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08:00-09:00 Registration and Breakfast

Danishes and quiches will be available along with coffee and tea. 

Location: ABS Lobby
10:30-10:45 Break

Coffee and tea will be available.

Location: ABS Lobby
10:45-12:00 Session 3A: Priority 1 - Understanding risk systems
Introduction of a new SATREPS project in Indonesia: Building sustainable system for resilience and innovation in coastal community
PRESENTER: Anawat Suppasri

ABSTRACT. SATREPS is a Japanese government program that promotes international joint research. This program comprises support from the Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST) and the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) based on the needs of developing countries. A new research project is officially started from 2022 to 2026 to develop green infrastructures / eco-disaster risk reduction (Eco-DRR) using the sandy beach and mangrove targeting Indonesia. Indonesia is facing various types of coastal hazards such as tsunamis, high waves, and erosions. There is a prior project in Bali supported by JICA, but scientific support for monitoring, erosion mechanism elucidation, long-term forecasting, and erosion countermeasures is considered essential. Bali, East Kalimantan, Ambon, and south Java are this project's four main study areas based on their importance from an industry, economy, tourism, and ecosystem point of view. In this project, a guideline and database will be developed to improve the defense function of coastal areas based on the latest scientific evidence, such as monitoring, modeling, and green infrastructure. The project also aims to transfer the monitoring network and analysis techniques using the latest technology to improve the defense function of coastal areas in harmony with disaster prevention, environment, and economy. The objective is to realize the social implementation of creation in 5 to 10 years. As social implementation based on this scientific data, the project attempt to build a platform for consensus building, and these results will contribute to the realization of a “super-smart society,” which is the fusion of cyber and physical space as a fundamental technology in Japan’s 5th Science and Technology Basic Plan. In order to realize the objectives, this project aims to develop the following four research projects: 1) transfer of wave observation technology in coastal areas of Indonesia, development of monitoring technology for sandy beaches and mangrove forests; 2) construction of multi-hazard evaluation methods for waves, tsunamis, and floods; 3) disaster mitigation functions by mangroves and sandy beaches against waves, tsunamis, and floods; 4) Establishment of environmental education and eco-tourism to promote maintenance and management of green infrastructure, systematization of evacuation planning and education for backlands areas, and consensus-building methods. The project has members from many institutions from both countries to accomplish the research and social implementation goals. Main Indonesian members are from ITB (project leader from Indonesian side), PUPR, BNPB, USK, UGM, BRIN and UI. An integrated platform for coastal defense technologies will be finally built based on these four research topics to achieve Sustainable Development Goals, monitoring, risk assessment, and sustainable systems for coastal areas through science, technology, and innovative approaches under this project.

A new method for evaluating tsunami damage to coral reefs in Maldives
PRESENTER: Elisa Lahcene

ABSTRACT. The Republic of Maldives forms the central part of the Chagos-Maldives-Laccadive ridge. The archipelago extends on 860 km long (north to south) and 130 km wide. It gathers around 1,200 islands and 22 major atolls, offering one of the greatest coral’s diversity in the Central Indian Ocean. The Maldivian economy (i.e., tourism and fisheries industries) is strongly dependent of its coral reefs resources. Coral reefs also play a capital role in coastline protection against tsunami hazards, especially because the average land elevation of those islands ranges from 0.5 m to 2.5 m above the mean sea level, so coastal communities are very vulnerable to flooding and sea level rise. After the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami (IOT), several field surveys have been conducted to investigate the relationship between coral reefs and tsunami waves. However, in the literature, opinion on the buffering role of corals on the coastline is divided. It is thereby imperative to understand the benefits of coral reefs on low-lying islands during tsunami attacks. Here, we parameterize the coral cover (e.g., structural diversity and distribution) of the Maldivian archipelago in tsunami numerical modelling. We use the 2004 IOT as a benchmark scenario and modelled its hydrodynamic features (i.e., flow depth, flow velocity and hydrodynamic force). We then reproduce the coral damage observed along Maldivian coral reefs after the 2004 IOT. The method developed here is a first step to improve our understanding of the coral reefs response during future tsunami attacks. It is also a contribution to (i) forecast adequately the vulnerability of Maldivian archipelago, (ii) strengthen hazard mitigation and (iii) enhance reef resilience in the coming years.

Living with water: Coping and adapting in flood-prone areas in Bangkok-Nonthaburi communities along the Mahasawat canal.

ABSTRACT. Nowadays, in Thailand, Bangkok city's growth has spread to a wide area, causing the importance of the rivers of Bangkokians to be replaced by buildings. Roads and real estate projects replaced the canals. They are causing flooding problems for Bangkokians every rainy season. Currently, Bangkok is constantly facing flooding. By many factors, the greater the amount of rainfall, rising sea levels due to climate change, lower ground, and numerous buildings blocking the drainage channel "Klong Mahasawat" is an essential canal to the west of Bangkok. It serves as a transportation route, the border demarcation line between Bangkok and Nonthaburi, and a diversion route for Bangkok during the flooding season. This research aims to 1. Perceptions and adaptation in flood-prone areas of communities along waterways, both old and newly formed communities along the banks of the Mahasawat Canal. 2. To understand the risk perception and response of the old and new communities. This study summarizes physical changes and land use on community flood risks. In addition, an analysis of the adaptability and resilience ability of the old-new communities.

Development of an indicator approach for measuring building flood vulnerability in data-scare regions of the Philippines: A case study in Carigara, Leyte
PRESENTER: Rowzen Caro

ABSTRACT. Floods continue to be a destructive natural hazard that impact lives globally, leading to significant loss of life, destruction of infrastructure, environmental damage, and long-term socio-economic impacts. To model flood impacts, various methods are used to identify their location and severity. However, there remains a gap in flood vulnerability assessments in low- and middle-income countries like the Philippines, where data scarcity make performing accurate hazard vulnerability assessments difficult. Using a case study of the Municipality of Carigara in the province of Leyte in the Philippines, we quantify flood vulnerability by proposing an index which identified and examined weighted indicators, such as building materials and height. The choice of indicators provided a simplistic collection of data that can be replicated for wider application across the Philippines. Remote sensing in form of Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) data, collected by the Philippines Department of Science and Technology, was used to determine building heights in combination with building footprint data from OpenStreetMap. Building material data was collected through a field survey of nearly 16,000 structures. Additional surveys using observed flood damage data was used to validate these, and other, indicators. The research conducted will be applicable to other data scare regions at a national scale. Ultimately, the findings provide Local Government Units (LGUs) and other decision makers in the Philippines with a simple yet effective tool to assist in making informed decisions on flood interventions and help communities prepare for, cope, and mitigate the impacts of flooding.

Tsunami spatial vulnerability index using multi-source satellite imageries and geospatial big data in Aceh, Indonesia

ABSTRACT. Natural disasters such as tsunami can shatters the established infrastructure and have been great challenges for archipelagic country such as Indonesia. The Indian Ocean Tsunami in 2004 impacted the Indonesia and Aceh was unfortunate to be one of the most devastated areas. Recovery from such a tremendous event can take a significantly huge amount of cost, time, and human resources. In this study, we aim to explore the potential benefit of multi-source satellite imageries and geospatial big data which are publicly available, have timely update, and offer well granularity. We develop a tsunami spatial vulnerability index (TSVI) to represents the exposure tsunami disaster possibility and its impact in a certain area under 1km x 1km resolution. TSVI is constructed using Multi Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) and Pearson Correlation Coefficient Weighted Sum (PCCWS).

10:45-12:00 Session 3B: Priority 2 - Enhancing risk governance
The impact of psychosocial training as an effort to strengthen BPPA’s capacity for better disaster risk governance in Aceh province

ABSTRACT. Background: The Aceh Disaster Management Agency (BPBA) collaborates with Ar-Raniry State Islamic University (UIN Ar-Raniry) was implement a Psychosocial Training program for disaster activists in Aceh province. Objective: To develop and implement psychosocial training programs for disaster activists in Aceh Province as an effort to strengthen Aceh Disaster Management Agency (BPBA)'s capacity for better disaster risk governance. Methods: ATraining Needs Assessment (TNA) was conducted and six psychosocial training materials were determined. The training was carried out for 3 days. The method of delivering material is based on a theoretical approach and a combination of various appropriate methods and was given to 30 disaster activists in Aceh province in batch one for validation. A structured questionnaire in the form of a Likert scale was given every day to validate and evaluate the material, content, methodology, suitability with needs in the field, and the overall training implementation process. The final version of the psychosocial training program, which was evaluated by trainees in batch one, was re-tested by 30 disaster activists in Aceh province in batch two. Results: The trainees gave an average score of '5' (Excellent) for the validation and evaluation of the materials, content, methodology, suitability to needs in the field, and the overall training implementation. They approved that Psychosocial Training that was developed played a role in improving and strengthening BPBA's capacity for better disaster risk governance. Conclusion: The developed psychosocial training program was found acceptable to strengthen BPBA's capacity for better disaster risk governance in Aceh province.

Religiosity, empathy and prosocial behavior of Indonesian Red Cross volunteers

ABSTRACT. Abstract Volunteers are trained individuals who are willing to donate their labour, services and time without expecting material benefits from the organization. But in reality not all volunteers have empathy and prosocial behavior. Some of them help by considering the advantages and disadvantages they will get when they provide assistance. The prosocial behavior decline phenomenon among volunteers today is very discomforting. Therefore, this study aims to examine the effect of religiosity and empathy on the prosocial behavior of Indonesian Red Cross volunteers in Aceh. This research was a quantitative survey using cross-sectional studies and data collected from selected individuals over a specific period. The researchers collected data from 399 volunteers (249 male and 150 females) using a non-proportional stratified sampling. Data were collected using three scales, (1) Islamic Religiosity by using SPPIM-R (2) empathy scale by using Interpersonal Reactivity Index, and (2) Prosocial Behavior by using PTM-R. The data were analyzed by multiple regression analysis (multiple regretion) and t-test. The results of the study showed a significant positive relationship between religiosity (r=.552; p<.00) and empathy (r=.352; p<.00) with the prosocial behavior of PMI volunteers. It also demonstrate a significant influence between the main variables and student demographics on prosocial behavior (R2=.522; p<.00). The conclusion of the study showed that the variables of religiosity and empathy can influence prosocial behavior variable (53.2%). Furthermore, it was found that there were no significant differences in religiosity, empathy and prosocial behavior between male volunteers and female volunteers. Respondents of this study developed the average-level of religiosity, whereas women were more religious than the male volunteers. While the average level of empathy is medium, where the female group is more empathetic than the male volunteers. However, respondents in this study had averagely medium level of prosocial behaviour too, the male student group was more prosocial compared to the female volunteers.

