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08:30-10:30 Session 6A: Adquisición y aprendizaje/Language acquisition
Location: SALA/ROOM 1
Exploring the Effects of Reformulation on the Noticing Processes of Young EFL learners.
SPEAKER: unknown

ABSTRACT. The difficulties involved in learning to write in a second language (L2) are well documented and a considerable amount of research interest has focused on investigating written corrective feedback (Bitchener, 2012). In recent years, discursive feedback techniques, such as the reformulation of learners’ original texts, have attracted increasing attention (Adams, 2003; Qi and Lapkin, 2001; Swain and Lapkin, 2003; Yang and Zhang, 2010). Reformulations are believed to be advantageous since they foster cognitive comparisons between the learner's own written output and the feedback, thus promoting noticing which may, in turn, lead to language learning. However, despite the importance that cognitively oriented accounts of SLA place on the process of noticing for second language development (Schmidt, 1990, 2001), children’s processing of the corrective feedback provided on their written texts is still an uncharted territory.

The present study forms part of a research project that attempted to address this gap by analyzing the long-term effects of reformulations on the noticing processes of 60 Spanish EFL child learners at different proficiency levels while performing two three-stage collaborative writing tasks over a period of sixteen weeks. On both occasions, the children identified the linguistic problems they experienced while composing, compared their written texts to the reformulations provided, and then re-wrote their original output. The participants were divided into (i) a treatment group, trained by their teacher in the use of reformulations; (ii) a reformulation group, whose texts were reformulated but who did not receive instruction and (iii) a control group, whose texts were not reformulated. In this study, we examine the noticing processes the children in the treatment groups engaged in during their analysis of the written feedback. Following Swain and Lapkin (2002) and Hanaoka (2007), noticing was operationalized as the children’s awareness of differences between their own written output and the reformulated text, either verbally stated, underlined, or in the form of written notes.

The results of Anova tests indicated that both Time and Treatment Group significantly influenced the amount, type and scope of the children’s noticing and processing of the reformulations. Excerpts from the learners’ collaborative dialogue will be examined to illustrate the noticing procedures they engaged in including ‘Filling the Holes’, ‘Spot the difference’, ‘Translation’ and ‘Metalinguistic Reasoning’. The potential effects of reformulation will be discussed and conclusions drawn for the role it may play in children’s language development in instructional settings.

Proficiency effect on EFL learners' realisation of complaints
SPEAKER: unknown

ABSTRACT. A major goal in learning a second/foreign language (L2) is to be able to communicate appropriately in the L2, which in turn requires not only mastery over the features of the language system but also over the pragmatic rules of language use. In fact, in cross-cultural communication, failure to do so may lead to unintended offense and communication breakdown. As a result, how learners acquire their pragmatic ability in the L2 has become a major concern in the study of L2 development. Most of this investigation has examined differences between learners’ pragmatic ability and native-speakers norms. Particularly, this research has targeted specific speech acts including requests (Huangfu, 2012), refusals (Félix-Brasdefer, 2003) and complaints (Yuan-shan et al., 2011) among many others. In general, these studies have found both qualitative and quantitative differences in the use of semantic formulas to produce the particular speech act. However, as claimed by Kasper and Smith (1996), in order to have more insights on the development of pragmatic competence research on learner-based factors (attitude, proficiency, learning context, etc.) is needed.

Guided by this theoretical framework, the present study attempts to investigate the effect of language proficiency on L2 learners’ use of semantic formulas employed when complaining. The rationale behind the selection of this speech act derives from the fact that, given its face-threatening nature, learners need to possess considerable pragmatic expertise to be able to perform it successfully and avoid possible communication breakdowns. Two groups of Spanish learners of English at two proficiency levels (proficiency determined by Quick Placement Test scores) participated in the study. To assess learners’ pragmatic competence on complaints an Interactive Discourse Completion Test (IDCT) was administered. The test included four scenarios that varied according to the sociopragmatic factors of status (low or high), social distance (close or distant) and intensity of offense (less or more) involved in the communicative acts. Learners’ production of complaints was analysed following Olshtain and Weinbach’s (1987) and Trosborg’s (1995) taxonomies and compared across learners’ proficiency levels. Results from such a comparison are presented and discussed, and pedagogical implications highlighted.


Félix-Brasdefer, C. (2003) Declining an invitation: A cross-cultural study of pragmatic strategies in American English and Latin American Spanish. Multilingua, 22(3): 225-255.

Huangfu, W. (2012) Cross-cultural comparisons of English requests speech acts in native speakers of English and Chinese. Cross-Cultural Communication, 8(4): 24-29.

Kasper, G. and Schmodt, R. (1996) Developmental issues in interlanguage pragmatics. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 18(2), 149-169.

Olshtain, E. and Weinbach, L. (1987). Complaints: A study of speech act behaviour among native and nonnative speakers of Hebrew. In J. Verschueren and M. Bertuccelli-Papi (Eds.), The pragmatic perspective: Selected papers from the 1985 International Pragmatics Conference (pp. 195-208). Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Trosborg, A. (1995). Interlanguage pragmatics: Requests, complaints and apologies. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.

Yuan-shan, Ch., Chun-yin, D.Ch., and Miao-Hsia Ch. (2011) American and Chinese compalints: Strategy use from a cross-cultural perspective. Intercultural Pragmatics, 8(2): 253-275.

From rote learning to motivation: a cognitive-linguistic approach to L2 Acquisition of English Idioms by Chinese EFL Learners

ABSTRACT. Idioms are non-compositional expressions where the meaning of the whole is different from the literal meaning of their constituent elements (Cooper, 1999). Because of this special nature, idioms can become a serious “bottleneck” for L2 acquisition. In the traditional view, idioms can only be learned through blind memorization, since their meaning is considered arbitrary (e.g. Hamblin & Gibbs, 1999). By contrast, in cognitive linguistics (CL), idioms are considered to be motivated (Boers, 2004). It is further argued that such cognitive motivation could facilitate the learning of figurative idioms (Kovecses, 2002) and experimental evidence in this respect is gradually accumulating (Boers 2013, 2015). In this connection, the situation of Chinese learners of English as an L2 has not yet been fully examined. This presentation aims to fill this research gap through the experimental exploration of the effects of classroom instruction based on CL on the learning of idioms by Chinese EFL learners. The specific purpose of this study is to verify three hypotheses that involve the short-term and long-term effects of this approach on idiom comprehension and retention and the different effects of metaphor and metonymy: 1: Given CL-based instruction, EFL learners can better understand the meanings of idioms and improve their learning of them. 2: By presenting the cognitive motivation for idioms, EFL learners can memorize idioms faster and keep them longer in memory. 3: Since metonymy is cognitively more basic than metaphor, idioms grounded in metonymy are more easily acquired than those grounded in metaphor. These hypotheses are consistent with the previous research on idioms cited above. In order to test their validity, an experiment was conducted with fifty Chinese freshmen, including one pre-test, the teaching activity, and two post-tests. While the test papers for both groups were the same, teaching materials were designed to be different. Experimental group students were provided with explanations on the conceptual mappings and cognitive motivations underlying idiomatic expressions and their meaning effects. For example, an expression like “on top of the world” would be explained in terms of the conceptual metaphor HAPPY IS UP. The control group dealt with idioms in the traditional way mainly based on rote learning. As soon as the teaching finished, both groups were requested to take posttest paper 1 to measure the immediate effect. After two weeks, posttest 2 was applied to both groups to measure the long-term effect of the different teaching methods. The time limits for teaching and testing in both groups were the same. The experiment provided support for CL-based instruction on English idioms. Both classes perform better after teaching activities, but the experimental group has a higher score and actually acquires more knowledge within the same time limit. In the posttest 2, the experimental group memorized the idioms much better than the control group after two weeks and the difference between the two groups widened to a great extent. Comparing the accuracy rates reveals that the outcome of metonymy keeps higher than that of metaphor and the gap widens in the long term.

L2 English sentential subjects in the written production of L1 Spanish, L1 Danish and L1 Bosnian speakers
SPEAKER: unknown

ABSTRACT. The nature of sentential subjects across languages as captured in the null subject parameter (Perlmutter 1971, Rizzi 1986, Jaeggli & Safir 1989) has been extensively discussed in acquisition works dealing with both primary and non-primary languages. The focus in the case of the non-primary languages has been on whether, and if so how, the grammatical properties of the L1 shape those of the L2 and, in particular, whether negative transfer occurs (e.g. White 1985, Liceras 1989, Bini 1993, Montrul & Rodríguez Louro 2006, García Alcaráz & Bel 2010). Thus, it has been shown how English L1 speakers overproduce overt subjects in their L2 Spanish as an influence from English (1): Context: Mis amigos vienen a cenar esta noche // My friends are coming to dinner tonight (1) ? Ellos llegarán a las 9 (2) * __will arrive at 9 Also, Spanish speakers have often been reported to produce L2 English subjects as in (2). However, while (1) is pragmatically inadequate in Spanish (as a language allowing null subjects), (2) is ungrammatical in English (as it is a [-null subject] language). These examples illustrate the contact between two languages (English and Spanish) that have a different parametric option. However, when the same option appears both in the L1 and in the L2, little has been said although some works on the acquisition of two L1s (de Prada 2009) point to the necessity of studying typologically similar languages as a way to enhance our knowledge of (L1/L2) bilingual acquisition. If language typology plays a role, in the specific case of sentential subjects, L2 speakers whose L1 parametric option coincides with the L2 will show no negative influence in their L2 production. The present study addresses the contact between English as an L2 of speakers that have either a language with the same subject-type as English (Danish) or a language with the other option of the parameter (Spanish or Bosnian). Our purpose is to address the nature of interlinguistic influence and the role played by language typology as well as to include in the analysis other languages that have not been so much studied in this respect (i.e. Danish and Bosnian). To that end we have elicited production data through a picture description task based on the Edmonton Narrative Norms Instrument (Schneider, Dubé & Hayward 2005) to three groups of participants and a control native one: L1 Spanish/L2 English, L1 Danish/L2 English, L1 Bosnian/L2 English, and L1 English. In the three experimental groups, two subgroups have been established depending on the years of exposure to English (2 and 4 years). The results show a significant difference between these groups of L2 English learners. The English subjects produced by the L1 Danish speakers are both grammatically correct and mostly pragmatically adequate; whereas the L1 Bosnian and L1 Spanish speakers produce both grammatically incorrect subjects (i.e. null instead of overt) and pragmatically inadequate subjects (i.e. DPs instead of pronouns). These results point to language typology as one of the primary sources for transfer.

08:30-10:30 Session 6B: Lexicología y lexicografía/Lexicology and lexicography
Location: SALA/ROOM 2
The role of ICM ACTION metonymies in football post-match reports
SPEAKER: Marta Gomez

ABSTRACT. The aim of this paper is to explore the presence of metonymy in football post-match reports, where it is a productive and recurrently used strategy. More specifically, I focus on the role of this mental process within the ICM ACTION, one of the most prolific cognitive models in the report genre. The study is based on a corpus consisting of eight reports concerned with the last eight football matches of the Brazil World Cup 2014, retrieved from online English newspapers, and amounting to a total of 7,745 words. After carefully examining the corpus in search of metonymies, the examples were classified following the taxonomy in Radden & Kövecses (1999). Finally, I identified the function of each example following Warren (1999) and the principles governing the selection of the vehicle in each instance as described in Radden and Kövecses (1999). The study reveals that although most metonymies fulfill an expected referential function, they often have a propositional use as well, based on an ANTECEDENT-CONSEQUENT relation. In turn, most of them are motivated by the principles of clarity and relevance as well as CONCRETE OVER ABSTRACT and INTERACTION OVER NO-INTERACTION. It is also remarkable that a great number of ICM ACTION metonymies are completely conventionalized within the football jargon, making it more difficult to recognize them as metonymies.

REFERENCES Radden, G. & Kövecses, Z. (1999). Towards a theory of metonymy. In Panther, K. and Radden, G. (eds.) Metonymy in Language and Thought (17-60). Amsterdam & Philadelphia: John Benjamins.

Warren, B. (1999). Aspects of referential metonymy. In Panther, Klaus-Uwe och Radden, Günter (eds.). Metonymy in Language and Thought (121-135). Amsterdam & Philadelphia: John Benjamins

Estudio contrastivo de la variación léxica en los campos semánticos de “la casa” y “el vestuario”

ABSTRACT. En esta investigación se propone una nueva aportación al estudio del léxico actual analizando, desde un punto de vista contrastivo, la variación léxica de la localidad extremeña de Mérida (Badajoz) con los resultados presentados por las investigaciones realizadas por el Proyecto para el Estudio de la Norma Culta de España e Hispanoamérica en diversas áreas geográficas de habla hispana (Torres, 1981; Salvador, 1991; Samper, 1998; Carbonero, 2005; Lope Blanch, 1978; López Morales, 1986 entre otros).

En este trabajo nos centraremos, concretamente, en dos campos semánticos concretos: “la casa” y “el vestuario”, en los que, sin duda, existen concordancias léxicas con las áreas lingüísticas ya estudiadas (sobre todo en aquellas voces pertenecientes al léxico estándar) pero, también, divergencias, propias del área geográfica objeto de estudio, perteneciente a la zona meridional peninsular.

Además, y para enriquecer el trabajo, en nuestra investigación no analizaremos únicamente las variantes obtenidas de los niveles sociales cultos de la localidad; teniendo en cuenta que para el estudio del léxico del habla de Mérida adaptamos el cuestionario propuesto para el estudio de la norma culta (PILEI, 1971) a otros niveles sociales incluyendo los hablantes del nivel bajo y el medio (según el nivel de instrucción), en este estudio contrastivo no se analizarán únicamente qué variantes léxicas comparten los hablantes de clases sociales elevadas sino que realizaremos, además, un análisis sociolingüístico en el que comprobaremos si las variantes obtenidas en los estudios ya realizados están presentes en las respuestas de los hablantes de todos los niveles sociales de Mérida y si, en el caso de los individuos de los niveles bajo y medio, existen otras formas léxicas que representen rasgos lingüísticos propios.


Carbonero, P. (2005): Sociolingüística andaluza 14: Léxico del habla culta de Sevilla. Sevilla, Servicio de Publicaciones de la Universidad de Sevilla Lope Blanch, J.M. (1978): Léxico del habla culta de México. Publicaciones del Centro de Lingüística Hispánica, UNAM, México. López Morales, H. (1986): Léxico del habla culta de San Juan de Puerto Rico. Academia Puertorriqueña de la Lengua Española, San Juan, Puerto Rico. PILEI (1971): Cuestionario para el estudio coordinado de la norma lingüística culta de las principales ciudades de Iberoamérica y de la Península Ibérica. III: Léxico. Comisión de Lingüística Iberoamericana, Programa Interamericano de Lingüística y Enseñanza de idiomas, CSIC, Madrid. Salvador, F. (1991): Léxico del habla culta de Granada. Publicaciones de la Universidad de Granada.

Neología y traducción especializada: la dependencia terminológica español-inglés en el ámbito de las ciencias de la salud.
SPEAKER: unknown

ABSTRACT. La globalización ha cambiado la situación de las lenguas de especialidad, especialmente en el caso de algunas lenguas como el español, que han visto como el inglés se ha convertido en la lengua de la comunicación científica. Esto ha provocado una alteración en las terminologías de los distintos campos especializados, hecho que se puede explicar por la dependencia terminológica. Entendemos la dependencia terminológica como un fenómeno lingüístico que surge de la relación unidireccional en el trasvase de lenguaje especializado entre dos códigos. La subordinación del español con respecto del inglés en el lenguaje de especialidad de la Reproducción asistida es un exponente representativo de esta relación de jerarquía interlingüística, e incluso diglosia, pues el científico lee en inglés, publica en inglés, pero se comunica en español dentro de su laboratorio con otros especialistas, en seminarios o con sus pacientes. El objetivo de este trabajo es ver cómo se traducen los neologismos que van apareciendo en este campo en inglés y se van adaptando al español, según las normas que rigen nuestra lengua, con el fin de determinar cómo se difunden estos neologismos por un lado, en los medios de comunicación y nuevos soportes y por otro, cómo se van incluyendo en los documentos normativos como diccionarios. Para ello hemos seguido una metodología de análisis que nos ha permitido, por un lado, detectar y clasificar una muestra representativa de correspondencias denominativas entre ambos códigos especializados a partir de la creación de un corpus de textos médicos especializados tanto en español como en inglés; y, por otro, hemos rastreado y definido el peso de distintas marcas de dependencia terminológica en la configuración del trasvase; esto es, si hay una equivalencia total, si son equivalentes en español con explicación, si son equivalentes formales parciales, etc. Finalmente, se ha observado su presencia en los diccionarios y en los medios de comunicación.

08:30-10:30 Session 6C: Lenguas para fines específicos/Language for specific purposes
Location: SALA/ROOM 3
A method for identifying metaphorical terms in science and technology

ABSTRACT. Si bien en la actualidad se reconoce la importancia de la función de la metáfora en el lenguaje y el pensamiento científico-técnico, no existe una definición clara y precisa de lo que constituye un tecnicismo metafórico, ni de los posibles problemas puede presentar su identificación. El propósito de esta comunicación es establecer unos parámetros científicos y rigurosos para identificar la metáfora tecnológica lexicalizada, ya que su determinación no puede relegarse únicamente al criterio intuitivo del hablante. Estos parámetros ya han sido establecidos para identificar la metáfora novedosa en contexto en diferentes estudios (Pragglejaz Group, 2007). Sin embargo, no existe ningún trabajo relativo a identificación de la metáfora lexicaliza en la ciencia y la tecnología. En este trabajo se comenzará por proporcionar una definición de metáfora científico-técnica, para continuar con la descripción de los posibles problemas que se presentan en su identificación: desde los más fáciles de detectar, como la homonimia, hasta los más complejos relativos a la indeterminación de límites de los conceptos. Estos términos, contrariamente a lo que sucede en las metáforas novedosas, se caracterizan por constituir unidades semióticas con opacidad semántica en las que confluyen dos conceptos (los del dominio fuente y del dominio meta) y una única denominación, la proporcionada por el dominio fuente. Para su identificación se propone, entre otros, el contraste de la descomposición en rasgos semánticos de ambos dominios mediante el sistema de representación proporcionado por la teoría del Lexicón Generativo (Pustejovsky, 1995). Los parámetros propuestos se basan en el análisis de más de 10.000 términos metafóricos en inglés y en castellano, recogidos en el Diccionario Bilingüe de Metáforas y Metonimias Científico Técnicas (Cuadrado et al., 2016).

Referencias bibliográficas Cuadrado G., Álvarez, I., Durán, P., Gómez, M.J., Molina, S., Pierce, J. Robisco, M.M., Roldán, A.M., Úbeda P. (2016) Diccionario Bilingüe de Metáforas y Metonimias Científico-Técnicas, Routledge: London. Pragglejaz Group. (2007). MIP: A method for identifying metaphorically used words in discourse, Metaphor and symbol, 22, 1.

Pustejovsky, J. (1995). The generative lexicon: a theory of computational lexical semantics. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press

ESP Today: Professional and Academic Communication at the Polytechnic University de Madrid (UPM).

ABSTRACT. The department of Applied Linguistics to Science and Technology at the UPM is a large department with over 60 members scattered throughout 17 different engineering schools and 1 architecture school. The subject Professional and Academic Communication (EPAC) of 6 credits is a required subject for all UPM students. Because of the wide distribution of the teachers and students, the syllabus is very open allowing each school or even each teacher to decide on what and how much time should be dedicated to each topic. As is known, at European technical universities English is considered as a valuable asset when engineering and architect students apply for a job. This can cause a quandary on the part of the teacher in that they may wonder if their learners should work on specific English language and with authentic materials related to their field/discipline or if they have to focus on general English language but on tasks and genres (Paltridge, 2013) they will have to perform effectively at their future jobs. Belcher claims (2009) that the purpose of any ESP subject may seem evident, how to achieve it may be less clear and apparent. Teachers always run the challenge of designing a language-centered course or a skills-centered course. In both cases students’ needs have to be taken into account which is an absolute characteristic of an ESP course (Hutchinson & Waters, 1987). The aim of this study is twofold, first to inform other university teachers working in technical universities of what is being done at a technical university in Madrid and secondly, to promote peer review and comment. It is a commonplace that ESP practitioners usually feel isolated both from their students’ target discourse communities and other English teachers involved in other fields and occupational areas. This can be especially the case at the where the teachers are physically separated. Questionnaires were developed by a team of teachers on the content and materials of the subject EPAC given in the different schools as well as on forms of evaluation, whether continuous, final exam or both. Once completed, the results were calculated and presented to the whole department. Results show surprisingly that there are many coincidences throughout the schools with each have their own particular emphasis. And they also exhibit the close relationship between ESP and genre work (Swales, 2004).This presentation will demonstrate the results of the study and discussion provide direction for further research. Belcher, D. (2009). What ESP is and can be: An introduction. In D. Belcher (ed.), English for specific purposes in theory and practice (pp. 1-20). Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. Hutchinson, T., & Waters, A. (1987). English for specific purposes: A learning-centred approach. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. Paltridge, B. (2013). Genre and English for specific purposes. In B. Paltridge & S. Starfield (eds.), The handbook of English for specific purposes. Boston: Wiley-Blackwell. Swales, J. M. (2004). Research genres: Explorations and applications. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

El valor semántico de la notación en hormigón estructural
SPEAKER: Eve Bauder

ABSTRACT. Desde hace más de 120 años se viene utilizando, en el ámbito de la ingeniería de estructuras de hormigón, una notación que representa conceptos que van desde la definición geométrica de las piezas a la resistencia de los materiales que las integran, pasando por los procesos constructivos, su control y su valoración económica. Esta notación, mediante letras y subíndices, admite distinciones entre mayúsculas y minúsculas, tanto del alfabeto latino como del griego y, asimismo, cifras. Aunque fue muy diferente de unos países a otros en tiempos pasados, viene presentando una tendencia hacia la uniformización desde comienzos de los años 70 del pasado siglo. En este artículo se hacen algunas consideraciones acerca del origen de los signos utilizados, de su significado y del valor pedagógico que entrañan y del que pueden hacer uso los docentes de estas materias. A título de ejemplo cabe decir que para designar la fuerza actuando en el sentido longitudinal de la pieza, se utilizaban en España C y T para referirse a la compresión y a la tracción, respectivamente, o D y Z en alemán (para referirse a Druckkraft y a Zugkraft), respectivamente), pero el Código Modelo (fib Model Code for Concrete Structures 2010) y el Eurocódigo 2 (EN 1992-1-1, CEN, 2004. E. Eurocode 2. Design of concrete structures - Part 1-1: General rules and rules for buildings) hace ya tiempo que emplean N (fuerza normal a la sección transversal), pero se ha perdido la distinción de tracción o de compresión. Asimismo, para la fuerza transversal ‘cortante’, se utilizaba en muchos países Q (del alemán Querkraft), pasándose a utilizar V, de origen impreciso porque se refiere a la fuerza interna vertical cuando se trata de elementos tipo viga horizontal, lo que, no obstante, permite eliminar la confusión que se generaría si se utilizara T (de tranchant, en francés, o taglio, en italiano), puesto que ese signo se reserva internacionalmente para la torsión. Las tensiones normales se han designado con  pero han requerido de subíndices diversos para referirse al hormigón c (concrete) o al acero s (steel) de las armaduras. Sin embargo, para la tensión de rotura del hormigón, se utiliza fc, cuyo origen podría estar en Festigkeit (Betonfestigkeit). Curiosamente, en la normativa alemana se utilizaba ßw (en este caso w hace referencia a que la resistencia se medía en probetas cúbicas, Würfel), de origen menos conocido, pero que podría ser el mismo, dada la evolución y connotación asociativa de la letra ß (en escritura Sütterlin, su composición gráfica ligaba dos eses consecutivas de grafía alta y normal, donde la grafía de la primera ‘s’ coincide prácticamente con la de la ‘f’ del alfabeto –posterior– latín, resultando en ‘f+s’) (;

BIBLIOGRAFÍA (selección)

fib Model Code for Concrete Structures 2010. ISBN: 978-3-433-03061-5. Ernst & Sohn, 2013. EN 1992-1-1, CEN, 2004. E.Eurocode 2. Design of concrete structures - Part 1-1: General rules and rules for buildings.

Interdisciplinary pedagogical actions to optimize engineering undergraduates written production
SPEAKER: Alicia Noceti

ABSTRACT. Abstract Writing is a hard challenge for engineering students. Navarro (2012) asserts that academic literacy in the mother tongue is similar to learning a foreign language as it involves immersion in a new culture. Therefore, acquaintance with the discipline prototypical genres in order to meet academic exigencies is highly relevant for undergraduates (Arnoux, Di Stefano y Pereira, 2002). Although North American universities curriculum designs include communication courses, South American universities have focused research on this issue quite recently resulting in the development of some writing programs. Nevertheless, writing courses are not taught in most Argentinian universities. Food Engineering undergraduates (School of Food Science, University of Entre Ríos) encounter this difficulty when they have to write their Final Project. Thus, the need for complementary interdisciplinary activities was raised. This paper reports on a study performed by engineers and linguists to foster students´ awareness of producing relevant titles and abstracts in order to gain visibility and attract readers when their work is uploaded to the university website. First, all titles produced were collected. This corpus analysis revealed that titles were extremely short thus providing very little information. Consequently, several pedagogical activities were designed and implemented since 2012. An exploration of antecedent or prior genre knowledge (Artemeva,N & Fox, J. ,2010) was carried out in workshops. Generic structure, audience awareness, rhetorical functions and linguistic features taught in the English courses were activated. Writing seminars in Spanish were delivered by a Discourse Analysis specialist to 4º and 5º years students. In addition, they attended tutorials and interviews with their teachers and then required the linguist´s assistance. This fact trigggered the creation of a supportive space where students re- wrote titles and abstracts (in Spanish and English), designed their slides for the oral defense and rehearsed their oral presentations. The analysis of the corpus constituted by all projects´ titles defended within the time window that included our actions indicated that students updated their previous generic knowledge, thus being able to understand the notion of audience. Feedback to the surveys sent to students after they had graduated demonstrated that carrying out interdisciplinary activities allowed language to be included as an across the curriculum content and enabled the adequate production of academic genres. Results provided by this study may affect curricular development at the macro level as the implementation of writing seminars all along undergraduates´ trajectories has been positioned as a top priority.

Keywords: academic literacy, academic genres, interdisciplinary work, written production

Arnoux, E., di Stefano, M. y C. Pereira (2002), La lectura y la escritura en la Universidad, Buenos Aires, Eudeba.

Artemeva,N. and Fox,J. (2010). Awareness Versus Production: Probing Students’ Antecedent Genre Knowledge. Journal of Business and Technical. Communication. DOI: 10.1177/1050651910371302.

Navarro, F. (2012). Alfabetización avanzada en la Argentina. Puntos de contacto con la enseñanza- aprendizaje de español académico como L2. Revista Nebrija de Lingüística Aplicada 12 (6): 49-83.

08:30-10:30 Session 6D: Enseñanza de lenguas y diseño curricular/Language teaching
Location: SALA/ROOM 4
How is Greek as an additional language addressed in mainstream secondary school classrooms? Case studies of four Greek language teachers

ABSTRACT. This presentation will focus on the pedagogic principles and teaching practices of four Greek language teachers (GLTs) who were expected to teach the subject Greek in secondary school classrooms where Greek language learners and Greek mother tongue pupils have been placed together. The need to teach Greek as an additional language (GAL) in public schools in Greece has emerged in the last 20 years as an increasing number of immigrant pupils have been entering the Greek public school system. Despite this situation, Greek educational system has not differentiated their aims and has not prepared teachers to cope with this new challenge (Damanakis, 2000; Karagianni, 2010). From this perspective, it is of interest to research the teaching practices that GLTs have actually used in real classrooms to teach the subject Greek to children from different linguistic and cultural backgrounds. Such a research, which has not been conducted in previous studies, would contribute to the development of GAL pedagogy and teacher education programmes.

A qualitative case study approach, classroom observations and interviews were adopted so that the classroom context, teachers’ teaching practices and principles could be explored (e.g. Erickson, 1986; Kvale, 1996; Patton, 2002; Yin, 2003). Qualitative data analysis approaches were used for the analysis of the data (e.g. Bloome et al., 2009; Miles & Huberman, 1994). The gathered data was analysed in light of the general principles of additional language teaching as discussed in the professional literature (e.g. Allen et al., 1990; Canale, 1984; Canale & Swain, 1980; Chamot & O'Malley, 1987; Cummins, 2000; Leung, 2012, 2013; Swain, 2005). The findings reveal that the focal teachers, influenced by the national curriculum, conceptualised GAL teaching as a matter of applying generic teaching strategies to facilitate immigrant pupils’ subject content learning. They also believed that immigrant pupils who still have language problems should get support outside the mainstream classroom. Furthermore, the focal teachers’ principles and practices, although partially matching additional language teaching principles, were close to those appropriate for monolingual classrooms. These findings indicate the necessity of addressing GAL dimension systematically in mainstream classrooms.

What Vocabulary to Select for EAP Courses and Materials? An Academic Question

ABSTRACT. For some years many scholars have argued that that current discipline-specific, single-item wordlist approaches to the selection of vocabulary for EAP are inadequate (Hyland & Tse, 2009). Attempts to demonstrate this problem and provide a workable solution have concentrated on frequently occurring stings of words to the detriment of semantic concerns (Biber, Conrad, & Cortes, 2004). Using a 3 million word corpus of academic research articles from three different areas: History, Microbiology, and Management Studies, I outline a methodology for the selection EAP vocabulary which takes into account the subject-specific nature of EAP vocabulary, and the importance of colligational context in conditioning word meaning. In an examination of verbs, a statistical test is used to compare frequency of occurrence across discipline-specific corpora. Then, the Sketch Engine (Kilgarriff, Rychlý, Smrž, & Tugwell, 2004) is employed to elucidate the nature of the difference. Finally, those verbs exhibiting discipline specific behaviour are annotated with Corpus Pattern Analysis (Hanks, 2004) semantic types in order that the specific nature of these differences can be identified. I also present corpus evidence for discipline specific behaviour of other parts of speech. I conclude that in light of the discipline-specific and phraseological nature of EAP vocabulary a new approach to vocabulary selection is required. I outline a practical approach which not only accounts for both semantic and syntactic concerns, but also permits the analysis of large amounts of usage-based data. This research is significant due to the importance of vocabulary in EAP, and the considerable role EAP plays in governing students’ economic and academic opportunities. It has implications for classroom practice, materials and assessment design, lexicography, and the publishing industry.

Exploring some applications of genre theory to improve academic writing: effective reports at tertiary education

ABSTRACT. This paper explores the application of a Genre Theory approach to an L2 University classroom in Spain. The Genre Theory is applied to increase students’ literacy skills through the study of text types and specific grammar structures that appear in these texts. A corpus of 129 reports written by university students registered in the subject English Language III of the degree English Studies is analysed in order to observe if students followed the main structural and grammatical characteristics of reports after they have received instruction following the Genre Theory. This study analyses various facets of Genre Theory’s effectiveness through a careful consideration of student report writing, first by analysing the assessors’ marking parameters and concentration, and second by thoroughly going through the papers themselves to summarise the nature and quantity of the various writing issues, paying particular attention to areas in which the existing assessment was questionable, incorrect or not indicating existing errors. In doing so, a detailed picture emerges of the successes and challenges of the Genre Theory to student writing at this particular stage in the L2 learning process. This study, thus, aims to point out that the Genre Theory has a crucial role in literacy since it concentrates on the production and analysis of texts in a given language. This research highlights the relationship between literacy and effective writing with an applied educational emphasis. This paper also points out the pedagogical implications of teaching having the Genre Theory as a framework so that teachers and students can see how this framework facilitates their teaching practice and guarantees their improvement in writing. Bibliography

Butt, D., Fahey, R., Feez, S., & Spinks, S. (2012).Understanding Functional Grammar: An Explorer's Guide. Third edition. Melbourne: Palgrave Macmillan. Coffin, C. & Donohue, J.P. (2012). Academic Literacies and systemic functional linguistics: How do they relate? Journal of English for Academic Purposes, 11, 64–75. De Silva Joyce, H. & Feez, S. (2012). Text-based Language and Literacy Education: Programming and Methodology. Sydney: Phoenix Education. Gardner, S. (2012). Genres and registers of student report writing: An SFL perspective on texts and practices. Journal of English for Academic Purposes, 11, 52–63. Klein, P.D. & Yu, A.M. (2013). Best practices in writing to learn. In S. Graham, C.A. MacArthur, & J. Fitzgerald (Eds.), Best practices in writing to learn. Second edition. (pp. 166–189). New York: The Guilford Press. Wingate, U. (2012). Using Academic Literacies and genre-based models for academic writing instruction: A ‘literacy’ journey. Journal of English for Academic Purposes, 11, 26–37.

Exploring Science discourse and the development of content knowledge in CLIL and mainstream primary school classrooms.
SPEAKER: unknown

ABSTRACT. Despite the exceptional interest in CLIL shown by educational policy-makers and parents alike, as seen in the numbers of schools implementing CLIL programmes across Spain and beyond, concerns are still widely expressed about the potentially detrimental effects on the development of children’s subject knowledge of teaching curricular content through a foreign language. Following this line, although CLIL has been implemented in Spanish schools for a long time, little research is available regarding its effects on pupils’ learning outcomes. In order to explore this issue further, this study set out to examine the teaching of Science in two Year 4 primary school classrooms, one of which was a CLIL group and the other a mainstream L1 Science group. Within the framework of a teaching unit on the Solar System, the classroom discourse of both groups of children and their teachers was coded on three interrelated levels to identify i) the development of the children’s conceptual understanding of the topic, ii) the organization and sequencing of the classroom tasks, and iii) the specific discourse features employed by both teachers. The children’s learning outcomes were measured by means of a pre and post-test in the form of a written exam on the topic carried out in their first language. The Results showed that although much of the science teaching in both classes was guided by the textbook, both teachers made effective use of language and intertextual connections in order to develop children’s scientific knowledge. Differences were identified as regards the types of tasks the children engaged in and the extent of their active contribution to the development of the discursive activity. In general, significant differences on the posttest exam were not found between classes, although the CLIL learners experienced some difficulty in transferring scientific terminology acquired in the L2 into their L1 lexicon. This suggests that teaching curricular content through CLIL did not interfere in pupils’ learning outcomes. Implications for teaching Science in CLIL at primary level will be suggested.

08:30-10:30 Session 6E: Análisis del discurso/Discourse analysis
Location: SALA/ROOM 5
An analysis of multimodal interaction in the discussion session of a webinar
SPEAKER: unknown

ABSTRACT. From a Multimodal Discourse Analysis (MDA) perspective (Kress and Van Leuween, 2001; Kress, 2003; O’Halloran, 2004; Baldry & Thibault, 2006; Jewitt, 2009; Querol-Julián and Fortanet-Gómez, 2012) each semiotic resource (i.e., speech, image, writing, movement, gaze, sound, layout, among others) contributes to the meaning-making process. Therefore, every text is the product of the integration of several semiotic modes, and understanding how a specific text works is only possible when these resources are unpacked and interpreted. Linguistic and non-linguistic information is integrated in multimodal texts, and especially so in digital genres (Shepherd & Watters 1999; Crowston & Kwasnik 2004; Askehave & Nielsen 2005; Villanueva et al. 2008), where complex relationships are conveyed by the use of multiple resources. One of these new digital genres is the webinar or web seminar, which started to be used in the early years of the 21st century. It is difficult to find a scientific definition of webinar. In general, the functions of a webinar are considered to be educational, informative or instructional, since webinars help to disseminate knowledge, facilitate collaboration and communication, and enhance performance among students and instructors, employers and employees and specialist in dispersed locations (Wolf, 2006; Forrester, 2009; Bandy, 2010; Kokoc, Ozlu, Cimer & Karal, 2011). Its main characteristic is that it is online and it often consists of a number of lectures streamlined and/or recorded to be watched off-line, and there are several participants located in several places, who can contribute online or offline through different communication modes (written or spoken with or without video). The main developments of webinars have been in the fields of medicine and education. Webinars are a relatively new genre and as many other internet genres has not been systematized. As Hine (2012: 257) argues “much of what the Internet comes to be is shaped from the bottom up, by its users, as much as it is dictated from the top down by its inventors, its vendors and its regulators”. In this sense, it is clear that webinars include a wide array of multimodal resources, both verbal and non-verbal. But how do they work together? To what extent are they integrated? Are users responsive to these multimodal resources and to what extent? A MDA approach to the discourse of webinars might shed light on how users interact in such environments, how they deploy verbal and non verbal resources to produce meaning, and more specifically, what linguistic strategies are called upon, and if and when mode-switching (Sindoni, 2013) comes into play. In order to answer these and other questions, we analyse in this paper a dataset of several sessions of a research webinar organized by the Group for Research on Academic and Professional English in 2015 on the topic of Multimodal Discourse Analysis. Our interest is to study all the multimodal components in the discussion sessions in this seminar and the different strategies used by participants for online and face-to-face interaction.

Conceding with "but" and "although" in online written reviews

ABSTRACT. Endorsing an action-oriented approach to concession (Couper-Kuhlen and Thompson 2000; Barth-Weingarten 2003; Taboada and Gómez González 2012; Gómez-González 2013, 2015), this paper showcases how concessive but- and although-constructions contribute to construct evaluative-argumentative discourse. Based on the analysis of 100 online written reviews extracted from the Simon Fraser University review corpus, the study reports on (i) the frequency and (ii) position of but- and although-constructions in the macro and micro rhetorical levels of the reviews scrutinised, paying particular attention to (iii) their evaluative-argumentative dimension (Martin and White 2005; Trvanac and Taboada 2012), as well as to (iv) their discourse effects Grote et al. (1997). The results show that but is massively the most frequent concessive connector used in the reviews examined, a skewed tendency that is explained on semantic-syntactic, processing and formality grounds. In addition, it is argued that both concessive markers mainly display the (X-)X’-Y schema and they tend to be found in the evaluation stage of negative reviews.

REFERENCES Barth-Weingarten, Dagmar. 2003. Concession in Spoken English. On the Realization of a Discourse-Pragmatic relation. Tübingen: Gunter Narr. Couper-Kuhlen, Elizabeth and Thompson, Sandra A. 2000. Concessive patterns in conversation. In Elizabeth Couper-Kuhlen and Bernd Kortmann (eds.), 381-410. Gómez González, María de los Ángeles 2013. Concessive relations as argumentation in English and Spanish. Plenary address at Evaluation in media discourse: rhetoric and intercultural Perspectives. Navarra: University of Navarra, 27-27/05/2013. Gómez González, María de los Ángeles 2015. Concession as argumentation: The case of but and although. Plenary address at International Congress liLETRAd 2015 Literature, languages and Translation. Sevilla: University of Seville, 7-8/07/2015. Grote, Brigitte, Lenke, Nils and Stede, Manfred. 1997. Marking concessions in English and German. Discourse Processes 24/1, 87-117. Martin, James R. and White, Peter R. R. 2005. Language of Evaluation: Appraisal in English. Palgrave Macmillan. Taboada, Maite and Gómez González María de los Ángeles 2012. Discourse markers and coherence relations: Comparison across markers, languages and modalities. Linguistics and the Human Sciences, 6.1/3, 17-41. Trvanac, Rada and Taboada, Maite 2012. The contribution of non-veridical rhetorical relations to evaluation in discourse. Language Sciences 34/3, 301-318.

Academic discourse in English Medium Instruction contexts: a look at teacher explanations.

ABSTRACT. Teaching and learning content subjects through English requires a competence in academic language which Cummins (1984) labeled CALP (Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency). Revisiting this concept could shed light on the academic language skills necessary for communication in bilingual classrooms. A first step in this long journey could be a deeper comprehension of the academic linguistic or cognitive discourse functions (Dalton-Puffer, 2013) functions.This paper approaches the function of explaining.

To accomplish this aim, six lecturers teaching through English at Escuela de Ingeniería de Informática (Segovia, Spain) were videotaped. Lessons were transcribed to create a corpus. The main research questions followed Dalton-Puffer´s (2007) model for a secondary education context: 1. How many occurrences of the academic function of explanation are there in the corpus? 2. What is the linguistic form of these explanations? 3. Is there any signalling language or metalanguage around them?

The seventy explanation fragments found were classified in three categories following Brown´s taxonomy (2006). 1. Interpretative explanations respond to the question ‘What?’ and are very close to definitions. 2. Descriptive explanations respond to the question ‘How?’ and centre on processes, structures and procedure. 3. Reason giving explanations respond to the question ‘Why?’ and provide reasons and causes.

The findings show a rich frequency of this academic function in contrast to the very limited comparable previous studies in bilingual classrooms (Dalton-Puffer, 2007). Bar graphs of frequencies and distribution of types per lecturer are presented. Regarding qualitative aspects, the samples found offer insights about how explaining is performed in bilingual content lectures. The form of these explanations and the metalanguage signaling them are analyzed and illustrated with numerous examples from the corpus.

Departing from the description of the explanations present in lecturer discourse some reflections about their potential for the learning of content and language are provided. The conclusions section suggests some pedagogical implications for the linguistic education of both students and lecturers in English medium instruction environments.

References Brown, G. (2006). Explaining. In O. Hargie (Ed.). The Handbook of Communication Skills. (pp.204- 224) London: Routledge.1º ed 1986.

Cummins, J. (1984). Bilingualism and special education: Issues in assessment and pedagogy. Clevedon, England: Multilingual Matters.

Dafouz, E. (2011). English as the medium of instruction in Spanish contexts: A look at teacher discourse. In Y. Ruiz de Zarobe, J.M. Sierra, y F. Gallardo del Puerto, (eds) Content and Foreign Language Integrated Learning: Contributions to Multilingualism in European Contexts (pp.89-110). Bern: Peter Lang.

Dalton-Puffer, C. (2007). Discourse in Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL). Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing.

Dalton-Puffer, C. (2013). A Construct of cognitive discourse functions for coneptualising content-language integration in CLIL and multilingual education. European Journal of Applied Linguistics 1(2), 1-38.

Methodological issues in the analysis of interlanguage complaints: A multimodal approach
SPEAKER: unknown

ABSTRACT. Several researchers have drawn their attention to the analysis of interlanguage pragmatics (ILP) in second/foreign language (SL/FL) learning contexts. Traditionally, myriad studies in the field of ILP have focused on the analysis of oral discourse and have investigated, among other aspects, students’ speech act performance, focusing on the verbal component (Laforest, 2002). However, in an oral communicative event “meanings are made (as well as distributed, interpreted, and remade) through many forms and resources of which language is but one” (Jewitt 2013, p. 4109–4110). From this multimodal perspective, we argue for the analysis of FL students’ speech acts taking into account not only what is verbally uttered but also the non-verbal cues accompanying spoken performance. Gestures is one of the non-verbal systems that has received more attention in the investigation of language learning events (Roth, 2001). Moreover, its relevance to the study of SL/FL acquisition has been demonstrated (Gullberg, 1998, 2006). However, only few studies have considered gestures and speech in pragmatics (Streeck, 2009) and, to our knowledge, research exploring both FL learners’ speech act performance and gestures has not been carried out yet.

Nevertheless, to study the development of ILP from a multimodal perspective involves important decisions in the design of the research. The purpose of this paper is to present a methodological proposal to explore the spoken speech act performance of complaints and responses to complaints of FL learners, with the examination of speech and gestures in interaction. We present the design and analysis of a spoken corpus of role-plays of complaints performed by Spanish learners of English. A contrastive study, based on the variables of language proficiency and gender, was carried out to shed some light into the study of multimodal interlanguage complaints. The corpus has been video recorded, transcribed and annotated in a systematic way using software that helps us to measure multimodal interaction. Interviews have also been conducted immediately after the role-plays in order to obtain further insights regarding learners’ performance. Hence, this study follows a qualitative and quantitative approach.

Gullberg, M. (1998). Gesture as a communication strategy in second language discourse: a study of learners of French and Swedish. Lund: Lund University Press. Gullberg, M. (2006). Some reasons for studying gesture and second language acquisition (Hommage à Adam Kendon). IRAL-International Review of Applied Linguistics in Language Teaching, 44(2), 103-124. Jewitt, C. (2013). Multimodal teaching and learning. In C. A. Chapelle (Ed.) The encyclopedia of applied linguistics. (pp 4109–4114). Oxford: Blackwell Publishing Ltd. Laforest, M. (2002). Scenes of family life: Complaining in everyday conversation. Journal of Pragmatics, 34(10), 1595-1620. Roth, W. M. (2001). Gestures: Their role in teaching and learning. Review of Educational Research, 71(3), 365-392. Streeck, J. (2009). Gesturecraft. The manu-facture of meaning. Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company.

08:30-10:30 Session 6F: Adquisición y aprendizaje/Language acquisition
Location: SALA/ROOM 6
Culture learning in B1 and B2 EFL textbooks

ABSTRACT. Cultural knowledge has always been an integral part of language learning (Howatt & Widdowson 2004). However, the development of behaviours, skills, and abilities did not gain the importance they deserve until the twenty-first century. Globalization and technology have made intercultural encounters more frequent than ever, which has led to a new focus on language teaching. The goal of communicative competence of the 1980s has largely been replaced by the goal of intercultural communicative competence; thus the aim of language teaching is to enable students to negotiate cultural meanings and communicate effectively when it comes to interacting with speakers from other cultures. In Europe, the teaching of English as a foreign language is organised in accordance with the guidelines set out in the Common European Framework of Reference (CEFR). Despite the fact that the Framework recognises and endorses the acquisition of a cultural component, it does not establish specific descriptors for how this is to be achieved. Therefore, the first stage of this paper consists of presenting a cultural learning model based on previous research by Paige, Jorstad, Paulson, Klein&Colby (1999) and Lee (2009) and adapted by Larrea-Espinar (2015) and Raigón-Rodríguez (2015). This model is used to analyse the cultural content of six English language textbooks for B1 and B2-level adults. The authors’ intention is to identify examples of cultural content and determine which type of cultural teaching is being carried out. The results of the study will prove extremely useful, in that they can reveal which aspect of culture receives most coverage and whether there is any difference depending on the level. The ultimate aim is to establish whether the cultural learning taking place is appropriate and conducive to the development of intercultural communicative competence, as set out in the CEFR.

References: Byram, M. 1997. Teaching and assessing intercultural communicative competence. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters. Council of Europe. 2001. Common European framework of reference for languages: Learning, teaching, assessment. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Howatt, A.P.R. & Widdowson, H.G. 2014. A History of English Language Teaching. Oxford: O.U.P. Larrea-Espinar, Ángela. 2015. “El aprendizaje cultural en la enseñanza del inglés y su alcance en los libros de texto”. RESLA 28(1): 145-168. Lee, K. Y. 2009. “Treating culture: What 11 high school EFL conversation textbooks in South Korea do”. English Teaching: Practice and Critique 8(1): 76-96. Paige, R., J. Jorstad, L. Paulson, F. Klein & J. Colby. 1999. “Culture learning in language education: A review of the literature”. In R. Paige, D. Lange, & Y. Yershova (eds.) Culture as the core: Integrating culture into the language curriculum. Minneapolis, MN: The Center for Advanced Research on Language Acquisition, University of Minnesota. Raigón-Rodríguez, Antonio. 2015. “El desarrollo de la competencia comunicativa intercultural a través del aprendizaje cultural en los libros de texto”. Revista de Lenguas para Fines Específicos 21(1): 88-108.

