov Institute, Russia)
The Study of the Communicative Behavior of People When Solving the Tangram Puzzle for Subsequent Transfer to Robot
PRESENTER: Anna Zinina

ABSTRACT. This paper describes the study of the communicative behavior of two adults in the situation of solving a spatial problem. The main strategies that research participants use when suggesting the right moves are identified. The main types of hints used by the study participants are also described.

Vyacheslav Orlov (National Research Center Kurchatov Institute, Russia)
Anastasia Roik (Institute of Higher Nervous Activity and Neurophysiology of RAS, Russia)
Georgy Ivanitsky (Institute of Higher Nervous Activity and Neurophysiology of RAS, Russia)
Vadim Ushakov (National Research Center Kurchatov Institute, Russia)
Human Cognitive Space Construction Based on Eeg and Fmri Data
PRESENTER: Vyacheslav Orlov

ABSTRACT. Traditionally, a psychophysiological study investigates one brain function at a time, with corresponding brain mechanisms, based on a differential approach. A goal of the present study was somehow of another sort. We attempted to find out how cognitive activity of different types, with different psychological properties, manifests itself in brain signals (EEG and fMRI). In other words, the question under investigation was whether a space of psychological features of tasks performed in mind is isomorphic to a space of brain signals recorded during these tasks solution. We performed experiments where subjects solved tasks of six types and constructed maps of cognitive space based on EEG and fMRI analysis. Along with this, we got maps based on expert evaluation of tasks’ psychological properties. Three kinds of maps were found to be similar. This implies that an overall estimation of subject’s mental work of different kind may obtained from brain signals. The method showed to be practically useful as we found out that in mental pathology the form of cognitive space maps is distorted seriously and specifically.

17:00-19:15 Session 14D: Wednesday, October 14th (Среда, 14 октября)

МККН+РФО: Язык и речь. Когнитивная лингвистика и языковая коммуникация. Часть 2 (ICCS + Physio: Language and Speech. Cognitive Linguistics and Language Communication. Part 2)

Anna Laurinavichyute (Center for Language and Brain, National Research University Higher School of Economics, Russia)
Anastasiya Lopukhina (Center for Language and Brain, National Research University Higher School of Economics, Russia)
Svetlana Malyutina (Center for Language and Brain, National Research University Higher School of Economics, Russia)
Reliance on Heuristic Processing Across the Lifespan

ABSTRACT. Our study is the first to investigate reliance on algorithmic and heuristic sentence processing in three age groups (adolescents, young adults, and older adults). We show that the use of heuristics in comprehension increases across the lifespan. Importantly, for the first time, we provide evidence that structural heuristics maturate slower than semantic heuristics.

Tatiana Reznikova (HSE, Russia)
Daria Ryzhova (HSE, Russia)
Semantic Continuity: Evidence from Lexical Typology

ABSTRACT. The talk aims to describe the effects of semantic continuity, i.e. a phenomenon where a lexical field that encodes physical processes is partly covered by lexemes borrowed from adjacent semantic fields. We illustrate these effects using the results of a lexical typological study on verbs of falling. Based on a sample of more than 40 languages, we discuss cases when uncontrolled downward motion is expressed by verbs of hitting, rotation, detachment, etc.

Yulia Badryzlova (National Research University Higher School of Economics, Russia)
Automated Metaphor Identification in Russian and Its Implications for Metaphor Studies

ABSTRACT. The paper presents the design of a multi-feature classifier for identification of metaphoric contexts in Russian. The following features are extracted to train a linear SVM classifier: lexical and morphosyntactic indexes of metaphor association, semantic similarity, and concreteness. The suggested classifier yields a moderately high result of 0.82 (F1-score). The research focuses on in-depth analysis of the features and their performance in order to shed light on linguistic and cognitive properties of metaphor. We attempt to harvest lexemes that are likely to act as predictors of metaphoricity and show a correlation between metaphoricity and semantic concreteness. We also demonstrate that semantic similarity becomes a stronger predictor of metaphoricity when metaphoric and non-metaphoric contexts are distinctively delineated in terms of their semantic homogeneity. We show that morphosyntactic patterns are rather weak as a generalized predictor of metaphoricity since they are verb-specific, reflecting idiosyncratic patterns of combinability of individual verbs. Our findings also suggest that certain morphosyntactic properties of metaphoric discourse may be related to its genre-specific properties, such as greater degree of emotionality, modality, or speaker-centricity.

Elena Nikolaeva (Herzen State Pedagogical University, Russia)
Tatjana Brisberg (Bunin Yelets State University,, Russia)
The Relationship Between the Parameters of Executive Functions in Preschoolers with Normal and Abnormal Speech
PRESENTER: Elena Nikolaeva

ABSTRACT. The paper examines the interaction of the main components of executive functions-inhibitory processes and working memory - in normal developing children (89 people) and children with speech disturbances (diagnosis F 80.1, 70 people) 5.1-7.6 years of old. It is shown that in normal developing children at this age, the parameters of working memory and inhibitory processes are distributed according to different factors of factor analysis, whereas in children with speech disorders this is not the case. The correspondence of the obtained data to models explaining the structure of executive functions at different stages of ontogenesis is discussed.