Public mistrust of drinking water quality in Puerto Rico post hurricane Maria

ABSTRACT. Climate change has affected Puerto Rico in an unprecedented way for the past decade. In September 2017, Hurricane Maria impacted the provision of potable drinking water by public water utility services due to power outages. The potable drinking water supply disruptions consequently decreased potable water quality, leading to increased water insecurity. Water insecurity is characterized by the absence of safe, reliable, adequate, and affordable water necessary for a healthy life. Nevertheless, not all households have been equally affected by post-disaster water insecurity. Socially vulnerable communities, such as the low-income older adults in Loíza, Puerto Rico, have been significantly impacted by water insecurity because they lack representation in water service decisions and resources to address water insecurity. Despite increased disaster reconstruction efforts in the aftermath of Hurricane Maria and the widespread understanding that post-disaster water insecurity is a concern, it continues to be under-addressed. One challenge may be that utility providers are not aware of the challenges that socially vulnerable groups experience related to water insecurity. As such, this study seeks to identify public perceptions of water quality risk levels and identify some adaptation strategies communities use in response to their perception of drinking water quality risks. Toward this goal, we conducted semi-structured interviews (N=22) with older adults in Loíza, Puerto Rico, to ascertain their perceptions of drinking water quality shared by them. We also asked about the adaptation strategies these older use in response to their perceptions of drinking water quality. Qualitative coding shows older adults have a general mistrust of the tap water provided by the public water utility services. The older adults in Loíza, Puerto Rico, adapt to the mistrust of tap water quality by relying heavily on some form of secondary water source such as packaged bottled water or resorting to the secondary treatment of tap water (e.g., the use of a water filter and boiling) before consumption. This research provides recommendations for addressing the widespread mistrust of tap water in Puerto Rico. Federal and local governments need to invest in improving water quality by providing reliable water infrastructure systems, especially after the damage caused by Hurricane Maria. Considering the widespread mistrust in water quality, we also suggest using carefully designed long-term communication strategies to communicate with consumers, such as workshops, community engagements, and campaigns about water quality improvement strategies adopted by water utility providers after Hurricane Maria.

Preventive nature of governance in risk reduction and disaster management
PRESENTER: Satgur Singh

ABSTRACT. The shift from response-based technique to the prevention-based approach in disaster risk reduction policies, is a challenging part of any governance system. Various countries faced several complex challenges while implementing policies related to disaster risk reduction and management. In general, every government tries to develop the governance systems which ensures the resource assurance, technical support, and disaster risk management. But several barriers have been faced during the implementation of such policies. This article explores the role of the Indian government in the field of risk reduction and disaster management governance in India with a case study of landslide risk management in hilly areas. Through the analysis of this preventive approach of governance, the efforts of the government are compared with the approaches for disaster risk reductions defined by the UNDRR. At last it has been concluded that the government appears to have made considerable efforts to move in line with widely accepted approaches. The noticed governance efforts showed the incremental improvement on existing disaster risk reduction approaches.

10:45-12:00 Session 3C: Priority 3 - Technology and tools for risk reduction
Development of local level storm surge hazard maps for potential use in storm surge evacuation and development planning

ABSTRACT. The eastern seaboard of the Philippines is highly exposed to tropical cyclones. The hazards associated with typhoons consist of strong winds, storm surges and heavy rains-causing floods and or landslides. In order to assess the disaster vulnerability of local communities to storm surge hazard, a case study was carried out on the generation of Storm Surge Hazard Maps for Selected Typhoon Bopha (Pablo) affected areas in Regions 10 and 11 in the eastern coastal plain of Mindanao area. The methodology employed in this project involved: storm surge model simulation of the Typhoon Bhopa, field works, analysis and mapping. The work was carried out using the LiDAR derived Digital Elevation Model (DEM) to identify inundation depths and extents and utilizing ArcGIS software for the analysis. The numerical simulations used to come up with the storm surge hazard maps include the JMA Storm Surge Model, Delft3D, XBeach and the SWAN Model for the offshore wave heights. Results from the models were then ground validated and pertinent data related to Typhoon Pablo were also gathered. Interviews with residents with personal accounts of the storm surge event and measurements of high water marks were gathered to determine the correctness of the initial storm surge hazard maps. Topographic survey using Real Time Kinematic Global Navigational Satellite System (RTK-GNSS) was also collected in the municipalities of Boston, Cateel, and Baganga in Davao Oriental to capture relevant natural and anthropogenic topographic features such as beach face, dunes and seawalls. The storm surge hazard maps produced in this project basically show on a local or barangay level showing the inundation depths and extents to raise the awareness and understanding of the general public of the storm hazard threat and as an effective tool for local authorities for development planning and regulatory processes.

Probabilistic tsunami hazard assessment (PTHA) for West Coast of Aceh Besar
PRESENTER: Ibrahim Ibrahim

ABSTRACT. Tsunamis are rare compared to other disasters but have devastating consequences. Indonesia has a high risk of a tsunami disaster. In the last 100 years, more than 24 tsunamis and more than 235,000 fatalities have occurred. Since the devastating 2004 tsunami in the Indian Ocean, a lot of research and work has been done to reduce the impact of future tsunamis in Indonesia, including in Aceh, especially on the west coast of West Aceh. The area along the coast was destroyed by a tsunami as high as 15-30 meters, resulting in the loss of life, housing, tourist areas, industrial areas, and other public facilities. Given that tsunami disasters are rare and sometimes occur long in advance, so that memory and awareness are reduced, making research on the level of tsunami awareness of disasters is a challenging task. Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Assessment (PTHA) is a method that has been developed to predict tsunami hazards with a return period of hundreds of years to thousands of years beyond the limited availability of historical data. The PTHA method will provide important information that supports tsunami risk management measures. This study aims to predict the long-term tsunami risk on the west coast of Aceh Besar using the PTHA method. In this study, the source of the tsunami is caused by fault activity at sea, although in PTHA, it can also be analyzed for other causes of tsunamis, such as erosion and other non-seismic caused. Several tsunami scenarios based on fault parameters (earthquakes with magnitude Mw 8.0 to 9.2) will be applied in this study. The expected result is to provide an overview of the characteristics of the tsunami hazard along the coast of the region, facilitate tsunami disaster mitigation efforts, support evidence of decision-making related to risk mitigation activities, and the development of plans.

Optimization of fire station distribution based on geographic information system in Sabang
PRESENTER: Yasmin Yasmin

ABSTRACT. The fire disaster in Sabang City from 2018 to 2021 occurred as many as 21 incidents with 15 incidents of forest and land fires and 6 occurrences of residential fires. Sabang City has 22.01% high risk, 77.92% moderate risk, and 0.07% low risk of fire. Losses due to fires that occurred in Sabang City from 2018 to 2021 were the burning of 4 units of houses, 14 units of shops, and 3.05 hectares of forest and land. One of the countermeasures that can be done is setting the right location for the fire station. This study aims to determine the current range of firefighting services and recommend the location of fire stations in Sabang City. The recommendation for the location of the new fire station is determined based on land use, travel time, accessibility, current fire service coverage, land availability, population density, and building density. This study uses the type of secondary data obtained from related agencies. The data that has been obtained is processed using ArcGIS Pro 2.9.1 software by creating network datasets and overlays. The processed data were analyzed using spatial methods in the form of model simulations. The simulation of this research model was carried out using the network analysis method with the service area tool from the ArcGIS Pro 2.9.1 software. The results show that the current reach of the Sabang City fire service cannot reach the entire urban area of Sabang City within 5 (five) minutes in the event of a fire disaster. The results of the study recommended 3 (three) new fire stations in the urban area of Sabang City spread over 3 (three) gam-pongs, namely station 1 (one) in Balohan, station 2 (two) in Batee Shoek, and station 3 (three) is in Beurawang.

Reinforcement learning optimization of emergency relief supply delivery with multi-UAVs
PRESENTER: Daiki Hachiya

ABSTRACT. Humanitarian logistics, following large-scale disasters, play an essential role in saving affected human lives. Among various critical issues, one concern in humanitarian logistics is the sufficient, rapid supply of emergency relief goods in the case of disaster affected areas that become isolated and suffer supply-chain disruptions, for example from, traffic congestion, road damage, flooding, and other system failures. It becomes highly impractical for conventional land-bound carriers (such as trucks) to deliver supplies in such a case. In addition, helicopters require trained pilots who might not be available near the affected area. Thus, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) attract attention as an efficient and flexible means of transporting supplies. As for conventional logistics, inherent to land-bound carriers, it is necessary to consider UAVs' maximum payload capacity and energy constraints to implement an effective transportation plan. With these considerations in mind, we developed a plan to transport lightweight, urgent supplies by way of multiple UAVs from a depot to several evacuation shelters, formulated as a list-mile distribution problem. We propose a reinforcement learning transportation model based on the Q-learning algorithm, to optimize the transportation schedule considering the quantity and type of supplies. This model aims to optimize two metrics: the urgency (priority) based on the type of supplies and the equity (balance) of distribution to each evacuation shelter while satisfying the constraints of UAVs under the unique situation of a disaster. In this study, several delivery strategies with different reward schemata were implemented, and each was quantitatively evaluated. This research contributes to new alternatives to scheduling the transportation of disaster relief supplies.

An open-source mobile geospatial platform for coastal climate resilience: Application to the Hunga Tonga–Hunga Ha'apai volcano eruption in Tonga, 2022

ABSTRACT. We present the development and application of an open-source mobile ICT system providing geospatial tools for environmental and livelihood monitoring in support of climate adaptation and disaster resilience. Pacific Island countries such as Tonga rely on livelihood services provided by agricultural landscapes and marine ecosystems which are vulnerable to myriad threats and pressures, including from climate change and associated environmental hazards. Through an iterative ICT for Development (ICT4D) framework, an open-source geographic information tool was developed collaboratively by geospatial researchers and Tonga’s Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Forests (MAFF) to support spatial surveys and monitoring of coastal agriculture for the entire Kingdom. The tool and the data collected became highly useful in aiding response to the 2022 Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha’apai volcano eruption and tsunami, facilitating assessment of farm/crop loss and other impacts and informing decision making over resource and relief allocation. In this paper, we discuss the tool and its value for climate and disaster resilience in Tonga. We also explore knowledge gaps and potential future tool applications, including mapping and monitoring of coastal and marine environments and ecosystem services important for Indo-Pacific livelihoods and climate adaptation, and the value of such open-source mobile geospatial data tools for disaster recovery and resilience applications more broadly. Through this work, we highlight the importance of stakeholder engagement and advocate for increased adoption of participatory geospatial approaches to landscape, marine, and disaster resilience monitoring.

10:45-12:00 Session 3D: Priority 4 - Inclusion towards better recovery
Enhancing planning for inclusive response: Lessons learned from the PIONEER model

ABSTRACT. People with disabilities and older people are among those most impacted by disasters yet are more likely to be excluded from disaster preparedness, response, and related decision-making processes especially at the local level. As a result, many disaster responses are not adjusted to the needs of people with disability and older people, even if adjustments are made, they are only done during the process and not since the beginning. The PIONEER (Partners for Inclusion: Localising Inclusive Humanitarian Response) model is an innovative approach that aims to rectify this problem by facilitating the involvement of people with disabilities and older people in throughout the local humanitarian response process, starting from the planning stage. By creating creates spaces for local organisations for people with disabilities (OPDs), older people’s associations (OPAs), and humanitarian organisations to co-design, deliver, monitor, and evaluate disaster response jointly as local actors. This study aims to draw lessons learned from the PIONEER model being implemented in Magelang and Sigi District, Indonesia, particularly how it enhances the planning stage to deliver a more inclusive disaster response. The data was obtained through secondary and primary surveys, including reviewing relevant literature, virtual Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) with several representatives from the OPDs, OPAs, and local humanitarian organisations, in-depth interviews with government representatives and questionnaires. A combined qualitative approach is used to assess the extent of involvement of OPDs and OPAs in disaster response based on four indicators of meaningful participation (Representativeness, Capacity, Partnership, and Accessibility) before and after the implementation of the PIONEER model. The results indicate that using the PIONEER model in the disaster response programme makes significant changes, especially in the planning stage. Representatives from OPDs and OPAs actively give input in planning meetings for disaster response activities and there isa capacity improvement in the preparation of proposal for humanitarian responses activity. The partnerships and coordination with local humanitarian organisations are improved, and the OPDs and OPAs also stated that their accessibility needs had been met by local humanitarian organisations during the planning stage. This reflects that the PIONEER model is an effective method for a more inclusive disaster response because it can increase the role and participation of OPDs and OPAs right from the start.