La adquisición del ruso como lengua extranjera en un contexto de instrucción formal en el aula: complejidad, corrección y fluidez y uso del caso en la producción escrita
SPEAKER: unknown

ABSTRACT. El objetivo de nuestro estudio es describir el desarrollo de la competencia lingüística escrita en ruso como lengua extranjera por parte de aprendices bilingües (catalán / castellano) de edad adulta (n = 83) en contexto de instrucción formal (IF), en concreto en una modalidad de cursos extensivos. La muestra incluye cuatro grupos correspondientes a niveles consecutivos de una escuela oficial de idiomas catalana (1-4). A tal fin se lleva a cabo un estudio longitudinal, con un diseño pretest - postest, con dos tiempos de recogida de datos para cada nivel, y a la vez un diseño transversal para los cuatro niveles. Los datos obtenidos se contrastan con las de la producción escrita de un grupo de hablantes de ruso como L1 (n = 30), con el objetivo de establecer relación con su nivel de habilidad en cuanto a la producción escrita. El instrumento central de recogida de datos, administrado en los dos tiempos, consiste en una tarea de narrativa a realizar en 40 minutos, a partir de 6 imágenes en forma de viñetas. Posteriormente, los resultados se han contrastado con los del grupo de participantes nativos (n = 30) que realizan la misma tarea en un solo tiempo. Los análisis estadísticos revelaron que 150 h de IF inciden significativamente en el G1, pero no en el G2, el G3 o el G4. Más específicamente, el G1 mejora significativamente en la complejidad sintáctica medida a través del total de cláusulas para oración y el total de cláusulas dependientes por oración; en la complejidad léxica medida a través del índice de Guiraud; y en la fluidez medida a través de la contabilización del número de palabras por 40 minutos. El G1, el G2, el G3 y el G4 muestran medias significativamente más bajas que el grupo nativo en las medidas de complejidad léxica, corrección y fluidez, pero no en la complejidad sintáctica. En conclusión, parece que este estancamiento en cuanto al progreso en las habilidades de escritura de los niveles 2, 3, y 4 se podría explicar por la falta de input y práctica en la lengua meta, que podría solucionarse con más trabajo individual fuera del aula y estancias en un país de habla rusa.

Translanguaging in a trilingual school context

ABSTRACT. The shift of paradigm from monolingualism to multilingualism in language acquisition research has contributed enormously in the field of multilingual education. New studies (García and Li Wei, 2014; Jones and Lewis, 2014) advocate for the flexible alternate use of two or more languages in the same lesson. This is what it is known as translanguaging pedagogy. Translanguaging refers to “the communicative norm of multilingual communities” (García and Sylvan, 2011: 389).

As far as we know, very few studies (Portolés and Safont, 2014; Portolés and Martín, 2012) have examined the classroom discourse in our participants’ languages, that is Catalan, Spanish and English. Therefore, the present study aims at examining translanguaging practices taking into account the six metafunctions proposed by Garcia, Makar, Starcevic and Terry (2011) in their study. Qualitative data for our study have been collected in 6 EFL sessions including a total amount of 2 teachers and 61 students. These learners were enrolled in the second year (age 4.5) of pre-school education and they were selected from two different schools adopting two different linguistic programs.

The results derived from the study offer very interesting examples of translanguaging practices in the EFL classroom and shows that the alternation of languages does occur in order to accomplish different strategies and functions. As a pedagogical implication, we propose that a monolingual behavior should be avoided in the multilingual classroom.

References García, O. and Li Wei. (2014). Translanguaging: Language, Bilingualism and Education. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. García, O., Makar, C., Starcevic, M. & Terry, A. (2011). The translanguaging of Latino kindergartners. In Rothman, J. and Potowski, K. Bilingual Youth: Spanish in English speaking societies (pp. 33-55). Amsterdam: John Benjamins. García, O. and Sylvan, C. (2011). Pedagogies and practices in multilingual classrooms: singularities and pluralities. The Modern Language Journal, 95 (3), 385-400. Jones, B. and Lewis, G. (2014). Language Arrangements within Bilingual Education. In E.M. Thomas and I. Mennen (eds.), Advances in the Study of Bilingualism. Bristol: Multilingual Matters. Portolés, L. and Safont-Jordà, M.P. (2014). Translanguaging and formulaic speech in the L3 classroom. In A. Díaz, M.C. Fumero, M.P. Lojendio, S. Burgess, E. Sosa and A. Cano Communication, Cognition and Cybernetics (pp.407-420). La Laguna: Universidad de la Laguna. Portolés, L. and Martín, S. (2012). Code switching in classroom discourse: A multilingual approach. In Alcón, E. and Safont, P. Discourse and language learning across l2 instructional Settings (pp.295-317). New York: Rodopi (Utrech collection in Language and Communication 24).

The transition from primary to secondary in bilingual education: students’ motivation towards learning subjects through English
SPEAKER: unknown

ABSTRACT. Content and language integrated learning (CLIL) type bilingual education is becoming ever more present and popular in Europe and no less so in Spain. This paper reports on the preliminary outcomes and methodological aspects of the first phase in a larger ongoing longitudinal research project investigating students’ transition from primary to secondary bilingual schools in the Comunidad de Madrid (CAM) – and in particular, the effect of their being streamed into high- and low-immersion tracks on the development of these students’ academic language competences. To that end, attention is paid to the relation between 1) students’ academic achievement and English proficiency, 2) students’ placement in the low- or high-immersion track, and 3) students’ motivation and attitudes towards CLIL.

The case study reported here followed 87 students from one bilingual primary school into its corresponding secondary school in the Madrid region. Their academic achievement was assessed by means of the Prueba de Conocimientos y Destrezas Indispensables (CDI), a standardized test set by the CAM at the end of primary evaluating Spanish language skills, Mathematics, and general knowledge. Students’ proficiency in English was measured by means of their score on the Cambridge PET or KET exams. Out of the 87 students in our sample, only 8 students failed the Cambridge KET exam (minimum access requirement to the low-immersion track); all other students passed either the KET or PET exam. No gender bias was detected in either academic achievement or English proficiency. In general, students who did well on the CDI also did well on the Cambridge exam, although a medium-large correlation was found specifically between CDI scores for Spanish language skills and scores on the Cambridge exam.

In order to measure motivation and attitudes towards CLIL, we designed a questionnaire based on existing scales gauging motivational strength, intrinsic, instrumental, and integrative motivation, language anxiety, linguistic self-confidence, willingness to communicate, and parental support. However, in contrast to previous research that has examined these constructs with a focus on foreign language leaning, the innovation of the present study lies in investigating these constructs for the first time with a focus on learning content through a foreign language. To that end, all items were rewritten to reflect the special integrated focus that characterizes content and language integrated learning. In addition, the questionnaire also gathered data on students’ linguistic background, exposure to English, and personal reflections on bilingual education and the track in which they were placed. The statistical analyses of the questionnaire data reveal significant differences between the low- and high-immersion tracks, with lower scores for low-immersion students on the motivation constructs under analysis, exposure to English, and attitudes towards bilingual education.

08:30-10:30 Session 6G: Traducción e interpretación/Translation and interpreting
Location: SALA/ROOM 8
Translating False and Fickle Anglicisms in Modern Spanish
SPEAKER: Andrew Walsh

ABSTRACT. Modern Spanish is increasingly peppered with Anglicisms in all lexical fields, both professional and informal, and this tendency shows no signs of waning. On the contrary, all forms and registers of Spanish seem to be infused with numerous Anglicisms and not only such predictable spheres of influence such as business and technology. Many of these terms are loanwords which have occupied a genuine lexical gap in Spanish, are used appropriately and provide a genuinely useful service to speakers of the language. Nevertheless, there is also a great deal of misuse of these Anglicisms, both in terms of their meaning and their grammatical function and this inevitably leads to an undeniable source of potential confusion that needs to be addressed both by language teachers and translators in terms of the transmission and the transfer of these items of vocabulary between English and Spanish. This paper explores the phenomenon of false Anglicisms in modern Spanish and some of the problems they pose for language acquisition and translation. We propose an analysis of four types of transformation and adaptation in the use of false Anglicisms that we have identified between English and modern Spanish.

1)Grammatical transformation – a change in the grammatical function of the Anglicisms in question which in turn tends to permeate and contaminate subsequent English use by Spanish speakers. 2)Lexical reduction - this phenomenon consists of the reduction of an English term to the use of the first word only, thus leading to mistakes and confusion when the word is ‘backtranslated into English. 3)Pseudo Anglicisms – this phenomenon refers to the unconscious use of a false Anglicism in the mistaken belief that this is the correct English term. 4)Faux or ‘cod’ Anglicisms – this increasingly popular tendency refers to the practice of knowingly using a false Anglicism, usually based either on the humorous conflation of a Spanish lexeme with an English word ending or on the deliberately direct translation of a quintessentially Spanish term or expression.

Construcciones alemanas de pasiva con "bekommen", "kriegen" y "erhalten": Un estudio basado en corpus

ABSTRACT. La denominada pasiva de bekommen (bekommen-Passiv) se forma con el auxiliar "bekommen" o sus sinónimos "kriegen" y "erhalten" en función de auxiliar y el participio de pasado del verbo principal. Sintácticamente es una construcción restringida a predicados complementados por un grupo nominal en acusativo y otro en dativo, (p. ej: jemandem etwas aushändigen, jemandem etwas schenken). Desde el punto de vista de los papeles semánticos, aunque algunos autores afirman que el dativo de ese predicado sólo puede referirse a seres humanos, es fácil localizar ejemplos en los que ese dativo se refiere a entidades no animadas (Elena, 1990:62). Finalmente, tanto Duden (1995:178) como Engel (1998: 454) apuntan a diferencias de registro entre los auxiliares "bekommen", "erhalten" y "kriegen". El objetivo de este trabajo es a) sistematizar las equivalencias en contexto de las construcciones mencionadas y b) contrastar o matizar las afirmaciones localizadas en la teoría gramatical alemana acerca de las mismas. Para ello, nos servimos de un corpus paralelo alineado alemán>español de textos narrativo-literarios Finalmente, reflexionamos sobre cómo aprovechar los acercamientos "corpus-based" y "corpus-driven" en la formación de traductores.

REFERENCES Drosdowski, G., Gelhaus, H., & Mangold, M. 1995, Grammatik der deutschen Gegenwartsprache. Mannheim: Dudenverlag. Elena García, P. 1990, “Ramificaciones de la diátesis pasiva en alemán: Las construcciones bekommen y haben + Partizip II”, Anuari de Filologia, vol. XIII, no. A/1, pp. 57-64. Engel, U. 2008, Deutsche Grammatik. Múnich: Iudicium-Verlag.

Authentic Project-based Translation Course: Spreading Semi-Specialised Knowledge through Wikipedia

ABSTRACT. Real project-based methodology in the translation classroom allows translator trainees to strengthen the links with the socio-professional communities whose texts they translate, therefore further developing their secondary/tertiary socialisation process as inter-linguistic professionals specialised in a particular domain.

Besides, the Bologna process has reinforced what seems to be a heavy market-oriented professionalisation of the humanities where the prevailing conceptualisation of translation competence development suggests a linear evolution that expects the translator trainee to gather different pieces of knowledge, skills and advice in order to become a professional. This reflects the misleading pedagogical assumption that the market and the profession are something static, never-changing.

In order to fully introduce translator trainees to the relevant socio-professional structures, this paper examines and analyses the role of authentic translation work in the translation classroom through a teaching innovation project carried out between Jaume I University and Wikimedia Spain.

Wikipedia, the online encyclopaedia, is one of the best-known and most successful examples of non-professional online collaboration around the world, which offers an interesting breeding ground for translator trainees to develop a self-reflective, professional translation expertise. The project, through a holistic methodology, aims at enhancing the translation competence of translator trainees while successfully introducing them to real discursive practices and thus socialising them as inter-linguistic professionals.

Ultimately, the aim of this paper is to reflect on how meaningful learning experiences based on collaborative work and authentic project-based tasks lead to a better understanding of the particular linguistic and discursive structures translators face in the course of their careers; as well as the critical/exegetic skills they need to assess the kind of texts with which they are commissioned and the special discursive techniques associated to the translating task.


Biesta, Gert (2009) “Education after deconstruction: Between event and invention”, in Michael A. Peters / Gert Biesta (eds.): Derrida, Deconstruction and the Politics of Pedagogy. New York et al: Peter Lang, 97-113 Biesta, Gert (2014) “Cultivating Humanity or Educating the Human? Two Options for Education in the Knowledge Age”, Asia Pacific Education Review 15, 13-19 European Commission (2008) The European Qualifications Framework for Lifelong Learning. Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities Firmino Torres, Manuel and Leite, Carlinda (2014) “Assessment of and for Learning in Higher Education”, Transnational Curriculum Inquiry 1, 14-29 Kiraly, Don. (2000) A Social Constructivist Approach to Translator Education: Empowerment from Theory to Practice. Manchester: St. Jerome. Kiraly, Don (2005) “Project-based learning: A case for situated translation”, Meta 50:4, 1098-1111 Kiraly, Don (2014) “From Assumptions about Knowing and Learning to Praxis in Translator Education”, inTRAlinea, Special Issue: Challenges in Translation Pedagogy [] Mitchell-Schuitevoerder, Rosemary (2013) “A Project-based Methodology in Translator training”, in Reine Meylaerts et al. (eds.) Tracks and Treks in Translation Studies: Selected Papers from the EST Congress, Leuven 2010, 127-142 Presas, Marisa (2012) “Training Translators in the European Higher Education Area” in The Interpreter and Translator Trainer 6(2), 138-169 Tan, Zaixi (2008) “Towards a Whole-Person Translator Education Approach in Translation Teaching on University Degree Programmes”, in Meta 53(3), 589-608

08:30-10:30 Session 6H: Pragmática/Pragmatics
Location: SALA/ROOM 7B
Oralidad narrada y proceso traslativo. El monólogo de Célestine en dos versiones españolas de "Le Journal d’une femme de chambre"
SPEAKER: Jose Luis Aja

ABSTRACT. Octave Mirbeau eligió para "Le Journal d’une femme de chambre" una original estructura narrativa que difiere de las estrategias utilizadas por sus coetáneos para articular la ficción novelesca. Este diario íntimo, donde una doncella cuenta al lector su trayectoria vital, establece un complejo juego de registros lingüísticos destinados a reproducir, por un lado, la oralidad diferida de los personajes mediante la estructura dialógica de la obra y, por otro, la comunicación del yo narrante, disfrazado de Célestine, con el lector. Ambas estrategias estilísticas combinan, en el plano gráfico, algunos rasgos de inmediatez comunicativa marcados por el aquí y ahora de un rico monólogo, en el que abundan los recursos tipográficos utilizados para plasmar la espontaneidad de la lengua oral —troncamientos, puntos suspensivos, anáforas, exclamaciones, interjecciones y marcadores discursivos de fuerte implicación conversacional—, si bien el discurso sociológico de Célestine-Mirbeau impregna el relato de un contenido ideológico y, sobre todo, de una dimensión irónica impropia de las hablas populares propias de una doncella.

La oralidad plasmada en este diario ficticio mantiene un complejo equilibrio entre la ausencia de planificación propia de la lengua hablada y la planificación característica de la oralidad escrita. El traductor cuenta con dos herramientas para hacer frente a las dificultades traslativas que plantea este diasistema: un conocimiento intuitivo de la pragmática textual, que ayudará a mantener el "skopos" del original francés, y una correcta codificación de las claves ficcionales presentes en la construcción de este monólogo novelado.

Existen seis traducciones de "Le Journal d’une femme de chambre" en España. En el presente artículo hemos analizado el tratamiento de la oralidad y el registro lingüístico del monólogo en dos de estas traducciones: en la primera, publicada en 1901, que corrió a cargo de Augusto Riera y de Ramón Sempau, y en la cuarta, realizada por Julio Crescencio Acerete en 1974. Ambas versiones siguen estrategias pragmáticas contrapuesas, que ofrecen al lector español diferentes visiones de la obra.

Bibliografía (resumida)

Chafe, W. L (1993): “Integration and Involvment in Speaking, Writing and Oral Literature”, en Tannen, D. (ed.): Spoken and Written Language. Exploring Orality and Literacy, Norwood, New Jersey, Ablex Publishing Corporation. Coseriu, E. (1981): “La lengua funcional”, en Coseriu, E.: Lecciones de lingüística general, trad. esp. de José María de Azáceta, Madrid: Gredos, pp. 302-315. Genette, G. (1983): Discours du récit. Paris: Editions du Seuil. Hatim, B. y Mason, I. (1995): Teoría de la traducción, trad. esp. de Salvador Peña. Barcelona: Ariel. Koch, P. Y Oesterreicher, W. (2007): Lengua hablada en la romania. Español, francés, italiano, trad. esp. de Araceli López Serena. Madrid: Gredos. Moreno Cabrera, J. C. (2000): Curso universitario de lingüística general, vol. 2. Madrid: Síntesis. Nencioni, G. (1976): “Parlato-parlato, parlato-scritto, parlato-recitato”, en Strumenti critici, anno X, febbrario 1976, fascicolo I. Nord, C. (1991): Text Analysis in Translation: Amsterdam-Atlanta, Rodopi. Richet, B. (2001): “Quelques données et réflexions sur la traduction des interjections”, en Ballard, M. (ed.): Oralité et traduction, Arras: Artois Presses Université.

Pretense and echoic irony in Swift's The Drapier's Letters

ABSTRACT. Within his literary production devoted to “the Irish Question”, in his Drapier’s Letters Jonathan Swift (1724) admonished the Irish against the deleterious consequences of the granting of a patent to an individual, Wood, letting him coin copper money for Ireland, by adopting the persona of a drapier. This let him a twofold and complementary perspective: on the one hand, to become close to his primary audience; on the other hand, to choose an effective antagonist to the target of his attacks. The use of a persona recurs in some works by Swift: the drapier may be considered a continuation of the wool trader used in “The Present Miserable State of Ireland” (1721), where he criticised the Wool Acts (1699). In the two works, then, Swift draws a character which makes him stand by his target audience. In contrast, the persona of the projector in A Modest Proposal remains distant and aloof from the rest of the world. Moreover, in The Drapier’s Letters a peculiar feature in Swift’s use of personae stands out: the interplay between the drapier and Swift himself. Thus, the paper will explore the reasons why Swift ‘in the flesh’ turns up in the series of seven letters and the relationship that is established between the Drapier and Swift. This paper aims to analyse the uses of irony made in this anthology of Letters. The characteristics that define such uses of irony, and in particular, the aspects connected with either pretense or echoic irony will be explored. It is our contention that, on the one hand, Swift sought to express his criticism and distance towards the state of affairs that he denounced as unfair; on the other hand, and instrumentally, one of the ways in which he did so was through a persona that both joined him with his target addressees and also distanced him from the criticism raised in the works.


Clark, Billy (2013). Relevance Theory. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Sperber, D. (1984). Verbal irony: Pretence or echoic mention? Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 113: 130-136. Sperber, D. and D. Wilson (1981). Irony and the use-mention distinction. In: Radical Pragmatics. Ed. P. Cole. New York: Academic Press, 295-318. Sperber Dan, Fabrice Clement, Christophe Heintz, Olivier Mascaro, Hugo Mercier, Gloria Origgi and Deirdre Wilson. (2010). Epistemic Vigilance. Mind & Language, Vol. 25, No. 4 September 2010, pp. 359–393. Wilson, D. (2006). The pragmatics of verbal irony: Echo or pretence? Lingua 116: 1722-1743. Wilson, D. (2009). Irony and metarepresentation. UCL Working Papers in Linguistics 21: 183-226. Wilson, D. (2012). Explaining irony. Paper delivered at Meaning, Context and Cognition 2012. University of Lodz (Poland). Wilson, D. (2013). Irony comprehension: A developmental perspective. Journal of Pragmatics 59(A): 40-56. Wilson, D. (2014). Irony, hyperbole, jokes and banter. In: Papers dedicated to Jacques Moeschler. C. Blochowiak, C. Grisot, S. Durrleman-Tame and C. Laenzlinger. Genève: Université de Genève. Yus, F. (2015). Contextual sources, mutually manifest assumptions and epistemic vigilance in ironic communication. Paper presented at 14th International Pragmatics Conference, Antwerp. Available from ResearchGate

Les construccions [fer Vinf] i [donar a Vinf], i l’expressió de la font de la informació enunciada

ABSTRACT. Són freqüents, en català actual, les locucions i col·locacions que combinen les construccions parcialment saturades [fer Vinf] i [donar a Vinf] i els verbs de pensament i percepció: donar a entendre, fer pensar, fer sentir, fer veure, entre d’altres. En aquest context, l’ús de les construccions fer i donar s’ha d’entendre com una estratègia discursiva d’externalització de la font de la informació enunciada que manifesta, des d’una perspectiva pragmàtica, el concepte d’intersubjectivitat (en el sentit de Traugott 2004). En altres paraules, mitjançant aquestes construccions, el locutor (experimentador de l’estat mental) pot desviar la responsabilitat sobre la informació enunciada a una font externa del coneixement, a la qual atorga el paper d’origen. No és aquest, però, un fenomen exclusiu del català actual, sinó que les construccions anteriors tenen o han tingut equivalents en la resta de llengües romàniques: és el cas de les locucions de l’espanyol dar a conocer, dar a entender (DRAE, s.v. dar) o hacer ver (DRAE, s.v. hacer); del francès donner à entendre, donner à penser, donner à supposer (TLFI, s.v. donner); de l’italià dare ad intendere, dare a conoscere, dare a pensare (VTreccani, s.v. dare); o del portuguès dar a entender (DMichaelis, s.v. dar). En aquest estudi analitzarem l’ús d’aquesta estratègia en el discurs acadèmic. En aquest sentit, pretenem fer un catàleg dels infinitius amb els quals es combinen les construccions [fer Vinf] i [donar a Vinf] en català actual, en un corpus d’exemples presos de textos acadèmics, i farem una anàlisi més detallada de la funció pragmàtica que desenvolupen. Aquest corpus d’exemples el constituirem a partir dels materials del Corpus Textual Informatitzat de la Llengua Catalana (CTILC).

Obres citades

CTILC = Rafel, J., dir., Corpus Textual Informatitzat de la Llengua Catalana, Barcelona, Institut d’Estudis Catalans, disponible a Internet: DMichaelis = Moderno Dicionário da Língua Portuguesa (1998), São Paulo, Melhoramentos. DRAE = Real Academia Española (2014) Diccionario de la lengua española (22a edició), disponible a Internet: VTreccani = Istituto dell’Enciclopedia Italiana, Vocabolario Treccani, disponible a Internet: TLFI = Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) (2004), Trésor de la Langue Française Informatisé, París, CNRS Éditions, disponible a Internet: Traugott, E. C. (2004) «From subjectification to intersubjectification», dins Raymond Hickey (ed.) Motives for language changes, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.

Análisis pragmalingüístico de las fórmulas de agradecimiento y su modificación de estudiantes chinos de ELE

ABSTRACT. El objetivo principal del presente estudio es analizar y comparar las fórmulas explícitas del acto de las expresiones de agradecimiento y su modificación utilizadas por parte de aprendices chinos de español, de dos niveles distintos: intermedio (A2-B1) y avanzado (B2-C1). Para ello, hemos recogido datos a partir del cuestionario para completar el discurso (Discourse completion Tests (DCT)) abierto llevado a cabo por hablantes no nativos de español, que tienen el chino de Taiwán como lengua materna. En este sentido, mediante la comparación con hablantes nativos de español peninsular, pretendemos observar el desarrollo de la competencia pragmática. De igual forma, analizamos comparativamente los datos que producen los hablantes nativos de español peninsular y de chino de Taiwán, para poder detectar la transferencia pragmática. A través de este estudio transversal (cross-sectional), procuramos examinar el proceso de desarrollo de dicho acto, así como la percepción de problemas en la producción de la lengua meta. De este modo, comprobamos si el nivel de la competencia gramatical influye en la producción del acto de las expresiones de agradecimiento, enfocándonos, a su vez, en la presencia de la competencia gramatical en la construcción de la competencia pragmática. Los resultados de los análisis realizados señalan que tanto los hablantes nativos como los aprendices, utilizan las mismas estrategias principales para dar las gracias. No obstante, el uso de las subestrategias revela la diferencia sociocultural y lingüística entre español y chino. Además, un factor a tener en cuenta es la transferencia pragmática de la lengua nativa en ambos grupos de aprendices. Respecto al grupo del nivel avanzado, su empleo de las fórmulas y el estado de lengua (léxico y sintáctico) se asimilan más a los datos de nativos españoles. Mientras que en el grupo intermedio, los informantes optan por las expresiones que les resultan más sencillas y más fáciles de aprender, su distribución de ellas no solo se limita en ciertas categorías (p. ej. un porcentaje absoluto en la expresión gracias y su modificación muchas), sino que la frecuencia de uso también es la más baja entre todos. En general, los enunciados que produce el grupo avanzado son más largos y elaborados, con mecanismos lingüísticos más amplios y tienen menos errores gramaticales que el Intermedio, pero aún no alcanzan el nivel de los hablantes nativos de español. En cambio, las contestaciones del grupo intermedio son más cortas, menos estructuradas y con más fallos gramaticales. De ahí que la competencia gramatical sea un elemento fundamental para el desarrollo de la competencia pragmática.

08:30-10:30 Session 6I: Traducción e interpretación/Translation and interpreting
Location: SALA/ROOM 7
Towards LSP(II) – language teaching for future interpreters: evaluation
SPEAKER: unknown

ABSTRACT. Further to previous our previous presentation on the relative importance attributed to the different foreign language skills reported by language teachers on translation and interpreting (T&I) degree courses in Spain (SELM 2015), this paper concentrates on aspects relating to evaluation. Thus, although our research (based on answers from such teachers to our questionnaire regarding their actual day-to-day practice rather than theoretical concepts) focussed mainly on translation, a number of our questions were conducive to eliciting responses relating to aural and oral performance. Our intention here is to present our findings regarding the balance attributed to aural/oral as opposed to reading/writing skills in terms of student evaluation. The extent to which students are assessed in their foreign language courses based on their listening comprehension and speaking skills will naturally determine the amount of time and effort they will spend on developing them, thereby conditioning their preparation for subsequent interpreting courses. Our findings will therefore be of interest, primarily, for teachers of interpreting, but also for foreign language teachers and trainee interpreters, to the extent that their marks in the foreign language may or may not reflect their linguistic predisposition for interpreting.

Terminología, documentación y traducción: desarrollo de la subcompetencia instrumental del traductor

ABSTRACT. La competencia traductora puede descomponerse en diferentes subcompetencias, entras las cuales se encuentra la instrumental, relacionada, entre otras cosas, con los conocimientos y las habilidades referidas al uso de todo tipo de fuentes de documentación y de las nuevas tecnologías necesarias para el traductor (PACTE). El desarrollo de tal sucompetencia dentro del aula de traducción puede materializarse en diferentes tipos de actividades que hagan énfasis en alguno de los aspectos que componen tal subcompetencia: uso de diccionarios y bases de datos terminológicas, textos paralelos, memorias de traducción, motores de búsqueda, etc. El objetivo del presente trabajo es mostrar una serie de actividades basadas en un determinado aspecto de la subcompetencia instrumental: la explotación de corpus. Tales actividades implican el uso no solo de diferentes tipos de corpus (comparables, paralelos, léxicos, etc.), sino también de distintos lenguajes de interrogación de aplicaciones informáticas distintas (Sketch Engine, Context, Google, etc.), además de diferentes objetivos (recuperación de textos paralelos, búsqueda de equivalencias, identificación de unidades fraseológicas, etc.). Si bien la propuesta no está validada empíricamente, esta puede ser empleada por otros formadores, así como variar tanto en forma como en contenido.

Wikipedia como herramienta didáctica en el aula de traducción

ABSTRACT. Wikipedia como herramienta didáctica en el aula de traducción Marina Ramos Caro Mediante el proyecto de innovación Traduciendo Wikipedia: El encargo real en el aula de Traducción se ha implantado una metodología colaborativa basada en el aprendizaje por medio de un proyecto real de traducción en el aula de Traducción General(alemán) de la Universidad de Murcia. Esta metodología se basa en experiencias previas llevadas a cabo en la Universidad Jaume I de Castellón, en la Universidad de Friburgo (Alemania) y en la Universidad de Durham (Reino Unido). Los alumnos, divididos por equipos, son los encargados de seleccionar artículos de Wikipedia escritos en alemán con el fin de traducirlos, revisarlos, y finalmente editarlos y publicarlos online. Estudios previos (Szymczak, 2013; Meseguer y Ramos, en prensa; Kiraly, 2015) han demostrado que el trabajo con proyectos reales de traducción consigue aumentar la motivación de los estudiantes y el potencial didáctico de las prácticas simuladas en el aula. A su vez, el trabajo en equipo aumenta la calidad del trabajo de los alumnos y la adquisición de competencias interpersonales y profesionales (Hmelo-Silver et al., 2013; Ramos y Meseguer, 2014; Cifuentes y Meseguer, 2015). Por último, las experiencias docentes con Wikipedia contribuyen a la creación y difusión de conocimiento, ofreciendo así un importante servicio a la comunidad (Szymczak, 2013). En el presente trabajo se describe el proyecto de innovación educativa llevado a cabo y se presentan los resultados de un estudio cuantitativo y cualitativo para conocer los beneficios pedagógicos de dicha experiencia. Con una metodología basada en encuestas y en la obtención de datos mediante grupos de discusión (Gil Flores, 1992-3; Huertas y Vigier, 2010), se consigue demostrar el enorme potencial didáctico de Wikipedia como herramienta de trabajo real en el aula de traducción. Bibliografía:

Cifuentes, Paula y Meseguer, Purificación. 2015. Tonos Digital, 28.

Meseguer, Purificación y Ramos, Marina (en prensa) “Learning through real assignments in the audiovisual translation classroom”. Current Trends in Translation Teaching and Learning.

Hmelo-Silver, Cindy; Chinn, Clark A.; Chan, Carol; O'Donnell, Angela M. (2013) The International Handbook of Collaborative Learning. Routlegde.

Huertas Barros, Elsa y Vigier Moreno, Francisco J. (2010). El grupo de discusión como técnica de investigación en la formación de traductores: dos casos de su aplicabilidad. Entreculturas, 2: 181-196.

Kiraly (2015). Towards Authentic Experiential Learning in Translator Education. V&R unipress: Mainz University Press.

Ramos, Marina y Meseguer, Purificación. (2014) “Nuevos retos didácticos: trabajar en equipo en el aula de TAV”. En Del Valle, Mª Elena (Ed.): Construyendo la nueva enseñanza superior, pp. 465-474. McGraw Hill: Madrid. ISBN: 978-84-4819-745-2.

Szymczak, Piotr. (2013) Translating Wikipedia Articles: A Preliminary Report on Authentic Translation Projects in Formal Translator Training. Acta Philologica, Vol. 44, pp. 61-70.

Meseguer, Purificación y Ramos, Marina (en prensa) “Learning through real assignments in the audiovisual translation classroom”. Current Trends in Translation Teaching and Learning.

El portafolio en la evaluación de la traducción especializada: percepción del estudiantado
SPEAKER: Mcarmen Acuyo

ABSTRACT. La implantación, desde hace varios años, de los nuevos Grados en Traducción e Interpretación, a raíz de las directrices establecidas en el Espacio Europeo de Educación Superior, ha llevado consigo no pocos ajustes, modificaciones y adaptaciones en la metodología del proceso de enseñanza-aprendizaje dentro del ámbito universitario. En este sentido, y más concretamente en el ámbito de la evaluación de enseñanza-aprendizaje de la traducción especializada, el uso de herramientas útiles, así como instrumentos fiables de recogida de información, para una mejor y exhaustiva valoración del aprendizaje por parte del alumnado se hace más que necesaria.

Si a estos instrumentos de evaluación, principalmente formativa, le sumamos la autopercepción del alumnado de su propio aprendizaje como indicador de calidad y factor de retroalimentación clave en el proceso educativo, los resultados obtenidos son especialmente relevantes, no solo para la evaluación del propio profesorado, sino también para mejorar los resultados de aprendizaje. En este trabajo, pretendemos poner de manifiesto, a través de la administración de un cuestionario a los estudiantes de Traducción especializada (impartida actualmente en el 3º curso del Grado en Traducción e Interpretación de la Universidad de Granada) la percepción que el estudiantado tiene de su propio aprendizaje, en función de las (sub)competencias adquiridas durante la elaboración de una carpeta de trabajo (portafolio).


Álvarez, J. D. & Vega, A. M. (2010). La evaluación formativa. Esa gran desconocida. En Gómez, M. C. & Grau, S. (Ed.), Evaluación de los aprendizajes en el Espacio Europeo de Educación Superior (pp. 33-47). Alcoy: Marfil.

Boza, Z. (2012) Cómo elaborar un portafolio para mejorar la docencia universitaria. Una experiencia de formación del profesorado novel. Cuadernos de docencia universitaria, nº 23. Octaedro: Barcelona.

Grau Company, S., Álvarez, J.D., & Tortosa Ybáñez, M. (2011). Una estrategia innovadora en la docencia universitaria: la evaluación formativa. En R. Roig Vila & C. Laneve (Eds.). La práctica educativa en la Sociedad de la Información. Innovación a través de la investigación. La pratica educativa nella Società dell´informazione. L´innovazione attraverso la ricerca (pp. 175-186). Alcoy-Brescia: Marfil & La Scuola Editrice.

Grau, S. & Gómez, M. C. (2010). La evaluación, un proceso de cambio para el aprendizaje. En Gómez, M. C. & Grau, S. (Ed.), Evaluación de los aprendizajes en el Espacio Europeo de Educación Superior (pp. 17-33). Alcoy: Marfil.

Sánchez Santamaría, J. (2012) El e-portfolio en la docencia universitaria: percepciones de los estudiantes y carga de trabajo. Revista Electrónica de Investigación y Docencia (REID), 7, Enero, 2012, 31-55.

08:30-10:30 Session 6J: Lingüística de corpus, computacional e ingeniería lingüística/Corpus linguistics, computational linguistics and linguistic engineering
Location: SALA/ROOM 9
A corpus-assisted discourse study of the European Parliament's Euro-jargon

ABSTRACT. The present paper draws on Corpus-Assisted Discourse Studies (CADS) (Partington, Duguid, & Taylor, 2013) in order to explore European Parliament’s (micro) communicative features in (macro) context. CADS have been reported to produce “impressive results (Garzone & Santulli, 2004, p. 353) when dealing with specialised texts and provides an ample gamut of procedures and instruments for the research endeavour. Amongst procedures, CADS allows for the quantitative and qualitative scrutiny of both different and similar types of language production. Amongst instruments, CADS resorts to either traditional tools (e.g., frequency indicators, keywords, concordances, and collocations), or slightly more innovative items (e.g., detailed consistency, key keywords, associates, and lockwords).

More precisely, this paper examines the original and translated Euro-jargon employed in European parliamentary speeches. Euro-jargon –otherwise known as Euro-speak, among other designations – has been defined as “the language used at the European institutions” (Kajzer, 2012). As such, it has been presented as a specialised kind of (transnational) vehicle of communication (Sossoni, 2011), which “comes in all languages” (Wagner, 2001) and comprises “concepts that have no equivalent at national level” (Wagner, Bech, & Martínez, 2002, p. 64).

It is hereby argued and demonstrated that CADS is a most adequate methodology to poke into the EP speech genre. In order to do so, the paper concentrates on the comparative analysis of the European Comparable and Parallel Archive (ECPC), of over 50,000,000 tokens, which consists of 3 main corpora: ECPC_EP (with EP’s original and translated speeches from 2004 to 2011), ECPC_CD (with speeches delivered at the Spanish Congreso de los Diputados from 2004 to 2014) and ECPC_HC (with House of Commons’ speeches from 2004 to 2014). The Archive’s corpora are all XML tagged and may be queried for POS patterns. Both parallel and comparable studies (of lexis and syntax) will be performed in order to come up with a detailed description of original and translated Euro-jargon.

Cited works

Garzone, G., & Santulli, F. (2004). "What can corpus do for Critical Discourse Analysis?". In A. Partington, J. Morley, & L. Haarman (Eds.), Corpora and Discourse. Bern: Peter Lang. Kajzer, M. (2012). "Translation of eurojargon as a source of neologisms in Polish. A corpus-based study". In S. Góźdz-Roszkowski, Explorations across Languages and Corpora PALC 2009. Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang Verlag. Partington, A., Duguid, A., & Taylor, C. (Eds.). (2013). Patterns and meanings in discourse: theory and practice in corpus-assisted discourse studies (CADS). Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company. Sossoni, V. (2011). "Training translators to work for the EU institutions: luxury or necessity?". JoSTrans. The Journal of Specialised Translation, 16. Retrieved from Wagner, E. (2001). "Eurospeak: fighting the disease". In Cultivate Interactive. Issue 4. Retrieved from Wagner, E., Bech, S., & Martínez, J. M. (2002). Translating for the European Union institutions. Manchester, UK ; Northampton, MA: St. Jerome Pub.

Estructura de las frases sin verbo en español

ABSTRACT. Las frases sin verbo son estructuras sintacticas con un nucleo saturado por su valencia. Si bien éstas han sido objeto de ciertos estudios (Laurens, 2008), ninguno hasta hoy ha analizado la variedad de estructuras que se encuentran en una lengua dada, ni especificamente en español. El corpus CORLEC de español oral contemporáneo (Marcos Marín, 1992) recoge una gran variedad de frases averbales. El análisis de estos ejemplos permite determinar qué estructuras encontramos en español oral y cuál es la relación entre diferentes configuraciones como (1) y (2):

(1) El golazo, precioso. (2) ¡Qué poca inteligencia la tuya!

Podemos identificar fácilmente la estructura de las frases averbales compuestas solamente por el nucleo o que tienen un complemento, pero cuando el nucleo esta acompañado por un SN, como en (1-2) es necesario observar en detalle las propiedades del SN para poder determinar si éste constituye su sujeto o es un sintagma periférico sin relacion de reccion con el núcleo. Así, podemos observar si el SN tiene propiedades de sujeto con un test de intercambio de posición : si el núcleo está acompañado por dos SN, uno de ellos es su sujeto si éste tiene una posición fija. Así, este test permite distinguir las frases averbales con estructuras núcleo – sujeto (3) y núcleo – periférico (4):

(3) Arriba las manos los responsables / ?Arriba los responsables las manos. (4) Yo, para mi pueblo, el monorail, estupendo / El monorail, para mi pueblo, yo estupendo.

Además, encontramos diferentes órdenes posibles en frases averbales con la misma estructura. En las estructuras núcleo – sujeto observamos que el núcleo puede adoptar una proeminencia informativa respecto al sujeto (5), o no (6). Del mismo modo, en las estructuras núcleo – periférico (7) observamos que el SN tiene las propiedades que caracterizan a los topicos: capacidad de subordinación, extracción, omisión, acumulación y variación de orden. Así, estas propiedades indican que el SN sujeto puede ser el fondo informacional (5) (Lambrecht, 1994) o parte del foco (6), mientras que los SN periféricos constituyen el tópico (7):

(5) Arriba las manos. (6) Manos arriba. (7) Las manos arriba.

Encontramos asi tres diferentes estructuras sintacticas e informacionales: núcleo – sujeto y focus – fondo (5), núcleo – sujeto y focus amplio (6) y núcleo – periférico y tópico – comentario (7). Estas son pues las diferentes configuraciones que pueden adoptar las frases averbales predicativas del español oral de cualquiera de los tipos que encontramos en el corpus : directivas (5-7), expresivas, performativas, presentativas o evaluativas.

El presente trabajo se inscribe así en el estudio de las frases sin verbo de Fernández y Ginzburg (2002) y Ginzburg (2012), y constituye una investigación original porque distingue, en primer lugar, las frases averbales de otros enunciados sin verbo y sin contenido semántico frástico, como los marcadores discursivos; y en segundo lugar, las frases sin verbo con elipsis (8) de las frases sin verbo sin elipsis (9), (1-2), (5-8): (8) ¡Qué bárbaro! (9) ¡Qué pacífica aquella serie!

The Configuration of the L1 Grammaticon in FunGramKB: Argumental Constructions
SPEAKER: unknown

ABSTRACT. ARTEMIS (Automatically Representing Text Meaning via an Interlingua–based System) is a parsing device based on a sound linguistic model, Role and Reference Grammar (RRG), whose function is to bind natural language fragments with their corresponding grammatical and semantic structure. It complements, in this way, the Functional Grammar Knowledge Base (FunGramKB), (Periñán-Pascual and Arcas Túnez 2010), a multipurpose lexico-conceptual knowledge base which is designed to be used in different Natural Language Processing (NLP) tasks. Currently, ARTEMIS is concerned with Natural Language Understanding. To achieve this aim, it needs to obtain the appropriate syntactic and semantic underlying representations of any piece of natural language and, to do so, it has to count on the grammatical and semantic material which is stored in one of the following components:

(i) The GDE, which provides syntactic information. (ii) The lexical entries of lexica in FunGramKB, which supply the grammatical and semantic information. (iii) The Grammaticon, which offers the grammatical and semantic information related to constructions.

The aim of this presentation is twofold. On the one hand, we seek to explain how the parsing procedure takes place and to show the different steps involved in such a process and, on the other, we want to set the guidelines for the internal configuration of the so called level 1 of the Grammaticon (argumental level) as it will not necessarily encode what may be understood as ‘argumental construction’ outside our model. We will show that, once grammatical information from the GDE comes into play, the typology of alternations (Levin 1993), in which the L1 Grammaticon was initially based, turns out to be inadequate in the analysis of stretches of natural language.


Levin, Beth. English Verb Classes and Alternations. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press. 1993.

Periñán-Pascual, Carlos and Francisco Arcas Túnez. “The Architecture of FungramKB.” In Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation, 2667-2674. Malta: European Language Resources Association, 2010.

Exploring the patterns of verbal agreement of collective noun-headed subjects in a parsed corpus of Present-Day English

ABSTRACT. As a general rule, collective noun-headed subjects usually take singular or plural verbs according to whether the speaker focuses on the collectivity or on its individuals (Biber et al. 1999: 188). A further complication of this variation involves the plural of-dependents which often accompany some collective nouns, as exemplified in (1). (1) the [crowd]SG of [well-wishers]PL [start]PL chanting These of-PPs have been mostly overlooked and their role in agreement has been oversimplified and attributed to the attraction triggered by the plural nouns that they usually contain (Levin 2001). Fernández-Pena (2015), with data from the British National Corpus (BNC) and the Corpus of Contemporary American English (COCA), has pointed to the significant influence that these of-dependents exert on subject-verb agreement: they favour plural agreement but their effect on agreement significantly diminishes with increasing distance and less overtly-marked plural morphology. In an attempt to enlarge the database and incorporate varieties of English other than the British and the American ones, this study explores data retrieved from a parsed version of the corpus of Global Web-based English (GloWbE), which comprises 20 different varieties of English. The data have been retrieved using the syntax query of the Dependency Bank interface of the University of Zurich. The parser identified over 32,000 examples of complex NP subjects (reliability of 87%) containing (i) a singular collective noun (23 different collective nouns – Biber et al. 1999: 249 and Huddleston and Pullum et al. 2002: 503 – and up to 3,000 hits per collective were considered), (ii) a postmodifying plural of-PP (e.g. of boys), and (iii) a verbal form. After the manual pruning, the resulting 8,742 instances were analysed and classified according to different syntactic variables which may affect verb number: (ir)regular morphology of the noun in the of-PP, constituent structure and the typology of the modifiers within the of-PP or the lexical complexity of the of-PP in number of words, among others. Results corroborate the relevance of of-dependency for the patterns of agreement of collective–headed subjects. Data show that syntactic distance between the subject and the verb (and also the complexity of the modifier(s) of the of-PP) reduces the influence that plural of-PPs exert on the verb and, therefore, significantly lowers plural agreement, a decrease which is especially relevant in the case of of-PPs with morphologically-unmarked plural nouns (i.e. people) (from 73.50% to 51.35% vs. morphologically-marked plural nouns – i.e. boys – from 50.32% to 49.93%). References Biber, Douglas, Stig Johansson, Geoffrey Leech, Susan Conrad and Edward Finegan. 1999. Longman grammar of spoken and written English. London: Longman. Fernández-Pena, Yolanda. 2015. “Verbal agreement with collective noun-based constructions: Syntactic and lexical implications of of-dependents”. In Alberto Lázaro Lafuente and María Dolores Porto Requejo (eds.), English and American studies in Spain: New developments and trends. Alcalá de Henares: Universidad de Alcalá, 206–217. Huddleston, Rodney and Geoffrey K. Pullum, et al. 2002. The Cambridge grammar of the English language. Cambridge: CUP. Levin, Magnus. 2001. Agreement with collective nouns in English. Lund: Lund Studies in English.

08:30-10:30 Session 6K: Análisis del discurso/Discourse analysis
Location: SALA/ROOM 10
A Semantics of the Financial Crisis in Spain
SPEAKER: Ana Botella

ABSTRACT. This article presents research carried out on a corpus of newspaper articles about the financial crisis in Spain (Corpus de la Crisis Financiera - CCF). The genesis and compilation of the CCF coincided with a growing body of publications about the financial situation in Spain. They offered an opportunity to create a sufficiently representative corpus that allowed for the analysis of the main linguistic features being used to talk about the financial crisis. The linguistic study of texts on the financial crisis from two newspaper publications in Spain responded to the significant socioeconomic impact of the financial crisis on the life and dynamics of Spanish society.

In this paper, we are going to focus on the semantics and rhetorical functions in the different texts that make up the corpus. By using traditional quantitative methods, we have identified individual instances regarding the main entities, both concepts and social actors, of the financial crisis. A more detailed qualitative analysis has uncovered their specific meanings and functions, the nuances around them. As Hunston (2014: 12) states regarding corpus methodology, ‘collocation, concordance lines and wider context explicate the meaning, cultural or ideological significance, and function of the words and phrases so identified’.

Our main objective is to explore the realisations of evaluative meaning in the CCF, either overtly expressed by the journalist in the form of adjectives that convey affect, judgement and appreciation (Martin and White, 2005), modal verbs, etc. or implicitly transmitted in texts by means of rhetorical devices such as metaphors. A corpus-driven approach to the CCF threw up relevant findings about the choices made to present ideas and events, to interact with the audience and with the text itself. They have been grouped and categorised under labels for further interpretation. The recurrence and coexistence of linguistic artifacts play a cohesive role providing texts consistency and texture. These intellectual resources persuade individual readers and even shape collective opinions and ideologies (Martínez Albertos, 1983).

We will see how journalists do not only formulate their own opinions (writers evaluating social actors and/or events) but also report the evaluation or opinions that have been made (the writer narrating what other people have said). The category of verbal reactions is marked by the names and roles of the participants and by direct or indirect quotations of verbal statements (Van Dijk, 1990).