Иван Горбунов (Saint-Petersburg state university, Russia)

ABSTRACT. В работе предлагается использование комбинации нескольких нейросетевых моделей для изучения процесса речепорождения с помощью данных ЭЭГ и, одновременно, текстов, порождаемых человеком в процессе психофизиологического эксперимента. Обученная модель содержит матрицу связей между нейронами, соответствующую связям между «центрами» мозга и генерирует потенциалы на поверхности соответствующие измеренным ЭЭГ данным. Изучение матрицы связей данной модели, а также активации различных «центров» позволит более точно изучать мозговые механизмы речепорождения

Olga Ikonnikova (Rostov Institute of Improving Teachers' Qualification and Professional Retraining, Russia)
Stepan Kalinin (Kemerov State Univeristy, Russia)
The Importance of the Archaic Languages ​​of the Pacific Rim for the Study of the Evolution of the Human Language
PRESENTER: Olga Ikonnikova

ABSTRACT. The paper considers typological features of the languages ​​of the Pacific rim as representatives of the archaic language type, which allows reconstructing the diachronic processes of the evolution of the human language and its categories. Interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary approaches to the study of this linguistic area are substantiated.

Olga Marchenko (Moscow State University of Psychology and Education, Russia)
Nikita Guryanov (Humboldt University, Germany)
Comparing the Embodiment of First and Second Language
PRESENTER: Olga Marchenko

ABSTRACT. The aim of this study was to evaluate the microdynamics of the categorization process of emotionally evocative words in native (L1) and foreign language (L2). One hundred native Russian speakers participated in the study. Their task was to categorize words as positive or negative in valence, by making an arm movement either towards oneself or away from oneself, respectively. It has been shown that words that cause negative emotions are classified more slowly if the movement is incongruent (i.e., moving the arm toward the body being used to categorize negative words) in L1. The trajectory of movement was longer in incongruent condition for negative words in L2 (because at the first moment of the word presentation hand moved away from the body). Positive words were judged faster than negative words in L1 and L2 showing the relation between the RT, length of the trajectory and valence. Thus, the process of extracting the meaning of a word involves activation of the representation of response actions, the readiness for which can be observed in L1 as well as in L2.

Dmitry Zalmanov (Institute of Linguistics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Russia)
Andrej Kibrik (Institute of Linguistics, Russian Academy of Sciences; Lomonosov Moscow State University, Russia)
Referential Choice: Short Definite Descriptions and Referent Activation Level
PRESENTER: Dmitry Zalmanov

ABSTRACT. We test the claim that the use of short definite descriptions (SDDs) for referent mentions in discourse (e.g., the country) corresponds to a specific range of referent activation in the speaker's working memory, lower than the activation level necessary for pronoun use and higher than the level corresponding to proper names (PNs). Data from the WSJ MoRA 2020 corpus of English written texts suggest that the use of SDDs and PNs corresponds to one and the same activation range. Referential distance is highly correlated with activation, and we compare the distribution of two distance metrics, linear distance and rhetorical distance, across SDDs and PNs. We have found the differences to be statistically insignificant. Furthermore, we demonstrate on the corpus data that at least four factors operate that affect the choice between SDDs and PNs, while not being directly related to activation, namely: referent animacy, referent number, relative length of the SDD and the PN for the given referent, and prior mentions of the referent by means of an SDD within the current text.

Kirill Elin (Higher School of Economics, Center for Language and Brain, Russia)
Svetlana Malutina (Higher School of Economics, Center for Language and Brain, Russia)
Olga Dragoy (Higher School of Economics, Center for Language and Brain, Russia)
Aleksei Marinets (National Medical and Surgical Center named after N.I. Pirogov, Russia)
Oleg Bronov (National Medical and Surgical Center named after N.I. Pirogov, Russia)
A New, Reliable, fMRI Mapping Paradigm in Russian for Language Mapping
PRESENTER: Kirill Elin

ABSTRACT. Reliable individual localization of language-related brain regions remains a crucial area of research due to its implications for everyday clinical practice. One of the most promising approaches is basedon functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). To take full advantage of preoperative fMRI, it is necessary to develop an optimal language paradigm. The current study presents a new presurgical language localizer in Russian. The proposed localizer attempts to overcome to shortcomings of various previous approaches.The proposed paradigm is also, to the best of our knowledge, the first one which was constructed and validated to be used in Russian, thus, addressing the problem related to the lack of presurgical language paradigms in languages other than English.