Deconstructing the victim/agent binary in post-disaster spaces: How women bargain with the patriarchy in Sitio Macapaya, Philippines

ABSTRACT. On 16 December 2011, Tropical Storm Sendong hit the Philippines, with Cagayan de Oro City in Misamis Oriental as one of the hardest-hit cities. Ten years later, the impact is still being felt, especially for women who were forced to relocate. Feminists have argued that disaster responses have been limited due to the framing of women as either victims or agents, which are unable to fully address women’s needs or capture the complexities of their experiences. In response, we provide a gender analysis of the inadequacies of disaster recovery and reconstruction policies by drawing on a case study of post-disaster recovery in National Housing Authority-Cagayan de Oro City Bayanihan Village Phase 1 or Sitio Macapaya in Cagayan de Oro City, Philippines. We engaged with 20 women living at this relocation site. Our study is also informed by Deniz Kandiyoti’s concept of patriarchal bargaining. This refers to how women operate within patriarchal and societal constraints and identify strategies to maximise their opportunities in life, yet paradoxically, this reinforces existing gender norms and structures. The women identified the following challenges: the lack of essential utilities, the increased expenses after relocation, the inaccessibility of public health services, and their struggles with adjusting to a new environment. Amid these difficulties, women also found new roles and opportunities in paid work and community leadership. On the surface, the case of Macapaya can be viewed as an ideal space for women since women are active and represented in key leadership roles in the community. In a way, the community diverges from case studies in most gender and disaster literature, which often demonstrates that women are invisible and silent in post-disaster spaces. However, this does not mean that participation and leadership equate to emancipation and empowerment. There is an unequal burden placed on women to participate in community care and be “selfless”. Our study shows that women exercise their power and agency by looking for ways to earn and hold leadership positions in the community. And yet, they remain constrained by patriarchal structures and expectations of female altruism. The binary framing of women as victims/agents fails to account for the complexities between the interactions of individual choice and gender norms. We, therefore, argue that in order for post-disaster relief to be gender-responsive, policymakers and service providers must analyse the situation from a feminist lens and pay attention to women’s intersectional needs.

Disaggregating gender data in the Great East Japan Earthquake in 2011

ABSTRACT. Introduction: When implementing inclusive disaster management, disaggregating gender-sensitive data from disasters becomes a global challenge. For example, there is a lack of gender-sensitive disaster records in Japan, where the OECD Gender Gap Index is low. After Japan suffered tremendous damage from the Great East Japan Earthquake (GEJE), their government advocated for the preservation of disaster records to verify and pass them on for scientific purposes. With this background, many disaster records were created after the GEJE. This study aims to understand the trends that exist in these disaster archives by examining how the GEJE records recorded gender-sensitive manners. This research makes it possible to discuss ways to construct gender-sensitive records following disasters. Research Method: Miyagi and Iwate Prefectures were damaged in the GEJE. This study examined the amount of archival content for Miyagi and Iwate using the terms “building damage,” “casualties,” and “population of flooded area.” Furthermore, a search of online searchable archives was conducted using the keywords “gender” and “women” to find out what disaster records specifically collected about women had been archived. Results and Discussions: We found that the amount of archival content records in Sendai was low. However, the city had the most building damage of all the municipalities in Miyagi Prefecture. In Iwate prefecture, the amount of archival content records for Otsuchi was low, despite having the highest number of victims. The mainstream archives in both prefectures contain approximately 0.2% of all disaster records relating to women. The National Women’s Education Center (NWEC) Women’s Archive for Disaster Relief is an example of an archive that serves as a supplement to the records for women. According to these records, many women suffered in evacuation centres after the GEJE. These records are thorough but are not linked to mainstream archives. This makes it challenging to find gendered disaster records in mainstream archives. To develop plans to reduce disaster from an inclusive perspective, it is necessary to establish a disaster record that plans equitably by taking gender differences into account.

Psychological preparedness of at-risk Indonesian communities to disasters: A systematic review

ABSTRACT. Objective: The objective of this systematic literature review is to explore psychological characteristics and constructs that influence Indonesian people’s ability to anticipate uncertain future events such as disasters and crises, including health-related problems such as COVID-19. Introduction: Being situated in the “Ring of Fire” has put Indonesian communities at risk of various natural hazards. Hence, the adoption of preparedness behavior is an essential key to anticipate any casualties caused by disasters, crises, etc. To date, preparedness initiatives are mainly focusing on physical aspects. Furthermore, there are only limited studies on psychological preparedness to disasters, especially in the Indonesian context. Inclusion criteria: This review is limited to studies conducted following the Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami, from 2004 until 2021. Only empirical studies within Indonesian settings were considered in this review and focusing on preparedness and emergency situations. Methods: The study includes peer-reviewed literature about psychological preparedness in Indonesia context published in international and Indonesian journals. Articles were identified from six international databases (Scopus, PsycInfo, ProQuest, EBSCO, JSTOR, and Web of Science), two Indonesian journal databases (Garuda Ristek, and and Google Scholar. The search of studies was conducted from January 14, 2022 until February 14, 2022 and was limited to studies in English and Indonesian. Rayyan Intelligent Systematic Review Software was used to assist identification and screening, of which the result is presented in a Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA). Selected studies were extracted using the defined tool to meet the review objective and further appraised using Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool (MMAT). Results: 3,266 peer-reviewed journal articles were identified but only 16 met the inclusion. 3,250 articles excluded include those about psychological preparedness outside Indonesia context; discuss material/physical preparedness or mitigation; discuss emergency or recovery phases of disaster; and conference paper and opinion pieces. Conventional content analysis adopted in this study and the result revealed three themes: (1) psychological factors influencing individual decision to be prepared in disaster, (2) the socio and cultural factors influencing psychological preparedness; and (3) lack of psychological preparedness to disaster measure in Indonesia context. Conclusion: The study concluded the needs to develop measure of psychological preparedness tailored to the construct and context of Indonesian communities as found in this study.

Determinants of disability in a vulnerable population - the elderly of Indonesia.

ABSTRACT. Disability is more prevalent among the elderly than any other age-group of the population. Thus, they constitute a vulnerable population, particularly in disaster situations when they face greater risks. The population of the elderly is growing rapidly in Indonesia. According to Statistics Indonesia (BPS) there are 29.3 million elderly (aged 60 years and above) in Indonesia as of 2021, which comprises 10.82 % of the total population. This number is estimated to increase to 48.2 million (15.77% of the total population) by 2035. Due to its geographical location, Indonesia is more prone to disasters and associated risks than any other country in the world. Many regions of Indonesia are highly susceptible to natural hazards such as earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, floods, droughts, landslides and tsunamis. Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) is an important strategy for minimising the impacts of dis-asters. The United Nations Sendai Framework for DRR 2015-2030 underscores the im-portance of disaster risk management and outlines seven clear targets and four priorities for action to prevent new and reduce existing disaster risks. Law 24 of 2007 of the Republic of Indonesia states that the implementation of disaster management during an emergency response should prioritise the protection of vulnerable groups. The vulnerability of the elderly to disaster increases with disability and undermines their ability to prepare, respond to and recover from disaster impacts. Therefore, in order to implement disaster risk reduc-tion programs more efficiently, it is vital to have a well-functioning database on the elderly with disabilities. Unfortunately, such a database is still lacking in Indonesia, or databases that do exist are not well organised or not widely usable due to differences in concepts be-tween different agencies of Indonesia. However, this gap can be filled by Functional Im-pairment data collected at National Socioeconomic Surveys (SUSENAS), conducted annual-ly by the BPS. The present study utilises the 2021 SUSENAS data to fulfil the following objectives: (i) to estimate the prevalence and distribution of the elderly with disabilities in Indonesia, and (ii) to identify the determinants of disability status among the elderly of Indonesia by using binary logistic regression. We use the concept of disability as adopted in SUSENAS, namely that the elderly with disabilities are those who experience physical, intellectual, mental, and/or sensory limitations for a long time, and experience obstacles and difficulties in interacting with the environment and participate fully and effectively with other persons. We found that as of 2021 the prevalence of disability among the elderly is 39.47%; the elderly with disabilities are mostly male, married/ever married, and live in ur-ban areas. South Sulawesi, Gorontalo, and North Maluku are the three provinces with the highest prevalence of disability among the elderly. We also found that age, marital status, living arrangement, morbidity status, place of residence (urban and rural), and region (Java-Bali and outside Java-Bali) have a statistically significant influence on the likelihood of the elderly being disabled. These findings provide very important inputs to various programs of DRR for the elderly in Indonesia.

10:45-12:00 Session 3E: Priority 4 - DRR amid COVID-19
Does work engagement mediate the effect of motivation on occupational commitment during Covid-19 pandemic?

ABSTRACT. This study aimed to explore the role of work engagement in mediating the effect of motivation on occupational commitment for teachers of SMK 1 Banda Aceh, SMK 2 Banda Aceh and SMK 3 Banda Aceh, during covid-19 pandemic. This study was conducted in June, July, and August 2020, in the time of covid-19 happened. From a total of 203 teachers, as many as 132 teachers were selected as respondents in this study using simple random sampling technique. The data tested using path analysis and the Sobel test as tools for data analysis and mediation test. This study found empirical evidence regarding the teachers during pandemic covid-19, that were : motivation had a significant positive effect on occupational commitment; motivation had a significant positive effect on work engagement; work engagement had a significant positive effect on occupational commitment ; and, work engagement was also found to be significant when mediated the effect of motivation on occupational commitment. These results indicate that the work engagement variable in the research model served as a partial mediating variable. The results also imply in increasing occupational commitment can be done either directly through increased motivation or indirectly through increased work engagement. These findings are unique to the testing conditions where testing was carried out during the covid-19 pandemic which is a virus that is endemic throughout the world. For academics, the findings can contribute to theory development, which can be compared between the previous theory and the results of the current theory of causality during the Covid-19 pandemic. Motivation can still predict work engagement and occupational commitment, especially for teachers who are working amid the covid-19 virus outbreak.