References: Dijk Van, T. A. (1990). La noticia como discurso. Comprensión, estructura y producción de la información. Barcelona. Buenos Aires. México. Paidós Comunicación. Hunston, S. (2014). Flavours of Corpus Linguistics. Paper given at Charles University, Prague 2012 and at Corpus Linguistics 2011, Birmingham. Hunston, S. (2010). Corpus Approaches to Evaluation: Phraseology and Evaluative Language. London: Routledge. Martin, J.R. and White, P.R.R. (2005). The Language of Evaluation, Appraisal in English. London: Palgrave Macmillan. Martínez Albertos, J. L. (1983). Curso General de Redacción periodística. Barcelona: Paraninfo. McEnery, T. y Hardie, A. (2012). Corpus linguistics: Method, theory and practice. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Social dissension and graphic humor. El Roto’s humouristic discourse as generator of social imageries

ABSTRACT. Andres Rábago, better know as “el Roto” in his cartoonist role for the Spanish newspaper El País , has been inspiring readers for decades through his drawings, in which satire is lucidly used to depict current topics from a critical stance that leads to a sense of absurd and of intelligent pessimism regarding socially-grounded topics. The reintensification of the Spanish economic crisis has led to the spreading in media, social networks and arts scenarios of voices such as El Roto’s, that question austerity policies. Governments as servants of capitalism, citizens as victims of economic cuts, or the environmental harm caused by unscrupulous industries seeking their own benefits are some of the images conveyed through his cartoons, through a very personal combination of written and iconic discourse. This iconicity is also pervasive to written discourse which, together with the use of synecdoche -use of the part to represent the whole- , irony and antithesis as main rhetorical figures, raises an effect of strangement. This chapter aims at showing how El Roto cartoons convey “social imaginaries” to raise awareness of market-driven economic policies and the way they have been affecting Spanish citizens during the past three years. At the same time, we seek to find out the evolution and consistency of these imaginaries over the years, by analysing a sample of cartoons from different stages around specific dates, with 15 M protests as departure point. Using discourse and genre analytic tools, we will look into the combination of iconic and linguistic protesting narratives in El Roto cartoons, focusing on three imageries: citizenship and power, the representation of neoliberal policies and, thirdly, the loss of social rights and welfare that conform the Spanish present social landscape. Our methodological approach is mainly a multiperspective one (Bhatia 2002): first we will pinpoint Rabago’s cartoon textualisation patterns regarding both visual and written discourse -based on previous studies and confirming/expanding them on our own sample-; we will then interpret these patterns from a cognitive-functional angle against the immediate context of media opinion creation practices, to end up by adopting a sociocritical stance in the disclosing of the relationship between El Roto’s discourse features and imagery creation and the underlying ideological positioning in his social role of encouraging newsreaders to react against austerity messages and policies, fostering dissension and public action among the citizenship through his cartoon blended discourse. Andrés Rábago’s discourse strategies can be framed within the conceptualization of postpolitics realm, after authors such as Rancière, Žižek o Mouffe, who in essence visualize this notion as the distancing from the political sphere and the disembodying of classical ideological categories.

How to construct an authorial self in politics: A functional-oriented approach to the deployment of self-mentions in political discourse

ABSTRACT. Self-mentions are crucial interpersonal tools that reflect the degree of the speaker’s presence in a discourse. By means of self-mentions, we are able to express a strong personal commitment to statements and project a reliable image of ourselves, thus fulfilling a persuasive function across particular genres and discourse communities. Taking Hyland (2005) and Hyland & Tse (2004)’s model of metadiscourse as the analytical framework, this paper aims at exploring the use and distribution of self-mentions as related to the speaker’s desire to construct a credible Ethos (Kennedy, 1991) in political communication. To this end a corpus made up of the transcripts of the 2012 United States presidential election debates was compiled, in which four different candidates from two opposing parties seek to convince their potential audiences of the validity of their assertions in an explicitly dialogic context. The corpus was analyzed in both quantitative and qualitative terms, in order to determine not only the frequency of use but also the rhetorical effects of such metadiscoursal items when employed in a highly interactional setting. The results obtained are of much pedagogical value for everyone interested in how to display authority and yet obtain support from others in everyday public speech. The findings also contribute to the increasingly prominent research on interactional metadiscourse and how it applies to the rhetorical distinctiveness of some particular genres (Fu & Hyland, 2014), as they are developed within the boundaries of specific linguistic and cultural contexts. References: Fu, X. & K. Hyland (2014). "Interaction in two journalistic genres: A study of interactional metadiscourse". English Text Construction 7.1: 122-44. Hyland, K. (2005). Metadiscourse: Exploring Interaction in Writing. London: Continuum. Hyland, K. & P. Tse (2004). "Metadiscourse in Academic Writing: A Reappraisal". Applied Linguistics 25.2: 156-77. Kennedy, G.A. (1991). Aristotle, on Rhetoric: a Theory of Civil Discourse. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

A Contribution to the Study of Internet Linguistics: An Exploratory Analysis of Non-Standard English Features in Tumblr

ABSTRACT. Linguistic deviations from the standard use of English in computer-mediated communication have been described by the literature as distinctive Netspeak (i.e. the Internet register) features (Baron, 2010; Crystal, 2001; Kleinman, 2010; Young, 2013). Using corpus linguistics and register theory, the aim of this presentation is to examine those linguistic deviations in a corpus extracted from the microblogging platform Tumblr. For the study, I collected a total of 527 posts from Tumblr blogs in order to explore the frequency with which linguistic deviations occur, describe how language use is shaped by the Internet medium and, finally, determine whether non-standard use may represent a ‘threat’ to standard English, as some critics argue (Crystal, 2001). The sample of (lexico) grammatical, discourse and style features analysed included the use of personal pronouns, verb tenses, idiomatic expressions, abbreviations, examples, quotations, ellipses, repetitions, intensifiers, emotional and offensive language, as well as other features such as break and run-on-sentences, typography, punctuation, and multimodal elements. The corpus analysis reveals that these texts are characterized as being mainly short written messages combining typical features of the written mode of communication (i.e. the interlocutors are physically separated, feedback is asynchronous, there is time delay and the medium is durable) and features of extemporaneous, spoken discourse (i.e. first and second person pronouns, present tense verbs, contractions, and use of an informal, casual style). Findings also show a non-standard use of punctuation and typography, the inclusion of multimedia elements that help overcome the lack of feedback and the use of non-segmental phonology in the conversation. The results of the analysis suggest that Netspeak (non-standard) linguistic features are determined by context—mode, tenor, field—and are thus more likely to appear in digital spheres such as social networks, blogs and chats, among users who engage in one-to-one conversations or users who belong to the same in-group, and in communicative situations in which hobbies and personal experiences are the most frequently discussed topics.

08:30-10:30 Session 6L: Sociolingüística/Sociolinguistics
Actitudes en perspectiva y retrospectiva ante el acento murciano: Patrones tradicionales de sexismo en una comunidad de habla vernácula

ABSTRACT. La investigación variacionista realizada en el mundo occidental industrializado correlacionando parámetros socio-demográficos y contextuales con variables lingüísticas ha permitido desarrollar modelos de comportamiento sociolingüístico de los hablantes en el seno de las comunidades de habla a modo de universales sociolingüísticos predictivos. En el caso del factor género, concretamente, se ha comprobado que la mujer tiende a ser emplear más rasgos procedentes del estándar que el hombre. Sin embargo, una ex-presidenta del Gobierno de Murcia durante mediados de la década de 1990 ofreció unos patrones imprevistos de comportamiento sociolingüístico eminentemente no estándar. Su producción lingüística transgresora (no-estándar) fue estudiada cuantitativa y cualitativamente, diagnosticando un fenómeno de Diseño de Hablante: con el uso e híper-uso del dialecto murciano la Presidenta pretendía proyectar una imagen local y de cercanía sobre su electorado, asociando estratégicamente sus ideales socialistas (clase obrera local y progresismo) con el habla murciana, dejando el habla estándar asociada a los conservadores burgueses.

De manera complementaria, si estos autores se centraron mayormente en la psicología social de este hablante, el objetivo del presente estudio es centrarnos en la propia de la comunidad local, la recepción de y reacción ante su producción verbal transgresora. En un contexto de habla murciana estigmatizada y con prestigio encubierto, exploramos las actitudes sociolingüísticas y juicios de valor de la comunidad local murciana hacia el acento de su Presidenta mediante un trabajo de campo basado en encuestas a 80 informantes murcianos que por edad fueron testigos de época. Así hemos podido detectar, cuantificar y contrastar retrospectivamente las actitudes de los ciudadanos murcianos ante el habla de su Presidenta y otros políticos actuales. Su comportamiento sociolingüístico dialectal causó gran controversia y debate, al romper con las expectativas, no sólo de profesión y clase social, sino también de género: mientras que el habla de la clase obrera (no estándar) parece tener connotaciones de masculinidad debido a su asociación con la rudeza y dureza del mundo y la cultura vernácula estereotipada, considerándose a menudo como atributos masculinos deseables, no se aceptan, por el contrario, como características femeninas deseables, prefiriéndose de manera más convencional el refinamiento y la sofisticación. El sexismo aún presente en una comunidad de habla local en la década de 1990 y las connotaciones de masculinidad asociadas con el habla de la clase obrera contribuyeron a generar un ambiente hostil en contra de una ciudadana de habla no estándar que ocupaba el cargo de Presidenta del Gobierno Regional.

Coupland, N. (2001). Dialect Stylization in Radio Talk. Language in Society 30: 345-375.

Hernández Campoy, J.M. y Cutillas-Espinosa, J.A. (2010). Speaker Design Practices in Political Discourse: a Case Study. Language and Communication 30: 297-309.

Hernández Campoy, J.M. y Cutillas-Espinosa, J.A. (2013). The Effects of Public and Individual Language Attitudes on Intra-speaker Variation: A Case Study of Style-shifting. Multilingua 32(1): 79-101.

Trudgill, P. (1972). Sex, Covert Prestige and Linguistic Change in the Urban British English of Norwich. Language in Society 1: 179-195.

Castilian vs. Catalan: The impact of educational grades and programs on the perception of language status in the Valencian Community

ABSTRACT. Institutional support and the way a language is used by a community of speakers affect how the language’s status is perceived (based on The ethnolinguistic vitality by Giles 1977). Moreover, learners and speakers’ subjective language status impact their attitudes towards language acquisition and use (Baker & Prys, 1998; Clément et al., 1985; 2003; Vila, 2012).

This is particularly true in the Valencian Community context. Two languages share the official status in this territory: Castilian and Valencian (official term of the Catalan language used in the Valencian Community). However, this linguistic setting is characterized as diglossic due to several reasons. In the second half of the XXth century and as a consequence of the Castilian-only law in Spain, the Valencian Community went through a language shift process in favor of Castilian. As a result, Valencian was kept as the home and private language whereas Castilian was the public language. Moreover, Valencian has been traditionally associated with low social class, the countryside, small villages and elderly people. In contrast, Castilian has been related to high social class, cities and young people (Casesnoves, 2010; Montoya & Mas, 2011; Montoya, 1996; Ninyoles, 1969). Currently, Valencian is featured mainly by: lack of media and social presence, absence of institutional support, unequal implementation of education in Valencian, and a lower declared-use of the language compared to the actual declared-knowledge.

Considering this demographical and institutional support context as well as the socio-historical prestige of Valencian and Castilian, the aim of this presentation is to explore how subjective language status regarding Castilian and Valencian vary from primary school to high school and between Valencian and Castilian bilingual educational programs. Taking Sant Vicent del Raspeig (Alacant) as the geographical location, students in Primary-6 (n=89) from two primary schools and students in Secondary-4 (n=69) who previously attended these two primary schools were chosen and compared. The three educational centers accomplished the requirement of offering the bilingual programs. A questionnaire was created and administered in the educational centers. Statements measured using the 1-to-5-Likert scale and addressing subjective language status were selected and analysed using Mann-Whitney U tests in SPSS version 20 (i.e. There are other languages that are more useful than Valencian in order to be learnt vs. There are other languages that are more useful than Castilian in order to be learnt).

Results suggest that educational programs have significant effects on subjective language status. In addition, Valencian status seems to decline significantly from Primary-6 to Secondary-4 whereas Castilian status increases. These results are used in order to identify the pitfalls of the Valencian educational system as well as the effects of the Valencian government’s actions on Valencian and Castilian. Some solutions would be proposed to improve the educational system and the equal access to both languages leading to a more respectful development of subjective language status and, consequently, language attitudes towards Valencian and Castilian.

The intelligibility problems of speakers of English from Madrid

ABSTRACT. Even though the concepts of English as a Lingua Franca (ELF) and Lingua Franca Core (LFC) (Jenkins, 2000) have been present in the literature for more than a decade, much research is still necessary so as to know which pronunciation features enhance intelligibility in international contexts.

Furthermore, recent research in the field has proved that the original LFC (Jenkins, 2000) needs to be reexamined and adapted to specific linguistic backgrounds. Deterding (2011) applied the LFC to the East Asian context, confirming it. However, Zoghbor (2010) concluded that the substitution of vowel [ɜ:] for diphthong [eɪ] by Arab speakers of English does not hinder intelligibility, contrary to what the LFC establishes. Also, Walker (2010) compared the phoneme inventory of both English and Spanish and set those features which should be tackled in the classroom so as to improve these speakers' intelligibility.

The present study goes beyond the adaptation of the LFC to a specific L1 and narrows the scope to distinct Spanish accents. Due to the great variation concerning accents in Spain, we consider that speakers of English from different regions of the country may require specific pronunciation instruction. Therefore, this study aims at analysing those pronunciation aspects which speakers of English from Madrid need to master in order to be intelligible.

A group of female speakers from Madrid were recorded reading a text in English and their speech transcribed phonemically. We used Multiple Sequence Alignment and a variation of the Levenshtein Distance algorithm so as to analyse their pronunciation and know which segmental deviations from our chosen standard (ELF) are likely to cause more misunderstandings in international communication.

Preliminary results indicate that these speakers need to focus their attention on several segmental features highlighted as important by Jenkins (2000), such as vowel length, aspiration of voiceless plosives and consistency in the differentiation of [b] and [β]. Moreover, further deviations not considered crucial in ELF pronunciation have also been discerned, such as non-native vowel qualities and simplification of final consonant clusters.

We believe this study will contribute to a better understanding of the intelligibility problems that Spanish students of English encounter when learning the language. Thus, we will be able to design a specific course covering only those features in which students find difficulty.

References: Deterding, David. (2011). "English Language Teaching and the Lingua Franca Core in East Asia". Presented at the Phonetic Teaching and Learning: Recent Trends, New Direction. Retrieved from Jenkins, Jennifer. (2000). The phonology of English as an International Language. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Walker, Robin. (2010). Teaching the pronunciation of English as a Lingua Franca. Oxford University Press. Zoghbor, Wafa Shahada. (2010). The effectiveness of the Lingua Franca Core (LFC) in improving the perceived intelligibility and perceived comprehensibility of Arab learners at post-secondary level. University of Leicester. Retrieved from

A classification of Spanglish in Gerardo Piña Rosales' modern-day “Don Quijote en Manhattan”
SPEAKER: Debra Westall

ABSTRACT. The aim of this research is to examine the Spanglish used in the short story “Don Quijote en Manhattan”, written by Gerardo Piña Rosales (2006). In line with Dumitrescu (2013 and 2015), Betti (2015) and López García-Molins (2015), we consider that Spanglish is a “fenómeno de enorme complejidad” (Dumitrescu, 2013: 355), and through discourse analysis we can better understand the characteristics of this expressive modality. According to the author (Piña Rosales, 2006 and 2009), this story portrays the adventures of a modern-day Don Quixote, and his loyal squire, Sancho (aka Edwin Rivera, born in Puerto Rico and raised in the Bronx). Over the course of two days they travel the length and breadth of Manhattan in search of opportunities to fight for justice. Throughout the story, the narrator and main characters use Spanglish to converse with criminals, police officers, a priest, a homeless man and even a terrorist. The discourse is sprinkled with loanwords, calques and idiomatic expressions from English. For this study, therefore, we identified the 117 instances of dialogue, classified those containing elements from English and analyzed the distinguishing features of code switching in the story. The findings illustrate how, for example, the author strategically interlards his characters’ speech with English loanwords (cop, hamburger, jail) and calques (skyscrapers > rascacielos, projects > proyectos, flea market > mercado de pulgas). There are also instances of English being used emphatically (¡I don´t believe it!, let´s get out of here) and others of English and Spanish being perfectly juxtaposed (Anyway, reconozco que tiene usted guts, cuando yo era un baby el muy sonofabitch). This small corpus analysis offers insight into the intricacy of Spanglish and, as Lipski (2004) and other researchers advocate, sheds light on its characterization, specifically, who speaks it, when it is used and how this remarkable linguistic and cultural phenomenon is actually created and constructed.


Betti, Silvia. 2015. “Español en/de los Estados Unidos: ¿español estadounidense o spanglish?”, S. Betti and D. Jorques (eds.), Visiones europeas del Spanglish. Valencia: Uno y Cero Ediciones, 12-25. Dumitrescu, Domnita. 2013. “Lo que es y lo que no es. Una nota sobre el spanglish”, RANLE, Vol. 2 (4): 353-361. Dumitrescu, Domnita. 2015. “Spanglish, estadounidismos y bilingüismo vestigial”, S. Betti and D. Jorques (eds.), Visiones europeas del Spanglish. Valencia: Uno y Cero Ediciones, 26-40. Lipski, John M. 2004. “Is “Spanglish” the third language of the South?: truth and fantasy about U.S. Spanish”, Lecture given at LAVIS-III, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, April 16, 2004, 27 pgs., [retrieved 09/09/2015] López García-Molins, Ángel. 2015. Teoría del Spanglish. Valencia: Tirant Humanidades. Piña Rosales, Gerardo. 2006. “Don Quijote en Manhattan”, In Seis narradores españoles en Nueva York. Granada: Dauro ASB Ediciones (Colección Alminares, No. 7), 47-74. Piña Rosales, Gerardo. 2009. “El Cuento: Anatomía de un género literario”, Hispania, Vol. 92 (3): 476-487.

08:30-10:30 Session 6M: Enseñanza de lenguas y diseño curricular/Language teaching
Applications of Learner Corpora to Language Teaching. The CAES ("Corpus de Aprendices de Español" ) Project as a Case in Point

ABSTRACT. The main purpose of this paper is to present the CAES corpus by explaining its main features and its possible applications to the teaching of Spanish as a foreign language. It is organised in three main parts. The first section discusses the contributions of Corpus Linguistics to the study of language and next explains the emergence of learner corpora and its applications to language teaching. Section two is concerned with the origin and development of the CAES corpus from the beginning to its current state and provides information on the general design, compilation method, text coding and annotation plus the search tool accompanying the corpus. This project was wholly financed by the Cervantes Institute and was carried out by a research team from the University of Santiago from 2012 to 2014. It consists of a collection of written texts produced by students of Spanish as a foreign language of different levels, from A1 to C1. Subjects of six native or L1s are represented: Arabic, Mandarin Chinese, French, English, Portuguese and Russian. The current CAES version contains a total of 570,000 words produced by 1,423 students of Spanish. A first computer tool was created so that participants could enter their personal details and complete the appropriate writing tasks according to their level of Spanish. Immediately prior to this, they were asked to fill in a consent form giving their permission for the use of the data for research purposes. The texts integrated into CAES adopt the format of XML documents from the start. All the necessary data for the identification of the values in each of the tasks completed, and those data which correspond to the features considered for purposes of classification, are found in the header; the written text, however, occurs in the body of the document in each case. This means that all the documents can be processed and stored together in a database from which it is possible to extract tokens of a particular item, applying filters according to one or more of the parameters considered. The tagging system consists of 702 different tags. The search tool developed allows researchers to retrieve statistical information and textual examples of elements, lemmas, word classes and grammatical categories with filters on the parameters that make up the corpus. The first line of the data retrieval is the statistical analysis. It is possible to obtain the overall frequency of any lemma, element or grammatical subcategory, that which corresponds to a number of parameters (a particular L1 or proficiency level), or all of them at the same time. The second line provides the specific texts where a particular element, lemma or grammatical category is found. After a detailed description of the corpus, the third part of the paper presents the results of a couple of studies based on data extracted from the corpus, the first one deals with false friends and the second with prepositions. Several conclusions and reflections follow together with some suggestions for further research.

Integrating the teaching of pronunciation in English classes so as to make it more meaningful and enjoyable for students

ABSTRACT. Pronunciation tends to have a secondary role in EFL classes (Underhill, 2010; Lear et al., 2015), and Spain is no exception here. One of the principal reasons for this situation, and indeed for the neglect of oral skills in general, is that pronunciation activities are often regarded as time-consuming (Szprya, 2015) in that they demand a lot of preparation, time and dedication. Nevertheless, according to Marks (1999: 7), if teachers learn how to teach pronunciation “as an integral part of all their teaching, the extra time is minimised, and in any case contributes to all aspects of a teaching programme”. This idea reflects one of the most important suggestions of the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEFR), skill integration; that is, language classes are expected to revolve around the teaching of the five main language skills. Moreover, the different activities used in the classroom should entail some type of communicative function. Despite the integration of skills and the use of communicative tasks suggested by the CEFR, pronunciation activities found in EFL textbooks addressed to Spanish learners are, broadly speaking, far from being integrated with other language areas; more particularly, many of these teaching materials present pronunciation in isolated sections, typically in separate tables or sections in which a few discrete pronunciation tasks are briefly outlined and practised. Moreover, the majority of the activities found in these textbooks still resemble traditional drills in which students simply have to listen to a model and then repeat it (author, 2014). Hence, the format of such activities tends to focus on repetition, emphasising above all receptive skills; hardly any of the pronunciation tasks included in such course books have a communicative function that goes further than listening to and repeating the kind of words that students may or may not use again in their daily conversations. This paper will describe how to use teaching resources and materials such as songs, poems, rhymes, TV programmes and written texts (recipes, newspapers, magazines, medical information leaflets, travelling guides), adapting them so that pronunciation can be taught while other language areas are also being practised. A number of activities will be suggested and described. These will be highly engaging and motivating types of tasks, and are intended to emphasise both productive and perceptive skills, given that the ultimate goal here is for students’ oral expression to be as natural as possible, through the production of spontaneous and improvised complete sentences, rather than simply by repeating words and phrases.

Iconicidad entre gestualidad y prosodia. Aplicaciones en la enseñanza-aprendizaje del francés a aprendientes hispanohablantes

ABSTRACT. Cuando se habla de “gestos” en el contexto de la enseñanza-aprendizaje de lenguas extranjeras, se suele circunscribir a aquellos movimientos que remiten a mensajes altamente codificados cuya interpretación requiere el conocimiento de la cultura en la cual se emplean (“gestos emblemáticos”). Sin embargo, existe otro tipo de micro y macro-gestualidad que no ha suscitado tanto interés por parte de los estudiosos: la gestualidad, inherente al habla. Así, se ha podido subrayar que a toda inflexión tonal (acento) le corresponde una inflexión gestual, hasta el punto de que se ha podido afirmar que existe una perfecta iconicidad entre las manifestaciones rítmicas y gestuales del habla, esto es, una relación sincrónica y congruente entre la realización prosódica de las emisiones fónicas y la motricidad del cuerpo. Contrariamente a lo que se había postulado, el gesto no está supeditado al habla sino que ambas manifestaciones de la lengua forman parte de un mismo sistema (McNeill 2000) y, por tanto, son indisociables la una de la otra. Así, la prosodia comporta micromovimientos de los órganos de la fonación que están correlacionados con la macromotricidad relativa a los movimientos corporales (Billières 2002; Pavelin 2002). Por lo demás, también los componentes rítmicos han sido con frecuencia orillados en la enseñanza-aprendizaje de lenguas, lo que sorprende tanto más cuanto que los elementos suprasegmentales, y en especial el ritmo del habla, desempeñan un papel prioritario en la adquisición de la lengua materna por cuanto son percibidos por el niño ya desde el periodo embrionario (Konopczynski 1990), lo que confirma que el ritmo del habla está anclado biológicamente. Los fenómenos rítmicos constituyen, por tanto, un escollo importante en la enseñanza-aprendizaje de una lengua extranjera, incluso cuando la lengua objeto de estudio y la lengua materna son tipológicamente próximas y están genéticamente emparentadas, como es el caso del francés y del español. Aunque se trata de dos lenguas tradicionalmente clasificadas dentro del mismo grupo rítmico (lenguas silábicas), sus divergencias rítmicas son notorias en cuanto a la duración de los grupos rítmicos o a la posición del acento. En la presente comunicación, se presentará un primer trabajo exploratorio de índole experimental en el que, a partir de un texto leído por una locutora francófona y por una aprendiente hispanohablante de francés, se analizarán acústicamente, por una parte, las producciones rítmicas canónicas del francés y las desviantes producidas en L2. Dicho estudio permitirá emitir un diagnóstico de los errores rítmicos analizados y se propondrán distintos procedimientos gestuales en función de las desviaciones observadas.


BILLIERES, M. (2002). Le corps en phonétique corrective. En Renard, R. (Ed), Apprentissage d’une langue étrangère/seconde. La phonétique verbo-tonale. (pp. 35-70). Bruselas: De Boeck Université. KONOPCZYNSKI, G. (1990). Le langage émergent: caractéristiques rythmiques. Hamburgo: H. Buske. MCNEILL, D. (2000). Language and Gesture: Window into Thought and Action. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press PAVELIN, B. (2002). Statut et rôle du mouvement dans la communication orale en face à face. En Renard, R. (Ed), Apprentissage d’une langue étrangère/seconde. La phonétique verbo-tonale. (pp. 71-87). Bruselas: De Boeck Université.

Cross-cultural and intercultural content in Spanish as an L2 textbooks

ABSTRACT. From a theoretical-descriptive perspective regarding the explicit teaching of culture, this study takes into account the “intercultural communicative competence” (ICC) model proposed by Byram and his colleagues (1997, 1998). One of the main objectives of the ICC model is that the learner should become an “intercultural speaker” rather than a “native speaker” of the L2. In addition to this framework, the notions of cross-cultural content and intercultural communication (Bowe & Martin, 2007; Jandt, 2010; Neuliep, 2012) are also considered. The first term refers to the comparison of cultural phenomena between two cultures while the second one focuses on the interaction between people and groups from different cultures. This study is based on the analysis of cross-cultural and intercultural aspects from a set of 9 Spanish as an L2 textbooks (TB) from three different proficiency levels (beginning, intermediate, and advance) published between 2004 and 2014. The results indicate the following: (a) the majority of the TBs include a dual focus on the similarities and differences between the students’ source culture (C1) and their target culture (C2); (b) cross-cultural comparisons between the C1 and the C2 in reading comprehension activities are requested instead of being covered explicitly, (c) none of the TBs offer appropriate ways to deal with verbal and non-verbal differences in non-judgmental or non-ethnocentric ways, (d) there are no regular sections that deal with cross-cultural and intercultural awareness, (e) cross-cultural and intercultural aspects are neither reviewed nor tested, and (f) the different proficiency levels and years of publication do not seem to affect the presence of cross-cultural and intercultural content. Taking into account these results, it is concluded that cross-cultural and intercultural content is hardly promoted in the analyzed TBs.


Bowe, H. J., & Martin, K. (2007). Communication across cultures: Mutual understanding in a global world. New York: Cambridge University Press. Byram, M. (1997). Teaching and assessing intercultural communicative competence. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters. Byram, M., & Fleming, M. (Eds.). (1998). Language learning in intercultural perspective. Approaches through drama and ethnography. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters. Jandt, F. E. (2010). An introduction to intercultural communication: Identities in a global community. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Neuliep, J. W. (2012). Intercultural communication: A contextual approach. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

10:30-11:00Coffee Break
11:00-12:00 Session 7: Conferencia plenaria / Plenary
Location: SALA/ROOM 1
Interdisciplinary Cooperation in the Analysis of Specialized Discourse: Challenges and Prospects

ABSTRACT. The purpose of this paper is to investigate some of the challenges and prospects connected with interdisciplinary cooperation in the analysis of specialized discourse. In the last few decades, the ESP literature has often underlined the importance of this type of collaboration, highlighting the usefulness of the integration of methodological diversity, the exploration of possible connections among procedures and knowledge in order to achieve more focused interpretation and purposeful action. This interdisciplinary process is considered fundamental to better understand how practitioners use language to achieve the objectives of their professions. However, this collaborative experience may also present serious challenges both to the applied linguist and the expert professional, which can only be faced by means of a careful alignment of the specialist’s perspective with the analyst’s approach, and a continuous process of feedback and triangulation that guarantees inter-analytic reliability of the research project. This negotiation of the findings also avoids the insurgence of the practitioners’ skepticism towards the research results and therefore their limited impact on professional practice.

12:00-14:00 Session 8A: Adquisición y aprendizaje/Language acquisition
Location: SALA/ROOM 1
EFL writers' processing of different types of corrective feedback: Focus on the language learning potential of written languaging
SPEAKER: unknown

ABSTRACT. This study explores the language learning potential (LLP) of written languaging as a form of feedback processing. The study is framed in previous scholarship on the LLP of languaging (Swain, 2006, 2010) and of L2 writing/feedback processing (cf. Bitchener, 2012; Manchón, 2011). Languaging, either oral (cf. Hanaoka, 2007; Swain & Lapkin, 2002; Swain et al., 2009) or written (Ishikawa, 2013; Suzuki, 2012; Suzuki & Itagaki, 2007, 2009) is thought to constitute an effective L2 learning tool. Written languaging may be even more advantageous as it allows more time for reflection and deeper language processing (Suzuki, 2012). Likewise, the LLP of feedback is purported to be mediated by the depth of the processing engaged in, especially when feedback processing goes beyond the level of simple noticing (cf. Schmidt 1990, 2001) and students are made to reflect on the nature of and possible solution(s) to their errors (Bitchener, 2012). Against this background, we investigated (i) the depth of processing of 46 EFL university students’ written languaging on their errors during a revision task after receiving direct or indirect feedback compared to a non-feedback group, and (ii) the relationship between their languaging and the quality of their revised texts. The participants completed a three-stage, time-compressed writing task. Three raters coded the data on the basis of a coding scheme based on Van Beuningen (2011) and Ferris et al., (2012). Non parametric statistics showed that there were significant differences in the depth of processing of written languaging across groups. The two feedback groups surpassed the control group, although the purported superiority of indirect feedback in prompting deeper processing was not confirmed. Differences in feedback processing were also correlated with the quality of the revised texts. The implications of these findings for the LLP of feedback processing and of written languaging will be discussed.

External task repetition: The role of modality. A comparative study.
SPEAKER: unknown

ABSTRACT. For some time now, the study on Task-Based Language Teaching (TBLT) and tasks has become the centre of linguistic debate and has been subject of abundant research (García Mayo, 2007; Robinson, 2011; Robinson & Gilabert, 2007). Consequently, TBLT issues i.e. task complexity or task repetition (TR) have attracted increasing attention, being the latter the one of interest for our purposes. Bygate reported improvement on language production through TR (1996, 2001) affirming that when learners repeat a task, they “draw on the conceptual structuring of the information and on encodings which they have previously used” (2001:253), what may be conducive to language development and, in turn, to language learning. The studies that have tried to put these claims to the empirical test (Gass et al. 1999; Hawkes, 2011; Kim & Tracy-Ventura, 2013) have focused predominantly on the study of oral language, with the consequent neglect of the written modality (Byrnes & Manchón, 2014b/b; Manchón, 2014c), of which fewer studies have been conducted (Nitta & Babba, 2014). Other studies have attempted to determine the role of modality on language performance (Ellis, 1987; Kormos, 2014; Kuiken & Vedder, 2011). However, the findings in these studies should be interpreted cautiously due to the different dependent and independent variables intervening across them. The study presented here attempted to shed further light to the scarce body of empirical research on the effects of TR as mediated by modality (oral/written) and measured in CAF (Complexity -both syntactic and lexical, Accuracy, and Fluency) with a focus on a population hardly present in previous research (low proficiency, secondary school L2 learners). The following research question guided our study: 1. Does TR as mediated by task modality (oral/written) affect language production measured in CAF measures? Sixteen Spanish EFL learners completed a decision-making production task in two sessions. In session 1, participants were given a picture prompt and were asked what actions they would take in the given situation either orally or in writing. In session two, participants were given the same picture prompt, the same instructions and were instilled to repeat the task. Half of the participants (n=8) performed the two tasks orally and the other half in the written modality. The triad CAF (Complexity, Accuracy, Fluency) comprehends both general and specific measures widely used in research on TR. Fluency measures include number of words and syllables per minute. Lexical complexity measures consider both lexical variety (D-value) and lexical sophistication (lexical frequency profile) whereas syntactic complexity measures comprise subordination (S-nodes/AS-unit), coordination (coordinated sentences/AS-unit), sub-clausal complexity (modifiers/noun phrase) and an overall measure (mean length of AS-unit). Lastly, accuracy measures consist of error-count measures such as errors per AS-unit and per 100 words and syntactic, morphological and lexical errors per AS-unit and per 100 words. Preliminary analyses confirm previous findings about the beneficial effects of TR on language production (Bygate, 1996, 2001; Ellis, 1987; Gass et al. 1999; Lynch & Maclean, 2000; Kim & Tracy-Ventura, 2013; Bygate & Samuda, 2005; Nitta & Babba, 2014). Theoretical, research and pedagogical implications will be discussed.

Estudio empírico sobre errores ortográficos comunes en lengua extranjera (inglés) en un grupo de alumnos cursando nivel B1 y B1+

ABSTRACT. En el presente estudio hemos escogido una de las habilidades comunicativas del lenguaje, la escritura, con la intención de mejorar algunos aspectos como los errores ortográficos que, a día de hoy, no reciben la misma atención que otras tipologías de error. Los profesores se centran a menudo en la corrección de estructuras gramaticales, cohesión o precisión, sin prestar a menudo atención a los errores ortográficos. Por otra parte, para los estudiantes es necesaria la revisión de errores ortográficos de forma específica, puesto que, como veremos en el presente estudio, el número de errores de este tipo forma una muestra considerable para el análisis. Para ello, hemos recopilado un corpus de trabajos escritos de estudiantes de inglés, con edades de entre 13 y 16 años, que asisten a un centro de lenguas, y que se encuentran en dos niveles, B1 y B1+, según el Marco Común Europeo de Referencias para las Lenguas. Tras revisar algunas de las categorizaciones elaboradas por estudios previos, hemos seguido la propuesta de Bestgen y Granger (2011) para definir nueve categorías distintas, en las que hemos agrupado todos los errores ortográficos que hemos recopilado a mano. Con el análisis de la muestra hemos verificado la utilidad de esta clasificación, y nos ha brindado la oportunidad de obtener una idea aproximada de las categorías de errores ortográficos que los estudiantes analizados cometen con relativa frecuencia. Además, hemos extraído una lista de palabras con errores recurrentes en cada uno de los niveles estudiados que nos permitirá realizar diversas actividades en el aula para evitar que se cometan en futuros trabajos escritos.

Alhaisoni, E. M., Al-Zuoud, K. M., y Gaudel, D. R. (2015). Analysis of spelling errors of Saudi beginner learners of English enrolled in an intensive English language program. English Language Teaching, 8(3), 185-192 Bestgen, Y., & Granger, S. (2011). Categorising spelling errors to assess L2 writing. International Journal of Continuing Engineering Education and Life Long Learning, 21(2-3), 235-252. Recuperado de: Ferris, D. (2003). Responding To Writing. En B. Kroll (Ed.) Exploring the dynamics of second language writing. (pp. 119-140) Cambridge: Cambridge University Press Ferris, D., y Hedgcock, J. (2004). Teaching ESL composition: Purpose, process, and practice. Nueva York: Routledge. Ferris,D. y Roberts, B. (2011). Error feedback in L2 Writing Classes: How Explicit Does It Need to Be? En Matsuda, P.K. (Ed Second-Language Writing in the Composition Classroom. Boston, New York. Bedford/St Martin’s (pp. 386-408). Grigonyté, G., y Hammarberg, B. (2014). Non-Native Writers’ Errors–a Challenge to a Spell-Checker. En 1st Nordic workshop on evaluation of spellchecking and proofing tolos. Recuperado de Kroll, B. (Ed.) (2003). Exploring the dynamics of second language writing. Cambridge University Press. Polio, C. (2003). Research on Second Language Writing: An Overview of What We Investigate and How. En Kroll, B. (Ed.) Exploring the dynamics of second language writing. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press (pp. 35-66) Tsui, A. B. (2011). Teacher education and teacher development. En Hinkel, E. (Ed.) Handbook of research in second language teaching and learning, 2, (pp. 21-39).Nueva York, Routledge.

The effect of EMI on the development of written English language skills in university settings: the case of the double degree teacher training programme at the UVic-UCC

ABSTRACT. This study is part of a research project on the effects that English Medium Instruction has on the competence of undergraduate trainees enrolled in a five-year double degree at UVic-UCC (Infant and Primary Education degree with a minor in English). The degree began in 2013 and its main goal is to train teachers who will be able to teach English and subjects in English to children between 3 and 12 years of age. The percentage of subjects delivered in English progressively increases and this represents 40% of the subjects studied during the first two years of the degree. Written texts have always played a key role in communication at all levels of education (Chaudron et al, 2005). They are especially relevant at university level. The ability to produce coherent, appropiate and correct texts has always been considered one of the key skills in academic writing. Despite some criticisms (Bruton 2013) most of the linguistic research on the impact that CLIL has on the language competence of the students exposed to subjects taught in a foreign language has been relatively positive (Ruiz de Zarobe, 2015). However, research on the writing development under CLIL provision has not yet provided consistent results which show such positive impact in all areas of writing (Ruiz de Zarobe, 2011). The aim of this study was to explore L2 written development of a group of 36 undergraduates exposed to content subjects delivered in English in their first two years at university. With the purpose of identifying the development of syntactic complexity, accuracy and fluency in the CLIL students’ written texts, data was collected at the end of the first year (T1) and at the end of the second year (T2). Preliminary analysis carried out on the texts written by the students on syntactic complexity, accuracy and fluency seem to indicate that the participants improved in some aspects of fluency but not in grammatical accuracy and syntactic complexity. These results suggest that exposure to EMI classes which focus primarily on the learning of content provide suitable contexts in which to develop written discourse; however, they may be beneficial for L2 writing improvement in only some aspects. The lack of general improvement in grammatical accuracy may indicate the need to include corrective feedback on grammatical criteria of the trainees’ written assignments. Other pedagogical implications include the need to train content teachers or to include cooperative work between language and content teachers within the same degree. -Bruton, A. (2013) CLIL: Some of the reasons why… and why not. System, 41(3), 587-597 -Chaudron, C., Uriz, A. M. M., & Whittaker, R. (2005). Innovación pedagógica: Los centros, los alumnos y los profesores. In La composición como comunicación: Una experiencia en las aulas de lengua inglesa en bachillerato. 41-60. Murcia: Ediciones de la Universidad Autónoma de Madrid.

-Ruiz de Zarobe, Y. (2015). The effects of implementing CLIL in education. In Content-based language learning in multilingual educational environments. 51-68. Springer International Publishing.

12:00-14:00 Session 8B: Lexicología y lexicografía/Lexicology and lexicography
Location: SALA/ROOM 2
Lexical creation and anglicisms in the language of tourism 2.0 in Spanish
SPEAKER: unknown

ABSTRACT. The English language has always been of central importance as lingua franca in the language of tourism in Spanish: it is usual to find foreign words, particularly anglicisms (Lorenzo, 1996), which have become part of the specialized lexicon, although with different degrees of adaptation and consolidation (Cabré, 2006). Despite the fact that anglicisms can be observed to a greater or lesser extent in specific sectors of the tourism activity, these words pervade the tourism industry as a whole (Calvi, 2006).

In recent years, technology has become the optimum tool to enable tourists to obtain immediate access to information from different technological mobile devices in real time, as Internet has unquestionably consolidated its position as the fundamental means in tourism communication. However, the emergence of the Web 2.0 and the resulting participation of tourists, sharing actively their tourism experiences, are making evident the change of the business model of tourism 2.0, and also in the influence of technology on language, object of this study. For tourism professionals, Internet and social media networks generate new possibilities to approach the promotion and management of tourism through new models.

The study of the specialized language of tourism confirms that there are numerous new words and terms that are borrowed directly from the English language, while others have been adapted, partially or completely: the main reason being the need to label those new types of tourism activities and products that are shaping up the tourism industry. In the case of the specialized language of tourism, the shared knowledge and the standard procedures prove to be evident in typical expressions and the established text genres that have been adopted in the professional practice (Gotti, 2006).

Therefore, this research aims at i) analysing the lexicon of the professional tourism management in Spanish focusing on the mechanisms used by experts to adapt anglicisms and ii) tracking its progressive integration the Spanish language within the fields of technology and tourism 2.0.

To meet these goals, a corpus of texts has been collected from the main Internet platforms which generate and disseminate innovation and knowledge on tourism. Anglicisms related to technology have been identified and categorised based on i) the word formation mechanism ii) the adaptation process and iii) the semantic criteria and area of scope within the general field of tourism 2.0 and technology.


Cabré Castellví, Maria Teresa. (2006) La clasificación de neologismos: una tarea compleja. Alfa, São Paulo, 50 (2): 229-250, 2006.

Calvi, M.V. (2006). Lengua y comunicación en el español del turismo. Madrid: Arco Libros.

Gotti, M. (2006). “The language of Tourism as specialized discourse”, en Palusci, O. Francesconi, S. (eds.), Translating Tourism. Linguistic and Cultural representations. Trento: Università di Trento, 15-34.

Lorenzo, E. (1996). Anglicismos hispánicos. Madrid: Gredos.

Verbos dinámicos en estructuras estativas. Un estudio de corpus comparado: de las reseñas de arquitectura a las de cata de vino

ABSTRACT. Los verbos léxicamente dinámicos (como son subir, bajar, entrar, acceder, etc.) se utilizan para describir contextos estáticos (como la estructura de un edificio o las propiedades de un determinado vino), a través de procesos de estativización, en los que entran en juego mecanismos tanto morfológicos (de tiempo o aspecto verbal, por ejemplo), como sintácticos (pasivización, ensambles) o semánticos (corporeización del movimiento, movimiento ficticio, etc.). En esta investigación hemos comparado los mecanismos implicados en la estativización de verbos dinámicos en dos corpus distintos: 158 reseñas extensas de arquitectura y 1492 breves reseñas de cata de vino. Nuestro propósito era doble: por un lado, descubrir mecanismos universales de estativización de eventos dinámicos; por el otro, constatar las diferencias de género que uno y otro tipo de reseña imponen sobre dichos mecanismos. En concreto, hemos comparado los siguientes aspectos: (i) los verbos implicados, (ii) la morfología asociada a dichos verbos (tiempo, aspecto y voz, fundamentalmente) y (iii) los mecanismos sintácticos de estativización (papeles temáticos del sujeto, posibles merges, ausencia o presencia de se). Desde el punto de vista semántico, hemos comprobado que en estos contextos de estativización los verbos dinámicos no cuentan con un sujeto que se pueda trasladar en el espacio, por lo que la interpretación no puede ser de movimiento real, sino de “movimiento ficticio”. Como ya se ha puesto de manifiesto en otros trabajos anteriores (Ibarretxe-Antuñano y Caballero, 2014), el género implica diferencias en la interpretación de estos predicados. Así, en las reseñas de arquitectura lo que tenemos en general son enunciados en los que es el observador el que desplaza la mirada por el edificio (como en Un jardín que aparece en la parte más elevada). Por su parte, en las reseñas de cata de vino el efecto más habitual es el de interpretar el verbo dinámico como verbo de percepción, en el que es el sujeto de cata el responsable (como en Poco a poco aparece una frutosidad madura). No obstante, lo que podemos apreciar en estos ejemplos es que, sin negar las diferencias entre los diversos tipos de texto, ambos procesos tienen un fondo común: el verbo presenta un cotejo imperfecto de rasgos en el sujeto y como consecuencia se produce una corporeización (Marqueta y Horno, 2015).

Referencias Ibarretxe-Antuñano, I. y R. Caballero (2014): “Una aproximación al estudio de los eventos de movimiento metafórico desde la tipología de la semántica y el género”, Anuari de Filologia. Estudis de Lingüística, 4: 139-155. Marqueta, B. y Mº C. Horno-Chéliz (2015): “Procesos sintácticos implicados en el movimiento ficticio en español. Un estudio basado en un corpus de 158 reseñas de arquitectura” en Ibarretxe-Antuñano, I. y A. Hijazo-Gascón (eds.): New horizons in the study of motion: bringing together applied and theoretical perspectives, Cambridge Scholars: 134-167

Making Premium Dictionaries. Some Reflections
SPEAKER: unknown

ABSTRACT. The internet has disrupted many business models, some of which are no longer financially viable, e.g. Macmillan’s decision of ending publishing printed dictionaries. It will focus instead on its expanding range of digital resources, e.g. Macmillan Dictionary, which consists of several free resources: “ blog”, “open dictionary”, “games”, etc. Macmillan’s decision can be interpreted not only economically but also lexicographically. We can ask if dictionaries, both printed and electronic, are no longer financially viable products because they are still being conceived as if the internet has not come into our lives and has brought about a Cambrian revolution (Fuertes-Olivera, 2016 and 2017). This talk defends that the making of financially viable dictionaries in the 21st Century must be based on two theoretical principles. The first one is that dictionaries must be always conceived as information tools and not as linguistic products (Fuertes-Olivera & Tarp, 2014). The second one defends that the main characteristics of these information tools must also take into consideration the characteristics of competing products, typically free dictionary and encyclopaedic portals. Both principles are applied to the design and construction of online dictionaries such as the Diccionario inglés-español de contabilidad and the Diccionarios en línea de español “Universidad de Valladolid”. These lexicographic projects are examples of premium dictionaries, i.e., up-market tools according to the tenets of disruptive innovation, i.e. ideas put into practice in order to build financially sound and viable products. The making of premium dictionaries demands asking and answering questions, such as these: Are current descriptions of use situations still valid? Are current descriptions of user types still adequate? Do we need more precise descriptions of user needs and situations? Where lexicographic data can be found? How can the lexicographic treatment of data be? How can we deal with big data? How can we cope with information overload? Etc. Some of these questions will be answered and illustrated in this talk. References: Dictionaries: Fuertes-Olivera, Pedro A., Henning Bergenholtz, Sandro Nielsen, Pablo Gordo Gómez, Lise Mourier, Marta Niño Amo, Ángel de los Ríos Rodicio, Ángeles Sastre Ruano, Sven Tarp, Marisol Velasco Sacristán. (2012). Diccionario Inglés-Español de Contabilidad. Base de Datos y Diseño: Richard Almind and Jesper Skovgård Nielsen. Odense: . Fuertes-Olivera, Pedro A. & Henning Bergenholtz (Eds.), in collaboration with María Ángeles Sastre Ruano, Eva Álvarez Ramos, María Fonseca Hernández, Mª José López Carrero, Alvaro Prieto Salvador and Olga Saldaña (under construction). Diccionarios en línea de español “Universidad de Valladolid”. Hamburg.

Fuertes-Olivera, Pedro A. (2016): “A Cambrian Explosion in Lexicography: Some Reflections for Designing and Constructing Specialised Online Dictionaries”. International Journal of Lexicography 29. doi: 10.1093/ijl/ecv037.

Fuertes-Olivera, Pedro A. (ed.) (2017): The Routledge Handbook of Lexicography. Routledge.

Fuertes-Olivera, Pedro A. & Tarp, Sven (2014): Theory and Practice of Specialised Online Dictionaries. Lexicography versus Terminography. Berlin/New York: De Gruyter

Análisis léxico-construccional de la construcción de camino

ABSTRACT. Existe un buen número de trabajos sobre la construcción de camino en inglés (Jackendoff 1992, Marantz 1992, Goldberg 1995, Israel 1996, Luzondo 2013, Szczesniak 2013). Entre los aspectos tratados destacan el de la relación de la construcción de camino con la construcción resultativa reflexiva falsa (Christie 2011, Mondorf 2011), las restricciones semánticas de esta construcción (Goldberg 1995, Luzondo 2013) o algunos de los predicados compatibles con ella (Israel 1996). Esta propuesta explora más exhaustivamente a partir de datos extraídos de COCA los diferentes tipos de verbos que licencian la construcción de camino y las restricciones externas que regulan la fusión léxico construccional de acuerdo con los postulados del Modelo Léxico Construccional propuestos por Ruiz de Mendoza y Mairal (2008). En primer lugar, establecemos una distinción entre predicados que implican movimiento y los que no incluyen dicho componente en su configuración semántica. Entre los primeros, destacamos verbos de movimiento dirigido (por ej. walk, move), verbos que implican el modo en que se lleva a cabo el movimiento (por ej. worm, claw, inch) y verbos del dominio léxico de waltz (por ej. dance, waltz, jive). Entre los predicados que no conllevan movimiento, exploraremos verbos de contacto por impacto (por ej. elbow, pummel), verbos de cambio de posesión (por ej. find, get, pick, earn), verbos de creación y transformación: verbos relacionados con build y knead (por ej. make, work), verbos de comunicación (por ej. talk, mumble, lisp), verbos de sentimiento (por ej. puzzle, feel) y verbos que expresan ruido (por ej. bellow, croak). Nuestro segundo objetivo será analizar las restricciones externas que permiten que dichos grupos de verbos puedan integrarse en la construcción de camino inglesa. En este sentido, esta propuesta es una elaboración que parte del exhaustivo estudio realizado por Luzondo (2013), que ya ha analizado dichas restricciones externas, pero nuestra propuesta lo hará para cada uno de los grupos de verbos propuesto. Demostraremos que metáforas como UNA ACTIVIDAD ES UNA ACCIÓN EFECTUAL, ALCANZAR UN DESTINO ES CONSEGUIR ALGO, ENCONTRAR ALGO ES LLEGAR A UN DESTINO, UNA ACCIÓN COMUNICATIVA ES UNA ACCIÓN EFECTUAL y metonimias como MANERA POR ACCIÓN o MEDIOS POR ACCIÓN regulan la subsunción de predicados léxicos con la construcción de camino. En tercer lugar, también atenderemos al componente imagístico-esquemático de esta construcción. Una de las restricciones semánticas postuladas por Goldberg (1995: 203-204) relacionada con esta construcción estipula que existe movimiento a pesar de la existencia de obstáculos externos. Sin embargo, Luzondo (2013: 358) presenta evidencia por medio de ejemplos como The train chugged its way along the rails de que los obstáculos no son un elemento indispensable para la creación del camino en estas expresiones. Por tanto, el esquema de imagen de ELIMINACIÓN DE BARRERAS no es siempre imprescindible en las mismas. Por otro lado, en ocasiones, el obstáculo no lo crea la construcción en sí, sino el verbo (por ej. en He struggled along the rough road holding his son, que no es un ejemplo de la construcción de camino, ‘struggle’ implica la presencia de un obstáculo).

12:00-14:00 Session 8C: Lenguas para fines específicos/Language for specific purposes
Location: SALA/ROOM 3
The linguistic basis of forensic authorship identification methods

ABSTRACT. Despite the fact that forensic linguistics is still an unknown discipline for many legal practitioners in Spain, the Spanish courts seem to be calling more and more linguists as expert witnesses to help in forensic cases. The cases in which linguistic evidence has been used range from trademark linguistics (Shuy 2002; Butters 2010: 351-364) through plagiarism detection (Turrell 2008: 265-299; Woolls 2012: 517-529) to authorship identification disputes (Rudman 2006: 611-617; Juola 2007: 119-13; Grant 2008: 2015-229; Stamatatos 2009: 538-556; Chaski 2012: 489-503). This paper focuses on the linguistic basis of forensic authorship identification methods. The study addresses the research question: What are the necessary linguistic standards of technical knowledge and expertise to offer arguments in concrete cases? Primarily, linguistic analysis is at the core of forensic authorship identification methods. This includes the observation, description and selection of significant analytical units at the character, word, sentence, and text levels. Character-level analytical units can be, for example, single characters, punctuation marks, or misspelling. Word-level analytical units include, for instance, function words, content words, word collocations, vocabulary richness, type/token ratio, and average word length. Sentence-level analytical units comprise average sentence length, sentence type, sentence components, etc. Text-level analytical units encompass text length, paragraph length, text functions, discourse markers, discourse strategies, and so on. Once the linguistic analysis is completed, subsequent forensic authorship identification methods are linguistic coding, measuring (statistical analysis), decision-making (inductive probability scale) and validation testing. An authentic case involving authorship identification in the Spanish court will serve to exemplify the type of linguistic evidence based on forensic authorship identification linguistic tools and methods the language expert can provide.


BUTTERS, ROLAND R. 2010. Trademark linguistics. In Coulthard & Johnson, 351-364. CHASKI, CAROLE E. 2012. Author identification in the forensic setting. In Tiersma & Solan, 489-503. COULTHARD, MALCOLM, and ALISON JOHNSON (eds.) 2010. The Routledge Handbook of Forensic Linguistics. London and New York: Routledge. CRAIGER, PHILIP, and SUJEET SHENOI (eds.) 2007. Advances in Digital Forensics III. IFIP International Federation for Information Processing 242.119-132. Doi: 10.1007/978-0-387-73742-3_8 GIBBONS, JOHN, and M. TERESA TURELL (eds.) 2008. Dimensions of Forensic Linguistics. AILA Applied Linguistics, 5. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company. GRANT, TIM. 2008. Approaching questions in forensic authorship analysis. In Gibbons & Turell, 215-229. JUOLA, PATRICK. 2007. Future trends in authorship attribution. In Craiger & Shenoi, 119-132. RUDMAN, JOSEPH. 2006. Authorship attribution: statistical and computational methods. Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics 1. 611-617. Oxford: Elsevier. SHUY, ROGER. 2002. Linguistic Battles in Trademark Disputes. New York: Palgrave MacMillan. STAMATATOS, EFSTATHIOS. 2009. A survey of modern authorship attribution methods. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology 60(3). 538-556. TIERSMA, PETER M., and LAWRENCE SOLAN (eds.) 2012. The Oxford Handbook of Language and Law. Oxford: Oxford University Press. TURELL, M. TERESA. 2008. Plagiarism. In Gibbons & Turell, 265-299. WOOLS, DAVID. 2012. Detecting plagiarism. In Tiersma & Solan, 517-529.

Connecting Learner Needs with Academic Discourse: an LSP Research and Teaching Experience at Beginners’ Level for Students of Art History and Archaeology in German Universities
SPEAKER: Debora Gay

ABSTRACT. Bachelor-Students of Art History and Archaeology need to acquire competences in academic discourse (AD) not only in English but also in Romance languages in order to read the scientific literature as well as the sources and to take part at abroad studying visits and excavations. Professional and AD are converging in this context because the acquired language knowledge in the academic formation is deeply connected with competences which are employable in the professional careers for graduates. Italy and the Italian language play an important role in the formation of Art-History and Archaeology students. Other Romance languages like French and Spanish come into consideration too. Thus this target group of language learners requires language teaching concepts which approach rapidly to LSP already at beginners’ level and which aim to autonomous learning. After focusing on the peculiarity of AD of Art History and Archaeology and the multilingualism of the scientific communication in this area of the humanities, I’ll present some results of a quantitative and qualitative PhD research conducted with the target group of students of Art History and Archaeology learning Italian LSP at beginners’ level at German universities. The courses were held between 2011 and 2013. I’ll focus particularly on the outcomes of my research through questionnaires and interviews about the learning needs from the students’ perspective. Then I’ll present some evidence from the teaching experience in the courses which have been part of the conducted research. Approaching disciplinary AD in the foreign language at beginners’ level is possible in regard of previous knowledge of other languages and topics of the studied academic subjects. Interactional teaching methods as they are foreseen in the CLIL didactic combined with the methods of the intercomprehension’s didactic make it possible. Evidence of this is given from assessment on the one side and a positive student’s feedback on the other.


Bhatia, Vijay K. et al. (2008): Approaches to discourse analysis. In: Bhatia V. K. et al. (eds.): Advances in Discourse Studies. London/New York: Routledge, 1-17.

Gautier, Laurent (2014): Des langues de spécialité à la communication spécialisée : un nouveau paradigme de recherche à l’ntersection entre science du langage, info-com et sciences cognitives ? In : Etudes Interdisciplinaires en Sciences humaines (EISH): 2014/1, 225-245.

Gay, Debora (2013): Lingua italiana e discorso sull’arte. In: Pirvu, Elena (ed.): Discorso, identità e cultura nella lingua e nella letteratura italiana. Atti del Convegno internazionale di Studi di Craiova, 21-22 settembre 2012. Craiova: Editura Universitaria, 216-228.

Gotti, Maurizio (2008): Investigating Specialized Discourse. Bern: Peter Lang.

Hempel, Karl-Gerhard (2013): Can Scholarly Communication Be Multilingual? A Glance at Language Use in US Classical Archaeology. In: Humanities 2/2013, 128-146.

Joyce, Rosemarie (ed.) (2008): The Languages of Archaeology: Dialogue, Narrative and Writing. Oxford, UK, Malden, USA: Blackwell Publishers.

Meißner, Franz-Joseph et al. (eds.) (2004): EuroComRom - Les sept tamis. Lire les langues romanes dès le départ. Aachen: Shaker.

Vogel, Thomas (2007): Wie kommen Fach und Sprache zusammen? Die Integration der Fremdsprachenausbildung in die Studiengänge: Überlegungen aus der Praxis. In: Fremdsprachen Lehren und Lernen, 36/2007, 185-199.

La enseñanza del español/inglés jurídico: una propuesta metodológica

ABSTRACT. Tras describir el perfil del demandante de un curso de estas características, explicaremos en qué consiste nuestra propuesta metodológica, que se centra en cuatro pilares básicos: 1) Por una parte, proponemos como punto de partida la adopción de un Enfoque Léxico y la compilación y explotación didáctica de un corpus lingüístico de textos auténticos (transcripciones de juicios, documentos jurídicos y guiones de películas sobre juicios), así como la utilización de «unidades léxicas complejas» (chunks). 2) Por otra parte, sugerimos la utilización del subtitulado y el doblaje como técnica para la formación en este lenguaje de especialidad y como mecanismo para la extracción de ese tipo de unidades léxicas por parte de los alumnos. 3) Además, consideramos importante suscitar el debate y la reflexión tanto sobre el funcionamiento del ordenamiento jurídico como sobre los casos que se presenten en cada película tal como se realiza en los «Casos Prácticos» de las escuelas de práctica jurídica. Simultáneamente, se abordarán algunas cuestiones relativas al discurso jurídico y la oratoria. 4) Por último, proponemos la creación de una red de aprendizaje en tándem que facilite la práctica lingüística por parte de profesionales del Derecho que estén aprendiendo español jurídico y hablantes nativos de español que necesiten profundizar en su conocimiento del inglés jurídico o del sistema judicial de los Estados Unidos. Dentro del campo del español/inglés jurídico abordaremos en primer lugar la cuestión del lenguaje procesal, circunscrito fundamentalmente al ámbito de los juicios orales y a géneros como la exposición de un caso, los interrogatorios o la presentación de conclusiones. Asimismo, además del cine judicial, podríamos ampliar nuestra labor a muchos otros ámbitos de la Justicia en función de los intereses y necesidades del grupo meta (la investigación jurídica, la relación entre abogado y cliente, o el papel de los miembros de un jurado…).

Bibliografía Alcaraz, E. (1994). El inglés jurídico. Textos y documentos. Barcelona: Ariel. Alcaraz, E. (2002). El español jurídico. Barcelona: Ariel. Álvarez Faedo, M.J. (1999). "Teaching legal English: Different approaches and techniques". En S. Fernández y González-Corugedo et al. (eds.) Essays in English language teaching: A review of the communicative approach. Oviedo: Universidad de Oviedo, 59-66. Díaz Cintas, J. (2003). Teoría y Práctica de la Traducción Audiovisual Inglés-Español. Barcelona, Ariel. Ellis R. (1994). The Study of Second Language Acquisition. Oxford: OUP. Lewis M. (1997). Implementing the Lexical Approach: Putting Theory in Practice. Hove: LTP. Lewis, T. y Walker, L. (eds.) (2003). Autonomous language learning in tandem. Sheffield: Academy Electronic Publications Morris. M. (ed.) (1995). Translation and the Law (American Translators Association Scholarly Monograph Series, Vol. VIII). Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins. Nattinger J. R. (1980). "A lexical phrase grammar for ESL", TESOL Quarterly 14: 337-344. Orero, P. (ed.) (2004). Topics in Audiovisual Translation. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins. Sinclair J. 1991. Corpus, Concordance, Collocation. Oxford: OUP. Talaván Zanón, N. (2013). La Subtitulación en el Aprendizaje de Lenguas Extranjeras. Barcelona, Octaedro. Wray A. 2000. "Formulaic sequences in second language teaching: Principles and practice", Applied Linguistics 21: 463-489.

Análisis contrastivo del español académico y el español jurídico: un recurso para la optimización
SPEAKER: unknown

ABSTRACT. El objetivo de esta comunicación es establecer un contraste entre dos lenguas de especialidad: el español académico y el español jurídico, y justificar la conveniencia de trabajar con textos representativos de ambos lenguajes para formar en técnicas de escritura experta a profesionales del Derecho en activo o en formación.

Es cierto que cualquier profesional del Derecho, durante su formación universitaria, ha desarrollado habilidades de escritura académica a la par que habilidades en escritura de su ámbito profesional. Este progreso en paralelo no garantiza que el estudiante, una vez egresado de la universidad, sea capaz de elaborar textos escritos eficaces; pero sí es cierto que durante la formación universitaria, rutinas de construcción de textos jurídicos se transfieren a la construcción de textos académicos, al igual que las rutinas de construcción de textos académicos se transfieren a la construcción de textos jurídicos de especialidad (Alcaraz, Mateo y Yus 2007, Montolío 2014).

Esta transferencia de rutinas puede aprovecharse en la formación en escritura de estos juristas, para conseguir de ellos textos eficaces, que satisfagan sus objetivos comunicativos tanto en el ámbito universitario como en su desempeño profesional. Nuestro objetivo como lingüistas ha sido investigar en las estrategias de construcción textual que son comunes a ambos lenguajes de especialidad, e identificar aquellas que los distinguen, a fin de transferir el resultado de nuestra investigación a la formación de estudiantes de Derecho de grado y de postgrado que se enfrentan, a la vez, a la práctica de redacción de textos escritos académicos y de su especialidad (Regueiro y Sáez 2013, Montolío 2014).

Esta meta se ha concretado en un curso de redacción de textos jurídicos y académicos, en el marco del Máster de Estudios Jurídicos Avanzados de la Universidad de Barcelona. El curso recoge, además, las aportaciones de las publicaciones y acciones docentes basadas en las propuestas de clarificación y de modernización del discurso jurídico español, aportadas por lingüistas y juristas que han llevado a cabo análisis muy pormenorizados de los documentos fundamentales de la comunidad de práctica jurídica (Montolío 2011; Montolío 2012, García 2013).

Se comparan rutinas de construcción textual en una selección de textos jurídicos y académicos representativos. Se reúnen muestras de formulaciones lingüísticas y de mecanismos de organización sintáctico-discursiva de los documentos, que obstaculizan la comprensión de los textos. También se aportan ejemplos de buenas prácticas, casos en los que los juristas o los académicos utilizan un determinado mecanismo de escritura de forma correcta y eficiente. Por último, se ofrecen versiones alternativas a fragmentos textuales que presentan inadecuaciones.

______; MATEO, José; YUS, Francisco (eds.). Las lenguas profesionales y académicas. Barcelona: Ariel, 2007.

GARCÍA, M. Ángeles. El lenguaje jurídico escrito en una perspectiva textual y oracional: patologías, buenas prácticas y versiones alternativas, Linha d’Água, 26 (2), p. 19-49, 2013.

MONTOLÍO, Estrella. Estudio de campo: Lenguaje escrito. Madrid. Ministerio de Justicia, 2011.

______ (ed.): Manual de escritura académica y profesional. Barcelona: Ariel, 2014.

REGUEIRO, Mª Luisa y SÁEZ, Daniel. El español académico. Guía práctica para la elaboración de textos académicos. Madrid: Arco-Libros 2013.

12:00-14:00 Session 8D: Enseñanza de lenguas y diseño curricular/Language teaching
Location: SALA/ROOM 4
Traducción versus producción: cómo desarrollar la competencia lingüística en contextos académicos especializados
SPEAKER: unknown

ABSTRACT. En las últimas décadas, son muchas las investigaciones lingüísticas que encontramos en la literatura que ponen de manifiesto la complejidad de la escritura académica en una lengua extranjera, no solo desde la perspectiva del producto final, sino también desde el punto de vista del proceso (v. Hewings, 2001; Ravelli & Ellis, 2005; Canagarajah, 2002, 2013; Lillis & Scott, 2007). Desde esta segunda dimensión, son también frecuentes los trabajos que analizan la influencia que ejerce la lengua materna a la hora de componer un texto en una lengua extranjera (v. Cohen, 2002; Lifang, 2008; Petchprasert, 2013). El presente trabajo, enmarcado en un curso de formación docente sobre inglés académico desarrollado en la Universidad de Valladolid durante los cursos académicos 2014-2015 y 2015-2016, nace, precisamente, en este contexto. Las diferentes estrategias adoptadas por los participantes en función de su ámbito de especialidad, el nivel de conocimiento de la lengua de trabajo, así como el grado de familiaridad con las características de la comunicación científica en inglés en determinados contextos académicos, son, en la mayoría de las ocasiones, aspectos que determinan en gran medida la producción en esta lengua. Partiendo de la valoración de la propia producción y de la identificación de errores por parte de los estudiantes-docentes, a lo largo de este trabajo procederemos a analizar y describir cuáles son las particularidades de los textos producidos por los docentes e investigadores (expertos) en una lengua extranjera en sus diferentes ramas de especialidad, con el fin de planificar e implementar en el aula técnicas y estrategias específicas que permitan desarrollar su competencia lingüística en los diferentes contextos académicos especializados.

Propuesta para la enseñanza de los verbos de cambio en ELE desde la lingüística cognitiva.

ABSTRACT. Hasta el momento, la diversidad de aproximaciones sobre los verbos de cambio en gramáticas del español y manuales de ELE y la ausencia de un tratamiento detallado de su naturaleza lingüística provoca que su enseñanza se reduzca a menudo a la enunciación de reglas descriptivas de uso, no carentes de excepciones, y a la práctica de ejercicios descontextualizados o de respuesta cerrada. Esta propuesta tiene el objetivo de revisar algunos materiales didácticos actuales para reflexionar sobre la perspectiva que adoptamos al abordar la enseñanza de los verbos de cambio y sugerir la aplicación de los principios de la lingüística cognitiva para ayudarnos a hacer su adquisición más duradera. 
 Los verbos de cambio siguen suponiendo un problema a la hora de ser explicados con éxito en clase de ELE y la oferta explicativa de manuales y gramáticas resulta incompleta y a menudo no satisface ni a profesores ni a alumnos, de modo que acaba por ser un capítulo sin cerrar de la enseñanza de la gramática en ELE. Como docentes, debemos ofrecer una explicación convincente y evitar decir “es así y tienes que aprenderlo de memoria”. Particularmente, las principales dificultades a las que se enfrentan los alumnos al entrar en contacto con los verbos de cambio son varias: en comparación con otras lenguas, el español dispone de una amplia variedad de verbos de cambio; su enseñanza se relega al nivel B2 del MCER y suelen presentarse todos los verbos (p. ej. ponerse, volverse, quedarse, hacerse, convertirse en) en la misma unidad;
las explicaciones de los manuales y gramáticas contienen metalenguaje complejo o impreciso;
los criterios de clasificación de los verbos son vagos y subjetivos; y no se explican los matices que diferencian el uso entre la variedad de verbos. Tras un análisis crítico de los materiales disponibles, se echa en falta la explicación de la motivación de la estructura, la no arbitrariedad de la elección de un verbo, la asociación con los sentidos metafóricos de estos verbos y una posterior estimulación para su práctica abierta y creativa. Así pues, en esta propuesta se tratará de responder a preguntas como: ¿cuál es el mejor modo de abordar la explicación de los verbos de cambio?, ¿cuáles son las restricciones de combinación interna en la construcción?, ¿es posible enseñarlos y aprenderlos como unidades léxicas complejas?, ¿cuál es el significado metafórico que subyace a su estructura? y ¿qué tipos de actividades permiten que su adquisición sea más 
duradera? Para ello, nos valdremos del marco teórico de la lingüística cognitiva para explicar, según valores prototípicos, juegos de perspectivas y asociación con metáforas conceptuales, las propiedades de construcciones del tipo "se quedó triste" y "se puso triste"; la posibilidad de "volverse triste" pero no de "*volverse contento"; o el hecho de que los adjetivos "embarazada" y "ciega" puedan construirse con el mismo verbo. En resumen, esta propuesta invita a la reflexión y a la adopción de un enfoque diferente que aporte una explicación coherente y facilite el trabajo de comprensión y posterior producción de los verbos de cambio.

Cognados falsos y verdaderos: una oportunidad excelente para instigar la reflexión metalingüística. El caso de los estudiantes estonios de español.
SPEAKER: Mari Kruse

ABSTRACT. A partir de que se aplicó el enfoque comunicativo a la enseñanza de idiomas, se ha rendido gran importancia al aspecto social de la adquisición y al aprendizaje implícito del nuevo código gramatical y léxico-semántico. Solo últimamente también se ha empezado a destacar la trascendencia de la reflexión metalingüística, que debería dar como fruto un uso más ponderado y preciso de las lenguas (Kruse, 2014). Este aspecto es especialmente importante en un contexto académico, donde la impresión que dejamos con nuestro uso de la lengua puede tener un impacto profundo en cómo se nos acepta en la comunidad científica. El caso de los falsos amigos, tanto léxicos como gramaticales, es un buen ejemplo para analizar con los alumnos los mecanismos de transferencia que forman parte esencial de adquirir cualquier aptitud, y la extensión en la que se puede fiar de ellos. Para ilustrar hasta qué punto son aplicables los diccionarios y glosarios de falsos amigos y ver si son representativos de las desviaciones léxicas que se presentan en textos académicos estudiantiles reales, analicé el corpus formado de los trabajos de fin de carrera de la especialidad de lengua y literatura hispánicas en la Universidad de Tartu (Estonia), redactados por estudiantes estonios en una lengua castellana que se supone ser normativa y académica. El corpus tartuense estudiado da un ejemplo de las influencias interlingüísticas que se ponen en juego en contextos plurilingües. La lengua materna de los estudiantes, el estonio, es tipológicamente bastante diferente tanto del español como del inglés, pero mis experiencias como directora y oponente de este tipo de trabajos indicaban que el estonio no parecía afectar mucho a los textos redactados. Aparentemente, el peligro de errar residía más bien en el inglés, tanto por su posición en el escenario internacional como el hecho de que se percibe como más cercano al español (Ringbom, 1986). Empecé analizando detenidamente un 5% (44977 palabras) del corpus a mi disposición para encontrar desviaciones léxicas y gramaticales; en adición busqué de todo el corpus los 100 falsos amigos incluidos en la lista formada por Roca-Varela (2014) para examinar su representatividad. Resulta que un 21% de los cien falsos amigos de la lista también se presentó en nuestras condiciones, mientras encontré otros 38 casos de interferencia léxica propios de mi corpus. Esto sugiere que si bien el uso de los glosarios de falsos amigos es un recurso de alta utilidad en la enseñanza, está lejos de garantizar una cobertura íntegra del tema y los estudiantes como autores deben concienciarse de la necesidad de autocontrol y autorreflexión en el proceso de redactar textos en lenguas extranjeras. Próximamente sería conveniente confrontar los resultados obtenidos con otras condiciones lingüísticas para ver si se pueden generalizar o son propios de nuestro contexto.

La forma cantaba en las gramáticas de ELE: teoría lingüística y propuestas didácticas para su explicación
SPEAKER: unknown

ABSTRACT. La forma verbal cantaba ha sido objeto de estudio en numerosas ocasiones a lo largo de la tradición gramatical, fundamentalmente por la diversidad de valores semánticos que presenta. Distinguimos dentro de ellos dos grandes grupos: los que denominamos ‘prototípicos’, esto es, los referidos a los rasgos de tiempo pasado y aspecto imperfectivo, y los ‘no prototípicos’, es decir, valores como el denominado ‘imperfecto imaginativo’, ‘imperfecto de conato’ o ‘imperfecto de cortesía’, entre otros, que no se corresponden con el valor temporal de pasado o aspectual imperfectivo asociados a esta forma (véase al respecto Zamorano y Martínez-Atienza 2014).

Así pues, el objetivo de nuestro trabajo será, en el ámbito de la competencia gramatical, analizar el tratamiento que recibe cada uno de estos significados en un corpus constituido por diversos textos gramaticales de enseñanza-aprendizaje de español como lengua extranjera. En particular, analizaremos, entre otras obras, el Plan curricular del Instituto Cervantes. Niveles de referencia para el español. 2. Gramática (Madrid: Instituto Cervantes, Biblioteca Nueva, 2006), la Gramática de Referencia de la Lengua Española Niveles A1- B2 (Milano: Hoepli, 2010), la Gramática de Perfeccionamiento de la Lengua Española Niveles C1- C2 (Milano: Hoepli, 2011), cuya autora es María Lozano Zahonero, y la Gramática básica del estudiante de español (Barcelona: Difusión, 2011). De modo particular, prestaremos atención al tratamiento que se hace desde el punto de vista didáctico de los valores de cantaba. Analizaremos, en primer lugar, la teoría que fundamenta la explicación que ofrecen de los denominados valores ‘prototípicos’ y, de modo particular, de los ‘no prototípicos’, y, en segundo lugar, comprobaremos esta teoría con las propuestas didácticas que se ofrecen de la forma, con los contenidos y con la metodología de enseñanza.

Tras el análisis crítico de las diversas obras, defenderemos la necesidad de superar el marco oracional y de considerar el marco de la enunciación para poder ofrecer una explicación unificadora en el proceso de enseñanza-aprendizaje de los distintos valores ‘no prototípicos’ asociados a la forma cantaba.

Referencia bibliográfica: Zamorano Aguilar, A. y María Martínez-Atienza (2014), “Valores prototípicos y no prototípicos del pretérito imperfecto en español. Su hipótesis como focalizador de la enunciación”, en S. Aspiazu (ed.), Simple and compound forms of the past in Spanish and other languages, Lugo: Axac, pp. 179-194.

12:00-14:00 Session 8E: Análisis del discurso/Discourse analysis
Location: SALA/ROOM 5
Discourse trajectories in the academia: exploring scientists’ multimodal communication in the international university

ABSTRACT. The institutionalised, "formal" aspects of internationalisation of higher education have been extensively addressed in the related literature. In contrast, the "informal" aspects of internationalisation strategies, such as those suggested by Knight (1997): patterns of interpersonal relations and groupings, of power and of influence, personal views of organisational and individual competencies, and communication systems, are rarely approached and, thus, remain under-researched. With the purpose of contributing to this gap, I will explore the communication practices of agricultural scientists in the context of a multinational research group in order to relate them to the internationalisation processes of university and of science. The data analysis will consist in an ethnographically informed analysis of the scientists’ multimodal discourse practices, departing from the theoretical standpoints of Gunter Kress’ multimodal social semiotics (Kress, 2009) and Dell Hymes’ ethnography of communication (Hymes, 1974). Drawing on the notions of ‘text trajectories’, ‘text histories’ and ‘genre chains’, in the present paper, I will examine the discourse trajectories in which scientists engage through the production and uptake of diverse multimodal texts as part of their ordinary scientific practice. In particular, I will analyse diverse texts produced by some of the group's members at different stages of a specific project, from its planning, through its enactment in the laboratory, until the oral and written presentations of its results. In doing so, I will (a) identify key moments of the process of discourse entextualisation and recontextualisation; (b) describe the characteristics and constrains of its transduction across modes, and the affordances of each mode in the context of scientific practice; and (c) finally tackle the text production and interpretation skills that scientists need to develop in the process of expertise acquisition. As stated in the beginning of this abstract, these issues will be broached in relation to the processes of internationalisation of higher education and of science.

Leading students to disciplinary language use: an analysis of English-medium university lectures
SPEAKER: unknown

ABSTRACT. While the study of classroom discourse has been widely researched as an integral element in the learning process (Walsh, 2006), the rise of English-medium instruction (EMI) in the context of internationalising higher education has presented university lecturers with increasing demands which are often underexplored (Dafouz, 2011). Such demands include lecturers’ ability of making relevant disciplinary language in English accessible to their students, as well as teachers’ confidence in using this language themselves. Against this backdrop, our paper sets out to examine how lecturers’ language practices encapsulate a partially implicit, but nonetheless enacted awareness of the disciplinary nature of language. Based on a data set of 8 full length lectures in two subjects, (i.e. Financial Accounting and Consumer Behaviour), from the INTER-LICA research project, this contribution presents an in-depth analysis of the content teaching of two Spanish lecturers in EMI at a Business Faculty. By drawing on socio-constructivist and conversation analytical approaches to classroom discourse (Evnitskaya & Morton 2011; Sharpe 2008), the analysis focuses on all episodes of ‘guided construction of disciplinary talk’, which fall into three categories: firstly, episodes with an explicit language focus; secondly, those of teachers developing disciplinary reasoning and, finally, episodes of co-constructing academically appropriate discourse. By embedding the study in a recently developed conceptual framework, known as ROAD-MAPPING (Dafouz and Smit 2014), the findings will be critically discussed as regards their institutional and disciplinary anchoring. Additionally, we will also suggest implications for teacher education in EMI contexts.


Dafouz, E. (2011). English as the Medium of Instruction in Spanish Contexts. Ruiz de Zarobe, JM Sierra and F. Gallardo del Puerto (eds.) Content and Language Integrated Learning. Contributions to Multilingualism in European Contexts. Berlin: Peter Lang, 189-209. Dafouz, E., & Smit, U. (2014). Towards a Dynamic Conceptual Framework for English-Medium Education in Multilingual University Settings. Applied Linguistics, amu034. Evnitskaya, N., & Morton, T. (2011). Knowledge construction, meaning-making and interaction in CLIL science classroom communities of practice. Language and Education, 25(2), 109-127. Sharpe, T. (2008). How can teacher talk support learning? Linguistics and Education, 19(2), 132-148. Walsh S. (2006) Investigating Classroom Discourse. London, New York: Routledge.

La intertextualidad en los discursos de los galardonados con el Premio Cervantes como estrategia discursiva

ABSTRACT. En este trabajo sobre los discursos de los escritores españoles e hispanoamericanos en la ceremonia de entrega del Premio Cervantes abordaremos la intertextualidad como la estrategia discursiva recurrente y común a todos los premiados. Todos los discursos emitidos, desde el primero de Jorge Guillén en 1976 hasta el último de Juan Goytisolo en 2015, son originales y personales, sin embargo presentan características macroestructurales prototípicas que los identifica como un género peculiar de discurso escrito para ser pronunciado ante altos cargos de la política y cultura española, en el Paraninfo de la Universidad de Alcalá de Henares, el día internacional del libro, el 23 de abril. La coherencia de estos discursos reside en la obra cervantina presente en todos ellos, las voces de sus personajes inmortales están entremezclados con las de los autores galardonados y con otras de la literatura universal, que presuponen el contexto emocional y cognitivo adecuado para la interpretación de este discurso, como punto de inflexión en la vida de estos escritores maduros. Asimismo la intertextualidad es el procedimiento discursivo mediante el cual se referencia el contexto socio-cultural extra e inter discurso que se refleja la identidad individual y social de cada uno de los autores en el momento de recoger el premio. ADAM, J. M. (1999). Linguistique textuelle. Des genres de discours aux textes. París: Nathan/HER BAJTÍN, M. (1982). Estética de la creación verbal, ed. a cargo de T. Bubnova, México, Siglo XXI. BEAUGRANDE, R. A. (De) / DRESSLER, W. U. (1981). Introducción a la lingüística del texto, Barcelona, Ariel. BRAVO, D. Y BRIZ, A. (eds). 2004. Pragmática sociocultural: estudios sobre el discurso de cortesía en español. Barcelona. Ariel. BROWN, P. / LEVINSON, S. (1987). Politeness. Some universals in language use, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press. BROWN, G. / YULE, G. (1983). Discourse analysis, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press. DIJK, T VAN. (2012). “Contexto y cognición social”, en Sociedad y discurso. Cómo influyen los contextos sociales sobre el texto y la conversación, Barcelona, Gedisa. DIJK, T. VAN (2012). Discurso y contexto. Un enfoque sociocognitivo, Barcelona, Gedisa. GOFFMAN, E. (1981). Forms of talk, Philadelphia, University of Pennsylvania Press. ISENBERG, H. (1987). “Cuestiones fundamentales de tipología textual”, en E. Bernárdez (comp.), Lingüística del texto, Madrid, Arco, 1987, pp. 95-129

La dispositio carnavalesca en textos argumentativos irónicos

ABSTRACT. La presente comunicación deriva del proyecto de tesis que adelanta su autor en el Doctorado en Ciencias de la Educación (Universidad del Quindío, COLOMBIA): La comprensión de textos argumentativos irónicos (columnas de opinión): Propuesta didáctica dirigida a estudiantes de Licenciatura en Español y Literatura. Desde los postulados de la Retórica Antigua en torno a la superestructura de textos argumentativos y a partir del levantamiento de un corpus amplio de columnas de opinión irónicas publicadas en Colombia en los últimos 10 años –Daniel Samper Pizano, Daniel Samper Ospina, Julio César Londoño, Tola y Maruja, Antonio Morales Riveira…–, se arriesga la hipótesis de una dispositio carnavalesca compuesta por un exordio ponzoñoso (en el que el autor expresa su tesis con estilística visceral, casi ofensiva), una narratio ialogizada (en la que el autor mezcla la exposición del fenómeno con sus comentarios sesgados), una confirmatio caricaturesca (en la que los argumentos se exageran y se inoculan ciertas falacias ad hominem), una digressio isotópica (en la que el autor se aprovecha de los lugares comunes y de los topoi que circulan entre la comunidad discursiva alrededor del tema) y una peroratio rizomática (que, en vía contraria de los cánones retóricos, evita volver al punto central y se engolosina con detalles marginales que surgieron a lo largo de la argumentación). Cada una de estas categorías se ilustra desde marcas textuales específicas, gracias a las cuales es posible describir la ironía en calidad de dispositivo polifónico complejo que subvierte, no solo el decir, sino también las formas y los patrones organizativos que lo vehiculan; de ahí que Schoenjies la conciba como “juego de reflexión que, al poner las cosas a distancia, las pone en entredicho” (2003: 265). Con esta propuesta de corte hermenéutico se revisa la ironía desde una perspectiva bajtiniana –dialógica y carnavalizada– en un intento de interlocución con los estudios actuales sobre el tema, entre los cuales cobran protagonismo las investigaciones del grupo GRIALE de la Universidad de Alicante.

12:00-14:00 Session 8F: Adquisición y aprendizaje/Language acquisition
Location: SALA/ROOM 6
A Multimodal Analysis of Students’ Communicative Strategies in Synchronous Telecollaboration Interactions
SPEAKER: unknown

ABSTRACT. A Multimodal Analysis of Students’ Communicative Strategies in Synchronous Telecollaboration Interactions

Our talk outlines a study we have carried out in the context of the European-funded project TILA (Telecollaboration for Intercultural Language Acquisition - Grant Agreement Number 2012-4001/001-001). This two-year project, which ended in June 2015, involved secondary school students from France, Germany, the Netherlands, Spain and the United Kingdom.

Our aim was to gather insights into synchronous telecollaboration (STC) since we believe this is the closest students from different cultures can get to experiencing face-to-face communication without having to travel to another country. As in “real” face-to-face interaction, STC gives students many opportunities to improve their language skills and moreover to acquire intercultural communication competence. TC includes audio-visual communication, which, in turn, facilitates the production and reception of both paralinguistic and non-linguistic signals on the part of the students. Thus in our analysis we identify, highlight and analyse not only textual features of the interactions but other semiotic modes.

Our research centres on twelve recordings of tandem interactions in English and Spanish between Spanish and British secondary school students aged between 14 and 15. The first stage of our analysis involves the transcription of the video recordings consisting not only in what was said but also paralinguistic and non-linguistic annotations. In our analysis we draw on Goffman, 1956, Brown and Levinson, 1987, and Pennock-Speck and del Saz-Rubio, 2013. We look mainly at deference, “a symbolic means by which appreciation is regularly conveyed to a recipient” (Goffman, 1956: 476). Deference is divided into two types: “avoidance rituals”, similar to Brown and Levinson’s (1987) concept of negative politeness strategies, and “presentation rituals” (Goffman, 1956: 481), similar to Brown and Levinson’s (1987) concept of positive politeness strategies.

Our results show that participants systematically make use of body language and non-verbal cues along with verbal language to put their interlocutors at ease, to defuse potentially embarrassing moments and also to offer them praise.

To conclude, our research provides empirical evidence of the affordances of synchronous telecollaboration when compared to other kinds of online peer interaction, especially of the written kind. It also offers insights into how TC can enhance Classroom Interactional Competence (CIC) defined by Walsh (2011: 158) as “Teachers’ and learners’ ability to use interaction as a tool for mediating and assisting learning”. We posit that TC promotes CIC and that students benefit from the peer-feedback and peer-scaffolding that ensue from this kind of interaction.

Brown, Penelope and Levinson, Stephen C. (1987) Politeness: Some Universals in Language Usage. Cambridge University Press. Goffman, Erving (1956) The nature of deference and demeanor. American Anthropologist, 58: 473-502. Pennock-Speck, Barry and del-Saz-Rubio, María Milagros (2913) A multimodal analysis of facework strategies in a corpus of charity ads on British television. Journal of Pragmatics, 49/1: 38-56. Walsh, Steve (2011) Exploring Classroom Discourse: Language in Action, London: Routledge.

EFL learning and L1 subtitled videos: A longitudinal study on vocabulary acquisition and listening comprehension at Primary school
SPEAKER: Ferran Gesa

ABSTRACT. The question of whether vocabulary acquisition can be facilitated through subtitled video viewing has not been widely investigated in the field of SLA. The scarce research on the topic suggests that there are two aspects in which learners may benefit from such practice, namely, listening comprehension (Montero Perez et al., 2013; Rodgers, 2013) and, to a lesser extent, vocabulary learning (Baltova, 1999; Montero Perez et al., 2014). However, most of the studies published so far have exposed university students to short video clips. Therefore, very little is known about the possible benefits of a sustained exposure to subtitled audiovisual material and how that might work for a population other than adult language learners.

This paper aims at filling the existing gap by exposing Grade 6 EFL learners to an L1 subtitled American TV series for an entire academic term by means of a pedagogical intervention. The study, which followed a pre-test/post-test design, involved a total of 52 participants, who were tested on a range of target words (TWs) both at the beginning and at the end of the term. Students were divided in two subgroups: experimental (N=27) and control (N=25). In each of the eight sessions that the pedagogical intervention was divided into, learners in the experimental group were pre-taught the TWs, watched an episode subtitled in Spanish and took two immediate tests: a vocabulary test, in which the TWs were presented aurally, and a comprehension test. The control group followed the same procedure, but students did not watch the episode and did not take the comprehension test. Statistical analyses show significant differences between the groups regarding vocabulary acquisition, indicating that subtitled L1 series can be a powerful tool to enhance vocabulary teaching and learning. Additionally, it is also evinced that L1 subtitling can aid the comprehension of real audiovisual materials at low proficiency levels.

Baltova, I. (1999). The Effect of Subtitled and Staged Video Input on the Learning and Retention of Content and Vocabulary in a Second Language. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada.

Montero Perez, M., Peters, E., & Desmet, P. (2013). Is less more? Effectiveness and perceived usefulness of keyword and full captioned video for L2 listening comprehension. ReCALL, 26(1), 21–43.

Montero Perez, M., Peters, E., Clarebout, G., & Desmet, P. (2014). Effects of captioning on video comprehension and incidental vocabulary learning. Language Learning & Technology, 18(1), 118–141.

Rodgers, M. (2013). English language learning through viewing television: An investigation of comprehension, incidental vocabulary acquisition, lexical coverage, attitudes, and captions. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. Victoria University of Wellington, Wellington, New Zealand.

Developing foreign language teacher competences with telecollaboration
SPEAKER: unknown

ABSTRACT. This paper is part of the I+D project TELNETCOM (EDU2014-54673-R) and analyses how the integration of telecollaboration might affect the development of some of the less assessed Key Competences for Lifelong Learning (European Commission, 2007). Although the European Framework of Reference suggests the integration of eight competences in Higher Education, some of those key competences (i.e. learning to learn and digital competence) have been shown to be difficult to achieve and to measure according to the European Union’s Report on Education and Training (2010). Virtual collaboration can be a highly effective opportunity to develop them transcending traditional-learning (Vinagre, 2010; Bueno-Alastuey & Kleban, 2014; Garcia Esteban, 2015). 

The aim of this study is to analyse how a telecollaboration project might affect the development of both learning to learn and digital competence in two groups of pre-service foreign language teachers. Participants from UPN (Universidad de Pública de Navarra) and CUCC (Universidad de Alcalá) interacted in eight groups to carry out virtual collaborations using Skype video-conferencing to discuss their CLIL knowledge according to Bentley (2010) and to comment peers’ lesson plans from a Blog and some Wikis. 

The main task was to use digital resources and a CLIL unit to share their CLIL knowledge building. This task was used to analyse the evolution of two of the less assessed competences: learning to learn and digital competence. The students first discussed different CLIL concepts, and then created some CLIL units, which they uploaded to a blog or to a wiki. Finally, the students had to analyse the units of the students in the other location and discussed their analyses telecollaboratively. Students’ reflections concerning the use of digital technologies and CLIL contents were evaluated and rationalized. 

To answer the research questions of whether the telecollaboration helped in the development of digital and learning to learn competences, both the initial and final CLIL units, and a pre and post on-line questionnaire were used. The quantitative and qualitative analyses showed traces of changes in knowledge, skills, and attitudes towards the development of digital and learning to learn competences, and in CLIL knowledge. These changes and improvements point to the benefits a telecollaboration program can bring to a traditional Teacher Training educational program.   


Bentley, K. (2010). The TKT Course CLIL Module. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.  

Bueno-Alastuey, M.C. & Kleban, M. (2014). Matching linguistic and pedagogical objectives in a telecollaboration project: a case study. Computer Assisted language learning. 

European Commission (2007). Key Competencies for Lifelong Learning. European Framework of Reference. European Commission. Luxembourg. 

European Union (2010). New skills for new jobs: Action now. Retrieved from 

García Esteban, S. (2015). Teaching CLIL with digital literacies, Verbeia, 47-63 

Vinagre, M. (2010). Teoría y práctica del aprendizaje colaborativo asistido por ordenador. Madrid. Síntesis.  

El nivel de inglés de los alumnos de primaria como factor influyente en el uso de estrategias de aprendizaje.
SPEAKER: Ruth Milla

ABSTRACT. En las últimas décadas ha habido un aumento notable de investigaciones en el campo de las estrategias de aprendizaje de lenguas, enfocado principalmente a estudiar la relación entre el uso de estas estrategias por parte de los aprendices y diferentes factores individuales tales como la edad, el nivel de lengua, el contexto o el bagaje cultural (Chamot y Kupper, 1989; Oxford y Burry-Stock, 1995; entre otros). Diversos estudios han señalado diferencias ente las estrategias de aprendizaje utilizadas por adolescentes y adultos por un lado y niños por otro, encontrando que los alumnos de primaria tienen una preferencia por el uso de estrategias sociales, metacognitivas y cognitivas y que utilizan menos estrategias de compensación y estrategias afectivas. Además, se ha averiguado que en primaria el uso de estrategias está condicionado por el nivel de proficiencia en la lengua (Magogwe y Oliver, 2007). En esta comunicación presentamos los resultados de la investigación sobre la posible influencia del nivel de lengua en el uso de estrategias de aprendizaje de lenguas por parte de alumnos de inglés como lengua extranjera en primaria, para ver si efectivamente hay diferencias entre el uso de estrategias y el nivel de proficiencia (Magogwe y Oliver, 2007). Para ello se recogieron datos utilizando una versión adaptada del cuestionario de Oxford (1989). Los participantes son 145 alumnos bilingües de euskera/castellano en 5º y 6º curso de primaria (rango de edad 10-12), divididos en tres grupos según los resultados de un test de nivel de inglés (Cambridge Flyers): Básico bajo (A2-), básico medio (A2), básico alto (A2+). Los resultados muestran que los alumnos de mayor nivel usaban más estrategias que los de menor nivel, al igual que en otros estudios previos sobre el tema (Magogwe y Oliver, 2007). En lo que respecta al uso de los diferentes tipos de estrategias de aprendizaje encontramos diferencias significativas en la preferencia por estrategias sociales de los alumnos con nivel superior (A2+) y los alumnos del nivel inferior (A2-). Además, los alumnos de menor nivel manifestaron una preferencia menor por las estrategias cognitivas y sociales que los alumnos de nivel medio (A2), al contrario de lo que se ha descubierto en Magogwe y Oliver (2007). Discutiremos la posibilidad de estas diferencias puedan deberse a la homogeneidad de la muestra en nuestro estudio, donde todos los sujetos estaban en el rango de edad de 10-12 años.


Chamot, A.U., & Kupper, L. (1989). Learning strategies in foreign language instruction. Foreign Language Annals, 22: 13-24.

Magogwe, J. M., & Oliver, R. (2007). The relationship between language learning strategies, proficiency, age and self-efficacy beliefs: A study of language learners in Botswana. System, 35: 338–352.

Oxford, R. (1989). Use of language learning strategies: a synthesis of studies with implications for strategy training. System, 17: 235–247.

Oxford, R.L., & Burry-Stock, J.A. (1995). Assessing the use of language learning strategies worldwide with the ESL/EFL version of the Strategy Inventory for Language Learning. System, 23(2): 153-175.