Residential satisfaction in the COVID-19 pandemic era: A case study in Banda Aceh City, Indonesia
PRESENTER: Aulina Adamy

ABSTRACT. There is a call from many architects and academics to redesign houses due to the pandemic of Covid-19. The underline reason is that the house cannot facilitate basic functions in responding to this extraordinary situation such as isolating a family member that is tested positive and other health protocols recommended by public health experts. There is a growing level of importance for the living space in order to meet people’s health and safety needs. Fully working and playing at home are also found challenging in a house that was not intended to. Indonesia is one of the countries with high number of mortality due to the Covid-19 virus which forced the Government to apply a lockdown policy, especially in provinces categorized as red-zone. Aceh is one where in months people are required to spend most of their time inside the house. During this period, specifically in August 2021, this study conducted an online survey on residential satisfaction in Aceh. The questionnaires were distributed with Google Forms through the Whatsapp application that is commonly used here. The objectives are to identify their satisfaction level with the house during the lockdown, to know the need for renovation if possible because of the “work from home” experience, and to know what parts of the house need to be facilitated if it can be redesigned. The questionnaire was modified from a similar study published in a high indexed journal. For adaptation, a validity test (Factor Analysis) and reliability (Cronbach Alpha) were carried out in the Greater Aceh region. The final result used descriptive analysis. A total of 409 respondents from Banda Aceh city were collected with the majority characteristics being women, educated, working, and from middle-income groups. Most respondents live with at least five family members in the house, as the owner, occupy more than 5 years, work from home, spend more time inside the house while lockdown, live in a complex housing area, single house design, and brick as the main materials. The result shows that moderate level of satisfaction with their house as a majority (41.6%) followed by satisfied (34.7%). They rate the property as still in good condition (64%) and 34.45% of them stated the need to repair. Mostly to work and study, respondents used the bedroom (54.3%), and only 14% of respondents have a study room. Also, the majority don’t have any room to do hobby activities (58,7%) yet, there is balance of respondents who believe their house can facilitate self-isolation activities (51%). While mostly they don't have the intention to change the design of their house, this study found that bathrooms, living rooms, and bedrooms are the spaces in which the residential demand better design in the future.

Personal protective behaviour of health care workers during the early phase of COVID-19 pandemic in Aceh, Indonesia
PRESENTER: Ichsan Ichsan

ABSTRACT. Introduction: The government of Indonesia conducted an extensive campaign on personal protective behaviour for healthcare workers as the population at high risk at the beginning of COVID-19 pandemic. This study aimed to evaluate personal protective behaviour of health care workers during the early phase of COVID-19 pandemic in Aceh, Indonesia. Method: An online survey was conducted on healthcare workers in Aceh Province from 24 to 30 March 2020. In total, 1132 respondents from 23 districts across Aceh filled in the survey, composing of 12 different health professions. Results: Most of the respondents were female (70%), doctors (34.3%), worked in hospitals (65%), and had been working for more than 5 years (44.2%). In regards to personal protective behaviour, vast majority of the respondents admitted to have had information about the COVID-19 pandemic from their working place (94.8%), had tried to increase self protection (96%), and always washed their hands before and after contact with patients (93.4%). Most of them perceived themselves as high-risk population to get infected with SARS-CoV-2 during their daily duties at work (92.8%), however majority of the participants had never got trainings related to management of COVID-19 patients (89.8%) and admitted that their working places had not provided adequate Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) (51%). Conclusion: This study found that the awareness of healthcare workers in Aceh on personal protective behaviour at the early phase of COVID-19 pandemic was good, however, they felt that their working places had not provided enough protection for them who had to work at the frontline during Covid-19 pandemic. Health crisis preparedness is crucial in Aceh province to strengthen the public health capacity, create a community resilience and preparedness for the upcoming outbreak or health disasters in the future.

Interaction competency on work performance through smartphone self-efficacy during COVID-19 pandemic

ABSTRACT. The present of this research aimed to investigate the role of interaction competency in affecting work performance through smartphone self-efficacy during the covid-19 pandemic in 2020. Respondents were all the college students who used smartphones and they were active in student activity units. The respondents specifically were from faculty of economics and business, Universitas Syiah Kuala, consist of male students 45% (n = 50) and female students for 55% (n = 60). This study used path analysis. The result showed that during covid-19 pandemic, Interaction Competency affected work performance, interaction competency affected smartphone self-efficacy, smartphone self-efficacy affected work performance, and interaction competency affected work performance through smartphone self-efficacy as mediating variable. From the result also we can see that smartphone Self-Efficacy acted as mediator. In other words, the tested model proves that an increase in work performance can be predicted by an increase in interaction competence, either directly or mediated by smartphone self-efficacy. Students who are able to increase their interaction competence while doing their assignments in their activity units during the Covid-19 pandemic, will be able to influence their ability to increase their smartphone self-efficacy to complete their tasks, and will impact on increasing their work performance

12:00-13:00 Lunch Break

Sandwiches and drinks will be provided. Halal and vegetarian options will be available.

Location: ABS Lobby
13:00-14:15 Session 4A: Priority 1 - Modelling hazards and damage estimation
Investigation of potential earthquake zone by seismic stress changes analysis in subduction zone at west coast of Sumatra

ABSTRACT. The subduction pattern of the west coast of Sumatra is different from that of the south of Java. On the west coast of Sumatra, the subduction pattern is divided into two, perpendicular and parallel to the direction of the trench. The complexity of the subduction pattern results in a high distribution of earthquake activity. The activity of the Sumatran subduction zone is indicated by large number of recorded small to large scale of with a magnitude of M >8 have occurred. A series of large earthquakes that occur are believed to be able to trigger other earthquake sources in the vicinity, thereby accelerating the process of releasing energy. This study aims to analyze changes in seismic stress to determine potential earthquake zones in the future. The analysis uses focal earthquake data with magnitudes of M > 6.5 occurring along the west coast region of Sumatra. The results of the study conclude that there are at least 3 zones of potential earthquakes that can be caused by the subduction zone of the west coast of Sumatra. Earthquake potential zone, consistently observed at depths of 30 km, 40 km, and 50 km. Although scientists suggest that the Mentawai zone can produce large earthquake, it is found that there is no indication of the increase in the stress because of the release of the seismic energy three times in the zone from 2009 to 2011 with magnitudes M > 7. The results of stress change study is a part of understanding earthquake hazard especially possible future large earthquakes in west coast Aceh.

Earthquake performance evaluation and possible strengthening the typical school buildings in Indonesia
PRESENTER: Yunita Idris

ABSTRACT. Data shown that during earthquake in 2016 Pidie Jaya, Aceh and 2018 central Sulawesi earthquake, some school buildings amongst buildings that had severe damages. There is a need to raise awareness for reducing seismic risk for the school buildings, thus the understand of the potential vulnerability of the typical school buildings in Indonesia. This study examine the sample of Indonesian school buildings for each buildings earthquake performance during several strong earthquake in Indonesia, like Pidie Jaya Earthquake 2016, Lombok Earthquake 2018, and Central Sulawesi Earthquake 2018. The sample data of the school damages from each earthquakes is representative the school in Indonesia by construction typology. The typical school buildings are divided into three type of construction i.e. confined masonry, reinforced concrete and wooden frame with concrete walls. The analytical of potential damage for the representative construction type is validating with the reported data of the damage that had been collected previously in the aftershock field assessment. Each typical of construction is modeled by taking the representative data from the school damage data and then measuring the capacity of each school buildings using incremental dynamic analysis. Finally, the potential loss due to strong earthquake for each archetype of school buildings is provided and the possibility of strengthening method for the each typical damage is further presented.

Transferability assessment of a global model for multi-hazard building damage classification
PRESENTER: Sesa Wiguna

ABSTRACT. Building damage information is highly required for emergency response and recovery management. With deep learning techniques, satellite imagery has been widely used to serve rapid building damage assessment. However, deep learning methods require a considerable amount of training samples which is not always possible in the aftermath of a disaster. Therefore, this study focuses on the transferability of CNN models trained in global xBD datasets. The xBD dataset comprises images and building damage labels of nineteen disaster events from nine hazard types (bushfire, earthquake, fire, flooding, hurricane, tornado, tsunami, volcano, and wildfire) across the globe. The assessment evaluates four settings: the model directly applied to the targeted disasters using mono-temporal (post-event) images (Scenario 1) and pre-and post-event imagery (Scenario 2); fine-tune the model using a small number of training samples from the targeted disasters on mono-temporal (Scenario 4) and multi-temporal (Scenario 4). Our assessment consists of two steps: First, the performance of models trained using the three CNN architectures (Inception, EfficientNet, and ResNet) will be compared. Second, the version with the best performance in the previous step will be selected to assess the transferability of the model to four scenarios. Our preliminary results show that ResNet outweighs other networks with an average F1-score of 0.76. This study will contribute to improving rapid damage assessment for future events.

Generating multimodal data by fusing physical demand parameters and remote sensing data for tsunami damage estimation
PRESENTER: Ruben Vescovo

ABSTRACT. Current machine learning applications for disaster damage estimation mostly focus on image processing of remotely sensed imagery, often relying on post-disaster, fast return-period satellite data to perform change detection. Despite constant advances in these techniques, some common problems remain: (1) how will the model perform on a different domain? (2) how robust is the model when testing incomplete post-event data? We propose a multimodal fusion method to augment current techniques by producing artificial layers embedded with physical demand parameters, often used in regression analysis (Tsunami/Earthquake Fragility Functions), to supplement remotely sensed data. To verify the viability of physical parameters as domain transferable predictors, we initially trained a simple ensemble model to predict damage in three classes and test on a different domain. Our experiments suggest that training a simple model on physical parameters produces acceptable results even when testing on non-contiguous domains. In order to improve on this, we endeavour to design our artificial datasets based on pre-event building footprints and remotely sensed quantities, such as topography, and post-event training layers, such as inundation depth. Hence, we plan to design our baseline neural network considering successful implementations of machine learning methods in the field.

On the use of ray tracing to understand building damage in SAR imagery

ABSTRACT. Extracting building damage information after a disaster is of utmost importance in disaster management. Building damage detection in Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images has been receiving attention in recent years. The buildings with repeated point-like structure elements create a stable reflection of SAR signals known as persistent scatterers (PS). PS density, which is usually abundant on towers, antennas, or poles, can be critical in revealing the damaged condition of the corresponding structures after a disaster event. Even though SAR has been an ideal benchmark to identify the damaged condition of the buildings, there are still some difficulties associated with the extraction of the PS points on individual buildings. The similarity of spectral features in buildings, roads, or other artificial objects often leads to a mixture of backscattered radar signals, increasing the difficulties of localizing those signals. Given these limiting factors, the analysis of PS points and their identification in buildings remains promising for recognizing changes in these structures. Thus, we proposed utilizing a novel method of backway ray tracing SAR simulation for simulating radar reflectivity maps. RaySAR represents an Ideal SAR system enabling the simulation for detecting and localizing the position of the backscattered radar signal corresponding to the defined geometry of buildings in azimuth, range, and elevation. It would be of great significance to investigate buildings' multiple signal reflection phenomena concerning the damaging impact on the buildings. The separation of different bounce levels enables the inspection of the number of reflections on each building component (roof, bars, windows, etc.). Understanding the correspondence of salient reflections to the building damage features enhances understanding of the PS reflection pattern. The analysis of deterministic scattering could be further analyzed. Our proposal provides a prospective preliminary analysis of disasters to overview the possible PS points and the damaged buildings correlations. The study contributes to a more profound understanding of the nature of persistent scatterers on damaged buildings and the simulation effect of SAR on destroyed buildings. This study could be an essential step toward supporting the interpretation of salient radar signatures on Very High-Resolution SAR images corresponding to damaged buildings.

13:00-14:15 Session 4B: Priority 1 - Modelling tsunami impacts
Tsunami hazard and area vulnerability of Mohammedia City in Morocco - simulation on the reference tsunami 1755

ABSTRACT. The Atlantic coast of Morocco was exposed to the threat of the tsunami and is still threatened by it as a result of earthquakes that occur at the bottom of the Atlantic Ocean, and the city of Mohammedia is located on the Atlantic coast and is an important coastal city that has the largest oil deposits in Morocco and the petroleum port, and important residential neighborhoods. For this reason, we will try in this article to study the possibility of a tsunami occurring in this city using geographic information systems, and also based on a basic reference to a tsunami that had previously occurred in these areas and was strong, namely the tsunami of 1755 resulting or what is known as the Lisbon earthquake. In the end, let's draw a map of the danger that would result if such a wave occurred at the present time.