12:00-14:00 Session 8G: Adquisición y aprendizaje/Language acquisition
Location: SALA/ROOM 7
Textual enhancement in the L2 acquisition of the Spanish present subjunctive

ABSTRACT. Previous empirical research has yielded inconclusive findings on the effectiveness of textual enhancement in drawing learners’ attention to target forms and in facilitating their acquisition. Results have been particularly negative with regard to the Spanish present subjunctive (i.e., Leow et al., 2003). The present study delves into this issue by focusing on the role of textual enhancement in the recognition, comprehension, and production of Spanish L2 verb forms that differ in their perceptual saliency. The role of perceptual saliency is explored on two fronts: communicative value and lexical proximity/distance. The communicative value of a form is construed as its relative contribution to the interpretation of a message, whereas lexical proximity/distance refers to the degree of resemblance between an irregular target item and the expected regular counterpart. First- and second-year college-level Spanish students read an enhanced or an unenhanced text containing regular and irregular present indicative and present subjunctive forms. Reading was immediately followed by recognition, comprehension, and production tasks. The resulting data were statistically analyzed in order to ascertain whether they supported or refuted three research hypotheses: first, it was predicted that participants reading the typographically enhanced text would perform better on the recognition, comprehension, and production tasks than would participants in the unenhanced (i.e., control) group. Second, it was hypothesized that participants would recognize, comprehend, and produce more of the textually enhanced items with high communicative value than they would recognize, comprehend, and produce the items with low communicative value (i.e., present subjunctive forms). Third, enhancement of irregular forms was predicted to yield higher scores on recognition, comprehension and production than would enhancement of regular, i.e., less salient, items. Results are presented along with the discussion of theoretical and methodological implications.

Selected bibliography Gass, S. M. (1997). Input and interaction and the second language learner. MahWah, NJ: Erlbaum. Leow, R. (1997). The effects of input enhancement and text length on adult L2 reader’s comprehension and intake in second language acquisition. Applied Language Learning, 8, 151-182. Leow, R. (2001). Do learners notice enhanced forms while interacting with the L2?: An online and offline study of the role of written input enhancement in L2 reading. Hispania, 84, 496-509. Leow, R., Egi, T., Nuevo, A. M., & Tsai, Y.-C. (2003). The roles of textual enhancement and type of linguistic item and adult L2 learner's comprehension and intake. Applied Language Learning, 13, 1-16. Overstreet, M. (1998). Text enhancement and content familiarity: The focus of learner attention. Spanish Applied Linguistics, 2, 229-258. Schmidt, R. (2001). Attention. In P. Robinson (Ed.), Cognition and second language instruction (pp. 3-32). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Shook, J. D. (1994). FL/L2 reading, grammatical information, and the input to intake phenomenon. Applied Language Learning, 5, 57-93. VanPatten, B. (1996). Input processing and grammar instruction: Theory and research. Norwood: NJ: Ablex. Wong, W. (2003). Textual enhancement and simplified input: Effects on L2 comprehension and acquisition of non-meaningful grammatical form. Applied Language Learning, 13, 17-45.

Influencia translingüística: en busca de una lengua de referencia en la interlengua oral de estudiantes benineses de ELE

ABSTRACT. Los procesos de enseñanza y aprendizaje del español en Benín se desarrollan en un contexto sociolingüístico y educativo multilingüe de una evidente diversidad. En dicho contexto, los aprendientes disponen de varias lenguas de estatus muy diversos (las lenguas locales, el francés, la única lengua oficial, las lenguas europeas estudiadas en clase, etc.) pertenecientes a diferentes familias lingüísticas. Ahora bien, en los últimos tiempos, las nuevas tendencias en didáctica de lenguas favorecen cada vez más la intercomprensión entre lenguas aparentadas. La presente comunicación propone explorar e ilustrar el papel de las lenguas presentes en Benín en el aprendizaje del español como lengua extranjera (ELE), particularmente en la producción oral, con el fin de sacar a la luz la(s) lengua(s) de referencia y dar algunas pistas didácticas. Para ello, hemos recogido datos transversales y longitudinales, desde 2012 hasta 2015, en diferentes contextos de adquisición de miles de estudiantes universitarios benineses de primer y segundo cursos de Grado en Filología Hispánica, cuya edad varía entre 18 y 22 años, de nivel intermedio. Pero solo utilizamos una muestra de corpus oral de ocho horas de grabaciones, procedente de conversaciones espontáneas informales, interacciones orales en el aula, algunos enunciados producidos en diferentes tareas o actividades comunicativas orales (exposición en clase, debates, juegos comunicativos, juegos de rol, actividades de comprensión oral, etc.), en el marco de análisis de errores. Los resultados de este corpus de interlengua revelan que las lenguas africanas y las otras lenguas estudiadas en el aula tienen una influencia más bien escasa en sus producciones orales, mientras que destaca la notable y omnipresente influencia del francés, la lengua de referencia. Lo que indica que los aprendientes de lenguas extranjeras dependen bastante del grado de parentesco entre las lenguas presentes y del factor de estatuto de lengua. Además, los resultados sugieren otras implicaciones teóricas y pedagógicas que intentaremos abordar.

Procesamiento y uso contextual de expresiones idiomáticas y refranes del español como L2

ABSTRACT. Entre los recursos simbólicos disponibles para la producción cultural de la identidad, la lengua es el más flexible y penetrante (Bucholtz y Hall, 2004). En este sentido, todo hace indicar que el conocimiento de expresiones idiomáticas o paremias propias de una lengua –definidas, en general, como una secuencia de palabras almacenadas como una unidad arbitraria de forma y significado en la memoria (e.g. Wray y Perkins, 2000, Nunberg et al. 1994)– proporciona un alto grado de competencia intercultural. No obstante, la adquisición de estas fórmulas presenta un desafío particular para los hablantes no nativos ya que es uno de los aspectos más difíciles de dominar en un lenguaje (Carrol y Conklin, 2014). El presente estudio quiere comprobar si el conocimiento de expresiones idiomáticas y refranes inherentes del español garantiza su uso adecuado según el contexto en español como primera o segunda lengua, ya que la pragmática es crucial para determinar la aceptabilidad de estas fórmulas, tal como apunta Glucksberg (2001). Tanto las expresiones idiomáticas como los refranes usados en el estudio proceden del Refranero multilingüe del Centro Virtual Cervantes. Los participantes de esta investigación son hablantes de L1 inglés (n=30) con un nivel alto de español (C2 según el DELE) que se encuentran en contexto de inmersión lingüística con distinto periodo de residencia –mayor (n=15) o menor (n=15) a los cinco años de estancia en España– y un grupo de control de hablantes nativos (n=30). Además de un test de nivel en español (prueba DELE) y una encuesta etnolingüística, los participantes realizaron dos pruebas lingüísticas independientes entre sí, orientadas a conocer su competencia intercultural en el reconocimiento y uso adecuado, según el contexto, de las expresiones idiomáticas y los refranes. En la primera prueba, tarea de reconocimiento (60 ítems), los participantes debían identificar el significado de expresiones idiomáticas y refranes seleccionados; y en la segunda, tarea de juicio de idoneidad (60 ítems), se presentaba una serie de situaciones cotidianas en la que los participantes debían responder, sobre una escala Likert de cinco niveles, si el uso del refrán o expresión idiomática era adecuado o no según un contexto de discurso indicado, considerando el significado y el nivel de formalidad del contexto. Los resultados de ambas tareas demuestran que el conocimiento lingüístico y semántico de expresiones hechas y refranes no garantiza siempre un uso totalmente eficaz y reflejan que la experiencia lingüística innata y el grado de proficiencia son determinantes. Los datos no avalan los resultados de estudios anteriores basados en la hipótesis thinking for speaking (Slobin, 1996). Consideramos los resultados de grupo y algunos individuales para arrojar luz a algunos de los debates actuales sobre la adquisición de lenguas contrastando los marcos teóricos innatista (e.g. Chomsky, 1986) y de acceso de la gramática universal en segunda lengua (e.g. Epstein et al 1996, White 2003) con el cognitivista y el de la relatividad lingüística (Gumperz y Levinson 1996).

12:00-14:00 Session 8H: Pragmática/Pragmatics
Location: SALA/ROOM 7B
La apreciación del humor en niños de primaria: un enfoque pragmático

ABSTRACT. Esta comunicación tiene como objetivo principal proponer un acercamiento pragmático a la apreciación del humor. La bibliografía sobre psicología ha mostrado que los niños disfrutan de las historias divertidas, humorísticas y fantásticas. Sin embargo, la apreciación del humor ha sido escasamente investigada desde una perspectiva productiva. Nuestro corpus está compuesto por 149 narraciones humorísticas escritas en español por escolares de nueve y diez años de edad que se desarrollaron en torno a un tema humorístico común: un viaje de estudios a Marte. Desde el punto de vista del desarrollo del humor, los informantes de nuestro corpus se sitúan en el estadio 5 de acertijos y chistes (McGhee, 2002), lo que representa un punto de inflexión hacia el humor adulto. En concreto, los niños desarrollan un sentido del humor (Thorson y Powell, 1993) en el que la apreciación del humor se revela como el mecanismo más importante. Teniendo en cuenta tales consideraciones, se describirán los tipos de apreciación del humor (Klein, 2003: 7; Orekoya et al., 2014), entre las que destacan la discrepancia física que manifiestan los niños con los marcianos, la distorsión/ exageración, la violación de las expectativas, la violación del comportamiento racional, la violación del conocimiento conceptual y las reglas lingüísticas que se construyen para expresar cómo es el lenguaje marciano.

Referencias bibliográficas KLEIN, A. J. (2003). “Introduction: A global perspective of humor”. En KLEIN, A. J. (ed.). Humor in children’s lives: A guidebook for practitioners. Westport: CT, Praeger, pp. 3-15. McGHEE, P. E. (2002). Understanding and Promoting the Development of Children's Humor. Dubuque: Kendall Hunt Publishing. OREKOYA, O.S.; E. SS CHAN; M PY CHIK (2014). “Humor and Reading Motivation in Children: Does the Tickling Work?”. International Journal of Education¸6, 1, pp. 61-72 THORSON, J. A.; F. C. POWELL (1993). “Development and validation of multidimensional sense of humor scale”. Journal of Clinical Psychology¸ 49, pp. 13-23.

Relevance theory and vigilance mechanisms: evidence for hermeneutical vigilance and avenues for research

ABSTRACT. Between the ages of three and six, children have problems at interpreting homophones (Khanna & Boland 2010), but they resort to cues like lexical information (Norris et al. 2003) in order to evaluate the appropriateness of their interpretations (Ferreira et al. 2002). Between the ages of six and eleven, children may also have problems at assigning referents to pronouns, though eye movement reveals that they revise wrong reference assignments (Engelen et al. 2014). Eye movement also unveils that some four- and five-year olds revise interpretations of ambiguous sentences (Choi & Trueswell 2010). By the age of eight or nine children seem to achieve adult-like processing abilities, even if they may still hesitate between competing interpretations (Lorsbach et al. 1998; Parault et al. 2005; Weighall 2008). This suggests that the human mind develops a set of mechanisms that trigger a sensitivity to inadequate interpretations: hermeneutical vigilance (Padilla Cruz 2014). This paper will propose that such set of mechanisms is integrated in those of epistemic vigilance (Sperber et al. 2010). It will also describe them as checking the plausibility and acceptability of interpretative hypotheses appearing optimally relevant. Hermeneutical vigilance mechanisms will also be argued to develop in parallel to mindreading abilities, essential for understanding irony (Wilson 2013), or epistemic vigilance (Mascaro & Sperber 2009). To conclude, this paper will suggest some avenues for future research on the role of hermeneutical vigilance and linguistic devices contributing to its activation.

References Choi Y., Trueswell J.C. 2010. Children’s ability to recover from garden paths in a verb-final language: Evidence for developing control in sentence processing. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology 106: 41-61. Engelen, J.A.A., Bouwmeester S., de Bruin A.B.H., Zwaan R.A. 2014. Eye movements reveal differences in children’s referential processing during narrative comprehension. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology 118: 57-77. Ferreira F., Bailey K.G.D, Ferraro V. 2002. Good-enough representations in language comprehension. Current Directions in Psychological Science 11.1: 11-15. Khanna M.M., Boland J.E. 2010. Children’s use of language context in lexical ambiguity resolution. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology 63: 160-193. Lorsbach T.C., Katz G.A., Cupak A.J. 1998. Developmental differences in the ability to inhibit the initial misinterpretation of garden path passages. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology 71: 275-296. Mascaro O., Sperber D. 2009. The moral, epistemic, and mindreading components of children’s vigilance towards deception. Cognition 112.3: 367-380. Norris D., McQueen J.M., Cutler A. 2003. Perceptual learning in speech. Cognitive Psychology 47: 204-238. Padilla Cruz M. 2014. Pragmatic failure, epistemic injustice and epistemic vigilance. Language & Communication 39: 34-50. Parault S.J., Schwanenflugel P.J., Haverback H.R. 2005. The development of interpretations for novel noun-noun conceptual combinations during the early school years. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology 91: 67-87. Sperber D. et al. 2010. Epistemic vigilance. Mind & Language 25.4: 359-393. Weighall A.R. 2008. The kindergarten path effect revisited: Children’s use of context in processing structural ambiguities. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology 99: 75-95. Wilson D. 2013. Irony comprehension: A developmental perspective. Journal of Pragmatics 59.A: 40-56.

El uso de atenuadores en los comentarios sobre las noticias digitales: análisis comparativo entre España y Chile
SPEAKER: unknown

ABSTRACT. El uso masivo de las tecnologías ha significado un cambio radical en la manera en la que entendemos la práctica de la transmisión y difusión de la información de las noticias. En este nuevo contexto, la participación de los lectores en diferentes momentos de la producción periodística tiene un rol fundamental: ha pasado de ser un usuario principalmente pasivo a desempeñar un papel muy activo. Específicamente, las redes sociales han posibilitado y facilitado dicha participación ciudadana en un núcleo de poder tan relevante para las sociedades contemporáneas como lo es la información. Hoy en día, poder comentar las noticias es la alternativa más empleada por los periódicos para hacer partícipe al público del contenido noticioso. Por ello, resulta necesario conocer cuáles son las estrategias retóricas empleadas en español en este discurso digital, caracterizado por la brevedad e interactividad (Bruce, 2011) y la escasa planificación discursiva (Pano Alamán, 2008). A pesar de la importancia de conocer los mecanismos del lenguaje, no existen estudios que comparen dos variedades lingüísticas del español en el discurso digital desde una perspectiva retórica. En este análisis, entendemos la atenuación como una categoría que se utiliza para el análisis del metadiscurso interaccional, es decir, como aquellos elementos que indican la decisión del escritor por reconocer diferentes puntos de vista para así no comprometerse completamente con una proposición (Hyland, 2005). De ahí que el objetivo de este estudio sea describir los mecanismos de atenuación empleados por los lectores en los comentarios sobre noticias digitales en los periódicos El País (España) y Emol (Chile) en dos ámbitos temáticos diferentes (política y deportes). Para este análisis, se recopiló un corpus de 2.400 comentarios, es decir, 600 por cada país y ámbito temático escogido. A continuación, con la herramienta para el análisis de corpus UAM Corpus Tool (O’Donnell, 2011) se analizaron los comentarios para detectar los elementos que servían para la atenuación de los comentarios. Los resultados obtenidos nos indicaron que, por un lado, los comentarios correspondientes al diario El País incluyen una mayor cantidad de atenuadores (43,6 por cada 10.000 palabras) que los producidos en el periódico Emol (32,6 por cada 10.000 palabras). Por otro lado, se detectó que en los comentarios sobre las noticias de carácter político se incluyen una mayor cantidad de atenuadores que en los comentarios sobre noticias deportivas en ambos periódicos, lo que reafirma la noción que los usuarios emplean generalmente diferentes estrategias lingüísticas según el ámbito temático en el que se desenvuelven (Yus, 2010).   REFERENCIAS

Bruce, I. (2011). Evolving genres in online domains: The hybrid genre of the participatory news article. En A. Mehler, S. Sharoff, M. Santini (Eds.), Genres on the Web (pp. 323–348). Amsterdam: Springer. Hyland, K. (2005). Metadiscourse: Exploring Interaction in Writing. Londres: Continuum International Publishing Group. O’Donnell, M. (2011). UAM Corpus Tools. Madrid: Universidad Autónoma de Madrid. Pano Alamán, A. (2008). Dialogar en la Red: La Lengua Española en Chats, E-mails, Foros y Blogs. Berna: Peter Lang. Yus, F. (2010). Ciberpragmática. Barcelona: Ariel.

Acción discursiva en el campo de la intervención social

ABSTRACT. El llamado tercer sector, los servicios sociales y un buen número de empresas que participan de la economía social y solidaria reúnen un cuerpo de profesionales que intervienen diariamente en una multiplicidad de ámbitos socioeducativos, con el propósito de integrar, rehabilitar o reinsertar personas en la sociedad. De estos profesionales destaca su labor en contacto directo con sus usuarios, mediante procesos comunicativos que encadenan actos de habla orientados a objetivos y logros. Si bien la formación de estos profesionales corre a cargo del sistema universitario desde hace bastantes décadas, el carácter marcadamente técnico desde la implantación del Espacio Europeo de Educación Superior, así como las necesidades del desempeño profesional demandan técnicas y estrategias discursivas adecuadas, eficaces y flexibles, para usos corrientes y, a la vez, específicos de la lengua. Las competencias de estos perfiles profesionales presuponen las competencias de la comunicación lingüística oral en una diversidad de contextos sociales, para llegar a acometer acciones socioeducativas, pero sus propias prácticas lingüísticas y discursivas siguen sin formalizarse ni sistematizarse. Trabajadores y educadores sociales, terapeutas, orientadores, técnicos auxiliares y otros agentes sociales se enfrentan a la práctica de sus labores, ante todo de acción discursiva, como son la prevención, el acogimiento, la negociación, el pacto o compromiso, la evaluación conjunta de resultados, o el acompañamiento durante una ejecución o una producción, de manera enteramente espontánea, intuitiva y experimental. Estas acciones están reguladas según principios y pautas de actuación que son clarificadoras, pero que mantienen en su formulación un carácter general, sin alcanzar ni el máximo ni el mismo grado de concreción para todos los casos. Para este tipo de acciones, se propone, en primer lugar, la esquematización y elaboración de la serie de micro-acciones discursivas organizadas y jerarquizadas atendiendo a los posibles o necesarios procesos socioeducativos. En segundo lugar, se asociarán las micro-acciones a los roles comunicativos a asumir por los profesionales, dada la estructura dialogal característica de estos tipos de acciones. Y, en tercer lugar, se adjuntarán los prototipos simples de enunciados pragmáticos, acompañados de sus modificadores. La propuesta pretende concluir con un modelo lingüístico de aplicación práctica y funcional centrado en los aspectos básicos de la pragmática de la acción discursiva. Por último, se ejemplificará e ilustrará en, al menos, un caso particular. El modelo lingüístico no aborda el enfoque sociolingüístico de estos procesos peculiarmente afectados por sus contextos de diversidad sociocultural ni tampoco el inseparable componente paralingüístico, que cabe emplazar en trabajos y desarrollos posteriores.

12:00-14:00 Session 8I: Traducción e interpretación/Translation and interpreting
Location: SALA/ROOM 8
Métodos de traducción en el subtitulado y el doblaje de géneros audiovisuales de ficción

ABSTRACT. La traducción audiovisual (TAV) ha ido ganando importancia con el paso de los años gracias, entre otros, a películas, series y vídeos en internet, provenientes de todas partes del mundo. Hablamos de textos que se traducirán y, además, tendrán que ser locutados (para el doblaje) o subtitulados, teniendo en cuenta las restricciones espacio-temporales que impone el medio de comunicación. Actualmente, para salvar estas dificultades, en España solo existen recomendaciones que se basan en la práctica de la TAV hasta el momento. Así, es el traductor (con más o menos indicaciones por parte del cliente) el responsable de tomar la mayoría de las decisiones. No obstante, algunos estudiosos ya han empezado a ver en este vacío un importante campo de estudio. Esta investigación quiere contribuir a crear una ayuda para los traductores que se enfrentan a la traducción audiovisual de forma profesional. Nos hemos centrado en dos de las modalidades más consolidadas de la TAV en España: el doblaje y la subtitulación, cada una con restricciones propias. Para ello, se ha utilizado la metodología propuesta por Martí Ferriol (2013) en su libro El método de traducción (Castelló de la Plana: Universitat Jaume I) en el que se agrupan las interferencias (formales, lingüísticas, icónicas y socioculturales) y se estudian las soluciones que más se usan actualmente, basándose en muestras de textos audiovisuales de películas de autor estadounidenses. El corpus textual del estudio que presentamos aquí se compone de películas de ciencia ficción, con el objetivo principal de comprobar la viabilidad de aplicar el método de Martí Ferriol a textos audiovisuales pertenecientes a otros géneros fílmicos. Además, se ofrece una comparativa entre doblaje y subtitulado para determinar en qué medida se debe adoptar una aproximación traductológica diferente para cada una de las variedades estudiadas.

La traducción del humor intertextual audiovisual. Houston, tenemos un problema
SPEAKER: Carla Botella

ABSTRACT. La intertextualidad es un elemento básico de todo proceso comunicativo. Incluso la conversación más informal puede contener referencias y, en muchos casos, la finalidad de las mismas puede ser humorística. No hay que olvidar, eso sí, que la relación entre el emisor y el receptor condicionará la recepción de dichas referencias. En palabras de Hatim y Mason (1990: 131) tiene que darse cierta "precondition for the intelligibility". Por otra parte, mientras en literatura existen ciertos mecanismos que alertan a lectores y traductores, en el medio audiovisual pueden pasarse por alto con bastante facilidad. Esta comunicación pretende centrarse en las diferentes señales audiovisuales intertextuales (Hatim y Mason, 1990) que servirán para llamar la atención de traductores y espectadores. Al mismo tiempo, se hablará de las diferentes posibilidades de traducción de las referencias audiovisuales que son utilizadas con finalidad cómica para tratar de evitar la pérdida de la carga humorística y conseguir así que el espectador meta se encuentre en las mismas condiciones que el de la producción original.

Censura editorial en el franquismo: cuando Planeta orbitaba alrededor del régimen

ABSTRACT. La proclamación de la Ley de Prensa de 1938 asestó un duro golpe al sector editorial, cuyos privilegios y libertades ya se habían visto gravemente vulnerados tras la llegada al poder de Franco. Todas aquellas obras —y en especial las procedentes del otro lado de la frontera, consideradas como una amenaza a las creencias y los valores tradicionales ensalzados por el régimen— que el editor quisiera incorporar a su catálogo quedaban a merced del censor quien, atendiendo a unos criterios más o menos establecidos, decidía la pertinencia de su publicación. El sistema censor actuaba riguroso e implacable, y amenazaba además con cuantiosas multas a aquellos editores que no acataran su decisión. De esta forma, la Administración involucraba a todos los participantes en el proceso editorial, y en última instancia, a los propios editores. Muchos de estos editores se vieron obligados a renunciar a sus proyectos; sin embargo, hubo quienes colaboraron estrechamente con el sistema con tal de lograr el visto bueno de la Administración y nutrir su catálogo de autores de la época. Tal fue el caso de la editorial Planeta, que en 1958 publicó una versión edulcorada de la novela Contrapunto, de Aldous Huxley. El presente estudio analiza, por un lado, las estrategias censorias identificadas en el análisis de la versión traducida —un 64% de omisiones, un 31% de modificaciones, un 4,5% de reescrituras y un 0,5% de ampliaciones— al tiempo que pretende explorar la actuación de la editorial Planeta, que colaboró estrechamente con la Administración en la adaptación ideológica de la mencionada obra proponiendo una serie de tachaduras destinadas a desviar profundas reflexiones sobre religión y filosofía.

ABELLÁN, M. (1980). Censura y creación literaria en España (1939-1976). Barcelona: Península BENEYTO PÉREZ, J. (1987) «La censura literaria en los primeros años del Franquismo». Diálogos hispánicos de Ámsterdam, 5: 27-40 BILLIANI, F. (ed.) (2007) Modes of Censorship and Translation: National Context and Diverse Media. Manchester: St Jerome CISQUELLA, G. et al. (1977) Diez años de represión cultural: la censura de libros durante la ley de prensa (1966-1976). Barcelona: Anagrama CUNICO, S & J. MUNDAY (2007) «Encounters and Clashes: Introduction to Translation and Ideology». The Translator: vol. XIII, 2. Translation and Ideology: Encounters and Clashes: 141-149. GUBERN, R. (1981). La censura: Función política y ordenamiento jurídico bajo el franquismo (1936 1976). Barcelona: Península HERMANS, T. (ed.) (1985) The Manipulation of Literature. Studies in Literary Translation. Nueva York: St. Martin’s Press. HUXLEY, A. (1928) Point Counter Point. Nueva York: Doubleday, Doran & Co. HUXLEY, A. (1958) Contrapunto. Madrid: Planeta (Traducción: Carlos Rojas). LEFEVERE, A. (1992) Translation, Rewriting and the Manipulation of the Literary Frame. London: Routledge. MERKLE, D. (2002) Presentation». TTR, Censorship and translation in the Western World, Montreal, vol. XV, 2, 2°: 9-18. MESEGUER, P. (2015) Sobre la traducción de libros al servicio del franquismo: sexo, política y religión. Berna: Peter Lang RABADÁN, R. (ed.) (2000). Traducción y censura inglés-español: 1939-1985. Estudio preliminar. León: Universidad de León.

Análisis de errores en traducción jurídica: una perspectiva pragmático-cultural
SPEAKER: Laura Vegara

ABSTRACT. En el presente trabajo pretendemos estudiar brevemente la traducción de ciertos elementos que se encuentran en algunos textos propios del derecho desde una perspectiva sobre todo cultural. La traducción del texto jurídico muestra diversas dificultades a varios niveles (léxico, sintáctico, pragmático, etc.) por su naturaleza especializada. Estas dificultades aumentan al estar esta variedad de la traducción ligada a un ordenamiento jurídico peculiar, entre otros motivos (Soriano, 2002; Gémar, 2002; Orts, 2007, entre otros). Nos centraremos en analizar algunos rasgos culturales destacados que surgen de la traducción de ciertos documentos de tipo jurídico a través del análisis de errores; analizaremos dichos errores brevemente y abundaremos en los problemas de trasvase inglés-español. Con el fin de ilustrar dichos problemas de la manera más real posible, nos basaremos en traducciones realizadas por estudiantes de último curso del grado de Traducción e Interpretación. El análisis de sus propuestas de traducción y de sus decisiones puede darnos una idea de dónde se localizan algunos de los principales problemas de trasvase inglés-español en este tipo de traducción y pueden, asimismo, orientarnos a la hora de prever los obstáculos que surgirán desde el punto de vista traductológico y cultural. Igualmente, un estudio de estas características tiene una clara aplicación didáctica en el aula de traducción jurídica hoy día.

Palabras clave: lenguaje jurídico, traducción jurídica, elementos culturales, didáctica de la traducción jurídica.


GÉMAR, J. C. (2002). “Le plus et le moins-disant culturel du texte juridique. Langue,

culture et équivalence”. Meta, 47 (2), págs. 163-176.

ORTS, M. A. (2007). “Understanding Legal English: The importance of teaching two

different cultural traditions to Spanish lawyers”. En English for Specific Purposes:

Studies for Classroom Implementation, A. Bocanegra, C. Lario & E. López (eds.),

Studies for Classroom Implementation. Servicio de Publicaciones de la Universidad de

Cádiz, págs. 33-51

SORIANO, G. (2002). “Incongruencia terminológica y equivalencia funcional en

traducción jurídica: la guarda de menores en España e Inglaterra y el País de Gales”.

Puentes, 2, págs. 53-60.

12:00-14:00 Session 8J: Lingüística de corpus, computacional e ingeniería lingüística/Corpus linguistics, computational linguistics and linguistic engineering
Location: SALA/ROOM 9
Parsing Simple Clauses within ARTEMIS: The Computational Treatment of the Layered Structure of the Clause in Role and Reference Grammar

ABSTRACT. This presentation proposes the set of basic rules necessary for the effective computational parsing of unmarked simple clauses following the format of the Layered Structure of the Clause as described in Role and Reference Grammar (henceforth RRG; Van Valin and LaPolla 1997; Van Valin 2005; Pavey 2010). Such rules will form part of the so-called ‘Grammar Development Environment' (GDE) within ARTEMIS (‘Automatically Representing Text Meaning via an Interlingua-Based System’).

ARTEMIS is a Natural Language Understanding prototype whose primary aim is to obtain the grammatical and semantic representation underlying any stretch of natural language. In order to comply with this task, ARTEMIS consists of three main modules: The DGE, the Conceptual Logical Structure (CLS) Constructor and the COREL Scheme Builder (COREL is an acronym from ‘Conceptual REpresentation Languae’; see Periñán-Pascual and Arcas Túnez 2014 for a detailed descirpiton of ARTEMIS).

Whereas the last two modules –the CLS Constructor and the COREL-Scheme Builder– are in charge of deriving the surface and deep semantic representations of sentences, the GDE includes the grammatical rules necessary for the morphosyntactic parsing of natural language expressions; such rules should yield, as a result for every sentence, a parsed tree following the format of grammatical analyses in RRG. However, this set of grammatical rules is still underdeveloped, since in the seminal works where ARTEMIS is described (Periñán-Pascual 2013, and Periñán-Pascual and Arcas Túnez 2014) the rules proposed are not fully consistent with the functional approach that supports RRG´s grammatical analyses.

Therefore, this presentation proposes a new set of basic rules necessary for the effective computational parsing of unmarked simple clauses following the format of the Layered Structure of the Clause in RRG. Such rules will in turn become a starting set from which further rules should be designed for other more complex structures.


Pavey, E.L. 2010. The Structure of English. An Introduction to Grammatical Analysis. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Periñán-Pascual, C. 2013. “Towards a Model of Constructional Meaning for natural Language Understanding.” In B. Nolan and E. Diedrichsen (eds) 2013 Linking Constructions into Functional Linguistics: The role of constructions in grammar (pp. 205-230). Amsterdam: John Benjamins. _____ and F. Arcas-Túnez. 2014. “The implementation of the CLS constructor in ARTEMIS”. In B. Nolan and C. Periñán-Pascual (eds) 2014 Language Processing and Grammars (pp. 165-196). Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Van Valin, R. D. Jr. 2005. Exploring the Syntax-Semantics Interface. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

_____and R. LaPolla. 1997: Syntax: Structure, Meaning and Function, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

NEURONEO: Aplicación colaborativa para la gestión de neologismos neurocientíficos
SPEAKER: Nava Maroto

ABSTRACT. El proyecto NeuroNEO. Regulación de los procesos neológicos y los neologismos en las áreas de Neurociencias (financiación del Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad, FFI2012-34596), desarrollado por el grupo NeoUSAL de la Universidad de Salamanca tiene como uno de sus objetivos específicos implicar a los científicos en el proceso de regulación neológica (García Palacios et al: 253). Para lograr este objetivo, una de las tareas que se está desarrollando es el diseño e implementación de una herramienta de recogida de neologismos, que permita a los diferentes actores interesados interactuar no solo en la identificación y recogida de neologismos, sino también en las fases de análisis, validación y seguimiento. El proyecto NeuroNEO se ocupa, por tanto, de un discurso, el de las Neurociencias, que tiene una doble vertiente, profesional y académica. Entre las características más reseñables del proyecto destaca su carácter multidisciplinar, que obliga a contar con la colaboración de un amplio abanico de grupos de usuarios. Así, se persigue tanto la participación de personas procedentes del ámbito de la lingüística (traductores, lingüistas, terminólogos) como de expertos neurocientíficos, e incluso un público más general en la fase de difusión. Lo que se pretende al incorporar a todos estos actores es favorecer la vitalidad y asegurar la pervivencia del español como lengua de comunicación en el ámbito especializado de la Neurociencias desde la autorregulación, no desde una perspectiva impositiva. En la presente comunicación se describen tanto el proceso de diseño y pruebas que se ha llevado a cabo (Torres del Rey y Maroto, 2014) como las interfaces de colaboración que se están desarrollando en el marco del proyecto NeuroNEO (plugin y wiki). En primer lugar se describe el contexto en el que se desarrolla el proyecto NeuroNEO, que pretende ser un espacio de encuentro e intercambio entre lingüistas y expertos (a través del expert crowdsourcing). Se analiza asimismo cómo identifican los especialistas la neología y cómo la integran en las estructuras de desarrollo conceptual y lingüístico del ámbito profesional. Más adelante se detallan los prototipos y experimentos preliminares que se llevaron a cabo hasta decantarnos por la opción plugin+wiki. Finalmente, se describe y muestra el estado actual de las dos herramientas -wiki y plugin- y se avanzan las líneas futuras de investigación. García Palacios, J.; Torres-del-rey, J.; Maroto, N. et al. (2014). «NeuroNEO, una investigación multidisciplinar sobre la neología terminológica». En: Santana, B. y Travieso Rodríguez, C. (2014). Puntos de encuentro: los primeros 20 años de la Facultad de Traducción y Documentación de la Universidad de Salamanca. Salamanca: Ediciones Universidad de Salamanca, pp. 241-260. Torres del Rey, J. y N. Maroto (2014). Building the interface between experts and linguists in the detection and characterisation of neology in the field of the neurosciences. En Patrick DROUIN, Natalia GRABAR, Thierry HAMON y Kyo KAGEURA (eds.). Proceedings of the 4th International Workshop on Computational Terminology (Computerm). Dublin, 2014, pp. 64-67. Disponible en: [Fecha de consulta: junio de 2015].

A computational account of illocutionary meaning

ABSTRACT. FunGramKB (Periñán, 2013; Periñán & Arcas, 2014) is a multipurpose lexico-conceptual knowledge base to be implemented in natural language understanding applications, which comprises different modules for linguistic information (the lexical and grammatical levels) and non-linguistic knowledge (an Ontology, an Onomasticon and a Cognicon). In this context, the scope of this paper is limited to the grammatical level or Grammaticon, which stores constructional schemata or machine-tractable representations of linguistic constructions. The Grammaticon consists of four Constructicons, one for each of the four descriptive layers of the Lexical Constructional Model: argumental, implicational, illocutionary and discursive (LCM; Ruiz de Mendoza, 2013). The aim of this paper is to discuss how, in the Level-3 Constructicon, illocutionary constructions have been translated into the metalanguage employed in FunGramKB, i.e. COREL. According to the LCM, illocutionary meaning is based on high-level situational cognitive models, which can be identified by means of illocutionary scenarios, that is, generalizations over everyday situations where people offer, forgive, apologize, etc. (Panther & Thornburg, 1998; Ruiz de Mendoza and Baicchi, 2007). Thus far, twelve speech acts have been formalized in the Level-3 Constructicon, each of which consists of several illocutionary expressions grouped under different, yet related, COREL schemas. For instance, the speech act of requesting has been codified by means of the COREL schema of (1), which reads as: “there is a speaker that requests something from the hearer and what he requests is for the hearer to do what the speaker wants. As a result, the hearer may help the speaker or not”: (1) +(e1: +REQUEST_01 (x1: )Theme (x2: (e2: +DO_00 (x3: )Theme (x4: (e3: +WANT_00 (x1)Theme (x4)Referent))Referent))Referent (x3)Goal (f1: (e4: pos +HELP_00 (x3)Theme (x1)Referent) | (e5: pos n +HELP_00 (x3)Theme (x1)Referent))Result) Since COREL imposes its own semantics and syntax (Periñán & Mairal, 2010), this paper details the challenges faced in order to provide a computational account of illocutionary meaning in FunGramKB. References Panther, Klaus-Uwe & Thornburg, Linda. 1998. A cognitive approach to inferencing in conversation. Journal of Pragmatics 30: 755-769. Periñán, Carlos. 2013. Towards a model of constructional meaning for natural language understanding. In Liking Constructions into Functional Linguistics: The Role of Constructions in Grammars, (pp. 205- 230), B. Nolan & E. Diedrichsen (eds). Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins. Periñán, Carlos & Arcas, Francisco. 2014. The implementation of the CLS constructor in ARTEMIS. In Language Processing and Grammars. The Role of Functionally Oriented Computational Models, (pp. 165-196), B. Nolan & C. Periñán (eds). Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins. Periñán, Carlos & Mairal, Ricardo. 2010. La gramática de COREL: Un lenguaje de representación conceptual. Onomázein 21: 11-45. Ruiz de Mendoza, Francisco J. 2013. Meaning construction, meaning interpretation and formal expression in the Lexical Constructional Model. In Linking Constructions into Functional Linguistics: The Role of Constructions in RRG Grammars (pp. 231-270). B. Nolan & E. Diedrichsen (eds). Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins. Ruiz de Mendoza, Francisco J. & Baicchi, Annalisa. 2007. Illocutionary constructions: Cognitive motivation and linguistic realization. In Explorations in Pragmatics: Linguistic, Cognitive, and Intercultural Aspects, (pp. 95-128). K. Istvan & L. Horn (eds). Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.

12:00-14:00 Session 8K: Análisis del discurso/Discourse analysis
Location: SALA/ROOM 10
Terror in the family: the rhetoric of domestic violence legislation in England and Spain

ABSTRACT. According to estimations, 35 per cent of women worldwide have experienced either physical and/or sexual intimate partner violence or sexual violence by a non-partner at some point in their lives. The United Nations defines violence against women as “any act of gender-based violence that results in, or is likely to result in, physical, sexual or mental harm or suffering to women, including threats of such acts, coercion or arbitrary deprivation of liberty, whether occurring in public or in private life.” The present study aims at analyzing two Parliamentary Acts on the subject of domestic violence: the Spanish Organic Law 1/2004 of Comprehensive Protection Measures against Gender Violence and the Domestic Violence, Crime and Victims Act 2004 of England and Wales. The goal of our study will be carried out through different levels to discern whether there exist generic and/or rhetorical differences in the way either law is drafted. The formal level of our study will account for the presence, on the one hand, of lexical peculiarities such as technical and subtechnical terms on the field, ritual language and other lexical peculiarities. On the other hand, the second part of our analysis will concentrate upon a more interpersonal approach, at the pragmatic layer of the legal instruments, thus covering both the discursive and the extra-linguistic context of the texts, which will be scrutinized regarding macrostructural disposition and considering the presence and typology of metadiscourse markers, respectively. These different, but complementary, levels of analysis will presumably lead us to conclude that the drafting of these Acts mainly reflects cultural and linguistic differences, not only pertaining to asymmetries in legal systems, but also reflecting the way in which the subject is contemplated in the English and Spanish contexts, where, allegedly, cultural domestic violence is not viewed from the same stance. Such rhetorical differences in the English and Spanish legislation against domestic terror, we predict, must also have enlightening consequences upon the way in which the translation of either genre is tackled into the other language.

Political debates or pre-election speeches? A pragmatic insight into the macro-structural and engagement patterns of political talk in TV debates

ABSTRACT. Political debates are normally televised and play a crucial role in election campaigns today, since they may reverse the voting decisions of a mass audience. Important criteria for the voters include the candidates’ way of expressing themselves and organizing their discourse, as well as their ability to successfully interact with the opponent, the audience and even the moderator of the event. Drawing on Swales’s (1990, 2004) and Bathia’s (1993) seminal approaches to genre analysis and Hyland’s (2005a) interpersonal model of metadiscourse, this paper aims at a pragmatic twofold rhetorical identification of the constituent moves and steps of political talk in TV debates, and focuses on engagement markers since they can be considered the most explicit interactional tools used by speakers to address hearers, meet their expectations of inclusion and guide them to preferred actions or interpretations (Hyland, 2005b). Our study seeks to quantitatively and qualitatively analyze the realization of such engagement features in relation to the move- and step-based model described above, in a corpus consisting of the transcripts of the 2012 United States presidential election debates, in which four different candidates from two opposing ideologies interact with potential audiences. The results may signal a significant departure from previous linguistic approaches to political communication, since the functional two-level rhetorical perspective reported here provides a particularly comprehensive picture of the various ways in which politicians organize their arguments and persuasively align with the public. It also responds to the pragmatic question as to whether debates may be similar to pre-election speeches in terms of discourse structure, highlighting potential parallels and differences between these two political genres. References: Bathia, V.K. (1993). Analysing Genre: Language Use in Professional Settings. London: Longman. Hyland, K. (2005a). Metadiscourse: Exploring Interaction in Writing. London: Continuum. Hyland, K. (2005b). “Stance and engagement: a model of interaction in academic discourse”. Discourse Studies 7.2: 173-92. Swales, J. M. (1990). Genre Analysis: English in Academic and Research Settings. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Swales, J. M. (2004). Research Genres: Exploration and applications. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Strategies of Legitimization: Women driving case in Saudi Arabia.
SPEAKER: Hani Alamri

ABSTRACT. Since women are not allowed to drive in Saudi Arabia, two campaigns were launched in June 2011 and October 2013 to lift the ban. Both proponents and opponents of women drivers have their own reasons to legitimise or de-legitimise them. This study is mainly concerned with the use of language as a legitimisation tool in society. First, it seeks to reveal the strategies used by both sides on mass media to authenticate their attitudes; second, it aims to identify the public reaction and reflect on these strategies through the small space available on YouTube comments. There are two types of data, both retrieved from YouTube: videos of TV shows that are uploaded on YouTube, representing mass media content, and the public comments and reflections posted under these videos, representing user-generated content (UGC). This research is based on Critical Discourse Analysis theory and adopts the Discourse-Historical Approach (DHA) as a main approach (Wodak, 2001). For the analysis of the mass media content, the researcher used some analytic tools from Systemic Functional Linguistics (SFL) and the analysis of the strategies of positive self-presentation and negative-other presentation (referential, predication, argumentation, perspectivation and intensification/mitigation) (Halliday, 1985; Wodak, 2001). This indicated which strategies were used by mass media speakers, and how. Considering previous legitimisation studies (i.e. Van Leeuwen, 2007; Van Leeuwen and Wodak, 1999; Reyes, 2011), this particular work develops and proposes some key legitimisation strategies used by social actors to justify their stances. The analysis of the mass media content showed that legitimisation was used by both opponents and advocates through: (1) custody, (2) authorisation, (3) analogous/moral evaluation, (4) rationalisation, (5) mythopesis and (6) hypothetical/potential implications. This research explains how these strategies are linguistically constructed and shaped. To analyse the UGC, I drew on a Foucauldian discourse analysis (Luke,1999; Loke, 2013; Graham, 2005). Comments posted on video samples with regards to lifting the ban on women driving were coded into three responses: opposing, support or neutral. Comments under each response were monitored and analysed, and showed the formation of various discursive themes (e.g. racist, evaluative, supportive, feminist grievance). Through comments analysis, the circulation and recurrence of many stereotypical statements, used to demonstrate the legitimacy or illegitimacy of the status quo, was noted.

The dynamics of (mis)understandings in linguistically diverse multi-party Emergency Department (ED) consultations
SPEAKER: Antoon Cox

ABSTRACT. Introduction/objectives Emergency medicine is a predominantly oral activity in which medical errors often result from poor communication. Despite the fact that Emergency Departments (EDs) are becoming increasingly linguistically diverse, professional interpreters remain underused. Hospital staff mainly rely on ad hoc interpreters who tend to make more errors than professional interpreters do. So far, the literature on language barriers in the ED has mainly focussed on health outcomes in the presence of language barriers, and the impact of interventions such as interpreting on these outcomes. This study aims to contribute to the existing knowledge by analysing the process underlying these outcomes with a view to identifying targeted communication strategies that can be integrated in clinician training programs.

Methods We audio-recorded ad hoc mediated consultations in a linguistically diverse ED and collected the corresponding contextual information via ethnographic participant observation (including note taking and after action interviews with clinicians). The consultations were transcribed, translated, and analysed by a multidisciplinary research team of applied linguists and clinicians. In a first phase, linguists analysed the causes of misunderstandings. In a second phase, clinicians assessed the misunderstandings with regard to their clinical relevance. In a third phase, we played back our analysis to the clinicians in question with the purpose of member checking and eliciting feedback.

Results We identified a set of recurrent communication patterns that lead to misunderstanding. Based on these, we developed a taxonomy of the causes of misunderstandings in translations and role confusions between the clinician, patient, and ad hoc interpreter that lead to communication problems of clinical significance.

Discussion/implications Highlighting misunderstandings and the underlying communication patterns can be an eye-opener for clinicians as many misunderstandings pass unnoticed. It is a first step in developing successful communication strategies to interact with patients and ad hoc interpreters in a multilingual ED.

12:00-14:00 Session 8L: Traducción e interpretación/Translation and interpreting
La metáfora en el discurso profesional económico: aplicación didáctica en la formación de traductores profesionales
SPEAKER: unknown

ABSTRACT. El objetivo de la presente comunicación es exponer una aplicación didáctica, utilizando como unidad de análisis la metáfora en textos del discurso profesional del ámbito de la economía. Para el diseño de la unidad didáctica, nos hemos basado en los principios de la lingüística de corpus (Crawford & Csomay, 2016) con el fin de elaborar el corpus paralelo; y en la metodología del uso corpus para aprender a traducir (Aston, 1999; Laviosa, 2002). El corpus paralelo está constituido por el texto fuente “Debt Financing Rollercoaster” (septiembre, 2013) y su traducción al español “La montaña rusa del financiamiento externo” (diciembre, 2013), publicados por la Comisión Económica para América Latina y el Caribe (CEPAL). Nos hemos basado en el concepto de metáfora de Steen (2013) quien propone una nueva descripción de la metáfora y la describe como una herramienta tridimensional, definida por dimensiones conceptuales, lingüísticas y comunicativas. Para el concepto de “discurso profesional”, nos hemos basado en López Ferrero (2002) quien destaca el papel relevante que desempeñan estos discursos en una comunidad profesional. El análisis del corpus se realiza a nivel léxico mediante la identificación de las metáforas presentes en el TF (Deigman, 2005) para luego realizar el análisis contrastivo que permita describir las técnicas de traducción utilizadas para traducir al español dichas metáforas. La unidad didáctica permite a los estudiantes realizar una serie de actividades conceptuales, instrumentales y actitudinales con miras a optimizar su competencia profesional en traducción. Algunas de las actividades que deben realizar los estudiantes a nivel cognitivo son: buscar definiciones de los conceptos clave para el curso e identificar campos conceptuales formadores de las metáforas. En cuanto a las actividades instrumentales, se les solicita buscar las metáforas presentes en el TF y presentar al curso los resultados, indicando, entre otros, número de coincidencias en el corpus y técnicas usadas para traducir las metáforas. Finalmente, para desarrollar la competencia actitudinal, se trabaja en equipo con el fin de buscar definiciones de las metáforas analizadas y reflexionar sobre las fortalezas y debilidades del taller para su aprendizaje de la traducción. En última instancia, este tipo de actividades responde a la política del Programa de Traducción de la Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile de promover el uso de corpus en la formación de traductores profesionales.


Aston, G. (1999). “Corpus Use and Learning to Translate”. Textus 12, pp. 289-314.

Crawford, W. and Csomay, E. (2016). Doing Corpus Linguistics. London: Routledge.

Deigman, A. (2005). Metaphor and Corpus Linguistics. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins.

Laviosa, S. (2002). Corpus-based translation studies: theory, findings, applications. Amsterdam: Rodopi.

López Ferrero, C. (2002). “Aproximación al análisis de los discursos profesionales”. Revista Signos, 35 (51-52), pp. 195-215.

Steen, G. (2013). “The contemporary theory of metaphor – now new and improved.” Metaphor and Metonymy revisited beyond the Contemporary Theory of Metaphor.Amsterdam / Philadelphia: John Benjamins, pp. 27-67.