Systems for capturing and modelling the impact of tsunami vertical-evacuation (TVE) practices

ABSTRACT. Horizontal evacuation is the most critical and effective strategy to save human lives during a near-field tsunami emergency. Nevertheless, several exposed coastal areas worldwide are unlikely to achieve complete horizontal evacuation before the tsunami arrival due to long evacuation distances, rapid tsunami onset times, or poor spatial conditions for displacements. In these cases, vertical evacuation to high-rise structures (TVE) with an elevation above the maximum expected tsunami depth but within the inundation area is a possible alternative protection action for endangered populations.

While valuable research and applied efforts have addressed TVE issues like placement and design benchmarks, comparatively less attention has been paid to decision-making by evacuees. Moreover, the literature shows few integrations between these three broad research areas. This paper aims to contribute to the connection between them and, therefore, to develop more comprehensive TVE planning frameworks. To do this, we deliver a methodology that first includes the development of an agent-based model to diagnose current full-horizontal evacuation scenarios (daytime and night-time) for a destructive event in the tsunami-prone city of Viña del Mar, Chile. Second, we carry out a user-focused, immersive evacuation experience (comprising 151 interviewees) built around VR photography (i.e. interactive panorama) to collect the population’s preferences about existing buildings for serving as TVE shelters in the city. Lastly, we revisit the evacuation scenarios with the agent-based model, now including a group of 12 buildings (chosen from the users’ preferences) as vertical shelters. We assess the impact of these new alternatives in reducing the vulnerability of the evacuees.

Our findings demonstrate the potentially high impact of TVE in reducing human casualties due to the tsunami. Moreover, we shed light on the determinants of the evacuees’ preferences when choosing a vertical shelter, including aspects related to their previous hazard knowledge and the height and structural design of the buildings.

Tsunami evacuation simulation in the Barrio Barretto, The Philippines
PRESENTER: Natt Leelawat

ABSTRACT. To further understand the risk and effects of the tsunami disaster in Barrio Barretto, Olonggapo City, the Philippines, an agent-based simulation was used to simulate the tsunami disaster evacuation. This tsunami evacuation simulation can provide the possible situation which contributes to the first priority action of understanding disaster risk in the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030. The city of Barrio Barretto is located near Manila Trench. Thus, hypothetically, it can be influenced by tectonic activity in Manila Trench, which can be resulted in a tsunami hitting the city. Knowing such a possibility is one of the reasons for choosing Barrio Barretto as a study area. The risk was evaluated by the Regional Integrated Multi-hazard Early Warning System (RIMES). The objective of this study is to provide an overview of the evacuees on the scale of the entire city. The simulation is set into two models. In contrast, the second model, a traffic map model, would dive deep into a specific area and provide more information on the evacuation process, such as on-foot evacuation or vehicle evacuation. The findings can be used to prepare a guideline for the evacuation process as well as the evacuation plan.

Assessing tsunami inundation by coupling numerical simulation and machine learning
PRESENTER: Bruno Adriano

ABSTRACT. The current frameworks for real-time tsunami forecasting focus on two conventional approaches. First, using high-performance computers (HPC) to accelerate tsunami numerical computation. Second, constructing a vast pre-compute database of tsunami scenarios for specific areas of interest. These approaches present considerable drawbacks, such as HPC is not widely available, especially in developing countries, and a tsunami database must be continuously updated as the urban environment changes. Here, we propose a novel machine-learning-based framework to address those current limitations by integrating advanced deep neural networks (DNN) algorithms and numerical tsunami simulation. We implement a DNN that is trained using pre-computed scenarios of tsunami inundation. The network is trained to estimate high-resolution inundation features by finding corresponding patterns in a coarse tsunami dataset. The trained network can generate tsunami inundation features for extensive areas, achieving greater than 80% accuracy for scenarios outside of the pre-computed dataset. Furthermore, our trained network only requires a coarse tsunami as input, which, together with the DNN, is easily deployed using very light personal computers.

Tsunami arrival times for the Bay of Ambon: Linking tsunami hazards information to the city’s evacuation procedure

ABSTRACT. The Ambon bay has a central function from perpectives of geography and economic activities in Eastern Indonesia. On the other hand, they Bay is surrounded by a number of tectonic and nontectonic tsunami sources. The city of Ambon that has a population around 350,000 people is located along the bay. Some historical tsunamis, such as the one that occurred in 1950, has still not well studied until now. Furthermore, there is no enough information to be integrated in city-wide evacuation procedure for Ambon City. This study is aimed at estimating tsunami arrival times based on deterministic tsunami modelling and assessing inland facilities for city-wide evacuation. Tsunami simulations were performed using Cornell Multi-Grid Coupled Tsunami Model (COMCOT). Bathymetry data were adopted from GEBCO and Admiralty charts made by PUSHIDROSAL (Indonesian Navy Oceanography Survey Center). The simulations took four historical tsunamis sources, name,y from Tanimbar through (two events), Weber Sea, and from Banda Detachment. The results show that the shortest arrival time was about 37 minutes and it was indicated at the eastern part of the bay. Meanwhile, at some major populated area around the bay, the shortest arrival times were between 42 and 56 minutes. On the other hand, tsunami evacuation routes in the city have not been fully identified. Only one siren tower is available and it does not enough to reach the whole city area. Although there are enough hilly sides at both sides of the bay, the city has not been fully tested through tsunami drills. In 2019, there were several earthquakes caused massive panics in the city and it took more than 30 minutes for people to evacuate. This reserch results are expected to be integrated in the city tsunami preparedness.

13:00-14:15 Session 4C: Priority 4 - Housing and sheltering
Recovery and housing safety for residents after the 2014 earthquake, Thailand
PRESENTER: Titaya Sararit

ABSTRACT. 2014 Earthquakes were recorded as the strongest quakes that occurred inland in Thailand. The epicentre is located in Chiangrai province in the northern part of the country. This research aims to 1) analyze the housing recovery process. 2) Characterize the organization that aid recoveries, such as reconstruction funding and local community relations with government and non-government organizations. The survey polled 160 people about their earthquake experiences, and the study showed that in the case of earthquakes. Most public funds were organized by local governments, which collaborated with non-governmental organizations to share earthquake safety knowledge and materials to rebuild houses that would be resistant to future disasters. The local government and community relationship were the most critical factor in Thailand's housing recovery process. According to the reconstruction process and funding are dependent on local government and community decisions with sometimes negotiable and process better result to resident hosing recovery for earthquake 2014. that residents need funding support from the non-government organization since their house not destroyed, so they did not get reconstruction support. However, NGOs came to give residents money donations as well as some organization support for construction material that residents in Saikao, Chiangrai, one of the affected areas, could share the material, and NGOs also gave knowledge to residents about how to build a safer houses.

Design thinking used by informal builders in Puerto Rico

ABSTRACT. Informal housing is one of the primary challenges in disaster management, as its occupants are more exposed to natural hazards such as hurricanes and earthquakes. When Hurricane Maria hit Puerto Rico, it damaged 1.1 million homes. Housing recovery was slow primarily because forty percent of those who applied for FEMA assistance were denied and mostly because the houses were built informally by informal builders. An informal builder is a builder who may lack accreditation and formal education and training in construction methods, including selecting, handling, and appropriately treating materials. Since the informal builders are involved in designing housing structures, it is important to understand their manner of design thinking. Design thinking is described as an analytical and creative process that engages a person to experiment, design and prototype ideas, obtain feedback, and redesign. Emergent literature has studied local knowledge and learning styles of informal builders, but there is no information on how the builders think when they design houses. Understanding design thinking is critical because it helps identify misaligned analytical and creative processes that impede resilient housing construction design. To address the gap in the literature, this study investigates the design thinking of informal builders using ethnographic interviews with 15 informal builders in three municipalities in Puerto Rico. Through narrative analysis, preliminary results of 10 interviews show that housing designs were mostly based on structural and architectural considerations. Structural considerations include structural performance and integrity of the house, while architectural considerations include configuration, elevation, and layout of a building. Additionally, participants commonly used experiential analogies and comparisons to explain their reasons for the design. Experiential analogies are housing design concepts explained through experiences and compared to each other to create an idea. Because experiential analogies that emerged in the analysis include knowledge that does not align with engineering standards, highlighting these results will allow future trainers and educators to address their misaligned concepts. This study contributes to learning theories of engineering concepts in non-engineers through the study of informal builders' design thinking and understanding what analogies match their ways of thinking. Resilient housing in disaster-vulnerable areas requires capacity-building strategies, such as training local builders to build disaster-resistant houses and empowering communities to devise local solutions to promote safe housing construction. Such training for informal builders in Puerto Rico is necessary. In doing so, structural and architectural considerations align with the informal builders’ design thinking study and help guide organizations that provide training to local builders. Aligning with their design thinking guides teaching the key engineering standards, such as positive connections between beams and roof framing, correct masonry block-laying sequence, and proper material handling may maximize their learning experiences.

Owner-driven transformations to post-tsunami houses in Aceh, Indonesia

ABSTRACT. This presentation draws on a research project focusing on transformations to houses built after the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami in Aceh province, Indonesia. Extensive reconstruction programs were undertaken in Aceh by different agencies; nearly 150,000 houses were built by more than a hundred agencies. The Indonesian Government’s stipulation to restrict house sizes within 36 square metres and agencies following a standard design template for their projects resulted in homeowners subsequently finding it necessary to extend and remodel the houses to meet their household, social and livelihood needs. An owner-driven housing transformation process ensued and proliferated. The research explored some key issues: Reasons for the transformations; drawbacks of standardised houses from the perspectives of homeowners; possibilities for designs that can enable incremental house improvement and expansion; lessons from the transformation process that can inform future policy and practice in post-disaster housing reconstruction. This presentation discusses these issues by outlining the background and context leading to the transformation process and illustrates them with examples of transformed houses. Key implications are underscored for future housing reconstruction programs in the global context of climate change and consequent increasing frequency and intensity of disaster events.

Involvement of residents in disaster risk reduction toward community space and activities in a post-disaster housing projects

ABSTRACT. This study aims to evaluate residents' Involvement and risk perception in post-disaster housing projects in Namkhem community,Phang Nga Province, Thailand. After 18 years have passed since the Indian Ocean Tsunami in 2004. This research focused on relocated projects that now transform ownership from community to individual residents. The results were categorised by residents' involvement in community space and activity. The evaluation of resident involvement will focus on three main factors: 1) residents' satisfaction with housing and community space, 2) economic and social relations, and 3) disaster awareness activities. The survey results showed that residents, even though they moved to a new place because while they were involved in the construction process, they created relationships within neighbourhoods while building permanent houses together.

13:00-14:15 Session 4D: Priority 4 - Analysing post-disaster recovery
An overview of school selection as a school hubs after the 2018 Sulawesi earthquake and tsunami (a case study in Kota Palu and Sigi Regency)

ABSTRACT. The 2018 Sulawesi earthquake and tsunami on September, 28th 2018, was one of the unexpected disasters that have occurred in Indonesia, since there were three disasters; an earthquake, tsunami and liquefaction happened almost at the same time. The disasters that had a big impact on Central Sulawesi as a study area for the research, not only caused many casualties but also made many general and educational facilities damaged. One of the educational facilities that was damaged was a school. Schools that could be used as evacuation centers, especially when the disaster happened, turned out to be ones of the educational facilities that suffered a lot of damage during the disasters. One of the reasons is that the schools were almost located in the disaster-prone area. The aim of this research was to identify which schools can be used as school hubs. The method for this research was by doing a literature study from previous research that was related to the research, as well as collecting data and classifying schools in the study areas to see which schools were in disaster-prone areas and any other conditions. The results show that there are three schools that are located in Kota Palu and Sigi Regency which have the potential for school hubs with different types of hazards. These three schools are SMP Negeri 4 Kota Palu, which is located in the downtown of Kota Palu with the earthquake hazard, SMP Negeri 10 Kota Palu, which is located around the Palu Bay with the tsunami hazard, and SMP Negeri 1 in Sigi Regency, which is located near the location of the liquefaction hazard but also has an impact of the earthquake. These three schools can be used as school hubs because, even though the schools were located around the medium earthquake vulnerability zone, the schools are still in a safe zone for the buildings. So, the result of this could be a recommendation to make this school a school hubs, as it also can be served as an evacuation center for the area around the school.

Retrieving small area population dynamic trends after the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake

ABSTRACT. Post-disaster recovery planning requires population rates of change to diagnose future populations and rebuild accordingly. However, change rates are based on assumed dynamic feature continuance, and the tools and datasets for small area population dynamics are still limited when compared to national and sub-national regional forecasting. Evaluating these trends in an era of big and open data is vital to disaster recovery planning in dire need of accurate diagnostics. This study explores the uncertainties in population migration, fertility, and death rates subsequent to the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake. A ten-year interval (2011-2021) is assumed to be a strategic window of time for census-based population change rates. Probabilistic methods were used to compare affected and non-affected sites located in three rural wards of the Tohoku region. Mean differences and dynamic change rates intensified fewer births amidst the overall nationally depopulating trend. Results also depict a moderate/high out-migration rate with unstable in-migration rates. The population in affected sites experienced superior mean death rates over non-affected sites following relocation projects. These findings suggest that temporal disaggregation of census-based population data is fundamental to evaluate micro-dynamic singularities at the household level. The metrics derived from this study are particularly useful to small area forecasting models and form a basis for datasets with potential use in future disaster recovery planning schemes.

The transformation of the annual memorial ceremony ten years after the Great East Japan Earthquake
PRESENTER: Shiti Maghfira

ABSTRACT. At 2.46 on a Friday afternoon on March 11, 2011, a massive earthquake followed by a tsunami hit the northeast coastal area of Japan. The waves raved the coastline, taking the lives of almost 20,000 individuals and changing the livelihood of hundreds of thousands of bereaved and other survivors. To commemorate the tsunami fatalities, the city of Ishinomaki has held annual memorial services in public facilities annually for the last 11 years. An obelisk decorated the commemoration in the centre of the stage. The attendance citizens listened to the mayor express his condolences. The audience stood and took a minute of silence at the exact time of the earthquake. After an address by the representative of the bereaved family, the ceremony ended with flower offerings. The form of the ceremony is carefully organised by the city and many other municipalities across Tohoku. This paper asks: How has the memorial ceremony changed over the last ten years of the Great East Japan Earthquake? Does the city still conduct the ceremony as it did on the first anniversary? Will the original form still be used for future commemorations? This paper examines the changing of memorial services conducted after ten years of the Great East Japan Earthquake in the City of Ishinomaki in Japan through the looking glass of religion and other socio-cultural in Tohoku and the rest of Japan.

Aceh’s memorial sites for the dead of the 2004 tsunami
PRESENTER: Sebastien Boret

ABSTRACT. In recent history, the highest number of fatalities related to a natural hazard took place during the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami that drowned the lives of more than 310,000 people. In the province of Aceh alone, the Indonesian government estimated 129,775 fatalities and 38,786 missing people. The highest mortality rates were found in the areas of Aceh Jaya (23.6%) and the city of Banda Aceh (22.9%). Survivors, members of the Indonesian Red Cross and Red Crescent, and the local authorities, with the help of the army, worked tirelessly to retrieve, gather and dispose of the victims' bodies. Others tirelessly walked the streets flooded with bodies searching for their missing children and relatives. With religious beliefs, the vast number and the rapid decay of the corpses made it a priority to bury the dead in improvised mass graves. Scholars have already reported on the intense collective memorialisation of the dead of the 2004 Tsunami via ceremonies and communal rituals. However, there is yet little-written information available about the burial sites and the monuments, especially those where the victims' bodies were disposed of and remembered by the living. What happened to these sites? How do they help the bereaved? How are they tied to collective memories and narratives? Several mass graves in Banda Aceh, where thousands of tsunami victims were buried without identification, are common for bereaved families or survivors to visit and pray on the tsunami anniversary. Why/how do they see the mass grave to pray for the loved one without identification? The paper responds to these questions by examining several sites where survivors, newcomers, and visitors came to pray and pay their respect to the victims. It discusses the nature of the activities on the memorial sites, or lieux de mémoire, dedicated to the victims. Moreover, the authors analyse the collective dimension of prayers, mourning rituals, commemorative events, and activities that are not associated with the dead per se, such as so-called dark tourism and disaster education. They hope to show how mass graves became the sites of rich religious and cultural activities contributing to the psychological and social recovery of the people of Aceh.

Integrated the green-school in ecosystem-based disaster risk reduction (eco-DRR): Lesson learned from educational practices in the schooling

ABSTRACT. This study observes the implementation of Eco-DRR in Indonesia. In the last decade, education programs related to Eco-DRR have been promoted through green schools or 'Adiwiyata' schools. The research priority focuses on exploring student learning activities to map and describe the extent to which The Sendai Framework is implemented at the local level, especially in schools. This research is located in SMA Negeri 2 Banguntapan, Yogyakarta, Indonesia; which programmatically has an agenda to invite and involve students in conservation and restoration activities as an important part of implementing Eco-DRR. Data was collected through interviews, document analysis, and observation. Spradley's ethnographic data analysis was used to analyze the relationship between concepts, categories, and sub-categories. Data management and data coding using ATLAS.ti 22th Edition. The study revealed that the disaster experiences experienced by teachers have increased their knowledge, sensitivity, and awareness of Eco-DRR. The theme in Science cluster: climate change, viruses, and ecological balance. The theme in Social Studies cluster: natural disaster mitigation and adaptation, environment and sustainable development, mapping and geographic information systems for development, social change during and after disasters, community empowerment strategies in disaster mitigation, local wisdom in disaster mitigation. The Language cluster guides students' skills for effective reading, writing and speaking about climate change, environmental conservation, and disaster mitigation. To enable a more holistic and sustainable management of Eco-DRR, this study recommends the need for policymakers to listen to, assess, and respect the 'voice' of students in their efforts to prepare for risk reduction as early as possible.

14:15-14:45 Break

Coffee and tea will be available.

Location: ABS Lobby
14:45-16:00 Session 5A: Priority 1 - Inclusion and participation in recovery
The memory and the perception of risk in Sebesi Island

ABSTRACT. Categorized as small islands, Sebesi often characterized as vulnerable where its communities isolated and marginalized. The island has been impacted by volcanic eruptions, tsunami, earthquakes, flood, and illegal sand mining. Recently in 2018, again the island was hit by the Tsunami but unexpectedly claimed only one victim. History records that this island had experienced a catastrophic tsunami due to the Krakatau eruption in 1883. However, the economic interests revived the island with plantation activities, hence led to human re-inhabitation in 1940s. We studied the risk culture on Sebesi island to show the memory, perceptions, and responses of those facing risk in vulnerable communities. In this article, we build on existing understandings of risk culture as the entire complex, which includes knowledge, beliefs, art, morals, laws, customs, and all other abilities and habits that man acquires as a member of society to assertively respond to risky situations(Restrepo and Campis, 2013). We used oral history and archival studies to analyses the perceptions of risks and its responses when faced with risk in different contexts. The study revealed that the vulnerable community of the Sebesi Island has created risk culture as their adaptive effort to their environmental hazards. Uncovering the memory, perceptions, choice, and responses in Pulau Sebesi elucidates lessons to pursue resilient development trajectory on the island.

Environments for education and agency in child-centred DRR in the Philippines

ABSTRACT. Context of study/purpose: With the introduction of the SFDRR in 2015 children were formally recognised as agents of change on global efforts for DRR with a specific focus on education and knowledge. This environment is facilitated by the recent implementation of child-centred DRR programs (CCDRR), which aim to create an inclusive approach that includes families, communities, local government entities and service providers. Developmentally speaking, this teaching method recognises the importance of children’s concerns during the decision-making process of DRR and CCA interventions and policymaking. Activities are thus structured around the entire DRR lifecycle before, during and after disaster events providing the children a space for participation. One way of integrating and disseminating DRR and CCA information is through children education programs focusing on preparedness activities, such as drills, risk mapping, evacuation planning, and risk awareness. Teaching methods include both formal and informal channels of risk reduction activities. The past decade has seen a significant increase in DRR initiatives that are constructed for and with children. Despite all the merits that derive from these adult driven CCDRR programs, children are often found uneducated on the topic of risks and their agency is oftentimes underestimated or silenced. The question remains: “where is children’s participation of an autonomous character of agency and can they be agents of change?” This research opens the discussion on local-level adaptation initiatives that tackle climate change and disaster risks from a child-informed perspective. The study employs a qualitative approach conducted in both rural and urban disaster-prone areas in the Philippines. It includes interviews and focus group discussions with both adults and children on the topics of climate change and disaster risks. The study is based on a fieldwork trip conducted in April/May 2018. The data collection was partly supported by the Centre for Disaster Preparedness in Manila. The research highlights the importance of inclusive approaches to DRR and the importance of children’s input and knowledge as a valuable resource for risk communication, education and decision-making for risk reduction activities. The findings further reveal that comprehensive climate change education for children creates a natural platform for their subsequent participation in, and support of the DRR initiatives identifying, communicating, and taking action against local as well as global climate risk factors. It emphasises the potential role of children in DRR by identifying opportunities to establish their independent voices through specific knowledge and skill sets. The children’s shared experiences provide new insights for further DRR policy and decision-making processes in the Philippines. This research adds to the momentum for considering children as active contributors in climate change adaptation and DRR debates. It illustrates the necessity that effective knowledge transfer can indeed provide fruitful avenues for children to develop a protagonist role in DRR practices at the community level.