Validity of process-oriented approaches involving IT tools in anticipating learning difficulties in translation students
SPEAKER: unknown

ABSTRACT. In translation pedagogy, translation can be analysed as a product and as a process. Too often, in the classroom, the learners’ and teachers’ bias revolves purely and exclusively on obtaining a ‘good' translation. This approach to translation is quite convenient for both teachers and learners, inasmuch as it delivers quick and clear-cut aspects such as methodology and assessment of translation skills. In other words, the final product often takes priority over the translation process in the translation classroom. Paradoxically, for quite some time, research studies have been focusing more on studies on translation as a process. Translation process research (TPR) developed from descriptive translation studies (Holmes, 1972) as an attempt to delve into the ‘black box’. To this end, new tecnologies are being implemented. It is in this line of work that our study analyses and delves into. We have focused on TPR through the implementation of two tecnologies in translation research: keystroke logging (e.g. Translog), eyetracking and reading translators’ eye moments, and extraction and analysis of computational and statistical data. This study aims to assess the validity of TPR as a useful methodology to identify translation problems by anticipating effective tailor-made activities In this paper, we want to analyse and contrast the results of two case studies carried out with two groups of students tested to verify the validity of teaching translation as a process. These studies involved the use of fairly basic IT tools (gmail drive and Translog software, respectively). In our first case study, our main concern revolved around how etandem interaction can promote cooperative learning and enhance learner autonomy in order to improve one’s performance. The paper analyses the results yielded in the “Work-in-progress”, which involved working with gmail drive as the main software platform of information exchange. From the results obtained in this study, we discuss issues related to the development of learner’s discourse ability, sociolinguistic competence and strategic competence. For our second case study, we aimed to tackle the 3 phases involved in the translation process (namely, analysis, transfer and revision) into one. To this end, we analysed the results obtained with students working with a software named Translog, which enables video and voice recording of the translating process of students. Through this software, the areas of difficulty under analysis were phrasal verbs, culturally-bound references, metaphors, collocations, euphemisms and fixed expressions. The results of these parameters gave us useful tips as to how to design translation courses adapted to specific needs. The results of these experiences shed interesting results that indicated to what an extent process-oriented approaches could be a valid tool for translation teachers as a method for forestalling specific language difficulties for specific groups. We also suggest a few guidelines for teachers who would like to apply process-oriented approaches to their teaching preparation.

BIBLIOGRAPHY Holmes, James S. (1972/1988). The Name and Nature of Translation Studies. In Holmes, Translated! Papers on Literary Translation and Translation Studies, Amsterdam: Rodopi, pp. 67–80.

El cuestionario en Traductología como instrumento para determinar la aceptabilidad de un producto traducido

ABSTRACT. La encuesta es una técnica de recopilación de datos utilizada con frecuencia en los estudios de traducción, a pesar de proceder del campo de las Ciencias Sociales. El cuestionario constituye el instrumento de recogida de datos propiamente dicho y, aunque con ciertas limitaciones, cada vez encuentra más aplicaciones en el ámbito de la Traductología. De hecho, son varios los propósitos perseguidos y las poblaciones estudiadas a través de esta herramienta, como i) las empresas de servicios de traducción e interpretación (Chan 2010; Rasmussen y Schjoldager 2011); ii) los traductores, intérpretes y alumnos de traducción (Ortega Herráez 2006; Ebrahimi 2013; Gallego-Hernández 2014; Gallego-Hernández 2015); y iii) los usuarios finales de traducciones (Nobs 2003; Gil 2010; Soto-Almela 2014). En este trabajo, nos centramos en el uso de la encuesta como método para determinar la calidad de un aspecto concreto de una traducción o, mejor aún, la aceptabilidad por parte de sus usuarios finales o destinatarios. El trabajo muestra el proceso de diseño (tipo de encuesta, estructura, dificultades, etc.) y de posterior implementación (herramienta para la creación de la encuesta, vías de difusión y muestra) de un cuestionario destinado a turistas anglófonos y planteado con la intención general de estudiar la aceptabilidad de determinados elementos culturales traducidos presentes en textos turísticos. Esta ponencia se ciñe a aspectos metodológicos y, por tanto, se limita a detallar el proceso de creación y de aplicación del cuestionario, mientras que los resultados del estudio propiamente dicho quedan en un segundo plano. En general, se pretende corroborar la conveniencia del cuestionario como herramienta utilizada para delimitar la aceptabilidad (cultural) de una traducción publicada y para obtener la versión traducida mejor aceptada.

Chan, Andy Lung Jan (2010) “Perceived benefits of translator certification to stakeholders in the translation profession: A survey of vendor managers”, Across Languages and Cultures, no. 11: 93-113.

Ebrahimi, Nabi (2013) “Constructivist Translation Classroom Environment Survey (CTLES): Development, Validation and Application”, The International Journal for Translation & Interpreting Research, no. 2: 163-86.

Gallego-Hernández, Daniel (2014) “A vueltas con la traducción inversa especializada en el ámbito profesional. Un estudio basado en encuestas”, TRANS. Revista de Traductología, no. 18: 229-38.

Gallego-Hernández, Daniel (2015) “The use of corpora as translation resources: A study based on a survey of Spanish professional translators”, Perspectives: Studies in Translatology, no. 23: 375-91.

Gil, Ingrid (2010) “Aplicación didáctica de un estudio piloto: la recepción de traducciones juradas por parte de juristas”, Puentes, no. 9: 37-48.

Nobs, Marie-Louise (2003) Expectativas y evaluación en traducción de folletos turísticos: estudio empírico con usuarios reales, Tesis de doctorado, Universidad de Granada.

Ortega Herráez, Juan Miguel (2006) Análisis de la práctica de la interpretación judicial en España: el intérprete frente a su papel profesional, Tesis de doctorado, Universidad de Granada.

Rasmussen, Kirsten and Anne Schjoldager (2011) “Revising Translations. A Survey of Revision Policies in Danish Translation Companies”, The Journal of Specialised Translation, no. 15: 87-120.

Soto-Almela, Jorge (2014) Los términos culturales en el ámbito turístico español-inglés: traducción, manipulación y recepción real en usuarios anglófonos, Tesis de doctorado, Universidad de Murcia.

La variación denominativa en escrituras de constitución social: un análisis contrastivo de las sociedades anónimas, sociedades de responsabilidad limitada, corporations y las limited liability companies en Perú y Estados Unidos

ABSTRACT. Como es bien sabido, cada Estado en los Estados Unidos tiene su propia tradición jurídica y normativa y, por ende, su propia terminología jurídica. Los traductores jurídicos se enfrentan a diferentes problemas terminológicos; uno de ellos es la variación denominativa diatópica, que surge cuando traducen del español al inglés para un destinatario estadounidense, y otro la variación cognitiva, que aparece a partir de restricciones conceptuales según el tipo societario que se trate. Estas variaciones denominativas diatópicas o cognitivas no son fácilmente ubicables en los recursos terminográficos, y si se consignan en alguna entrada de diccionario, estas no especifican el Estado en el que debe usarse cada variante o el tipo societario para el que están destinadas. Por lo tanto, los traductores deben sistematizar esta terminología a fin de producir traducciones que satisfagan las exigencias del sistema y del destinatario objetivo específico.

Articles of Incorporation, Certificate of Incorporation y Articles of Organization son algunas de las variantes denominativas usadas para identificar a los documentos jurídicos que se presentan ante las oficinas registrales estadounidenses (Secretary of State) con la finalidad de constituir una corporation o company. El objetivo de esta comunicación es estudiar la terminología societaria y, más concretamente, la contenida en este género específico al que hemos aludido sobre la base de los tipos societarios y área geográfica seleccionados para la investigación. Este proyecto también pretende identificar cómo esta variación afecta el trabajo del traductor cuando traduce del español al inglés y la necesidad de diseñar la traducción según el estado receptor y el tipo societario en cuestión.

Este trabajo parte de un corpus comparable diseñado para determinar las variantes denominativas geolectales y cognitivas en la terminología empleada en las escrituras de constitución social de los Estados Unidos. Está compuesto de 100 pactos sociales: 50 de stock corporations y 50 de limited liability companies de los diferentes Estados de los Estados Unidos y dos pactos sociales de las sociedades equivalentes peruanas, a saber, sociedad anónima y sociedad de responsabilidad limitada. La extracción de términos se ha llevado a cabo de manera manual. Finalmente, se realiza un análisis contrastivo de los resultados obtenidos.

Bibliografía Alcaraz Varó, Enrique, Miguel Ángel Campos Pardillos & Cynthia Miguélez. (2002) El inglés jurídico norteamericano. Barcelona: Editorial Ariel. Davidson, Daniel, Brenda Knowles & Lynn Forsythe. (1998) Business Law: Principles and Cases in the Legal Environment. Ohio: West Educational Publishing Company. Elías Laroza, Enrique. (1999) Derecho Societario Peruano. Trujillo: Editora Normas Legales. Fernández Silva, Sabela; Judit Freixa Aymerich & María Teresa Cabré Castellví. (2010). "La variación denominativa en terminología desde una perspectiva cognitivo-discursiva". En: Luna, Rosa et al. (eds) Simposio de RITerm: Actas 2008. Lima: Unión Latina. Freixa, Judit. (2013) “Otra vez sobre las causas de la variación denominativa.” Debate Terminológico. Volumen: 9, pp. 38-46. Freixa, Judit (2014) “La variación denominativa en terminología: tipos y causas.” En: Isquerdo, Aparecida Negri & Dal Corno, Giselle Olívia Mantovani. (eds.) 2014. As ciências do léxico: lexicologia,lexicografia e terminología. Volumen: VII. Campo Grande: Editora UFMS, pp. 311-329.

12:00-14:00 Session 8M: Enseñanza de lenguas y diseño curricular/Language teaching
Which English, Whose English? Target varieties of English and language choice
SPEAKER: unknown

ABSTRACT. In this talk, we present the preliminary findings of an international study which set out to identify which target varieties are taught and learned in Spanish primary and secondary schools. The larger, international study (with partners from China, Turkey, Thailand, India and Spain) aims to address the research gap between recent academic debates about suitable target varieties of English for learners, and the ‘Englishes’ that are actually taught worldwide. Our talk will focus on the Spanish element of the international project.

In recent years, much research on English language varieties has focused on English as a Lingua Franca (ELF) as a flexible mode of communication between non-native English speakers (NNESs). This body of research can be viewed as a reaction to previously prevailing ‘native speaker-ist’ (Holliday, 2006) models. Native speaker models, it has been argued, tend to idealise native speaker (NS) usage , disempower NNES teachers and learners, and perpetuate the socioeconomic and sociopolitical hegemony of ‘core’ English speaking countries such as the UK and the USA in the ELT ‘industry’ (Jenkins, 2007).

The limited amount of available evidence indicates a confused and confusing picture, with little clear guidance on models at policy level, and a default valorization of ‘NS’ varieties through their widespread use in teaching and testing materials (especially for TOEFL and IELTS) produced by major UK and US publishers (Jenkins, 2007). The views of teachers, themselves likely to be key models, informants and brokers concerning which English is taught, are particularly neglected in the debate (Seidlhofer, 2003; Young & Walsh, 2010). Additionally, little, if any, classroom-based research has attempted to identify target English for learners, or consider how teachers and learners orientate themselves towards the different available targets.

In this talk, we analyse teachers’ participation in focus groups, classroom observation data and learners’ written reflections, from primary and secondary schools in Madrid, to provide answers to the following inter-related questions:

1. Which variety, or varieties, of English did teachers themselves learn? 2. Which variety or varieties do teachers currently teach? 3. Which variety would the teachers like to teach? 4. What do teachers understand about the nature(s) of available varieties? 5. To what extent does the language used in classrooms conform to any particular model or target? 6. What are primary and secondary school learners’ perceptions regarding English varieties?

Findings suggest that teachers are influenced by a wide range of factors in their understandings of and preferences for a particular variety. Their own previous language learning experiences, their attitudes towards, for example, British or American English, and the ‘Englishes’ presented in course books all have a bearing on teachers’ cognitions and perceptions of language variety. As for learners, they basically refer to British and American English and their preferences vary according to different factors. Implications for materials designers, teacher educators and classroom practice are discussed.

Conceptual complexes and pedagogical grammar: in search for explanatory adequacy in L2 explicit instruction
SPEAKER: unknown

ABSTRACT. This presentation takes sides with a number of proposals in the context of explicit L2 instruction according to which fine-grained cross-linguistic L1-L2 analysis is necessary to teach L2 rules proficiently (cf. Dirven 2001; De Knop and De Rycker 2008). This kind of analysis is useful to detect potential problematic areas where L1 and L2 diverge, test with real subjects whether this is the case, and then take into account these considerations in the design of teaching materials, which thus take the form of a so-called "pedagogical grammar". However, as this proposal stands, it remains in the domain of descriptive adequacy. In previous work, Ruiz de Mendoza (2008) and Ruiz de Mendoza and Agustín (2015) have contended that "pedagogical grammars" need to go beyond the domain of descriptive adequacy into that of explanatory adequacy. The latter, but not the former, requires motivating similarities and differences across languages, for example, in terms of cognitive and communicative factors. One area where this approach can be very productive is figurative language. Here we discuss the treatment of conceptual complexes based on combinations of different cases of figurative thinking, including combinations of metaphors, of metonymies, of metaphor and metonymy, and of metaphor and hyperbole. We explore the way various combinations of cognitive models are exploited to produce (predictable) meaning implications in L1 and L2 and spell out the similarities and differences. Then, we supply high-level generalizations providing a principled account of each phenomenon. Finally, we suggest ways of exploiting the resulting explanations in the L2 explicit-instruction class together with possible pathways for pedagogical training depending on the kind of meaning-construction task to deal with. We propose a three-step procedure. The first step is to teach the motivation behind the figurative expression in "user-friendly" terms. The second step is to supply a broad selection of corpus examples using the same combination of metaphors and discuss them. The third step is to specify usage constraints that arise from the examples. REFERENCES

Dirven, René. 2001. English phrasal verbs: Theory and didactic application. In Martin Pütz, Susanne Niemeier & René Dirven (eds.), Applied cognitive linguistics II: Language peda-gogy, 3–27. Berlin & New York: Mouton de Gruyter.

De Knop, Sabine & Teun De Rycker (eds.). 2008. Cognitive approaches to pedagogical grammar: A volume in honour of René Dirven. Berlin & New York: Mouton de Gruyter.

Ruiz de Mendoza, Francisco. 2008. Cross-linguistic analysis, second language teaching and cognitive semantics: The case of Spanish diminutives and reflexive constructions. In Sabine De Knop & Teun De Rycker (eds.), Cognitive approaches to pedagogical grammar. A volume in honour of René Dirven, 121–152. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.

Ruiz de Mendoza, Francisco & Pilar Agustín. 2015 (fc). Cognitive Pedagogical Grammar and meaning construction in L2. In Sabine de Knop & Gaetanelle Gilquin (eds.) Constructionist Approaches to Second Language Acquisition and Foreign Language Teaching, 151-183. Berlin & New York: Mouton de Gruyter.

Higher education institutions’ responses to language policy change: An Ecuadorian case study

ABSTRACT. This study explores the responses of Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) to Article 124 of the Ecuadorian Higher Education Law. The law necessitates that all students must manifest ‘sufficiency’ in a foreign language upon completion of their undergraduate degree. Among foreign languages taught in the country, English has a privileged position as it is offered in all HEIs in the country.

The study uses the mixed-method design to capture and analyse the responses of HEIs as to how they have responded to changes in recent government language policy and regulation, and what challenges have they encountered in doing so. The survey method is the first phase and the central source of data in this study. It is intended to identify the responses of HEI as part of their implementation scheme and to reduce the sample of HEIs to a workable and appropriate number for the case study. It is assumed that the survey results can help build a generalizable description and understanding of the responses and the challenges that HEIs have faced in their implementation that commenced in 2010.

Survey results revolve around four key areas that cover language policy and planning. First, the study captured the perceptions of HEIs towards EFL. Second, it determined the correlation of the senior authorities’ support to EFL in three aspects namely: students’ learning, teachers’ professional enhancement and EFL programs. Third, the study unveiled the responses of HEIs in four areas: management, content, infrastructure and pedagogy. Fourth, the study looked into the challenges that HEIs have faced in implementing Article 124 in the same four areas.

Highlights of the survey reveal that Ecuadorian HEIs show consistency in implementing EFL as an extra-curricular activity rather than as part of the core curriculum. Data revealed that most HEIs in Ecuador prioritized infrastructure over pedagogy. Responses to the law show a pattern where majority of HEIs improve their infrastructure as an answer to the demands of accreditation rather than a response to the law. Pedagogical-related answers emerged as the second cited response as means to cater to students’ demands for quality material; however, content-related answers are ranked as third priority. This can be attributed to the tendency of HEIs to depend on imported textbooks as their template for syllabus construction and content formulation.

Challenges that HEIs have faced in implementing the Law manifest a strong regard for infrastructure-related concerns as this entails money and capital. In management, content and pedagogy related aspects, HEIs have not encountered significant challenges as some of them have not done anything as response to the Law.

The quantitative aspect of study aims to put forward the general responses of Ecuadorian HEIs situated across the three regions in the country: highlands, coast and the Amazon. It is hoped that through this part of the study, key strategies and techniques in foreign language planning in a Spanish-speaking country can be best achieved and materialized.

Future language teachers reflecting on their practice
SPEAKER: unknown

ABSTRACT. Reflective practice in teacher education is said to foster professional growth (Korthagen et al. 2001) because reflection arisen from the practice allows practitioners to “reinvest this effort into similar situations by adjusting the practice in the short, medium and long term” (Collin et at. (2013). Hence, it is awareness of one’s action that may help practitioners improve their future performance in the classroom and thus, grow professionally. Nonetheless, research conducted in initial teacher education has shown that student teachers not always know what teacher educators mean when they are asked to reflect on their practice (Ward and McCotter, 2004). Therefore, teacher education programmes should integrate pedagogical tools in their modules to support student teachers’ reflection processes, so that they can develop their reflection capacity to better understand their practice. One of these pedagogical tools commonly used in teacher education programmes is video recording (Blomberg et al. 2011; Fadde and Sullivan, 2013). Student teachers record their own performance in authentic contexts (Guarino et al. 2013) and then they reflect on their own practice confronting their video recording (Trip and Rich, 2012) in the course of an interview with their university supervisor. The interview is recorded and the student teachers are asked to transcribe it so that they become more aware of their theories of teaching and learning processes and potential for future improvement (Sagasta and Pedrosa, 2014; Sagasta et al. 2015). This investigation is part of a larger research project aiming at examining the impact of the self-confrontation session on future language teachers in the degrees of Infant Education and Primary Education at Mondragon University. The investigation will help us better adapt the teaching education programmes to the needs of our students and consequently, to better equip them with the necessary skills to facilitate children´s language learning. A sample of 19 future language teachers involved in the Infant Education degree recorded their own performance and articulated their reflection during an interview with their university supervisor. The interviews were audio recorded, transcribed and successively, analysed by two blind examiners, using a tool developed by Ward and McCotter (2004) in order to examine reflective processes. Results show that the self-confrontation session had an impact on the future language teachers. Likewise, they show that the students focus on different aspects related to their practice and that not all of them pose explicit or implicit questions regarding their practice. Further research is needed to examine the role of the university supervisor in order to foster future teachers’ higher levels of reflection.

14:00-15:00Lunch Break
15:00-15:30 Session 9A: Pósteres/Posters
Estrategias de aprendizaje de sinohablantes en el aprendizaje del español como lengua extranjera: influencia de los factores edad y sexo
SPEAKER: unknown

ABSTRACT. La presencia de la comunidad china en las diferentes ciudades españolas ha originado nuevas situaciones de aprendizaje del español como lengua extranjera. En esta investigación analizamos los adultos chinos sin formación académica superior de distintas edades y sexo que aprenden un nuevo idioma. Según los trabajos precedentes, los sinohablantes conforman un grupo de aprendizaje en el que prevalecen las estrategias asociadas a la memoria y las acciones metacognitivas, en detrimento de las vinculadas a los afectivo y social. El concepto de estrategia de aprendizaje es entendido en esta investigación el papel del aprendiente en el proceso de aprendizaje y su implicación activa en el mismo. Esta definición coincide con el planteamiento desde la lingüística cognitiva del cuestionario Strategy Inventory for Language Learning (SILL) (versión 7.0: Oxford, 2014). SILL pregunta por 6 apartados distintos: 1) la memoria: se investiga sobre la capacidad del estudiante para asociar, contextualizar, relacionar con lo que ya sabe la nueva lengua); 2) dimensiones cognitivas: el alumno practica, inventa recursos, lee libros o aprende canciones en español; 3) facetas compensatorias: es capaz de superar lo que no sabe y supera las posibles carencias; 4) aspectos metacognitivos: organiza, evalúa y planifica su aprendizaje; 5) cuestiones afectivas: controla sus desánimos, se premia ante un buen resultado; 6) sociales: interactúa con otros aprendices y empatiza con hablantes nativos). En lo que se refiere a las variables, las investigaciones anteriores han concluido que el género es un factor que influye en el uso de las estrategias de aprendizaje porque las mujeres parecen utilizar con más frecuencia las estrategias metacognitivas y las relacionadas con la auto-gestión. De igual forma, los aprendices más jóvenes prefieren las estrategias afectivas y sociales, que las compensatorias, cognitivas o metacognitivas. Ante esto, nuestras preguntas de investigación son las siguientes: ¿qué estrategias de aprendizaje son las más utilizadas en un estudio de caso de adultos chinos que aprenden español?; ¿es posible identificar la influencia de las variables edad y sexo? Nuestra investigación se ha centrado en analizar las estrategias seguidas por 46 alumnos, 30 hombres y 16 mujeres entre 25-58 años de una academia privada en Gran Canaria (Islas Canarias, España) que imparte cursos intensivos de español (A1) de 9 semanas, a los que se le ha aplicado el cuestionario SILL. A través de una metodología cuantitativa y cualitativa concluimos que el factor edad influye en la estrategia de la memoria, que es numéricamente más significa entre los mayores de 45 años. En lo que se refiere al género las estrategias más empleadas por las mujeres más jóvenes (entre 25-35 años) son la memoria seguidas de la compensación, afectiva y social. Estas conclusiones corroboran las conclusiones de otros estudios, pero también aportan la novedad de presentar el valor que nuestros aprendices chinos otorgan a la estrategias afectiva y social.

Design of an observational tool for the analysis of EMI in higher education
SPEAKER: unknown

ABSTRACT. Globalization has raised the necessity of internationalisation around the world, and this has consequently affected the need of communication and change of information among the people. In order to face up the linguistic change that is affecting the society, the education has looked for different methodologies to face this situation (Mehisto et alii, 2008). Since the immersion programmes developed in Canada, the education has been searching for new teaching and learning methodologies, and one of these was the Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL). Much research has been done in the primary and the secondary levels, but there is a lack of studies in the tertiary level. The present study aims at analysing the English as a Medium of Instruction (EMI) classes of the Bilingual Plan Degree of the University of Lleida. The tool is presented in an online format and is divided in different dimensions, all of them relevant for a suitable methodological implementation of CLIL. The dimensions are the following: Documents, Class, Materials, Teacher, Students and Activities.The questions that form each dimension have been chosen according to the research done on this field (Mehisto et alii., 2008; Coyle et alii., 2010).The information gathered will be analyzed with the SPSS programme, where it will help us to have a general vision of what is being done in the EMI classes and consequently how we can adapt the subjects into a suitable methodological language and content teaching method. The results from this observational tool will help to design a practical protocol for teachers so that they can analyse an EMI subject and make the appropriate changes to transform it into a proper CLIL class.

Mehisto, P., Marsh, D., & Frigols, M.J. (2008). Uncovering CLIL. Content and Language Integrated Learning in Bilingual and Multilingual Education. Macmillan for Teachers. Series Editors: Adrian Underhill. Coyle, Do., Hood, P. & Marsh, D. (2010). CLIL. Content and Language Integrated Learning. Cambridge University Press.

Estrategias utilizadas por profesores de lenguas para el manejo de la interacción en clase.
SPEAKER: unknown

ABSTRACT. Resumen.  En este trabajo se presenta la investigación, el análisis y la reflexión, así como las conclusiones de las estrategias utilizadas por profesores de lenguas para el manejo de la interacción en la clase de lenguas. Dicha investigación es un trabajo comparativo entre las estrategias utilizadas por profesores experimentados y profesores en formación del Departamento de Lenguas de la Universidad de Guanajuato. La recolección de los datos está basado en la observación de clase de diferentes profesores, complementado con los informes de clase. Es una investigación cualitativa.

Objetivos.  Identificar las estrategias utilizadas por los profesores de lenguas en el manejo de la interacción en la clase.  Comparar las estrategias de los profesores noveles y los profesores con experiencia.  Identificar patrones similares en la interacción en la clase de lenguas.

Conclusiones.  Las estrategias de interacción utilizadas por los profesores con experiencia, basadas en el manejo de grupo, el conocimiento de la práctica docente y los incidentes críticos a los que se enfrenta.  Los profesores noveles cuentan con estrategias de interacción, las cuales son utilizadas de acuerdo a patrones establecidas en su formación teórica.  Los participantes en clase tienen patrones diferentes ante la interacción de profesores con experiencia como con profesores noveles.  El lenguaje utilizado por los profesores con experiencia, proporciona una interacción más aceptada por los miembros de la clase.  El lenguaje utilizado por los profesores noveles, proporcionan dudas a los participantes de la clase.

Bibliografía.  Palacios Martínez Ignacio M., Alonso Alonso María Rosa, Cal Varela Mario, López Rúa Paula, Varela Pérez José Ramón. Diccionario de enseñanza y aprendizaje de lenguas. En Clave ELE.  CONSEJO DE EUROPA (2002), (2001), Marco Común de Referencia Europeo para la enseñanza, el aprendizaje y la evaluación de las lenguas. [En línea] Versión española del Instituto Cervantes disponible en [Consulta: 2014].

Time and Space in language teaching at learning at third level.

ABSTRACT. Departing from student-led evaluations of Spanish classrooms in a university in Canada a few years ago, this research project focuses on the conditions that space and time impose on our contemporary university classrooms. In those evaluations, students pointed towards the use of space and time in their universities as one of the main reasons contributing to failure in language learning. In their journals and interviews, they gave specific examples of the impact of spatial and time constraints on their learning of Spanish and they claimed that the time was ripe for a review of the notions of space and time in order to tackle the issue of language learning in higher education. This research initiative attempts at such a review with a description of the physical characteristics of standard language classrooms in our public university settings and an analysis of the constraints that the organization of space and time impose on language learning in an aim to offer solutions to overcome these obstacles. It also looks at class timetables and semesterisation in third level European institutions, by offering a sample from a few universities in Ireland and in Spain in order to understand how their classrooms are organized. Through a series of short open-ended surveys at the same higher education institutions, it points towards the promotion of space-time awareness and examines the scope available both for language teachers and students to manage these two variables. It investigates the influence of virtual spaces for language learning (social networks and open source materials) as they are used in these universities in order to cope with time and space constraints and to support our students in their race to attain their goals in language learning.

Training EFL pre-service teachers to manage wellbeing
SPEAKER: unknown

ABSTRACT. The present study is part of a research and development project (code EDU2013-44890-P) financed by the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness, focused on the wellbeing of foreign language teachers in the context of plurilingualism and multicultural classrooms. The aim of this project is that of diagnosing the current situation of EFL teachers in relation to their own perception of their professional wellbeing, as well as to determine ways in which their conditions may be improved. In as much as teaching is a profession in which effectiveness lies in many cases outside the control of practitioners, the psychological wellbeing of teachers is often menaced. In this sense, studies have traditionally referred to the condition of teacher burnout. However, in the last years, the burnout paradigm (focused on emotional exhaustion and diminishing of professional outcomes) has started to be replaced in the academic sphere by an alternative line of research centered upon teacher wellbeing. Such line addresses the specific conditions required to ensure the satisfaction and wellbeing of teachers. In this paper, we focus our attention on pre-service EFL primary teachers during their school practice period at the Faculty of Education of the University of Granada. Our main objective is to innovate their training so as to provide future teachers with the necessary tools to manage the issues referred to above. After examining the current teacher education programme when it comes to the competences and objectives to be attained during the school practice period, we discover that there is a lack of didactic treatment of the concept of wellbeing. Along with this, in our capacity as academic practicum supervisors, we record that EFL student teachers are normally very stressed with the idea of managing their emotional and physical responses to conflict within and outside the classroom: the control of classroom relations; students’ bad behaviour and how to relief these or their own weaknesses are also at the focus of their interest. With this academic and personal scene in mind, we offer here a training model to empower EFL would-be teachers to control their distress so that they can transform it in eustress, which could be a factor of professional development and motivation. It should enhance teacher assertiveness, improve problem-solving and problem-coping skills, and provide the tools for regulating the symptoms of distress and anxiety. Following Jesus & Conboy’s (2001) model, we show how: to identify symptoms and professional stress factors; to discuss coping strategies; to dismantle irrational beliefs; to practice relaxation exercises; to deal with time management and team work; to delve into assertiveness; to promote leadership in the classroom or to manage disruptive student behaviour. All these areas are developed within a methodology of dialogic sharing of professional experiences.

Jesus, S.N. and Conboy, J. (2001). “A stress management course to prevent teacher distress”, The International Journal of Educational Management, 15(3): 131-137.

Prácticas docentes y enseñanza del portugués lengua extranjera en contextos de diversidad lingüística: el caso de la Universidad Federal de Pará en Brasil
SPEAKER: unknown

ABSTRACT. Este proyecto de investigación forma parte de un estudio más amplio cuyo objetivo principal es analizar los procesos de enseñanza-aprendizaje que tienen lugar en las clases de portugués (PLE) preparatorias para el examen exigido en la Universidad Federal do Pará en Brasil (PEC-G). Los movimientos migratorios actuales y las políticas de apoyo a países emergentes realizadas por el Estado brasileño han provocado que la realidad actual de estas aulas quede conformada por estudiantes de diferente origen lingüístico y cultural, fundamentalmente de procedencia africana (cf. Aguiar 2010). En este póster, presentamos el avance del estudio realizado sobre la caracterización de perfiles de prácticas docentes que tienen lugar en las aulas de PLE en este contexto de diversidad sociocultural con vistas a analizar hasta qué punto la diversidad tiene influencia sobre el modo de actuar del profesorado que prepara para las pruebas de portugués. Asumimos que las prácticas se diferenciarán según las siguientes dimensiones: (i) la concepción que tengan los docentes sobre lo que son las lenguas y su naturaleza; (ii) la concepción que tengan a propósito de cómo se aprenden las lenguas; (iii) la orientación metodológica que predomine en la dinámica del aula; (iv) el uso y aprovechamiento de materiales didácticos y diferentes recursos ocasionales dentro del aula; (vi) la consideración de los diferentes tipos de actividades para el desarrollo de las competencias comunicativas e interculturales; (vi) la consideración de los objetivos finales del curso y (vii) la atención a la diversidad y peculiaridad de los alumnos (cf. Breen 1996, Byram y Zarate 1998; Ambadiang y García Parejo 2006, 2011; Abdallah-Pretceill 2011). Siguiendo estas dimensiones se ha elaborado una guía de observación y se han analizado las grabaciones realizadas a 7 docentes responsables de la preparación de los exámenes de PLE de la Universidade Federal do Pará durante el curso 2013-2014. Las clases fueron registradas en audio y transcritas con el programa Transana. Un primer análisis de los datos nos ha permitido diferenciar tres perfiles de prácticas docentes entre el profesorado observado. En el póster, presentamos las características de cada uno de estos perfiles, así como el diseño de una entrevista en profundidad que será reanalizada a este colectivo con vistas a validar los datos obtenidos en esta primera aproximación. AGUIAR, A. (2010). A Educação Intercultural no entendimento da Diversidade na sala de aula de Língua Estrangeira. /bitstream/10216/53883/2/tesedoutanaaguiar000120940.pdf. Consultado 02-10-2013. AMBADIANG, Th. (2003). ""Cultura lingüística y enseñanza/aprendizaje del español LE: el caso del colectivo de inmigrantes subsaharianos". Carabela, 81-103. AMBADIANG, T. e I. GARCÍA PAREJO (2006). “La cultura lingüística y el componente cultural en la enseñanza de lenguas no maternas: observaciones sobre algunos paradigmas de la competencia cultural”. Didáctica. Lengua y Literatura , 18, 61-92.

PARA30LA: un serious game multilingüe para aprender palabras
SPEAKER: unknown

ABSTRACT. En la sociedad de la información, en la que cada vez tienen más importancia las herramientas digitales, los videojuegos pueden ayudar en el proceso de adquisición de lenguas gracias a su componente lúdico-pedagógico. Destacamos un tipo de videojuego denominado serious game (juego serio), el cual está diseñado con fines didácticos. En este trabajo presentamos un nuevo software que encontrarán en, que promueve el acceso al léxico y el aprendizaje de vocabulario. Basándonos en las neurociencias, incorporamos los principios de aprendizaje y memoria, la administración contingente de recompensas y el aprendizaje a través del juego. Este software también ayuda a aprender palabras en catalán, español e inglés, ya que muestra las palabras ‘cognadas' y los 'falsos amigos' en estos tres idiomas. PARA30LA exige la generación de palabras (de 3 a 7 letras), acertar una definición o traducir una determinada palabra a otro idioma. Se incluyen limitaciones temporales y efectos de sonido para hacer el programa más atractivo. Dependiendo de la actuación de los participantes, se puede obtener tiempo adicional y/o puntos. El programa proporciona tiempos medios de respuesta, número medio de letras por palabra, número de palabras por partida, puntos por partida y la clasificación de puntuación total se pueden consultar en cualquier momento, una característica que podría alentar a los participantes a involucrarse más en el juego. Creemos que este nuevo software es útil para el desarrollo de las capacidades dedicadas para acceder al léxico y aumentarlo a cualquier edad.

Tecnología y producción escrita: creación de un entorno personal de aprendizaje en Edmodo
SPEAKER: unknown

ABSTRACT. La aparición de la Web 2.0. ha permitido desarrollar en las aulas de cualquier nivel educativo dinámicas que favorecen la participación activa del alumno, la interacción entre discentes y docentes, la utilización de infinidad de recursos multimedia y la construcción de trabajo colaborativo y/o cooperativo. De hecho, ha generado lo que comúnmente se denomina Escuela 2.0 y que se concibe como el nuevo modelo de institución educativa. Este modelo educativo aboga por el uso de herramientas Web 2.0 en el currículum y se construye en torno a cuatro ejes: comunicar, compartir, colaborar y confiar. En el caso de la expresión escrita, gracias a Internet, los alumnos de Educación Primaria, nativos digitales (Prensky, 2001), tienen la oportunidad de crear, editar y compartir sus producciones a través de Internet. Existen a día de hoy multitud de herramientas en la Web 2.0 para la práctica de la escritura digital, como blogs, wikis o redes sociales, que les permiten buscar y acceder a información, publicar sus escritos y difundirlos y compartir y reflexionar en comunidad, en definitiva, expresarse y crear. Estas posibilidades no deben, desde nuestro punto de vista, quedar al margen del aula, sino que deben integrarse y considerar que su implementación representa un cambio didáctico muy relevante, puesto que supone la preparación del alumnado a las nuevas prácticas letradas. Ello exige, por parte de los docentes y también de los discentes, de un trabajo previo en nuevas habilidades y destrezas digitales, que van desde el uso adecuado de la tecnología a saber qué y cómo escribir en la red. Todas estas razones son las que nos impulsaron a investigar sobre cómo, desde un área didáctica concreta –la lengua extranjera –, en un contexto determinado –Educación Primaria –, y a partir de una herramienta y un enfoque metodológico –un Entorno Personal de Aprendizaje (EPA) estructurado a partir del sociocognitivismo (Castañeda/Adell 2013)–, puede ayudarse al alumnado a desarrollar las competencias necesarias para la integración de la tecnología en el desarrollo de la competencia escrita. Así pues, con el objetivo de mejorar la competencia escrita en lengua extranjera de los alumnos de sexto de Educación Primaria en la Escuela 2.0, se presenta una propuesta metodológica integradora a partir un EPA. Para ello, se ha utilizado la plataforma social educativa Edmodo, a partir de la cual el alumnado ha configurado su propio entramado de herramientas, mecanismos y actividades para buscar y acceder a la información, expresarse y crear, publicar y difundir y, sobre todo, para compartir y reflexionar en comunidad. Se expondrá cómo el producto final elaborado, una revista digital, muestra de qué manera ha aumentado no solamente la competencia escrita del alumnado sino también sus destrezas tecnológicas y la percepción de su aprendizaje.


Castañeda, L. y Adell, J. (2013). Entornos Personales de Aprendizaje: Claves para el Ecosistema Educativo en Red. Alcoy: Marfil.

Prensky, M. (2001). “Digital Natives. Digital Immigrants”. En On the Horizon. Vol 9. Nº 5. Linconln: NCB University Press.

Linguistics needs of law students in the eyes of language and subject specialists

ABSTRACT. Numerous scholars believe that subject specialists giving their lectures on law in English differ considerably from language specialists teaching Legal English due to diverse teaching methods, ‘‘carrier content’’(the subject matter of an exercise) and ‘‘real content’’ (the language or skill content of an exercise) as well as due to the status of disciplinary entities and boundaries. Other researchers highlight the fact that it is a convoluted task to attempt to make a distinction between the pedagogic content and subject matter knowledge while teaching English for Legal Purposes. Some questions may be posed in this context. Do subject-specialists really perceive law students’ needs in terms of linguistic competences as being completely at odds with those of Legal English teachers? Is there room for the specialists’ cooperation? Are language specialists obliged to learn the subject content? The paper endeavours to present the outcomes of research conducted at the Faculty of Law, University of Białystok, Poland, among subject-specialists teaching law in English and language specialists teaching Legal English to law students. The aim of the research project was to investigate how teachers of English for legal purposes perceive the needs of their law students in terms of course content, skills that would be essential at prospective work or methodology used. The study assumed both qualitative and quantitative methodology encompassing a questionnaire and a semi-structured interview. The presenter also hopes to shed some light on possible ways of effective co-operation between language and subject specialists, which would develop their relationships and accelerate language acquisition for law students.

Project CODI: analysis of university students’ digital reading and writing habits
SPEAKER: unknown

ABSTRACT. Currently, technology offers multiple opportunities for information, communication and lifelong learning, which we must be able to find and use positively. The university is training people and professionals who at the moment and in the near future will have to provide answers to the social challenges entailed by the highly complex society of today's world, the liquid society (Bauman, 2013).

As demonstrated by numerous studies conducted in recent years, even though today's youth can be considered in some ways an expert in the social use of technology, it also shows significant shortcomings in integrating this technology in the academic field. This situation is evident. For instance, regarding the management of information there are various studies which detect that the so-called Google Generation needs guidance in order to find sources of information which are relevant and of quality, to produce academic texts. This is due to the fact that they surf the Internet naively, without considering the concepts of authorship, relevance or validity of the information. They also lack the necessary skills to exploit the opportunities offered by search engines as information sources.

This situation is the result of different elements, some very complex in nature, that have to do with the dissemination of technology and its social permeability, but also with the way digital skills are acquired and introduced in educational institutions. As a matter of fact, it has been found that academic digital skills, although present in the curricula of all educational levels are often left out of its development. The project, titled Analysis of the Digital Competences of Incoming Students at the University of Lleida, or CODI (for its acronym in Spanish), conducted under the framework of the project Digital Identities and Cultures in Language Education (EDU2014-57677-C2-2-R), aims to offer a diagnosis of these issues and gather data on the students’ use of technology in the academic field, specifically in the processes of reading and writing.

This contribution presents the results of the questionnaire, one of the tools designed for data collection. This questionnaire, developed specifically for undergraduate students, takes into account the contributions of research fields which have studied more extensively the relationship between social digital competence and academic digital competence (librarianship, educational technology, linguistics, etc.) and other surveys made in the state or elsewhere.

For its design, four of the dimensions of digital and information literacy mentioned by Area/ Guarro (2012) have been adapted: a) instrumental dimension, referring to the knowledge of the tools and their use ability; b) cognitive dimension, which includes search capabilities, analysis, management and processing of information; c) socio-communicational dimension, which refers to the ability to express and communicate d) axiological dimension, which includes ethical attitudes and values in the use of technology.

References: Area, M. and Guarro, A. (2012):"La alfabetización informacional y digital: fundamentos pedagógicos para la enseñanza y el aprendizaje competente”. Revista española de documentación científica, 35, pp. 46-74. Bauman, Z. (2013). Liquid modernity. New York: John Wiley & Sons.

Lógica del texto a partir de los conectores
SPEAKER: unknown

ABSTRACT. Comparar textos paralelos, escritos en inglés y en español, a partir de sus conectores lógicos, puede llevar a descubrir rasgos diferenciadores en una y otra lengua que responderán a los hábitos retóricos de sus autores (Mur,2009). Así pues, puede decirse que la diferencia de estilo al escribir se debe, al menos en parte, al impacto de la cultura de los autores, es decir, a la retórica intercultural. Esa diferencia de expresión quedó demostrada por la autora mencionada en el género de los artículos de investigación del área de gestión empresarial escritos en inglés y en español. En este póster se quiere comprobar si la retórica intercultural incidirá igualmente en los capítulos de conclusiones de tesis de ingeniería escritas en esas lenguas. De no ser así, podría deberse a que las imposiciones de una disciplina, en este caso la relative al campo de la ingeniería de la telecomunicación, están por encima del hecho cultural. En conclusión, en este trabajo se quiere investigar si el peso de la cultura impuesta por la disciplina es mayor que el peso de la retórica entre escritor y lector propia de la cultura. Para comprobarlo, nos valdremos de dos corpus de capítulos de conclusiones de tesis de telecomunicación escritos en inglés y en español. De estos capítulos se estudiarán los conectores aditivos, de contraste y consecutivos; su comportamiento en estos capítulos servirá para revelar si existen diferencias de estilo significativas entre las dos lenguas mencionadas y en esta área de la ingeniería.

Connor, U. (1996) Contrastive Rhetoric.Cross-cultural aspects of second-language writing.Cambridge.

Crismore, A. et al. (1993) "Metadiscourse en persuasive writing: study of text written by American and Finnish university students" Written communication, volumen 10 pp 39-71.

Cuartero Sánchez, J.M. (2002) Conectores y conexión aditiva. Gredos.

Granger, S. y Tyson, S.(1996) "Connector usage in the English essay writing of native and non-native speakers of English" World Englishes  volumen 15, ejemplar 1, pp 17-27, marzo.

Hyland, K (2005) Metadiscourse. London: continuum.

Mur Dueñas, P. (2009) "Designing EAP materials based on intercultural corpus Analyses: The case of logical markers in research articles" Revista de Lingüística y Lenguas Aplicadas volumen 4, pp 125-131.

Pórtoles, J.(2001) Marcadores del discurso. Ariel.

Renkema, J. (1993) Discourse studies.John Benjamins.





Motivar hacia el objeto de aprendizaje en la competencia comunicativa: análisis de necesidades en Secundaria según la teoría de las inteligencias múltiples

ABSTRACT. El proceso de enseñanza/aprendizaje de la competencia comunicativa en el sistema educativo español debiera desarrollarse a través de una metodología activa. Uno de los aspectos de esta es motivar hacia el objeto de aprendizaje, es decir, dar a conocer los objetivos de aprendizaje, negociarlos con los aprendices, etc. Para que esto sea posible, parece lógico que los estudiantes reconozcan sus propias inteligencias en aras de una mayor implicación en su propio proceso en el aprendizaje activo. De hecho, el enfoque por competencias precisa que los docentes evalúen las competencias curriculares y transversales de los alumnos, lo que supone que les pregunten a estos sobre su propia motivación para aprender, lo que piensan sobre ellos mismos, y sobre sus estrategias para el aprendizaje. En un proyecto de innovación educativa de la Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Islas Canarias, España) nos planteamos el uso de la teoría de las inteligencias múltiples de Howard Gardner en Secundaria con el fin de fomentar un aprendizaje activo por competencias. Las preguntas de investigación que nos planteamos en una primera fase exploratoria son las siguientes: ¿son realmente equiparables el enfoque por competencias y la teoría de las inteligencias múltiples?; ¿logra el enfoque por competencias cumplir con su cometido de que cada estudiante sea consciente de su inteligencia como parte de su implicación en un aprendizaje activo? Para responder a lo anterior, diseñamos una investigación aplicada con una metodología cuantitativa y cualitativa fundamentada en dos encuestas revalidadas en investigaciones anteriores por Gardner y otros estudiosos. En la primera se buscaba la reflexión del alumno en determinar su propio tipo de inteligencia; con la segunda se determinaba de manera más objetiva su tipo de inteligencia. Este primer estudio caso lo integraron 38 sujetos de Secundaria de 2º y 4º Secundaria de Canarias, que habían iniciado la Primaria en el enfoque por competencias. Los resultados de nuestra investigación nos indicaron que los alumnos en general no eran conscientes de sus diferentes inteligencias. Por lo tanto, el enfoque por competencias en contextos españoles parece tener facetas que mejorar en lo que se refiere a la motivación hacia el objeto del aprendizaje. El fin es incentivar que un estudiante sea capaz de reconocerse como estudiante activo. Proponemos como solución a este problema de investigación la adaptación de las tareas de las competencias a la teoría de las inteligencias múltiples.

15:30-17:00 Session 10A: Adquisición y aprendizaje/Language acquisition
Location: SALA/ROOM 1
El castellano hablado por catalanes: rasgos melódicos de la interlengua
SPEAKER: unknown

ABSTRACT. Este trabajo tiene como objetivo presentar los primeros resultados de una investigación mucho más amplia cuyo objetivo es definir los rasgos melódicos básicos del español hablado por catalanes para su aplicación a la enseñanza-aprendizaje del español como segunda lengua.

Ciertamente, la proximidad interlingüística catalán-español y el input constante en español (medios de comunicación, centros educativos, etc.) proporcionan a los catalanohablantes un excelente nivel de comprensión del español; sin embargo, esos mismos elementos pueden no resultar igual de efectivos en lo que a producción fónica se refiere, pues, en el caso de la entonación, el distinto nivel de competencia puede comportar algunas dificultades de comprensión o malentendidos.

Por ello creemos de especial interés profundizar en los rasgos melódicos de la interlengua de los catalanohablantes que hablan español como segunda lengua, para determinar en qué grado y en qué aspectos la entonación de su interlengua se aleja y se separa de la lengua meta, el español, y desarrollar, consecuentemente, una enseñanza eficaz que mejore su competencia comunicativa.

Hemos trabajado con 35 enunciados declarativos neutros /±suspensos/ de un corpus de grabaciones en vídeo de 11 estudiantes de la Facultad de Educación, de la Universidad de Barcelona, que tienen el catalán como lengua materna y que lo utilizan como vehículo de comunicación tanto en el ámbito académico como en el familiar. Las grabaciones corresponden a una actividad de las asignaturas de Habilidades comunicativas orales y Lengua castellana para la enseñanza, y en ellas los alumnos aportan información diversa: procedencia, relación con el castellano, etc.

Para realizar esta investigación, hemos utilizado el método Análisis Melódico del Habla (Cantero, 2002), su protocolo (Cantero y Font-Rotchés, 2009) y el script de semiautomatización del proceso de obtención de los datos (Mateo, 2010). Para la descripción de la interlengua, nos hemos basado en el concepto de perfil melódico y de sus rasgos, descritos en Cantero y Devís (2011).

Los resultados del análisis de la entonación de las declarativas ±suspensas de la interlengua ofrecen tres patrones: un patrón con inflexión final descendente, coincidente en castellano y en catalán; un patrón con inflexión ascendente, propio de las suspensas, que se distingue de ambas lengua por la ausencia de primer pico, cuerpo plano, campo tonal estrecho y una terminación ascendente que empieza en la pretónica; y, finalmente, un patrón con inflexión final de núcleo elevado, con un rendimiento insuficiente para poderse comparar.

Cantero, Francisco José (2002): Teoría y análisis de la entonación. Barcelona: Publicacions de la Universitat de Barcelona. Cantero Serena, Francisco J.; Font-Rotchés, Dolors; (2009): ‘Protocolo para el análisis melódico del habla’, Estudios de Fonética Experimental, XVIII: 17-32. Cantero, Francisco José & Empar Devís (2011): "Análisis melódico de la interlengua", en: La investigación de la entonación española. Valencia: Universidad de Valencia, anejo 75 de la revista Quaderns de Filologia, 285-300. Mateo, Miguel, 2010: “Protocolo para la extracción de datos tonales y curva estándar en Análisis Melódico del Habla (AMH)”, Phonica, 6, 2010. Online:

L'ensenyament-aprenentatge de la pronúncia de les vocals obertes i tancades del català: un canvi d'enfocament
SPEAKER: unknown

ABSTRACT. En aquesta comunicació, presentarem els resultats obtinguts en una investigació basada en l’anàlisi acústica de 307 vocals obertes i tancades normalitzades produïdes per 67 informants catalans de la varietat dialectal central, homes i dones, d’edats compreses entre els 18 i 80 anys, de diferents professions. Hem utilitzat el Corpus oral de parla espontània de Font-Rotchés (2006) i el de Rius-Escudé (en premsa), que contenen 60 hores de material audiovisual, en què els informants s’expressen en un context de parla espontània, fet que difereix dels manuals de pronunciació —Castellanos (1993; 2004); Bau, Pujol i Rius (1995; 2007)— i dels webs —Els sons del català (2009); Les guies de pronunciació (2015) — que ens han precedit, atès que basen la pronúncia de l’obertura i el tancament de les vocals en la parla controlada, en la parla de laboratori. Hem comprovat que les vocals, tant les obertes com les tancades, tenen un camp de dispersió molt ampli. A més, l'espai que ocupen és molt centralitzat i se sobreposa al dels altres sons vocàlics, cosa que implica que no hi ha un model únic de pronunciació. Així mateix, en les proves de percepció hem constatat que les vocals obertes es perceben millor que les tancades. Els resultats que hem obtingut, sovint, són “no esperables” (Cantero, 2015), produeixen perplexitat teòrica perquè no segueixen la norma. Així doncs, a partir dels nostres resultats, les propostes didàctiques d’ensenyament-aprenentatge de la pronúncia de les vocals obertes i tancades del català s’han de basar en tres eixos fonamentals: ensenyar la llengua a partir del model de la parla espontània, contextualitzar les activitats de pronunciació i treballar la pronunciació amb un enfocament comunicatiu. En definitiva, cal un canvi d’enfocament en l’ensenyament de la pronúncia que els futurs docents hauran de tenir en compte. Referències bibliogràfiques: BAU, M.; PUJOL, M.; RIUS-ESCUDÉ, A. (1995; 2007): Curs de pronunciació. Barcelona: Publicacions de l’Abadia de Montserrat. CANTERO SERENA, F. J. (2015): “De la fonética del habla espontánea a la fonologia de la complejidad”. Normas, Revista de Estudios Lingüísticos Hispánicos, 5, 9-29. CASTELLANOS, J. A. (1993; 2004): Manual de pronunciació. Criteris i exercicis d’elocució. Vic: Eumo. FONT-ROTCHÉS, D. (2006): Corpus oral de parla espontània. Gràfics i arxius de veu, dins Biblioteca Phonica, 4. RIUS-ESCUDÉ, A. (en premsa): Corpus del català oral en parla espontània.

Perception of Foreign Accented Consonants

ABSTRACT. Non-native pronunciations can differ from the native norm, resulting in a foreign accent (FA). FAs may affect intelligibility and increase listener effort. As noted by classic second language (L2) speech acquisition theories (Best 1995; Flege 1995; Kuhl 1993, 2004), non-native pronunciations might be related to perceptual difficulties in the L2. The current study examines the perception of different degrees of segmental foreign accent. Our aims were (i) to find out if non-native listeners were as able as native listeners to detect small differences in accentedness; (ii) to determine if FA is perceived as a continuum or categorically; and (iii) to test if native listeners with the same accent as the target speech differ from native listeners with a different accent and from non-native listeners. Stimuli were created by manipulating the waveforms of five consonants in word initial position (/dz, j, h, v, t/), all of them problematic for Spanish learners of English, in order to create a 9-step FA continuum for each consonant. One end of the continuum was a strongly foreign-accented consonant (step 1) and the other end a native accented pronunciation (step 9), with seven interpolations between those two points (steps 2 to 8). Three different listeners groups took part in the study: 14 Spanish learners of English, 13 native English speakers from the United Kingdom and 7 native English speakers from the United States. Listeners performed two different tasks: an AX discrimination task, in which the items were pairs of words with either the same degree of FA or two steps apart on the continuum, and a categorisation task, in which listeners had to determine if each step of the continuum was foreign- or native-accented. Results show that the discrimination capabilities of natives and non-natives listeners are very similar. The categorisation results, on the other hand, show a dependence on the segment and listener group. For /dz, v/, the Spanish and American listeners' responses were highly comparable, with a significantly lower number of FA ratings than the British, even at the strongly-accented end of the continuum, while the British listeners were harsher judges along both continua. For /j/, Spanish listeners were the least accurate at detecting FA. Finally, all three groups categorised /h, t/ in a similar manner. These results are interpreted in the light of L2 perception theories, taking into account listeners' L1 phonemic inventories as well as linguistic experience.


Best, C. T. (1995) A direct realist view of cross-language speech perception. In W. Strange (ed.), Speech Perception and Linguistic Experience. York Press, Timonium, MD: 171–203.

Flege, J.E. (1995) Second language speech learning: Theory, findings and problems. In W. Strange (ed.). Speech Perception and Linguistic Experience. York Press, Timonium, MD: 233-277.

Kuhl, P. K. (1993) Early linguistic experience and phonetic perception: implications for theories of developmental speech perception. Journal of Phonetics 21, 125-139.

Kuhl, P. K. (2004) Early language acquisition: cracking the speech code. Nature reviews neuroscience 5, 831-843.

15:30-17:00 Session 10B: Lexicología y lexicografía/Lexicology and lexicography
Location: SALA/ROOM 2
Looking at hyperbole in terms of cognitive modeling

ABSTRACT. Recent research on hyperbole has either a pragmatic (e.g. Norrick, 2004, Carston and Wearing 2014) or a psycholinguistic focus (e.g. Gibbs and Colston 2012). In the former case it is studied in terms of its communicative effects, while in the latter the emphasis is on its impact on linguistic processing. In this presentation, we argue for a complementary approach based on the principles of cognitive modeling as laid out in Ruiz de Mendoza and Galera (2014). Cognitive modeling is the process whereby conceptual structure is constructed on the basis of pre-existing knowledge stores for the purpose of mental representation and meaningful interaction. For example, saying Your eyes are (like) an ocean (‘blue in color, but also deep, crystalline, watery, etc.’) calls for the addressee to have access to two discrete items of conceptual structure (ocean, eyes) that have to be enriched until relevant comparison between the two can be made. The structure to select from is a cognitive model, while the cued selection of relevant items to be compared is one form of cognitive activity on the cognitive model and the comparison itself is another form of such activity. More specifically, the comparison involves a cross-domain conceptual mapping according to which certain features of the addressee’s eyes (target domain) are seen in terms of corresponding features of an ocean (source domain). Hyperbole likewise requires the activation of selected conceptual structure and cross-domain correspondences. The difference with metaphor and simile is the nature of the source domain. In hyperbole the source is both scalar and counterfactual. Think of the sentence This bag weighs a ton! In terms of a cross-domain mapping, there is a source domain depicting an imaginary situation in which someone is frustrated as he carries a bag that is impossible to lift. This conceptual structure is used to understand the emotional impact on the speaker of the real-world situation in which he is frustrated while carrying an overly weighty bag. The same holds for other examples of hyperbole like those based on absurd frequency (I have told you a million times not to do that), extreme magnitudes (It is as hot as hell here), and absolute statements (My father knows everything). The imaginary scenario is in all cases a (virtually) impossible or counterfactual one created on the basis of upscaling a scalar cognitive model. However, not any level of upscaling will create an adequate hyperbolic source domain. For example, #This bag weighs a thousand/million tons is less adequate and, in general, the greater the degree of upscaling the less felicitous the resulting hyperbole (cf. ##This bag weighs billions/trillions of tons). Here we contend that economy-effect relevance criteria (Sperber and Wilson 1995) guide the selection of ton(s) in terms of communicative efficiency except in contexts where the speaker sacrifices economy for special communicative effects. On the basis of examples drawn from different corpora (mainly COCA and BNC), we explore further correlations between different kinds of hyperbole, their constraining factors, and the range of meaning effects associated with each kind.

Exploring the verbs used in Speech Framing Expressions in Spanish and English from a typological perspective

ABSTRACT. In this talk, I explore the verbs used in Speech Framing Expressions (hereafter, SFEs) in English and in Spanish from a typological perspective (Talmy 1985, 1988, 1991; Slobin 1996, 2004). SFEs are defined as narrators’ hints to the readers’ interpretations of Direct Speech in dialogue, and are illustrated in examples (1) and (2):

1. “I understand,” Evelyn concurred. 2. – ¿Qué ha pasado con mi madre? – les preguntó en un soplo voz. [“What has happened to my mother?” s/he asked them with a whisper.]

Using two corpora consisting of 60 fictional texts belonging to three fictional narrative genres (fantasy, romance and thriller) originally written in Spanish and English (30 texts in each language) and amounting to a total of 7 million words, I examine the communication verbs used in SFEs in each language (e.g. say/decir, declare/manifestar) as well as other constructions with verbs outside the communicative domain but similarly used (e.g. grin/sonreir, scowl/fruncir el ceño). Drawing insights from typological research on the expression of motion events in such different languages as English and Spanish, I address the following questions:

(a) How do English and Spanish recreate a speech event as suggested by verbs of communication introducing DS? (b) What does this say about these languages typologically-wise? Is it congruent with descriptions of Spanish as a verb-framed language versus the more versatile and dynamic style of satellite-framed languages such as English? (c)What is foregrounded by the verbs used in each language?

The analysis of the two corpora suggests that, contrary to what happens with the expression of motion in English and Spanish, the differences between these two languages do not rest upon lexical availability –i.e. Spanish is as rich as English in verbs of communication; rather, they result from two different discourse agendas and, therefore, two different ways of reconstructing speech events. While congruent with the typological research done on motion in both languages, this piece of research attempts to broaden its scope and include a topic still underexplored yet similarly relevant for the description of both languages.


Slobin, Dan. 1996. Two ways to travel: Verbs of motion in English and Spanish. In Masayoshi Shibatani & Sandra A. Thompson (eds.), Grammatical constructions: Their form and meaning, 195–220. Oxford: Clarendon Press. Slobin, Dan. 2004. The many ways to search for a frog. Linguistic typology and the expression of motion events. In Sven Strömqvist & Ludo Verhoeven (eds.) Relating events in narrative: Typological and contextual perspectives, 219–257. Mahwah NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. Talmy, Leonard. 1985. Lexicalization patterns: Semantic structure in lexical forms. In Timothy Shopen (ed.), Language typology and lexical descriptions. Vol. 3. Grammatical categories and the lexicon, 36–149. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Talmy, Leonard. 1988. Force dynamics in language and cognition. Cognitive Science 12. 49–100. Talmy, Leonard. 1991. Paths to realization: A typology of event conflation. Proceedings of the Seventeenth Meeting of the Berkeley Linguistics Society, 480–519. Berkeley: Berkeley Linguistics Society.

Interrelaciones entre las categorías tiempo y aspecto y afijación de las unidades fraseológicas en español

ABSTRACT. Asumiendo un enfoque funcionalista del lenguaje, que considera el acto comunicativo desde una perspectiva sociocultural basándose en el uso de la lengua, propongo en este trabajo establecer interrelaciones entre las categorías funcionales Tiempo y Aspecto y la propiedad de la fijación de las Unidades Fraseológicas (UFs), establecida por lo estudios de la Fraseología en español. La investigación es hecha, por lo tanto, a partir de la definición de las UFs como unidades léxicas formadas por más de dos palabras, cuyas características principales son la frecuencia de uso, la institucionalización, la fijación y la especialización semántica. Considerando la Fijación como el nivel de estabilidad en contraposición a las posibles variaciones que una UF puede permitir en el uso, es analizada para los objetivos del presente trabajo, un conjunto de seis Unidades Fraseológicas en español, con el propósito de identificar los tiempos y aspectos verbales en los cuales as unidades son empleadas con más frecuencia. La discusión teórica de las categorías funcionales es hecha en base a los conceptos de Comrie (1985) que define Tiempo como una temporalidad deíctica/externa que puede ser localizada en la línea temporal, y de Aspecto, entendida como la temporalidad interna de la situación. Son utilizados también teóricos de la Fraseología, como Corpas Pastor (1996) y Ruiz Gurillo (1997) que proporcionan los conceptos básicos sobre la constitución e las propiedades de las unidades que son objeto de estudio de la presente investigación. En esa perspectiva, se puede pensar, que cuanto menor el número e posibilidades e variación en el tiempo y en el aspecto verbal de determinada UF, mayor será su grado de fijación e, consecuentemente, su frecuencia de uso.

BIBLIOGRAFÍA COMRIE, B. Aspect. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1981. __________. Tense. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1985. CORPAS PASTOR, Gloria. Manual de fraseología española. Madrid: Gredos, 1996. DE MIGUEL, E. El aspecto léxico. In: BOSQUE e DEMONTE. Gramática descriptiva de la lengua española. Madrid: Espasa-Calpe, 1999, p. 2979-3060. GARCÍA FERNÁNDEZ, L. La gramática de los complementos temporales. Madrid: Visor Libros, 2000. GARCIA-PAGE, M. Variantes morfológicas y unidades fraseológicas. In: Revista Paremia. No. 8, 1999, Madrid, p. 225-230. _________________. ¿Son las expresiones fijas expresiones fijas? In: Revista Moenia 7, 2001, Madrid, p. 165-197. GIVÓN, T. Functionalism and grammar. Amsterdam/ Philadelphia: J. Benjamins, 1995. QUINTERO, M. Colombianadas. Colombian english diccionary. Bogotá: Editorial Planeta Colombiana S.A. 2012. RUIZ GURILLO, L. Aspectos de Fraseología teórica española. Valencia, Universita, 1997. SINCLAIR, J. 1991. Corpus, concordance, collocation: Describing English language. Oxford: Oxford University Press. VRANIC, G. Hablar por los codos. Frases para un español cotidiano. Madrid: Edelsa, Grupo Didascalia, S.A. 2004.

15:30-17:00 Session 10C: Lenguas para fines específicos/Language for specific purposes
Location: SALA/ROOM 3
An Appraisal of Enrique Alcaraz's Description of ESP Lexical Traits
SPEAKER: unknown

ABSTRACT. In El inglés Profesional y Académico (2000), Enrique Alcaraz describes, amongst other, the most relevant features of ESP (English for Specific Purposes) lexicon. This research was conceived as an appraisal of such fundamental work through the analysis of the vocabulary of two specialised corpora, TEC (Telecommunication Engineering Corpus) and BLaRC (British Law Report Corpus), in search of linguistic evidence supporting some of the traits which Alcaraz deems characteristic of these English varieties. BLaRC is an 8.85 million-word legal English corpus of judicial decisions issued by British courts between 2008 and 2010 which is structured following the hierarchy of the British court and tribunal system so as to classify the texts according to the legal areas pertaining to each of these institutions (Marín and Rea, 2012), whereas TEC (Rea, 2008) comprises 5.5 million words of the academic and professional written English deployed by the discourse community of Telecommunications. TEC covers the main subject divisions of the domain and two branches of expertise (Communication Networks and Systems; and Communication Planning and Management). Owing to the size of both corpora and to our wish to carry out a fully automatic analysis with the aim of processing as much data as possible, only some of the features described by Alcaraz in his work were considered in this appraisal, namely, the ratio and distribution of highly specialised terms in TEC and BLaRC; the relevance of sub-technical vocabulary in both corpora; the mean length of sentences and words; the use of Latin words and phrases in the legal corpus and the presence and significance of abbreviations and acronyms in the telecommunications corpus.

REFERENCES Alcaraz Varó, E. ----------- (2002). El inglés jurídico: textos y documentos. Madrid: Ariel Derecho. ----------- (2000). El inglés profesional y académico. Madrid: Alianza Editorial. Marín, M.J. (2014). “Evaluation of five single-word term recognition methods on a legal corpus”. Corpora, 9 (1). Endinburgh: Endinburgh University Press. Marín, M.J. and Rea, C. (2012). “Structure and design of the BLRC: a legal corpus of judicial decisions from the UK”. Journal of English Studies, 10. La Rioja: Servicio de Publicaciones de la Universidad de La Rioja. URL: Marín, M.J., Rea, C. (2013). “Automatic Access to Legal Terminology Applying Two Different Automatic Term Recognition Methods”. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 95. Corpus Resources for Descriptive and Applied Studies. Current Challenges and Future Directions: Selected Papers from the 5th International Conference on Corpus Linguistics (CILC2013). Marín, M.J., Rea, C. (2014). “Assessing four automatic term recognition methods: Are they domain-dependent?”. English for Specific Purposes World, 42. Nation, P. (2008). Teaching vocabulary: Strategies and techniques. USA: Heinle, Cengage Learning. Rea, C. (2008). El inglés de las telecomunicaciones: estudio léxico basado en un corpus específico, tesis doctoral Murcia: Servicio de Publicaciones de la Universidad de Murcia. Retrieved from: Sager, J., D. Dungworth and P. McDonald. (1980). English Special languages. Principles and practice in science and technology. Wiesbaden, Brandstetter Verlag KG.

Intercultural dialogicity in maritime English course materials

ABSTRACT. This paper explores how intercultural awareness is raised in Maritime English (henceforth, ME) higher education courses and, particularly, how the “intercultural dialogue” (Council of Europe, 2008) is fostered in ME materials. Interculturality and its impact upon the maritime profession is a major concern for the shipping industry: the transport of goods by sea is a global business which reaches almost any part of the world and employs professionals from many language and cultural backgrounds. As such, it is known to be a multinational, multiethnic, multilingual and multicultural industry that is largely dependent upon successful intercultural communication. For the purposes of this paper, four teaching/learning resources have been targeted: the latest ME textbook (Grice, 2012), a web-based ME learning tool (MarEng, 2007-2010), a recently launched online platform offering ME learning materials (SeaTALK, 2015), and the latest edition of a full model course programme on ME (IMO, 2015). The results obtained help to assess the extent to which ME language teaching materials serve as “mediators of intercultural communicative competence” (Rico Troncoso, 2012: 130). They also point at materials as providers of intercultural awareness, facilitators of intercultural encounters and creators of “space[s] for intercultural dialogue” (Council of Europe, 2008: 46). Conclusions are expected to further research into intercultural dialogicity and provide researchers in other languages and ESP fields with guidance for assessing the presence of intercultural-related features in their own course materials. There have been some attempts to study the presence of intercultural issues in Business English textbooks (Lario de Oñate & Vázquez Amador, 2013), French for tourism textbooks (Álvarez González, 2015-in press), and textbooks dealing with a variety of ESP fields (Author, 2015). This study, however, is unique for two main reasons: (i) it embraces teaching/learning materials other than simply textbooks; and (ii) it focuses solely on ME, a rather underresearched area in ESP.

References Author (2015) Álvarez González, S. (2015–in press). “El componente intercultural en el escenario profesional turístico y su incidencia en los manuales del francés para fines específicos”. EPOS. Revista de Filología, vol. 31. Council of Europe (2008). White Paper on Intercultural Dialogue “Living Together as Equals in Dignity”, Strasbourg. URL: Grice, T. (2012). English for the Maritime Industry: A Language Course book for Seafarers. Luddenden, WY: Idris Education. IMO (2015). Model Course 3.17. Maritime English, 2015 edition. London: International Maritime Organisation. Lario de Oñate, M.C. & M. Vázquez Amador (2013). “The intercultural component in Business English textbooks”. Ibérica 26: 171-194. MarEng (2007-2010). URL: Rico Troncoso, C. (2012). “Language teaching materials as mediators for ICC development: A challenge for materials developers”. Signo y Pensamiento 60. Documentos de Investigación XXX: 130-154. SeaTALK (2015). URL:

El discurso profesional en los nuevos recursos de aprendizaje: el caso de las micropíldoras formativas
SPEAKER: unknown

ABSTRACT. La incorporación de las tecnologías de la información y la comunicación (TIC) al contexto educativo ha motivado la irrupción de nuevos recursos de docencia y aprendizaje originalmente diseñados para la docencia en línea (elearning) que han resultado ser de gran utilidad, no solo en los modelos de docencia mixta (blended learning), sino también en la tradicional modalidad presencial. Entre estos nuevos recursos cabe destacar la presencia de las (micro)píldoras formativas. Originalmente desarrolladas en el ámbito empresarial, estas píldoras -o micropíldoras, en función de su extensión- se desarrollan a modo de breves vídeos que permiten trasladar contenidos sobre una temática específica, más o menos especializada, en formato digital (Bengoechea y Medina, 2013). Las micropíldoras se han convertido en un complemento cada vez más valorado para la comunicación científica, no solo en el contexto académico, sino también profesional, puesto que se conciben como recursos de aprendizaje que permiten acceder a contenidos especializados a través de un formato más atractivo. Pero, más allá del atractivo añadido que aporta el componente audiovisual al proceso de enseñanza-aprendizaje, cabe plantearse las particularidades lingüísticas que este recurso presenta. La fingida -o no- espontaneidad del discurso docente, la coexistencia de contenidos orales y visuales, la ausencia de interacción real entre docente y discente, y el formato adoptado invitan a plantearse las diferencias que, en materia lingüística, pudiera presentar este tipo de textos especializados con respecto a los recursos de aprendizaje más convencionales, tradicionalmente en formato impreso. Con el fin de analizar las semejanzas y/o diferencias que caracterizan a ambos tipos de recursos, se ha analizado un corpus de micropíldoras formativas correspondiente al bloque Inmunología Humana del proyecto “Saber, Extender”, desarrollado por el Área de Formación e Innovación Docente y el Servicio de Medios Audiovisuales de la Universidad de Valladolid. Este material de trabajo, elaborado por el Doctor Alfredo Corell Almuzara, se ha comparado con un corpus integrado por recursos impresos -manuales, libros de textos, guías, etc.- sobre la misma temática y utilizados en el mismo contexto docente. De este modo, mediante un modelo de análisis del discurso, el presente trabajo pretende comparar las particularidades lingüísticas de ambos tipos de recursos con el fin de identificar los rasgos propios del discurso profesional en el caso concreto de las micropíldoras formativas.

15:30-17:00 Session 10D: Enseñanza de lenguas y diseño curricular/Language teaching
Location: SALA/ROOM 4
Análisis de procesos y estrategias integrados en las actividades de expresión escrita de los manuales de ELE A1-C1 de la colección "En acción" (Ed. enClave ELE). Adecuación al enfoque didáctico procesual
SPEAKER: Marta Mariño

ABSTRACT. La escritura se concibe actualmente como un proceso complejo, que requiere mucho más que saber hablar un idioma y transcribir las palabras en papel u ordenador observando la corrección gramatical. La expresión escrita exige, entre otros requisitos, conocer los distintos géneros discursivos y decidir cómo escribir un texto determinado para transmitir de forma efectiva la información a la audiencia a la que está destinado. En general, la escritura en L1 de un adulto está automatizada; pero cuando queremos escribir en una L2, nos damos cuenta del esfuerzo y el trabajo que supone producir un buen texto, entendiendo como tal el que tiene éxito en la comunicación. Todos podemos aprender a escribir buenos textos y convertirnos en escritores competentes. Con esta afirmación como punto de partida, fijamos nuestra atención en la enseñanza y aprendizaje de ELE, en la que los manuales son herramientas clave, ya que los planteamientos que tienen sus actividades ejercen una gran influencia, tanto en los docentes como en los aprendices. Tomando como base el enfoque didáctico procesual de la escritura y trabajos previos de varios investigadores, hemos desarrollado una plantilla de análisis de las actividades de expresión escrita en los manuales de ELE, y la hemos aplicado a una colección de manuales de niveles A1-C1 para identificar los procesos y estrategias integrados en ellos, así como sus cambios a lo largo de los niveles de referencia. A partir de las respuestas a esas cuestiones, este trabajo pretende orientar a los docentes para desarrollar en el aula una didáctica efectiva de la escritura como proceso, especialmente en lo que respecta al desarrollo de estrategias personalizadas en los aprendices y la conciencia del proceso de escritura, para que puedan llegar a ser escritores competentes.

Vocabulario Fundamental: historia, definición y nuevas propuestas aplicadas a la enseñanza de ELE

ABSTRACT. En esta comunicación definimos el concepto de Vocabulario Fundamental y exponemos la metodología que hemos desarrollado para delimitarlo, en este caso con el ejemplo de la lengua española y con el objetivo de la enseñanza del ELE. Para conocer el estado de la cuestión, partimos del estudio de las anteriores propuestas de léxicos fundamentales, así como de los vocabularios frecuentes o básicos y los diccionarios de léxico disponible, ambos de forma independiente. Primero profundizamos en el estudio del léxico fundamental en concreto: definición del concepto, historia desde la primera propuesta hasta las más actuales, metodologías seguidas, resultados, aplicaciones, retos, etc. A continuación establecemos los criterios metodológicos de lo que nosotros consideramos vocabulario fundamental. Para ilustrarlo hemos elegido algunos léxicos frecuentes y disponibles que consideramos más adecuados para intentar una fusión orgánica y llevar, así, a cabo una propuesta concreta de vocabulario fundamental del español. Partimos de la hipótesis de que el vocabulario fundamental refleja de forma más completa la competencia léxica de una lengua que el léxico frecuente y el disponible por separado, y de que la unión de ambos puede resultar altamente útil como propuesta de selección léxica para la docencia de ELE.

Bibliografía Alameda, J. R. y Cuetos, F. (1995): Léxico de frecuencia de las unidades lingüística del castellano, Oviedo, Universidad de Oviedo. Ávila Muñoz, A. M. (1999): Léxico de frecuencia del español hablado en la ciudad de Málaga, Málaga, Universidad de Málaga. Bacelar do Nascimento, M. F., M. L. Garcia Marques e M. L: Segura da Cruz, Português Fundamental, Métodos e Documentos, tomo 1, Inquérito de Frequência, Lisboa, INIC, CLUL, 1987. Bartol Hernández, J. A. & Hernández Muñoz, N. (2003). Dispolex: Base de datos de la disponibilidad léxica. Salamanca: Universidad de Salamanca. Bartol Hernández, J. A. (2010). Disponibilidad léxica y selección del vocabulario. In R. Castañer Martín & V. Lagüéns Gracia (eds.). De moneda nunca usada. Estudios filológicos dedicados a José M. Enguita Utrilla (pp. 85-107). Zaragoza: Institución Fernando el Católico. Davies (2006): A Frequency Dictionary of Spanish: core vocabulary for learners, New York, Routledge. García Hoz, Víctor (1953): Vocabulario usual, común y fundamental: determinación y análisis de sus factores, Madrid, C.S.I.C. Gougenheim, Georges; Michéa, René; Rivenc, Paul y Sauvageot, Aurélien (1958): Dictionnaire fondamental de la langue française, Didier, Paris. Juilland & Chang-Rodríguez (1964): Frequency Dictionnary of spanish words, La Haya, Mouton. López Morales, H. (1996) "Los estudios de disponibilidad léxica: pasado y presente" en Homenaje a Rodolfo Oroz, BFUCh XXXV: 245-259. Recuperado el 20 de abril de 2013: Morales, A. (1986): Léxico básico del español de Puerto Rico, San Juan de Puerto Rico, Academia Puertoriqueña de la Lengua Española. Rojo Sastre, A. J. (1979): Bases lexicológicas en una metodología audiovisual de la lengua española para extranjeros, Tesis Doctoral, Madrid: Universidad Complutense. [Dirigida por Víctor García Hoz. Texto manuscrito e inédito.] Sebastián, N., Cuetos, F., Martí, M. A., y Carreiras, M. F (2000): LEXESP: Léxico informatizado del español [CD-ROM] Barcelona, Edicions de la Universitat de Barcelona.

Curriculum renewal: Exploring e-portfolios for pedagogical change in university English learning

ABSTRACT. In recent years, student portfolios have received attention because of their potential to close the gap between teaching and testing as well as their potential to involve students in their own learning. Student portfolios have emerged as the vehicle by which students can organize, manage, and analyze their learning; portfolio implementation matches the growth of instructional and assessment practices in higher education that are student-centered, process-oriented, performance-based, integrated, interactional and multidimensional. With technology becoming ubiquitous in education and society, electronic portfolios, or e-portfolios, have become increasingly popular.

This paper reports the process and experience of a large-scale implementation with 1,300 students using e-portfolios in a professional English course designed for undergraduate second language learners targeting relevant English communication skills and knowledge for entry into the workplace in the internationally dominated local economy on graduation from university. The purpose of the presentation is to describe and illustrate e-portfolios, including its characteristics, implications, and advantages for language learners. The presentation also evaluates the effectiveness of e-portfolios in allowing students to demonstrate their knowledge, skills, critical awareness, reflective learning, self-representation and identity construction. Sample e-portfolios are demonstrated. Questionnaire and interview data were collected from students and teachers. Their learning/teaching experience is summarized. The experience in implementing an e-portfolio system is shared and some practical issues and challenges are presented. The paper concludes by reflecting on the implementation of e-portfolios on a wider scale and looking at the implications of the approach for a range of different contexts.

15:30-17:00 Session 10E: Análisis del discurso/Discourse analysis
Location: SALA/ROOM 5
A contrastive study of students´s written discourse in bilingual degrees: Insights from L1 and L2 exams in the discipline of economics

ABSTRACT. Over the last ten years the growing number of international students at universities has strengthened the role of English as a medium of instruction (EMI) and enhanced the need for further research on the dynamic and multifarious nature of universities as multilingual settings (see, for instance, Dafouz and Smit, 2014). Against this backdrop, the INTER-LICA project based at the Complutense University of Madrid was developed with the aim of examining the linguistic and disciplinary challenges that both students and teachers face in an EMI context as well as exploring the impact that learning through EMI might have on student levels of academic achievement and on their future employability. Inscribed within this project, the present paper analysis students´ performance in written examinations from a discursive and contrastive point of view. Drawing on a genre-based approach (Bhatia, 2004; Nesi and Gardner 2012), this study aims to investigate how L1 (Spanish) and L2 (English) final exams of Spanish and Erasmus students taking the same Business Administration course differ in the use of linguistic resources characteristic of the genre and of the discipline. The data comprises three sets of exams (L1 Spanish group; L2 Spanish group; and L2 Eramus group), further divided into high and low achievers´exams. The quantitative and qualitative analysis of relevant generic and disciplinary features found in the L1 and L2 exams of high and low achievers shows that success in academic performance seems to correlate with a high number of complex nominal groups containing specialized lexis and with an appropriate and varied use of generic discursive features, such as modality, cause and effect expressions, hypotheticality and intertextuality.


Bhatia, Vijai (2004). Worlds of Written Discourse. A genre-based View. London, New Delhi, New York and Sydney: Bloomsbury.

Dafouz, Emma and Smit, Ute (2014). Towards a dynamic conceptual framework for English-Medium Education in multilingual university settings. Applied Linguistics, 1-20.

Nesi, Hilary and Sheena Gardner (2012). Genres across the Disciplines. Student Writing in Higher Education. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press

Exploring if/si-clauses in spoken academic discourse: A contrastive English-Spanish-French study

ABSTRACT. Conditional clauses are claimed to be particularly frequent in academic discourse (Biber et al., 1999: 824), since they do not only play an important role in presenting or developing arguments, but also serve to express interpersonal functions (Warchal, 2010). The present study describes the uses and functions of if-clauses in English in spoken academic discourse, comparing them with their equivalent si-clauses in Spanish and French. The choice of spoken discourse is motivated by the fact that speech has generally been neglected in favour of writing in the study of academic discourse (Mauranen, 2004: 201). Taking into account syntactic, semantic and functional considerations, an analytical framework is presented to compare and contrast if/si-clauses across languages at three different levels, i.e. ideational, interpersonal and textual (Halliday & Matthiessen, 2014), explaining the different functionalities that they serve at these three domains. Particular attention is paid to instances of insubordination (Evans, 2007), in which the if/si-clause stands in isolation from a matrix clause that cannot be retrieved from the context. In addition, a semantic typology is proposed, distinguishing three semantic types of conditionals: neutral, hypothetical and rejected (Mackenzie & Martínez Caro, 2012). After analysing the spoken academic subcorpus the International Corpus of English – Great Britain (Nelson, Wallis & Aarts, 2002) and the equivalent Spanish and French subcorpora of the Integrated Reference Corpora for Spoken Romance Languages (Cresti & Moneglia, 2005), the findings reveal that these constructions are significantly more frequent in English, and that, especially in si-clauses in the two Romance languages scrutinised, other uses may prevail over the conditional one.


Biber, D., Johansson, S., Leech, G., Conrad, S., & Finegan, E. (1999). Longman grammar of spoken and written English. Harlow: Longman. Cresti, E., & Moneglia, M. (2005). CORALROM. Integrated Reference Corpora for Spoken Romance Languages. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Evans, N. (2007). Insubordination and its uses. In I. Nicolavea (Ed.), Finiteness: Theoretical and Empirical Foundations (pp. 366-431). Oxford: Oxford University Press. Halliday, M., & Matthiessen, C. (2014). Halliday's Introduction to Functional Grammar. London: Routledge. Mackenzie, J. L., & Martínez Caro, E. (2012). Compare and Contrast. An English Grammar for Speakers of Spanish. Granada: Comares. Mauranen, A. (2004). Talking Academic: A Corpus Approach to Academic Speech. In K. Aijmer (Ed.), Dialogue Analysis VIII: Understanding and Misunderstanding in Dialogue (pp. 201-218). Tübingen: Niemeyer. Nelson, G., Wallis, S., & Aarts, B. (2002). Exploring Natural Language: The British Component of the International Corpus of English. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Warchal, K. (2010). Moulding interpersonal relations through conditional clauses: consensus-building strategies in written academic discourse. Journal of English for Academic Purposes, 9, 140-150.

15:30-17:00 Session 10F: Adquisición y aprendizaje/Language acquisition
Location: SALA/ROOM 6
The long-term effects on instruction on EFL learners' use of complaining formulas
SPEAKER: unknown

ABSTRACT. The role of pragmatic instruction in formal academic settings has been one of the main investigated areas within the field of interlanguage pragmatics in the last decades (see Takahashi, 2010; Taguchi, 2015 for a review of the research conducted). Results from this research have overall shown the benefits of engaging learners in an instructional period as well as the teachability of all pragmatic aspects being examined (i.e. a variety of speech acts, implicature, speech style, interactional markers or address forms, among others). In spite of this increasing body of research analysing the positive role of pragmatic instruction, scant studies have been designed to examine whether the effectiveness of that instruction is sustained some time later. On that account, and in order to address Kasper and Rose’s (2002) suggestions regarding the need to incorporate additional measures that assess the instructional effects over time, the present study attempts to shed more light on this aspect by examining learners’ use of complaining formulas in a FL context not only after immediately receiving instruction, but also two months later.

The speech act of complaining has been selected as the instructional target feature of this study due to the fact that a performance of it in a FL is a complex and challenging task for learners. Indeed, learners’ lack of the appropriate formulas needed to perform complaints in a socially acceptable manner in the target language may result in an impolite and rude behaviour (Usó-Juan and Martínez-Flor, 2014). Thus, there is a need to make learners aware of the different formulas that may be used when complaining in a variety of communicative situations depending on the social variables (i.e. status, distance and level of offense) and the degree of politeness involved in each situation. To that end, an instructional treatment was elaborated and implemented on a group of Spanish university learners. The treatment included both awareness and communicative productive activities, as well as explicit metapragmatic explanations about the variety of semantic formulas that can be used when complaining appropriately in different situations. Findings obtained by means of examining FL learners’ responses in the three different moments, that is (1) before receiving instruction, (2) immediately after receiving instruction, and (3) two months later, indicate that learners used a variety of complaining formulas, not only after participating in the instructional period, but also two months later. These results are discussed and directions for further research presented.


Kasper, G. and Rose, K. R. 2002. Pragmatic Development in a Second Language. Oxford: Blackwell.

Taguchi, N. 2015. Instructed pragmatics at a glance: Where instructional studies were, are, and should be going. Language Teaching, 48 (1), 1-50.

Takahashi, S. 2010. The effect of pragmatic instruction on speech act performance. In Martínez-Flor, A. and Usó-Juan, E. (eds), Speech Act Performance: Theoretical, Empirical and Methodological Issues, 127-142. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Usó-Juan, E. and Martínez-Flor, A. 2014. Reorienting the assessment of the conventional expressions of complaining and apologising: From single-response to interactive DCTs. Iranian Journal of Language Testing, 4 (1), 113-136.

Native English-speaking teacher vs. non-native teacher supported by technologies: students’ motivation, attitudes and beliefs

ABSTRACT. There is a widely held view in our society favouring native English-speaking teachers (NESTs) over non-native English-speaking teachers (non-NESTs). In the field of Second Language Acquisition (SLA) the ‘near-native’ or ‘native-like’ proficiency is the highly desirable goal for all learners, yet the vast majority of English language teachers worldwide are actually non-native English speakers (Canagarajah, 2005). Studies focussed on students’ perceptions on NESTs and non-NESTs found that their general preference was for the former, or a combination of both (Lasagabaster and Sierra, 2002, 2005a and 2005b), although others (Chun, 2014; Moussu, 2002 and 2010) found that the students did not favour either of the teachers’ type over the other, notwithstanding, the results suggest that the students were more likely to be motivated in NESTs’ classes. It seems that in contexts such as the Basque Country in Spain, where the presence of native teachers is not within the reach of every school, non-native teachers may fall back on ICT (Information and Communication Technologies) for motivational support in the English classroom. It was believed that engaging students in the interaction with technology in the classroom may affect positively their motivation and attitudes towards English. The present study aimed at comparing motivational and attitudinal insights, obtained via focus groups interviews, of 165 high school students involved in two educational interventions, either in classes with a native teacher (NS-group) or with a non-native teacher supported by technologies (ICT-group). The results seem to indicate that the contrast between the two interventions did not bring any significant difference to light. The students systematically emphasised the positive motivational boost offered by the NEST and the non-NEST supported by technologies, and, therefore, it may be argued that, in those educational contexts where there is limited or even no possibility of falling back on native speaker teachers, technology can help non-native teachers to boost their students’ motivation and keep them interested in their English class.


Canagarajah, A.S. (Ed.) (2005). Reclaiming the local in language policy and practice. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. Chun, S.Y. (2014). EFL learners’ beliefs about native and non-native English-speaking teachers: perceived strengths, weaknesses, and preferences. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 35(6), 563-579. Lasagabaster, D. and J.M. Sierra (2002). University Students’ Perceptions of Native and Non-native Speaker Teachers of English. Language Awareness, 11(2), 132-142. Lasagabaster, D. and J.M. Sierra (2005a). The nativeness factor: an analysis of students’ preferences. ITL International Journal of Applied Linguistics, 148, 21-43. Lasagabaster, D. and J.M. Sierra (2005b). What do students think about the pros and cons of having a native speaker teacher? In E. Llurda (Ed.) Non-Native Language Teachers. Perceptions, Challenges and Contributions to the Profession. New York, NY: Springer. 217-241. Moussu, L. (2002). English as a second language students’ reactions to non-native-English-speaking teachers. Unpublished M.A. thesis. Brigham Young University, Provo, UT. Moussu, L. (2010). Influence of Teacher-Contact Time and Other Variables on ESL Students’ Attitudes Towards Native- and Nonnative-English-Speaking Teachers. TESOL Quarterly, 44(4), 746-768.

A qualitative view of teacher trainees' L2 selves and language learning motivation
SPEAKER: unknown


With the recent growth of interest in a new dominant theory within L2 motivation —The L2 Motivational Self System (Dörnyei, 2005; Dörnyei & Ushioda 2009), views of learner L2 attitudes and behaviour are starting to incorporate the concept of learners’ visions of themselves as future L2 users as a lens through which to analyse their approaches to language learning (e.g. Ryan, 2009; Taguchi, Magid & Papi, 2009). The L2MSS claims to offer a broader more flexible motivational construct than that of previous theories (i.e. integrativeness) by viewing learners’ attitudinal, goal-related and affective dispositions through their ideal and ought L2 selves. A recent study (Brady, 2015) has recently employed the L2MSS to examine the L2 learning motivation of over 600 university students in the Region of Murcia. However, in her study, the Ought L2 self — a sense of pressure to learn by significant others — emerged as a negative variable more strongly associated with a lack of enjoyment of L2 learning and unrelated to intentions to learn in the future. To explore the nature of the Ought L2 self further in the light of current governmental pressure for teachers to certify L2 skills, this study proposed to qualitatively explore the interplay of the ideal and ought L2 selves in a sample of university students. Thus, we present our analysis of a series of L2 teacher trainee narratives which provides insight into the development of these individuals’ ideal and ought L2 selves against a political and educational background of strong governmental pressure to certify L2 skills and a future employment market demanding qualified ‘bilingual’ English teachers. Twelve students of primary and secondary education degrees in the Region of Murcia were interviewed in depth about their English language learning histories, the evolution of their ideal L2 selves, their sense of an ought L2 self and the role of other goal-related and emotional variables in their language learning journey and their future visions of an ideal L2 (bilingual) teaching selves. The findings suggest that a lack of support in educational institutions is having a potentially demotivating effect on L2 learning.

Brady, I. K. (2015) The ideal and ought L2 selves of Spanish learners of English (Unpublished PhD study) University of Murcia, Murcia. Dörnyei, Z. (2005). The psychology of the language learner: Individual differences in second language acquisition. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. Dörnyei, Z., & Ushioda, E. (2009) (Eds.), Motivation, language identity and the L2 self. Bristol: Multilingual Matters. Ryan, S. (2009). Self and identity in L2 motivation in Japan: The ideal L2 self and Japanese learners of English. In Z. Dörnyei & E. Ushioda. (Eds.), Motivation, language identity and the L2 self (pp. 120-143), Bristol: Multilingual Matters.

Taguchi, T., Magid, M., & Papi, M. (2009). The L2 motivational self system amongst Chinese, Japanese and Iranian learners of English: A comparative study. In Z. Dörnyei & E. Ushioda (Eds.), Motivation, language identity and the L2 self (pp. 66-97). Bristol: Mulitlingual Matters.

15:30-17:00 Session 10G: Adquisición y aprendizaje/Language acquisition
Location: SALA/ROOM 7
El Multilingüismo en la Etapa de Educación Infantil
SPEAKER: unknown

ABSTRACT. El Consejo de Europa, en un intento de ampliar la riqueza cultural, intelectual y social de la futura ciudadanía de la Unión Europea, propuso en 1997, promover la enseñanza de lenguas distintas a la materna, de forma precoz y a través de un enfoque lúdico. Estudios sobre educación bilingüe realizados por autores como Cummins (2001), Dörnyei (2001), Chamot (1999) o Cenoz y Jessner (2000), han demostrado que la competencia comunicativa en una lengua se consigue más eficazmente, cuando el proceso de adquisición se centra en la negociación de contenidos curriculares y no en el aprendizaje de contenidos incluidos en áreas de conocimiento independientes. Además, demuestran, que cuando en el proceso de aprendizaje se utilizan lenguas diferentes a la materna se favorece: la capacidad cognitiva del alumno, la motivación y el desarrollo de actitudes positivas hacia el aprendizaje, la elaboración de estrategias de aprendizaje nuevas, la transversalidad del conocimiento y la transferencia de aprendizajes entre lenguas, y el desarrollo de una conciencia metalingüística que favorece la comprensión de otras lenguas. ¿Pero son exportables estas conclusiones a la educación multilingüe? Hasta hace pocos años, el multilingüismo no había sido estudiado de forma específica al no ser considerado un proceso con características propias. Aunque los resultados obtenidos al analizar la educación bilingüe y multilingüe son similares, existen matices diferenciadores en función del tipo de educación recibida por el aprendiz. Nuestro trabajo pretende establecer, si la enseñanza de lenguas optativas en la etapa de Educación Infantil, modifica el objetivo fundamental de los centros con enseñanza bilingüe: que los alumnos aprendan a comunicarse en inglés y desarrollen su competencia lingüística tanto en inglés como en español. Tomando como base la normativa vigente en la Comunidad de Madrid, estudiaremos, mediante el análisis de las destrezas orales receptivas y productivas, si los niños de tercer año del segundo ciclo de la etapa de Educación Infantil que estudian en centros multilingües (inglés-alemán-español) alcanzan el mismo nivel de competencia comunicativa en inglés y español, que los niños que estudian en centros bilingües (inglés-español). Los resultados obtenidos permitirán determinar, si en contextos formales y en la etapa de Educación Infantil, la enseñanza de una tercera lengua supone un obstáculo para el aprendizaje de los contenidos curriculares.   REFERENCIAS Cenoz, J. y Jessner, U. (Eds.) (2000). English in Europe: The Acquisition of a Third Language. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters. Cummins, J. (2001). Instructional conditions for trilingual development. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 4 (1), 61-75. Chamot, A. y Beard El-Dinary, P. (1999). Children’s learning strategies in language immersion classrooms. The Modern Language Journal, 83 (3), 319-338. Dörnyei, Z. (2001). Motivational Strategies in the Language Classroom. Cambridge: CUP. Hufeisen, B. (2000). How do foreign language learners evaluate various aspects of their multilingualism? In S. Dentler, B. Hufeisen and B. Lindermann (eds.) Tertiär-und Drittsprachen. Tübingen: Stauffenburg.