Disaster narrative of post the 2018 Central Sulawesi earthquake, tsunami and liquefaction
PRESENTER: Alfi Rahman

ABSTRACT. The 2018 Central Sulawesi earthquake, followed by tsunami and liquefaction, struck Palu, Sigi and Donggala. Disaster narrative concerning the way of local people experienced and narrated the disaster. The narrative could provide a way to understand the disaster narrative of local people and acknowledge the impact of disasters to build community resilience. The disaster narrative is not well understood and is often discounted in disaster risk reduction activities, especially among disaster-prone societies. Narrating and storing past disasters could be one of the approaches to understanding the disaster. For example, the Smong story in Simeulue demonstrated that the narrative of the tsunami saved lives when the 2004 Indian Ocean hit the Island. This study explores the narrative of post the 2018 Central Sulawesi earthquake, tsunami and liquefaction and how the Palu, Sigi and Donggala people narrated past disasters. This study applied qualitative, especially at the data collection level, by exploring the disaster narrative of the 2018 Central Sulawesi earthquake, tsunami and liquefaction. The data was obtained through a series of structured in-depth interviews and participant observations, and analyses of the data using the narrative analysis. This study was conducted in 2021 and 2022 and interviewed 40 informants in Palu, Sigi and Donggala. The informants were selected using purposive sampling. This research developed a bottom-up approach to disaster risk reduction that started from the local context conditions, including how the local people narrated past disasters and remembered past disaster experiences. We expect this research could contribute to disaster risk managers and related stakeholders in building future disaster risk strategies based on the basic understanding of risk.

The conditions of inclusion: Interrogating the rhetoric of global disaster risk reduction (DRR) policy texts on knowledge integration and inclusion

ABSTRACT. 'Knowledge-building' has long been regarded as a keystone strategy in strengthening communities' capacities, resilience, and adaptation strategies against hazards and disasters. From technoscientific discourses, the approach to knowledge-building gradually shifted towards a more integrative stance, involving place-based knowledges (i.e., local, indigenous, traditional) in international Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) frameworks. On the one hand, scholars indicate that DRR policies cemented an equitable and inclusive approach to knowledge-building. On the other, several observers noted that the lack of concrete examples of knowledge integration may indicate that the stipulations of global policies were but empty rhetoric. Taking into account these divergent views, I employed a transversal rhetorical analysis to understand how key global texts for disaster management produced over four decades of policymaking epicycles regard, categorise, and deploy 'knowledge'. By centring the analysis on metaphors as persuasive texts in global DRR policies, this presentation provides a third perspective about knowledge-building to argue that the rhetoric mirrored, rather than deflected, the reality of marginal knowledge integration. The presentation further illustrates how knowledge integration and inclusion meant the relegation of place-based knowledges to the category of 'accessories' to the techno-managerial features of DRR approaches.

14:45-16:00 Session 5B: Priority 1 - Vulnerability and marginalisation
A comparative analysis of mass burials in post-disaster Indonesia and Japan
PRESENTER: Sebastien Boret

ABSTRACT. Twenty-first century Asia has already suffered two of the highest fatalities related to natural hazards: The 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami and the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake. The 2004 tsunami drowned more than 310,000 people in 14 different countries. In the province of Aceh alone, the Indonesian government estimated 129,775 fatalities and 38,786 missing individuals. The 2011 tsunami in Japan resulted in around 20,000 deaths. In both cases, the survivors, emergency agencies, local authorities, and the army worked tirelessly to retrieve, gather and dispose of the victims' bodies. The vast number, religion and the rapid decay of the corpses made it a priority to bury the dead in improvised mass graves. The lack of capacity to carry out the conventional burial and the rapid decay of the body lead to mass burials as a temporary solution for dealing with the bodies of the dead. Large fields were converted into mass graves to contain several hundred to several thousand bodies. A few scholars have on the process of making these mass graves. However, there is yet little-written information about these burial grounds after the disaster. What happened to these sites? Are they tied up to collective memories and narratives? Have they been forgotten? Do they still hold a place in the grieving process or the heart of the bereaved families? This study provides the first survey of the memorial sites related to the victims of the 2004 tsunami in the area of Banda Aceh and the 2011 earthquake and tsunami in Tohoku. It discusses how while several of these collective graves in Aceh became greens parks, where survivors, newcomers, and visitors come to pray and pay their respect to the victims, others were returned to their original function, recycled or even forgotten. While in the Tohoku area, the bereaved family and visitors come to the reconstruction memorial park to pray to the victims without the presence of the dead bodies; only the names of the victims are written on the memorial plaque. The authors discuss the implications of these divergences by discussing religious, social and cultural specificities. Moreover, the authors attempt to discern how our conception and use of collective burials can be reassessed and improved to serve the bereaved and the wider grieving community to deal with and recover from such tragic mass fatalities.

Measuring social vulnerability to natural disasters and delineation of natural risk zones in Indonesia

ABSTRACT. Indonesia territory is a naturally disaster-prone region. Due to Indonesia’s high level of social diversity, losses from natural disasters vary considerably. However, the extent to which social vulnerability and risk to natural disasters have been discussed in Indonesia has been limited. Furthermore, there are few studies that analyze the resulting index’s uncertainty. As a result, it is critical to conduct a nationwide assessment of social vulnerability and delineation of natural risk. The Social Vulnerability Index (SoVI) was used to quantify social vulnerability in this study. This study employs 30 variables, which are standardized then reduced to seven factor using factor analysis which explain 72,064% of the variance. Socioeconomic status, population density, age and family structure, female population and special needs, villages with inadequate infrastructure, health insurance, and medical services are the seven factors. The SoVI scores were mapped using a standard deviation classification. Eastern Indonesia, as well as the Nias and Mentawai Island, have areas with high level of social vulnerability. The index that has been developed is sufficiently robust to be used in Indonesia to assess social vulnerability. Delineating risk zones was formed by integrating the map of SoVI with the susceptibility maps. The results indicate that the majority of Indonesia is at moderate to high risk of natural disasters. The results of the social vulnerability and delineation of natural risk assessment can be used to compare social vulnerability and delineation across Indonesian regions and to inform the formulation of policies aimed at reducing social vulnerability and the risk of natural disasters in the country

A case study of psychosocial and resilient of post the 2018 Central Sulawesi disaster
PRESENTER: Yulia Direzkia

ABSTRACT. This article reports on the experiences of adult survivors who are parents of students from three schools designated by the Resilient School Hubs Project “Fostering Resilient Recovery in Displaced Communities via School-based Hubs” as research subjects. Central Sulawesi, particularly four areas in Central Sulawesi, namely Palu City, Donggala, Sigi and Parigi Moutong District, experienced earthquake, tsunami and liquefaction disasters. The disaster is estimated to have killed 2,045 people and suffered a loss of 18.4 trillion, as explained by BNPB. Interviews were conducted with 48 parents from three different schools with different experiences of disasters, namely SMP Negeri 4 Palu, SMP Negeri 10 Palu and SMP Negeri 1 Sigi, which experienced earthquake, tsunami and liquefaction disasters. Interviews were conducted using the GEM (Grid Elaboration Method) method. This method typically uses the natural thoughts and feelings that a person holds in relation to a particular problem (Joffe, 2014). The results describe five themes that can be used as lessons for learning about the impact of disasters and emergency actions achieved, the ability of self-protection mechanisms, post-disaster coping ability and resilience. This report is followed by the analysis results using qualitative analysis methods.

Negotiating risk and leisure-resilience: Visiting tourism sites during the COVID-19 pandemic

ABSTRACT. The COVID-19 has forced us to rethink the ways we understand and manage risks in all aspects of our life including in the tourism sector. To reduce risks, almost all authorities across the world have imposed several levels of restrictions, such as restricted mobility and quarantine, which heavily affect local and global mobility, especially the tourism industry. Tourism sites such as museums, heritage sites, beaches, parks, etc must close and reopen their doors on and off for disaster risk reduction during the pandemic. Thus, this paper wants to know the reasons behind people choice, to visit or not visit tourist sites, and understand the ways society negotiates their risk during their visit amid the pandemic. To do this, this research conducted random semi-structured interviews with 118 people at most-visited tourism sites in Banda Aceh and Aceh Besar, Indonesia, areas which were also affected by the 2004 Tsunami Disaster. The paper argues that, to reduce risk of Corona Virus exposure, some people prefer to stay at home, especially in the early stage of the Pandemic. Later, however, some of them found being at home can minimize their risk of being infected, but they need to go out for leisure activities for psychological well-being. Visiting tourist sites is one coping mechanism for society to be resilient too. Besides health factors, respondents’ faith in the pandemic as true or false have influenced the ways people negotiate their risk and leisure in tourism sites.

Mapping civic engagement in the face of disaster through Machizukuri Japan's resilience: A social capital perspective

ABSTRACT. Machizukuri has established Japan as a successful model of community building and inclusive community engagement through institutionalizing a participatory decision-making system. Derived from Hyogo Framework for Action (HFA) and Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction (SFDRR), Machizukuri plays a pivotal role in managing disaster preparedness, management, and recovery, aligning with Disaster Risk Reduction efforts of civic engagement. The Machizukuri movement promotes peaceful rehabilitation after rapid-onset disasters such as the earthquake in Kobe (1995), Tohoku (2011), and Kumamoto (2016). This study applies Robert D. Putnam's Social Capital theory of bonding and bridging as a theoretical framework. Abductive reasoning in the qualitative method was used to review the literature acquired by a systematic engine-driven search of English-language publications between 1918 to 2022, using a Boolean search string technique. The result found that Machizukuri's existing study emphasized the topology perspective (rural and urban area) in Miyagi Prefecture, Fukushima City, Tohoku City, Kobe City, Tokyo, and Yamamoto. Machizukuri value reflects the social capital with positive outcomes in both typologies of bridging and bonding, including in topology areas to cope with rapid-onset disasters like the 2011 Tohoku Earthquake. The linking type of social capital by Michael Woolcock in 2001 emerged in a complex disaster event in Kyoto included in the result. However, Machizukuri was insufficient in the case of climate change and the Fukushima nuclear plant accident. Therefore, it is also significant to consider the reactive nature of Machizukuri in rapid-onset disasters to be developed into a proactive movement to facilitate innovation to climate change and build community resilience in slow-onset disasters

14:45-16:00 Session 5C: Priority 4 - Education to support DRR
DRR delivery lessons not only for children but also teachers: A motivational typology of schools in DRR education and beyond
PRESENTER: Mari Yasuda

ABSTRACT. The purpose of this study is to develop a motivational typology of DRR Education in schools from the experience of the YUI Project’s delivery lessons since the Great East Japan Earthquake. Based on that, we will discuss how to work with schools according to their motivations. The speaker has visited, for almost a decade, to elementary and secondary schools all over Japan and around the world (e.g., Indonesia, Thailand, Philippines, and the United States) as a project lecturer of YUI Project. The number of children that have learned is approximately 18,000 students up to SY 2021. The recent spread of the COVID-19 virus has made face-to-face delivery lessons difficult, but we have challenged ourselves to deliver lessons with a video and by remote methods. Through the experience of the DRR delivery lessons, school features have appeared recently. Two major types of schools were considered, and one of which could be further divided into two subtypes. These two types are “internally motivated” and “externally motivated,” and the later one can be further divided into “school principal motivated” and “other schools motivated”. An internally motivated school is a school that recognizes the need for DRR education and actively conducts the education by themselves. An externally motivated school is a school that does not recognize the need for DRR education by themselves, and could be differences in the degree of motivation to conduct DRR education. In the case of a school principal motivated school, for example, the motivation may be greater, but in the case of a other schools motivated school, the motivation may be less. In the former, they want to do something about it, but they don’t know how to do it, so they are not making a move. In the former case, it may be worked on without a clear understanding at all. When the speaker goes to schools to teach, I have several conversations with school people. At that time, I rarely teach schoolteachers myself in an intrinsic motivated school. On the other hand, in a school principal motivated school (one of an external motivated school), I can, of course, collaborate with, advise, or teach the teachers because they are desire to do something for DRR education. This kind of externally motivated school is probably not bad in this sense. However, an other schools motivated school (the other external motivated school), the teachers may not feel sufficiently motivated, and they don’t want to know how to deal with DRR education sometimes. In this perspective, if the motivation for DRR education, whether internal or external, is high, there is no problem, but the wall of not having a high motivation is difficult to overcome. How to overcome the wall should be a challenge for school DRR education in the near future.

Empowering technopreneurship education in a disaster-prone region: Experience of Atsiri Research Center
PRESENTER: Ratna Mulyany

ABSTRACT. Entrepreneurship education has been growingly acknowledged in developing entrepreneurs who can be the agents of change. The urgency for well-developed entrepreneurship education is even more pertinent in the context of a disaster-prone region like Aceh, Indonesia. This study explores how technopreneurship education has been empowered in disaster-prone region like Aceh taking the experience of an Atsiri Research Center (ARC) in the biggest public university in Aceh. The notion of technopreneurship is employed as the ARC has been focusing on the entrepreneurship based on technology and innovation. The ARC has been recognized for its role and successful initiatives in technology and innovation as well as for organizing various entrepreneurship education programs. This research is based on a qualitative approach utilizing autoethnography and semi-structured interviews with selected pertinent individuals who are greatly involved in entrepreneurship education at the ARC. Interview questions were developed based on the framework of the general entrepreneurship process consisting of 1. Innovation, 2. Triggering, 3. Implementation, and 4. Growth. It was identified that the ARC establishment, as well as its programs developments, have been largely motivated by the realization and responsibility to re-build Aceh post-Tsunami-2004. The society-welfare goal has been driving the ARC as an organization to innovatively develop the entrepreneurship education program that is believed to ensure the attainment of entrepreneurial objectives and increase community resilience. ARC has set out the unique goal of not merely aiming for research achievement but ultimately how research can benefit the community. The strategy adopted also emphasizes Penta helix collaboration of the university, government, business partners, media, and community. Several challenges were noted in the program’s implementation as well as the efforts to grow the center together with its programs for community resilience in this particular disaster-prone region.

Inquiry-based learning: A pedagogical tool to improving understanding of natural hazard among geography students

ABSTRACT. Presently, the disaster learning taught in geography education study programs in Indonesia still uses the traditional model that emphasizes conceptual knowledge. However, this approach is ineffective in increasing students' awareness and preparedness in dealing with disasters. New pedagogical tools are needed to increase student capacity in risk reduction. Therefore, this research aims to introduce the Inquiry-based learning model in disaster education, which is a student-centered approach. This model consists of several stages, namely identifying and controlling variables, measuring, recording and analyzing data, as well as communicating findings. This type of learning promotes students to ask questions, identify problems, make plans, conduct research, predict results, and provide conclusions. The results of the literature review showed that disaster learning using the inquiry model is effective in increasing student capacity. Furthermore, some literature found that learning by seeing, listening, and practicing is the most effective way to increase retention. Hence, this research suggests the importance of applying inquiry-based learning in disaster education.

Development and validation of disaster curriculum model based on independent learning program

ABSTRACT. The lack of community preparedness in dealing with disasters has serious consequences, including loss of life and property. Disaster education is crucial in realizing long-term disaster preparedness. However, the problem is that until now, there is no systematic and structured method for conducting disaster education. This study aims to develop a curriculum model for disaster education based on the Independent Learning Curriculum that has been launched by the Government of Indonesia. The Independent Learning Program is a concept created so that students can explore their respective interests and talents. The essence of the Independent Learning Curriculum is education based on the essence of learning, where every student has their own talents and interests. Independent learning aims to mitigate learning backwards during the Covid-19 pandemic effectively. The research design used adopted a Research and Development (R&D) approach. The data used in this study were obtained through library reviews, interviews and Focus Group Discussions. Data analysis was performed using content analysis, Delphi technique, and Analytical Network Process. This paper will further discuss the model's development, operation, constraints, and assumptions, as well as the model's components.

14:45-16:00 Session 5D: Priority 4 - Preparedness for better recovery
Identification of the changing of mobility pattern during COVID-19 pandemic in Banda Aceh, Indonesia

ABSTRACT. The Covid-19 pandemic led to the Enforcing Community Activity Restrictions (PPKM) in Banda Aceh City. During the implementation of PPKM Level 4 from August to September 2021, there were several community activities that were limited by certain provisions, especially in teaching and learning activities via distance (online), work activities carried out from home (WFH). In addition, there are several activities that are limited by certain conditions, such as operating hours or certain capacities in several locations. Based on these stipulations, the Covid-19 pandemic has changed the pattern of mobility carried out by the community because they are no longer able to carry out activities to various destinations, both education, work, and even travel. This research aims to identify changes in population mobility patterns before and during the Covid-19 pandemic in Banda Aceh City. The urgency of this research refers to the policy directions that should be implemented by the government in overcoming the problem of handling the Covid-19 pandemic. This study uses descriptive quantitative methods with primary data in the form of an Origin Destination Survey distributed to 3 (three) sub-districts outside the central area of Banda Aceh City, Syiah Kuala District, Ulee Kareng District, and Meuraxa District. The data obtained from the OD-Survey is interpreted in the Origin-Destination Matrix based on the number of trips, then processed through Arcgis software to display the Desire Line Map. The results of the study show that the mobility pattern of people outside the central area of Banda Aceh City has not changed during the COVID-19 pandemic and forms a polycentric pattern. However, the number of people's movements has decreased during the Covid-19 pandemic so that the type of movement has changed, to become an intrazone type.

People’s preparedness and perception on disaster risk reduction in fisheries applied by SEM: A case study of the damage in Japan caused by the tsunami following the Tonga submarine volcanic eruption in January 2022
PRESENTER: Daisuke Sasaki

ABSTRACT. The Tonga submarine volcanic eruption on January 15, 2022 generated tsunamis, which arrived and caused damage in a number of countries including Japan, which can be said to be un-predicted event. In the coastal area such as Kochi Prefecture and Iwate Prefecture, fishing boats and aquaculture facilities have been damaged. After the devastating Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami had occurred in 2011, the Japanese fishery industry has made a continuous effort to be prepared for a coming tsunami. For example, the Sanriku-Yamada fisheries cooperative in Iwate Prefecture has provided a brochure instructing fishers how to evacuate. We examine how people have perceived the damage in Japan caused by the tsunami following the Tonga submarine volcanic eruption. Furthermore, we attempt to draw useful lessons for the fishery industry in small island developing states (SIDS). The concept of blue economy that means protecting ocean resources while incorporating sustainable development has drawn considerable attention in recent years. It should be noted that disaster risk reduction in fisheries plays a vital role in pushing forward the approach of blue economy in SIDS. In this study, we conduct semi-structured interviews with those concerned with the fishery industry along with an internet-based questionnaire survey. We also apply Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) to confirm whether our hypothesis about people’s perception of disaster risk reduction in fisheries is correct or not. SEM is widely utilized in the discipline of social sciences since it is capable of exploring causal relationships among variables. In the field of disaster science, there exist several previous studies applying SEM. According to the existing literature, we can measure latent variables indirectly, mostly with the use of a set of observable variables and via observation of the causal effects in SEM between respective latent variables. In the internet-based questionnaire survey, we set up 6-point Likert scale questions that we have assumed to be related to such factors as understanding risks, preparedness, response, rehabilitation and reconstruction. As a result of analysis utilizing SEM, we come up with verification on the hypothesis. As a conclusion, we identify what factor more attention should be paid to from the standpoint of evidence-based policy making, along with advocating that the lessons learned from the research could contribute to the promotion of blue economy in SIDS.

Community preparedness in regular flooding: A case study of North Aceh
PRESENTER: Rizanna Rosemary

ABSTRACT. Abstract. North Aceh District is prone to regular flooding. In 2021 and early 2022, North Aceh, including surrounding villages, experienced 14 to 22 times of floods in a month. Community preparedness for disaster enables people to better prepare for facing disaster. However, experiencing regular disasters is different from occasional disasters and impacts how people perceive the existing community program to prepare for such disasters. A previous study argues that social cognitive and social capacity influence public perception and response to flood disasters (2019). However, no study examined people's perception of community preparedness in facing a regular flood disaster. This study explores people's perception of community preparedness before, during, and post-regular flood disasters in North Aceh District. Through a qualitative approach, the study investigates three aspects: (1) information seeking about the disaster; (2) knowledge management of disaster; and (3) marginal groups in disaster. The study found that people lack the intention to seek information about disasters that impact how they prepare for and manage the regular flooding. Moreover, marginalized groups (women, children, and people with disability) are highly vulnerable to the impact of the disaster because they are less involved in the existing community preparedness program for disasters.

Social network analysis of stakeholders in area-business continuity management: A case study of flood in Thailand

ABSTRACT. Flood caused huge damages and losses to industries, households, national economies, and even global supply chain disruptions. Since business is moving on interconnectedness, damage in one company can lead the domino effects on other companies. The 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake and the 2011 Thailand flood pointed out the interdependency of supply chains and individual limited capability to disaster response, particularly in developing countries and small and medium-sized enterprises. The past disaster events indicated the importance of multi-sectoral collaboration. To enhance sustainable economic growth and disaster resilience, Area-Business Continuity Management (Area-BCM) was introduced, and it called for various stakeholders’ involvement. However, the co-working project brought confusion in communication and decision-making. In such a context, this study aims to identify key stakeholders and analyze their interrelationships in Area-BCM. A case study is specified in Thailand’s industrial zones because it is a big hub of automobile and electric devices industries connected to wide supply chains, and vulnerable to flood hazards. This paper focuses on the interactions of stakeholders in two disaster management phases that are preparation and response. The key points here are to visualize the interactions network and analyze the influential actors. In the first step, a list of stakeholders is collected from the report of regional resilience enhancement through establishment of Area-BCM at industrial complex in Thailand. Stakeholders are categorized into six main groups based on roles and responsibilities including government, infrastructure providers, industrial operators, private companies, academic institutions, and the community. In total, 23 stakeholders are included. It is found that the central government is key in establishing prevention measures and policies. While the private company is a proactive actor to obtain flood information. Then, the research methodology deployed Social Network Analysis (SNA) approach which is a useful quantitative method for visualizing network behavior and analyzing stakeholders. In addition, it provides centrality measures to evaluate which actor is a contributor, mediator, or notable in the network. Data collection is conducted by a mixing method of questionnaire survey and document review. The questionnaire consists of Likert-scale questions assessing the level of interaction and open-ended questions about how stakeholder interacts with each other. The questionnaire was distributed to the stakeholder list randomly. To analyze the network, Gephi software is utilized. In the visualized model, stakeholders are represented by nodes, and relationships between stakeholders are represented by edges. The preliminary results showed that the company, industrial park, and Department of Disaster Prevention and Mitigation are central actors in flood management. They perform many interactions with other organizations. Nevertheless, network mapping revealed the intertwined relationships among governmental organizations that can bring redundancy of work and difficulty in decision-making. To solve this problem, a clear structure of roles and responsibilities for each organization must be clarified. Lastly, researchers are looking into the possibility to bring all stakeholders and strengthen collaboration for successful Area-BCM and disaster-related management. Consequently, network-based policies are proposed for practitioners, private companies, and the government.

16:00-16:45 Session A2: Closing Ceremony

Conference Awards

Announcement of AIWEST-DR 2023

Closing Remarks