El uso de las metáforas por los aprendices españoles de inglés: la influencia de la lengua materna
SPEAKER: unknown

ABSTRACT. La investigación llevada a cabo en el área de lingüística cognitiva ha demostrado que el lenguaje no literal, especialmente la metáfora, forma parte de la comunicación cotidiana tanto en diferentes contextos, como en diferentes modos: escrito y oral (Lakoff & Johnson, 1980; Lakoff, 1993; Cameron & Low, 1999; Ortony, 1993; Semino, 2008). La metáfora es fundamental no sólo en la estructura y desarrollo de un sistema lingüístico, sino también en la expresión de las ideas de una persona sobre sí misma, sus relaciones con otros y sobre su entorno. El presente estudio busca analizar la influencia de la lengua materna en el uso de las metáforas en textos escritos de los estudiantes españoles en inglés de los niveles B2 y C1 de conocimiento de la lengua inglesa según el Marco Común Europeo (CEFR, 2001). Para llevar a cabo este estudio indagamos en las metáforas “defectuosas”, es decir aquellas metáforas que no pertenecen al conjunto de las metáforas convencionales utilizadas por los hablantes nativos, o aquellas que representan alguna diferencia en cuanto a la forma léxico-gramatical y su aspecto conceptual. Se utilizan tres corpus: uno de 100 textos escritos de los estudiantes españoles en inglés de los niveles B2 y C1 y dos corpus de referencia: el corpus de inglés BNC y el corpus de español EsTenTen11. Para el análisis de corpus de textos de estudiantes se utiliza el procedimiento de identificación de metáforas MIPVU propuesto por Steen et al. (2010). Para el análisis de los corpus de referencia se utiliza el programa Sketch Engine. Los resultados de este estudio pueden ser especialmente útiles para los estudiantes y los profesores de inglés como lengua extranjera.

Bibliografía Cameron, L., & Low, G. (1999). Researching and applying metaphor. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Council of Europe. (2001). Common European Framework of Reference for Languages: Learning, Teaching, Assessment. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Lakoff, G. (1993). The contemporary theory of metaphor. Metaphor and thought, 2, 202-251. Lakoff, G., Johnson, M. (1980). Metaphors We Live By. Chicago IL: University of Chicago Press. Ortony, A. (1993). Metaphor and thought. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Semino, E. (2008). Metaphor in discourse. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Steen, G. J., Dorst, A. G., Herrmann, J. B., Kaal, A. A., & Krennmayr, T. (2010). Metaphor in usage. Cognitive Linguistics 21/4, 765-796.

Verbos españoles y adverbios alemanes

ABSTRACT. En las correspondencias entre el español y el alemán se observa que a menudo las dos lenguas usan mecanismos diferentes para expresar relaciones espaciales y temporales. En el marco del proyecto Estudio contrastivo da expresión das relacións lóxicas en alemán e castelán de la Universidade de Santiago de Compostela se constató (Althoff, Doval: 2015) claramente que, mientras el español prefiere verbos de posición y dirección así como perífrasis verbales, el alemán trabaja preferiblemente con adverbios espaciales o temporales. Esta importante divergencia ocasiona a los aprendices de ambas lenguas como lenguas extranjeras numerosos problemas y les induce a interferencias. Con la ayuda del proyecto Construcciones espaciales en alemán y español: elaboración de un corpus y análisis contrastivo1 que actualmente se está llevando a cabo en la Universidad de Santiago de Compostela pretendo analizar cómo se enfrentan los traductores a estas construcciones, ejemplificándolo con verbos de movimiento españoles y adverbios alemanes destacados. Pare este fin he comparado las soluciones que se aplican, tanto traduciendo del alemán al español como del español al alemán. A continuación, se contrastan los resultados con las estructuras empleadas en alemán por aprendices de alemán/hablantes no nativos, utilizando para ello el corpus FALKO de la Humboldt-Universität Berlin. (Referencia debajo de la Web) La utilidad que puede tener este análisis a posteriori no se limita a la comparación de distintos métodos de traducción, sino que se aplica a la enseñanza de lenguas – tanto de lenguas extranjeras como de segundas lenguas. Como se puede ver en el estudio de Bryant (2015: 3-28) sobre la adquisición de los relatores espaciales en alemán por niños extranjeros, el mecanismo individual de cada idioma tiene gran influencia en cuál sería el camino más oportuno y eficaz para dominar una lengua. Los resultados pueden utilizarse igualmente en la mejora del material lingüístico para la enseñanza de lenguas extranjeras, ya que ayudan a centrar la atención de los estudiantes en los mecanismos típicos de la lengua meta y evitan así una fosilización en traducciones demasiado literales, inadecuadas, aunque pueda que gramaticalmente aún consideradas correctas. (Althoff, 2015)


Althoff, Roswitha y Doval, Irene (2015): Grammatischer Kontext der depräpositionalen Richtungsadverbien. In: Cretu, Ioana-Narcisa (ed): Quo Vadis, Kommunikation? Althoff, Roswitha (2015): Adverbien statt Verben für Bewegung und Aspekt. En: Handwerker, Brigitte u.a. (ed): Zwischenräume: Lexikon und Grammatik im Deutschen als Fremdsprache. Perspektiven Deutsch als Fremdsprache. Tomo 29. Baltmannsweiler. Schneider Verlag. 217-224. Bryant, Doreen (2013): „Typologisches Bootstrapping als didaktische Ressource“ En: Handwerker, Brigitte u.a. (ed): Zwischenräume: Lexikon und Grammatik im Deutschen als Fremdsprache. Perspektiven Deutsch als Fremdsprache. Tomo 29. Baltmannsweiler. Schneider Verlag. 3-28. Kommunikation – Sprache – Medien. Akten des 46 Linguistischen Kolloquiums in Sibiu 2011. Frankfurt. Peter Lang. 351-360. FALKO. Ein fehlerannotiertes Lernerkorpus des Deutschen als Fremdsprache:

1 Construcciones espaciales en alemán y español: elaboración de un corpus y Análisis contrastivo. Universidade de Santiago de Compostela. Referencia: FF12013-42571-P.

15:30-17:00 Session 10H: Traducción e interpretación/Translation and interpreting
Location: SALA/ROOM 8
De la televisión a la red. El subtitulado profesional y el subtitulado “amateur”: diferencias.

ABSTRACT. Este trabajo se articula en torno al análisis de las diferencias lingüísticas que hay entre el subtitulado televisivo (el profesional, la mayoría de las veces) y el de la red, en concreto el de Youtube (al que llamamos “amateur”). La cifra de personas con alguna discapacidad auditiva en España gira en torno al millón de personas y, aunque hay que advertir que el grado de sordera no tiene por qué correlacionarse con la modalidad de comunicación, sí que sabemos que ese casi millón de personas con pérdidas auditivas necesita de los subtítulos si quiere tener acceso a la información (sobre todo televisiva) de una manera más o menos satisfactoria: los subtítulos ayudan bastante a poder resolver los problemas de comunicación de las personas sordas. Las restricciones espacio-temporales que se aplican al subtitulado revelan la imposibilidad de llevar a cabo una transcripción literal de lo que se está diciendo, ya que esta no permitiría al usuario el visionado de la imagen y el extraer el significado de su contenido en tan poco tiempo. Lo que se suele hacer en los subtítulos televisivos es restringir el contenido de lo que se dice en la imagen. Sin embargo, el subtitulado en Youtube es distinto, se hace de forma automática e, incluso, los espectadores mismos pueden aportar subtítulos, ya que existe una función que permite la inserción de los mismos. Por eso, en este trabajo analizamos las consecuencias lingüísticas que se derivan de estas restricciones y de estas diferencias en la forma de subtitular para, a partir de ahí, intentar ofrecer unas aportaciones, sistematizadas, para la mejora de la subtitulación española. A partir de nuestro análisis, concluimos que hay que revisar los criterios del subtitulado que se emplean en la actualidad y definimos otros que, creemos, ayudarían al colectivo de personas sordas a acceder más y mejor a la información. La necesidad de definir nuevos criterios de subtitulación que mejoren la comprensión de los programas televisivos, es la principal implicación que se deriva de nuestro trabajo.

BIBLIOGRAFÍA Arnáiz Urquiza, Verónica (2012), Los parámetros que identifican el subtitulado para sordos. Análisis y clasificación. Versión electrónica: Cambras, Cristina; Silvestre, Núria y Leal, Aurora (2008), “Análisis de la comprensión por parte del alumnado sordo de documentos televisivos subtitulados y criterios de mejora” en Quaderns del CAC nº 31-32, julio 2008-junio 2009, pág. 155-159. Díaz Cintas, Jorge (2001), La Traducción audiovisual. El subtitulado. Salamanca, Ediciones Almar. ----- (2003), Teoría y práctica de la subtitulación. Barcelona, Ariel. Méndez Brage, B. (2002), El subtitulado para sordos. Vigo, Facultad de Filología. (TFC inédito). Pereira Rodríguez, Ana Mª (2005), “El subtitulado para sordos: estado de la cuestión en España”. Barcelona, Quaderns, Revista de traducció 12, pág. 161-172. Versión electrónica

Dubbese Unchained: Screen Translation and Disruption of Film Genre

ABSTRACT. Film Studies on genre have supplied for half a century (Buscombe, 1970; Bazin, 1971; Altman, 1984) a homogeneous canon welcome by academic circles in order to perform corpus analyses compared to the norm. Within various options, western is arguably the easiest genre so as to establish reception expectations related to location, atrezzo and language (Neale, 2000). Within the Spanish cultural context, linguistic expectations were originally established by a dubbese (Díaz Cintas, 2004) developed by the screen translation of American westerns that started with the advent of talkies in the 1930s, providing a terminology (e.g. ‘forastero’, ‘forajido’) only used in the dubbed versions of these films which were alien to the target culture. However, in the 1960s, the implosion of a short-lived subgenre in Spain, spaghetti western, resulted in the production of local films whose Spanish scriptwriters used this terminology in their original texts, subsequently ‘officializing’ it as Spanish lexicon. The circle eventually closes in the 21st century with the release of ‘transgressive’ North-American westerns, e.g. The Assassination of Jesse James by the Coward John Ford (2007) or Django Unchained (2012), which disrupt most canonical signs related to the genre, including dialogues, leaving Spanish screen translators with the options of either remaining faithful to the traditional dubbese or developing a different terminology (to make matters worse, in the latter film, the source text blends with another sub-genre, blaxploitation, which never developed a verbal canon of its own in the target context because hardly any of its films were seen in Spain).

The purpose of this paper is to provide an epistemological basis to analyze how a terminological canon ‘artificially’ produced by screen translators, and eventually adopted by scriptwriters of the target cultural context as an essential part of their creative work, could be re-used or re-adapted by current screen translators, under the new circumstances of the source texts, in their search for communicative appropriateness (Hatim & Mason, 1990). This translation problem which arises from the historical development of the source language, in this case within a film genre, would be expected to have consequences in its transfer to a target cultural context, with a greater or lesser disruption of the anticipated inferences of the audience (Sperber and Wilson, 1986) who attend these contemporary productions, which might even lead to a re-adaptation of the terminological canon.


Altman, R. (1984). ‘A Semantic/Syntactic Approach to Film Genre’, in Cinema Journal Vol. 23/3, 6-18. Bazin, A. (1971). ‘The Western, or the American Film par excellence’, in Gray, H. (ed.) What is Cinema? 2, Berkeley: California U.P., 140-8. Buscombe, E. (1970) ‘The Idea of Genre in the American Cinema’, in Screen 11, 2, 33-45. Díaz Cintas, J. (2004). ‘In search of a theoretical framework for the study of audiovisual translation’, in Orero, P. (ed.) Topics in Audiovisual Translation. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 21-34. Hatim, B. and I. Mason, (1990). Discourse and the Translator. London: Longman. Neale, S. (2000). Genre and Hollywood. London/New York: Routledge. Sperber, D. & D. Wilson, (1986) Relevance: Communication and Cognition. Oxford: Blackwell.

El impacto de la autoestima, regulación y expresividad emocional en el producto de la traducción

ABSTRACT. Durante las últimas décadas ha despuntado una nueva línea de investigación en los estudios de traducción centrada en el impacto de las diferencias individuales en el proceso y en el producto de la traducción (p. ej., Hubscher-Davidson, 2007, 2009, 2013; Bontempo, 2013; Rosiers, Vermeiren & Eyckmans, 2013; Lehr, 2013; Abihssira, 2014; Bolaños, 2014; Bontempo & Napier, 2014; Rojo & Ramos, 2015). Estos estudios han demostrado que la creatividad, la autoestima, la estabilidad emocional, la inteligencia emocional, la intuición y la resiliencia, entre otros, son factores importantes en el proceso traslativo. La presente investigación explora el impacto de la autoestima, la regulación emocional y la expresividad emocional del alumno de traducción en la calidad de sus traducciones. Para tal fin, se emplearon los siguientes test psicológicos validados: el test de autoestima de Rosenberg (1965), el cuestionario de expresividad emocional de Gross & John (1995) y el cuestionario de regulación emocional de Gross & John (2003). Los resultados constatan una correlación significativa entre la dimensione de supresión emocional y la calidad de la traducción, y una correlación negativa entre expresividad negativa y la calidad de la traducción, lo que sugiere que aquellos estudiantes de traducción que habitualmente tienden a inhibir sus respuestas emocionales negativas suelen crear traducciones de mejor calidad y que aquellos que tienen a expresar sus emociones negativas tienden a producir traducciones de peor calidad.

REFERENCIAS ABIHSSIRA, L. (2014). Factores de la psicología de la personalidad determinantes en el proceso translativo (trabajo fin de máster). Departamento de Traducción e Interpretación, Facultad de Letras, Universidad de Murcia. BOLAÑOS, A. (2014). La investigación de las diferencias individuales en traductología cognitiva en TRANS, 18, 199-214. BONTEMPO, K. M. (2013). Does Personality Matter? Exploring individual difference in interpreters, en Affective Factors in Translation Process Research, Aston University, 6 de diciembre. GROSS, J. J. & JOHN, O. P. (1995). Facets of emotional expressivity: Three self report factors and their correlates. Personality and Individual Differences, 19, 555-568. GROSS, J. J. & JOHN, O. P. Individual differences in two emotion regulation processes: implications for affect, relationships and well-being. J. Pers. Soc. Psychol. 85, 348–362. HUBSCHER-DAVIDSON. (2007). An Empirical Investigation into the Effects of Personality on the Performance of French to English Student Translators. Tesis doctoral. University of Bath. HUBSCHER-DAVIDSON, S. (2009). Personal Diversity and Diverse Personalities in Translation: a Study of Individual Differences. Perspectives: Studies in Translatology, 17(3), 175-192. HUBSCHER-DAVIDSON, S. (2013). Emotional Inteligence and Translation Studies: A New Bridge. Meta: Translators’ Journal, 58 (2), 324-346. LEHR, C. (2013). Influences of emotion on cognitive processing in translation: A framework and some empirical evidence, en Affective Factors in Translation Process Research, Aston University, 6 de diciembre. ROJO, A. & RAMOS, M. (2015). Can emotion stir translation skill? Defining the impact of positive and negative emotions on translation performance, en Translation Process Research Workshop 4, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, 15-17 enero 2015. ROSENBERG, M. (1965). Society and the adolescent self-image. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

15:30-17:00 Session 10I: Lingüística de corpus, computacional e ingeniería lingüística/Corpus linguistics, computational linguistics and linguistic engineering
Location: SALA/ROOM 9
by way of vs. by means of: On the Expression of Instrumentality in Middle English and Early Modern English

ABSTRACT. Grammaticalization is defined as “a process whereby a lexical item, with full referential meaning, develops grammatical meaning” (Fischer and Rosenbach 2000: 2; see also Hopper 1991; Diewald and Wischer 2002). According to Rissanen, grammaticalization may occur both with native and borrowed items at any stage of the History of English, being developed from one single lexical item or a group of words (2000: 152). This is the case of by way of and by means of that, according to the OED, were first attested in English at the beginning of the fifteenth century. Their prepositional function is the result of a process of grammaticalization undergone by way and mean, which evolved from noun to preposition in these contexts. Once established in the language, they coexisted until the end of the seventeenth century, the moment when by way of was progressively obliterated as a result of the on-going difffusion of by means of in these environments. Therefore, the present paper has been conceived with the following objectives: 1) to assess the grammaticalization process by which nouns such as way and mean developed prepositional functions for the expression of instrumentality; 2) to analyse the use and distribution of by way of and by means of in the History of English; 3) to investigate the distribution of these competing forms in terms of gender and social class. The source of evidence comes from the Helsinki Corpus of English, the Corpus of Early English Correspondence and the Old Bailey Corpus. References Diewald, Gabriele and Ilse Wischer. 2002. “Introduction”. New Reflections on Grammaticalization, edited by Isle Wischer and Gabriele Diewald. Amsterdam and Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company. 1-18. Fischer, Olga and Anette Rosenbach. 2000. “Introduction”. Pathways of Change: Grammaticalization in English, edited by Olga Fischer, Anette Rosenbach and Dieter Stein. Amsterdam and Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company. 1-38. Hopper, Paul J. 1991. “On Some Principles on Grammaticalization”. Approaches to Grammaticalization, edited by Elizabeth Closs Traugott and Bernd Heine. Amsterdam and Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company. 17-36. Rissanen, Matti. “Grammaticalisation from side to side: On the development of beside(s)”. Corpus Approaches to Grammaticalization in English, edited by Hans Lindquist and Christian Mair. Amsterdam and Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company. 151-170.

El uso de la lingüística de corpus para la identificación de culturemas y sus técnicas traductoras en un corpus de novelas traducidas

ABSTRACT. Con el objetivo de identificar los culturemas en un conjunto de textos literarios traducidos y analizar sus técnicas traductoras, se ha aplicado la metodología de la lingüística de corpus a la traducción literaria. Para alcanzar este objetivo, la primera etapa fue compilar un archivo de corpus trilingüe (inglés, español e italiano) de novelas originales y traducidas. Para que el corpus resultara representativo y equilibrado, se consideró la representatividad desde un punto de vista tanto cualitativo como cuantitativo y, fusionando diferentes metodologías de compilación, se alcanzó esta característica desde ambas perspectivas. Por un lado, gracias al análisis de teorías y corpus previos se consiguió encontrar parámetros adecuados para asegurar la representatividad cualitativa y por otro, mediante el método estadístico se comprobó a posteriori la representatividad cuantitativa. Una vez compilado el conjunto de textos, se ideó una metodología que consintiera aprovechar las ventajas ofrecidas por la lingüística de corpus con el fin de identificar y analizar los elementos culturales de los textos sin extraerlos de su contexto literario. En la primera fase se analizó el conjunto de textos traducidos con el fin de identificar los elementos culturales mediante el uso de herramientas como listados de palabras, colocaciones y clusters. A continuación se alinearon originales y traducciones, para identificar en las obras originales aquellos elementos culturales correspondientes a los culturemas ya encontrados en las traducciones. Finalmente, en la tercera fase se compararon los elementos culturales identificados en las traducciones con los de las obras originales para establecer la técnica traductora utilizada. En esta presentación se expondrán las tres fases metodológicas seguidas, los programas de análisis y las herramientas utilizadas juntos con los resultados obtenidos en cada momento. Como el estudio se está desarrollando dentro de un proyecto doctoral, se explicarán los avances y los resultados alcanzados hasta la fecha de la presentación.


BOWKER, L. (2002): Computer-aided translation technology : a practical introduction, University of Ottawa Press, Ottawa.

BOWKER, L. Y J. PEARSON, (2002): Working with Specialized Language: A Practical Guide to Using Corpora, Routledge, London.

LAVIOSA, S. (2002): Corpus-based Translation Studies: Theory, Findings, Applications, Rodopi, Amsterdam, New York.

NEWMARK, P. (1988): A textbook of translation, Prentice Hall, New York

NORD, C. (1997): Translating as a purposeful activity, St Jerome, Manchester

ROJO, G., (2002): Sobre la Lingüística basada en el análisis de corpus, en UZEI Hizkuntza-corpusak. Oraina eta geroa (2002-10-24/25), en (última visita el día 06/08/14)

SANCHEZ, A. (1995): «Definicion e historia de los corpus», en SANCHEZ, A. y otros (org.). CUMBRE – Corpus Linguistico de Espanol Contemporaneo, SGEL (Sociedad General Española de Librería), Madrid

SANTAMARIA GUINOT, L. (2001): Subtitulació i referents culturals. La traducció com a mitjà d'adquisició de representacions mentals, tesis doctoral, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Departamento de Traducción e Interpretación, Barcelona. En (última visita el día 30/10/2014).

SINCLAIR, J. (1991): Corpus, Concordance, Collocation. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Underused lexical bundles in written texts: the case of Spanish learners of English in Humanities

ABSTRACT. Corpus research on ESL writing has attempted to measure the closeness or distance of learner writing from native production in the past few decades. In this respect, phraseology has been an important line of research (Meunier & Granger 2008), specific attention being devoted to the presence (or absence) of uninterrupted sequences known as ‘lexical bundles’ (Biber et al. 1999).

This study focuses on four to five-word lexical bundles occurring in the written production of post-intermediate and advanced Spanish students of the degrees of English Studies and Translation at the University of Valencia. The aim is to compare these bundles with those found in native writing, for which the CASTLE learner corpus has been exploited. The study corpus is a set of argumentative and narrative essays that have been compiled at the University of Valencia from 2008 to 2015, and which has close to half a million words, distributed across around 350 texts. The results from CASTLE have been compared with those from two native corpora. First, with data from BAWE, a corpus of texts by 1,400 undergraduate and postgraduate British students from 2004–2007. Given the size of BAWE (6.5 million words), we focused on a subcorpus of Arts & Humanities containing roughly one million words where English is the writer’s mother tongue. Second, an ad hoc academic English corpus of one million words (ACUV) was created 1. It contains texts of professional native writers in the fields of linguistics, literature, culture and history, from 2007–2015. This study concentrates on those lexical bundles used by native expert writers (ACUV) and native non-expert writers (BAWE) which are underused by the Spanish learners of EFL in CASTLE. To this end, the most conspicuous instances of underuse have been selected, namely relevant sequences in native writing which have extremely low frequencies (0 and 5 occurrences) in CASTLE. We first identified those bundles that occur in ACUV and BAWE, but not in CASTLE and, secondly, bundles that are relevant in one of the native corpora (not in both) but not in CASTLE.

This research bears relevant implications for teaching, in a context where the students’ L1 seems to largely influence their L2 writing. Corpus-based studies of learner production have revealed that even at advanced stages, learners underuse, overuse, or even misuse native patterns of argumentative writing (see Campoy-Cubillo et al. 2010; also Chen & Baker, 2010). The data in the CASTLE corpus therefore can reveal potential gaps in the phraseology of those disciplines that students of English Studies and Translation should be more familiar with.


Biber, D., Johansson, S., Leech, G., Conrad, S. & Finegan, E. (1999). Longman grammar of spoken and written English. Harlow: Longman. Campoy-Cubillo, M.C., Bellés-Fortuño, B. & Gea-Valor, M.L. (2010). Corpus-based approaches to English language teaching. London: Continuum. Chen, Y.H. & Baker, P. (2010). Lexical bundles in L1 and L2 academic writing. Language Learning & Technology 14 (2): 30-49. Meunier, F. & Granger. S. (2008). Phraseology in foreign language learning and teaching. Amsterdam: Benjamins.

15:30-17:00 Session 10J: Análisis del discurso/Discourse analysis
Location: SALA/ROOM 10
Exploring Spanish pre-service teachers’ intercultural skills
SPEAKER: Marta Garrote

ABSTRACT. This paper presents a preliminary analysis of the profile of Spanish pre-service teachers regarding interculturality in order to identify their weaknesses and propose teaching strategies to increase students’ intercultural skills throughout their training period at university. The study was based on a corpus made up of group discussions on ICC. The participants previously fulfilled a questionnaire which presented situations where interculturality was involved. After that, they were arranged in small groups and talked about the different questions and situations in order to increase data from the questionnaire and explain and develop their answers. They were recorded and their discourse transcribed. Transcriptions were analysed using a computer-assisted qualitative data analysis software, following a bottom-up coding methodological strategy. Those fragments of discourse considered relevant for the aim of the study were annotated using tags which stand for different categories, following an interpretative phenomenological analysis. From raw data, concepts were identified, ending up in a list of codes which identify ideas that reflected participants’ view of intercultural communicative competence and their skills to manage intercultural communication. The most frequent codes were those related to avoidance and excuse when facing difficult intercultural situations. Results reveal significant contradictions in pre-service teachers’ discourse, which means that it is necessary to design teaching techniques and strategies to improve future teachers’ ICC.


Byram, M. (1997). Teaching and Assessing Intercultural Communicative Competence. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters. Brown, H. D. (2007; 5th ed.). Principles of Language Learning and Teaching. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall Regent. Byram, M. (Ed.) (2000). Routledge Encyclopedia of Language Teaching and Learning. London: Routledge. Cattley, Georgina (2007). Emergence of professional identity for the preservice teacher. International Education Journal 8(2): 337-347. Cutshall, Sandy (2012). More Than a Decade of Standards: Integrating “Cultures” in Your Language Instruction. The Language Educator 7(3): 32-37. Holmes, P and O’Neill, G. (2012). Developing and evaluating intercultural competence: Ethnographies of intercultural encounters. International Journal of Intercultural Relations 36: 707-718. Kramsch, C. (2003). Teaching language across the cultural fault line. In D. L. Lange and R. M. Paige (Eds.), Culture as the Core: Perspectives on Culture in Second Language Learning. Greenwich, Connecticut (CT): Information Age Publishing Inc. 19-35. Lange, D. L. and Paige, R. M. (2003). Culture as the Core: Perspectives on Culture in Second Language Learning. Greenwich, Connecticut (CT): Information Age Publishing Inc. Thanasoulas, N. (2001). “The importance of teaching culture in the foreign language classroom”. Radical Pedagogy. Available at: Ting-Toomey, S. (2007). Researching intercultural conflict competence. Journal of International Communication 13: 7-30. Tomalin, B. and Templeski, S. (1993). Cultural Awareness. Oxford: OUP.

Trigger e interacción en moves elaborativos generados en discurso no formal, on-line y metapedagógico, con alemán y español como L3
SPEAKER: unknown

ABSTRACT. Analizamos 10 extractos de un corpus de interacción oral entre aprendices de alemán y de español como terceras lenguas, con español y alemán como L1 respectivamente y con inglés como L2 en ambos casos. El corpus consta de aprox. 300 minutos de conversación informal online (alrededor de 18.000 palabras contando los small words) entre parejas formadas por 22 participantes. El formato de tándem online en un contexto de aprendizaje no formal (no se trata de classroom exchanges, no hay acreditación ni inserción curricular de los aprendizajes, no hay blending con instrucción presencial) pretende promover una relación simétrica entre los participantes. El carácter simétrico de la participación se considera contingente puesto que depende de la competencia interaccional de los participantes. La consideración de L3 para las lenguas de la interacción deja la puerta abierta a una posible orientación multilingüe por parte de los participantes, aunque no se excluye el despliegue interactivo de otras categorías de participación. De gran importancia para nuestro análisis es el desarrollo endógeno de orientaciones participativas (animator, interaction manager, novice vs. expert conversationalist, etc.), que a diferencia de categorías de participación exógenas (establecidas fuera de la interacción, tipo NS y NNS) se efectúan en el seno de la interacción y se apoyan en una serie de moves discursivos que imprimen al discurso educacional desplegado en este tipo de entornos de aprendizaje no formal un perfil de género discursivo propio (‘conversation-for-learning’). Los extractos a analizar son una selección de episodios en los que se produce una transición de information exchange (message-oriented) a metadiscursive practice (discourse reflexivity). Las transiciones se detectan mediante operaciones analíticas de chunking basadas en resultados de anotación de corpus en el marco de la Linear Unit Grammar. Proponemos un análisis de la estructura discursiva basado en la combinación de los 4 moves de la propuesta clásica en trabajos sobre la interactionist hypothesis (Trigger, Signal, Response, Reaction to Response) con los 3 moves con que se trabaja en estudios sobre procesos de reformulación (segmento de referencia, marcador reformulativo y segmento reformulado). Este método ha sido aplicado a géneros discursivos muy diversos, dentro de la familia de los conversational genres institucionales y semi-institucionales. A nuestro entender, es necesario extenderlo al análisis de géneros conversacionales no institucionales. Asimismo, están bastante establecidas tipologías del move tipo signal (marcador correctivo o reformulativo) y del move tipo response (o segmento reformulado). Pero pocos estudios se detienen, en cambio, en el análisis de procesos y recursos interactivos al servicio de la conversión de moves tipo trigger (segmento de referencia), que en el plano del informational exchange son elementos de formulación, en pivotes para la transición al plano metadiscursivo. Nuestro estudio de corpus intentará subsanar este déficit en la investigación de actividades de interacción oral online centrándose en el análisis de los triggers indexicalizados como tales mediante 5 signals emitidos por NS y 5 signals emitidos por NNS.

Translated Plagiarism in Academic Discourse
SPEAKER: Diana Yankova

ABSTRACT. A topic that has fairly recently began to be accorded academic interest is that of translated plagiarism, also known as plagiarism in translation (Turell 2008), translingual plagiarism (Sousa-Silva 2014), cross-language plagiarism. Most research so far has focussed on textual plagiarism and based on Coulthard’s (2004) conception that the idiolect, or the lexical, syntactic, pragmatic use of a language is idiosyncratic to an individual.

This would preclude the likelihood of two speakers producing two identical stretches of discourse and can therefore be detected by linguistic analysis which ascertains whether two texts are textually identical or similar. Translated plagiarism, on the other hand, cannot be detected by standard text comparison. Rather than displaying linguistic similarity or identity of lexemes, phrases or grammatical structures within one language, translated plagiarism is considered plagiarism of ideas involving two languages.

We intend to investigate translated plagiarism using Selinker’s interlanguage theory or that the same meaning is not expressed identically by native and non-native speakers of a language leading to language transfer and how this influences the translation process. It is presumed, therefore, that such a text will display non-standard structures and inappropriate linguistic choices violating source language norms, lending a feeling of foreignness to a text. Norm deviations will be discussed under the five categories (proposed by Sousa-Silva (2014)) of borrowing transfer, convergence, shift, restructuring transfer, attrition.

Coulthard, M. (2004). Author identification, idiolect and linguistic uniqueness. Applied Linguistics, 25(4), 431-447. Sousa-Silva, R. (2014). Detecting translingual plagiarism and the backlash against translation plagiarists. Language and Law, vol. 1(1), 70-94. Tourell, M. (2008). Plagiarism. In J. Gibbons and M. T. Turell, Eds. Dimensions of Forensic Linguistics, 265-299. Amsterdam and Philadelphia: John Benjamins.

15:30-17:00 Session 10K: Lexicología y lexicografía/Lexicology and lexicography
Ajuar árabe, palabras castellanas. Aportación a la lexicografía comparada

ABSTRACT. El estudio del ajuar difícilmente podrá hacerse dejando de lado a las mujeres. Por esta razón, este trabajo tomará como punto de partida una seria de documentos, en su mayoría de naturaleza jurídica, tanto en árabe como en castellano. Todos ellos tienen en común la narración de objetos de ajuar que forman parte de lo que, en general, se denomina dote. Sin embargo, en este trabajo se va a seguir la distinción que se hace en la jurisprudencia islámica en cuanto a lo que el padre entrega a su hija, por un lado, y lo que el marido debe entregar a la esposa en concepto de manutención (nafaqa), aunque sin desviarnos del objetivo principal, es decir, lo que en uno y otro caso relatan aquellos objetos domésticos clasificables en ese término general de ajuar. Examinada la documentación referida, y con los datos relativos a términos de ajuar en lengua árabe, se establecerá un corpus lingüístico del que sólo se explorarán aquellas palabras que hayan dejado un rastro en la lengua castellana, es decir, los arabismos, con independencia de que dicho arabismo esté en uso actual o no. Los arabismos, comúnmente, pueden considerados como la huella lingüística de un pasado común. Por esa razón, elegimos unas piezas léxicas, pocas, pero más que interesantes para estudiar esa vida común que cristianos y musulmanes compartieron en nuestro territorio peninsular durante la Edad Media. De manera que con el estudio de este grupo de arabismos relativos al ajuar, se podrá observar que no sólo compartieron una forma de vivir sino que se intercambiaron sus palabras. De hecho, esos objetos domésticos cristianos que en conjunto denominamos ajuar, tomó numerosos préstamos del árabe y, junto al objeto, aquella sociedad fue incorporando a su haber lingüístico, el nombre. El uso de almohada, alfombra o de almaizar nos dan fe de ello. Por otro lado, existe una estrecha relación entre el ajuar y el sexo femenino y por ello, esta investigación tiene como objetivo, asimismo, indagar en esa correspondencia histórica, tomando como primera referencia, esa rica aportación que las mujeres andalusíes, situadas en otro tiempo y en otra sociedad nos han dejado. Por lo tanto, me propongo rescatar un puñado de significantes lingüísticos para imbricar sus significantes en, por un lado, la historia de las mujeres y por otro, definir y enriquecer sus significados para que puedan ser una aportación a la lexicografía comparada árabe y castellana. Fuentes de partida Amalia Zomeño Rodríguez (2000), Dote y matrimonio en Al-Andalus y el norte de África: Estudio sobre la jurisprudencia islámica medieval. Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, CSIC, Madrid. María Isabel Calero Secall (coord..) (2006) Mujeres y sociedad islámica. Una visión plural. Universidad de Málaga. Servicio de publicaciones. Federico Corriente Córdoba (1997) A Dictionary of Andalusi Arabic, Leiden, Brill. Federico Corriente Córdoba (2003) Diccionario de arabismos y voces afines en iberorromance, Gredos.

La correspondencia de murcianismos en el diccionario académico

ABSTRACT. Este estudio tiene como objetivo el comentario de la inclusión y exclusión de murcianismos en la vigésimo-tercera edición del diccionario académico de la lengua española (2014), mediante el análisis de la correspondencia por parte de algunos corresponsales procedentes del área geográfica en cuestión. Por ello, este estudio busca asentar una base que sea útil para dar cuenta del proceso integracionista del léxico dialectal en la lexicografía española peninsular, particularmente a través de una aproximación al grado de desaparición o inclusión del léxico no-estándar con marcación diatópica murciana en la última edición del DRAE.

OBJETIVOS 1. Dar cuenta de forma cuantitativa y descriptiva de los murcianismos puestos en constancia en la correspondencia. Dar cuenta de forma cuantitativa de cuáles fueron registrados y cuáles no. 2. Testimoniar, a partir del comentario previo de las papeletas, la pervivencia de la creación lingüística en el diccionario académico a través de esta porción de léxico no-estándar restringido al geolecto murciano. 3. Atender a cuestiones como el origen y las fuentes en el proceso de investigación y en la tarea lexicográfica de marcación en Murcia.

CONTENIDOS - Marco teórico de la lexicografía regional murciana. Vocabularios del murciano. - Regionalismos en el diccionario académico: léxico no-estándar con marcación diatópica restringida en Murcia y compartida con otros territorios. - Análisis de la inclusión de los murcianismos en constancia por F. Gómez Ortín en la edición correspondiente del DRAE. - Análisis de la exclusión de los murcianismos en las últimas ediciones del DRAE.

BIBLIOGRAFÍA AHUMADA, I. (2007), “Panorama de la lexicografía regional del español” en Káñina. Revista de Artes y Letras, 31/ 1, Universidad de Costa Rica, pp. 101-115. Disponible en:

ALVAR EZQUERRA, M. (1993), “Los regionalismos en los diccionarios, y vocabularios regionales” en ALVAR EZQUERRA, M. (coord.), Lexicografía descriptiva, Barcelona: Bibliograf, pp. 313-331.

ALVAR EZQUERRA, M. (1997), “Lexicografía dialectal” en Estudios de Lingüística. Universidad de Alicante, 11, pp. 79-109. Disponible en:

CARRISCONDO ESQUIVEL, F.M. (2001), La lexicografía en las variedades no-estándar, Jaén: Universidad.

CARRISCONDO ESQUIVEL, F.M. (2004), “La lexicografía regional del español peninsular” en Moenia. Revista lucense de lingüística e literatura, 9, pp. 339-358. Disponible en

GÓMEZ ORTÍN, F. (1991), Vocabulario del noroeste murciano, Murcia: Editora Regional.

GÓMEZ ORTÍN, F. (2003), “Estudios de dialectología murciana” en Tonos Digital, nº 5, Murcia: Universidad de Murcia. Disponible en

GÓMEZ ORTÍN, F. (2010), Filologando, Murcia: Publicaciones del Instituto Teológico de Murcia OFM.

MUÑOZ GARRIGÓS, J. (2008), “Dialectología y lexicografía: notas sobre el dialecto murciano” en Las hablas murcianas: trabajos de dialectología, ed. M. Abad Merino, Murcia: Universidad, pp. 131-140.

MUÑOZ GARRIGÓS, J. y PERONA, J. (1996), “Los vocabularios murcianos” en AHUMADA, I. (coord.), Vocabularios dialectales: revisión crítica y perspectiva, Jaén: Universidad, pp. 83-100.

PORTO DAPENA, J.A. (2002), Manual de técnica lexicográfica, Madrid: Arco/Libros.

REAL ACADEMIA ESPAÑOLA (2014), Diccionario de la lengua española, 23ª edición, Madrid: Espasa Calpe.

How can you keep your shirt on and still be completely naked? The expression of human states through idioms including garments

ABSTRACT. The term “idiom” has been used to refer to a still fuzzy and unclearly-defined category which includes well-known and so-called prototypical examples like “by and large”, “it’s raining cats and dogs”, or “kick the bucket” (for discussions on this, see, for example, Glucksberg, 1993; Nunberg et al., 1994). In general, idioms may be identified as a subtype of (more or less) fixed phrases or sentences that involve some degree of lexical, syntactic, and/or semantic idiosyncrasy, behave differently from compounds and whose meaning cannot be obtained from the meanings of its constituents. In our study we deal with idioms and other expressions which include nouns denoting garments or pieces of clothing in their form and that involve some degree of metaphorization in which abstract ideas are seen as garments. An example of this is the idiom in the title of this abstract, “to keep your shirt on”. Special attention is paid to major issues such as their idiomaticity, the lexicalization of meaning, their compositionality, their flexibility, their stability and their polylexicality. Furthermore, we show whether they can be regarded as universal or rather, whether they differ in different languages, which would emphasize the importance of raising the awareness of the metaphorical component of idioms for translation (see Dobrzyn´ska 1995; or Dancygier 2014)and ELT (see, for example, Velasco Sacristán 2004): metaphor may act as a general framework whereby the apparent lack of logic in idioms may be systematized through inclusion within general underlying comparisons.

15:30-17:00 Session 10L: Enseñanza de lenguas y diseño curricular/Language teaching
The impact of motivation on written language competence: future teachers learning English as an L3.
SPEAKER: unknown

ABSTRACT. English has been adopted as the main language (Doiz, Lasagabaster and Sierra, 2013; 2014) or lingua franca (Boton and Kiteeca, 2012; Dewey and Duff, 2009) in tertiary education institutions. One of the main reasons for this spread could be that internationalization has become a key issue in higher education. In the same line, multilingualism has become an aim in most universities across Europe. Therefore, specific language policies have been designed and implemented in the last few years (Lurda, Cots and Armengol, 2014; Mortensen, 2014). However, in the case of bilingual communities such as the Basque Autonomous Country (BAC) in Spain, where three languages - Basque, Spanish and English- are present in the curriculum and one of them, Basque, is a minority language, the role of languages in the curriculum has been a topic for debate.

The aim of the present paper is to analyse bilingual future teachers’ motivation towards English as a third language and its impact on students written language competence. The study was carried out with 137 Primary and Infant future teachers in their first university year.

Results from the study show a strong correlation between participants’ motivation towards English and their English written language competence. Moreover, a significant relationship was found between their motivation and all aspects related to their written language competence: content, organization, vocabulary, language use and mechanics. Future research will be conducted in order to analyse the evolution of the participants’ motivation and written language competence throughout the degree.

Bolton, K. and Kuteeva, M. (2012). English as an academic language at Swedish university: parallel language use and the “threat” of English, Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 33:5, 429-447.

Dewey, P. and Duff, S. (2009). Reasons before passion: faculty views on internationalization in Higher Education, Higher Education, 58:4, 491-504.

Doiz, A., Lasagabaster, D. and Sierra, J. (2013). Globalisation, internationalisation, multilingualism and lingusitic strains in higher education, Studies in Higher Education, 38:9, 1407-1421.

Doiz, A., Lasagabaster, D. and Sierra, J. (2014). Language friction and multilingual policies in higher education: the stakeholders’ view, Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 35:4, 345-360.

Llurda, E. Cots, J. M. & Armengol, L. (2014) Views on multilingualismand internationalisation in higher education: administrative staff in the spotlight. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 35:4, 376-391.

Mortensen, J. (2014) Language policy from below: language choice in student project groups in a multilingual university setting. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 35:4, 425-442.

Exploring the initial career motivation of L2 teachers

ABSTRACT. This study aims at investigating the career motivations of pre-service students to teach English in primary schools. Although most research in language pedagogy has paid little attention to the teaching process, understanding L2 teachers’ motivation is of the utmost importance since it has been clearly demonstrated that teachers’ motivation affect students’ motivation and attitudes in class (Bernaus and Gardner, 2008). Thus, Igawa (2009) points out that a lack of motivation on the part of the teacher will have a negative impact on students’ motivation. On the contrary, teachers’ enthusiasm and engagement will affect students’ motivation to learn (Dörney 2001). Furthermore, research also suggests that teachers’ motivation is linked to teaching quality, commitment towards the profession, and job satisfaction (Ab Rahim et al., 2014). In the field of second language teaching, it is generally accepted to distinguish between three different types of reasons for entering the teaching profession (Moran et al. 2001): intrinsic (relating to personal growth, interest in the field, and working in a school environment), extrinsic (to do with wage, job security, and longer holidays) and altruistic factors (such as a desire to work with children and contribute to the society). This study aims at investigating the main reasons that motivate pre-service students to become English primary school teachers. A small-scale open questionnaire was administered to two different groups of third-year future primary school English teachers (T = 66) at the University of the Balearic Islands (UIB) at two different time points: May 2013 (T= 35) and May 2014 (T = 31). Participants were asked to self-report on the main reasons influencing them to choose teaching as a career as well as on the main factors that motivated them to teach English. Responses were classified and categorised into three broad categories: intrinsic, extrinsic and altruistic. The results of this study show that, in line with previous research, teaching students are mainly motivated by intrinsic factors to go into teaching. This is a promising finding since previous studies indicate that intrinsic motivation is linked to teacher effectiveness and greater involvement in the profession (Lam, Chem and Ma, 2009). As regards the main reasons influencing their decision to teach English, results show intrinsic factors to be the most dominant for the first group of teaching students (May 2013, T = 35). However, extrinsic factors appear to be clearly more important than intrinsic and altruistic ones for the second group of students (May 2014, T = 31). This latter finding should be some cause for concern since teachers’ low level of intrinsic motivation to teach English may affect their potential effectiveness and work quality. In light of the growing demand for competent English teachers, it is believed that understanding teachers’ motivation to choose teaching English as a career should be a crucial area of L2 teaching research so as to help us develop more effective approaches to teachers’ preparation.

EFL Teachers’ Perceptions on the Explicit and Implicit Teaching Potential of Didactic Materials
SPEAKER: unknown

ABSTRACT. There is a general consensus that communicative fluency in pedagogical terms or implicit knowledge in cognitive SLA terms should be the target of FL instruction; explicit knowledge does not guarantee fluent and natural communication, although it may help achieve accuracy and consolidate implicit knowledge. These issues must therefore be taken into consideration in teaching, since teachers and materials used in the classroom may promote explicit and/or implicit learning depending on the nature of the activities implemented.

Teaching is operationalized in the classroom by means of activities, whose explicit or implicit instructional nature will influence the attainment of explicit and implicit knowledge respectively. On the one hand, there are activities whose teaching potential is highly or fully explicit, as they are aimed at explicitly understanding language forms. On the other hand, there are activities whose teaching potential is highly or fully implicit, since the learner’s attention is drawn to the communicative dimension of language, thus reinforcing the four skills; forms are in this case relegated to a secondary level (Criado, Sánchez & Cantos, 2010; Ellis, R., 2015; Gris, 2015). Moreover, EFL activities can also focus on both the learning of forms and the acquisition of communicative competence.

Are teachers aware of those concepts and their relevance for language teaching and learning? Are they prepared to manage teaching materials considering the implicit and explicit learning potential of the activities used in the classroom? The answers to these questions constitute the rationale for this paper.

Thirty secondary school EFL teachers in the Region of Murcia assessed the explicit and implicit potential of thirty activities by means of Criado et al.'s scale (2010). These activities had been randomly selected from a corpus of 667 activities pertaining to 16 B1 and B2 EFL textbooks. Such activities belonged to three groups: (a) activities of a potentially high explicit nature; (b) activities of a potentially high implicit nature; (c) activities of a potentially balanced explicit and implicit nature.

Inferential statistical analyses of the teachers’ assessment reveal two main groups of results: first, there exists huge disparity across informants' responses, showing low inter-rater reliability; second, participants seem to have important gaps in identifying the potential for explicitness and/or implicitness of many activities, particularly those which are targeted at the promotion of both explicit and implicit knowledge. These findings suggest that EFL teachers may need training in certain aspects of cognitive SLA, such as the cognitive implications for learning derived from the use of a diverse typology of activities.


Criado, R., Sánchez, A., & Cantos, P. (2010). An Attempt to Elaborate a Construct to Measure the Degree of Explicitness and Implicitness in ELT Materials. International Journal of English Studies (IJES), 10(1), 103-129. Ellis, R. (2015). Form-focused instruction and the measurement of implicit and explicit L2 knowledge. In P. Rebuschat (Ed.), Implicit and Explicit Learning of Languages (pp. 417-442). Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Gris, J. (2015). Categorization of Activities Used in English as a foreign Language: A Corpus Based Study with Pedagogical Materials. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 198, 165-173.

17:00-17:30Coffee Break
17:30-18:30 Session 11: Conferencia plenaria / Plenary
Location: SALA/ROOM 1
Disintermediation and the language professions: Exploring the effects on specialized discourse
SPEAKER: Lynne Bowker

ABSTRACT. Disintermediation is giving the user or the consumer direct access to information that otherwise would require a mediator, such as a librarian, a doctor, or a translator. Web-based technologies (e.g. search engines, machine translation systems) give users the power to access information that was previously accessible only to specialists. In some cases this might remove the need for the mediator (librarian, doctor, translator), but at the very least, it changes the relationship between the user and the product (e.g. text). For instance, the notions of terminologization and de-terminologization, where lexical items move from language for general purposes into language for specific purposes, or vice versa, are both susceptible to the effects of disintermediation. Another example is online searching using natural language keyword queries. Are users choosing appropriate search terms to identify specialized information, and how effective are the resulting searches? In this presentation, we will explore the social process of disintermediation in the language professions, focusing in particular on ways in which this phenomenon is affecting specialized professional and academic discourse.

18:30-19:30 Session 12A: Mesa redonda/Round table: adquisición y aprendizaje/Language acquisition:
Location: SALA/ROOM 1
Learning language and content through tasks
SPEAKER: unknown

ABSTRACT. The main goal of this round table is to explore the interface between content and language integrated learning (CLIL) and task-based language teaching (TBLT). Although there are differences between the two approaches, there are also interesting commonalities, the most important of which is probably that CLIL and TBLT “[…] are based on the tenet that language and meaning are inseparable” (Ortega 2015:103).

The round table will focus on two issues at the interface between CLIL and TBLT: (i) how task-based principles can be used to integrate language and content and (ii) how task-based units of work in combination with information and communication technology (ICT) can be used to develop transcultural awareness. Thus Francisco Lorenzo will describe and discuss a project which he was asked to direct by his local education administration, in response to teachers’ pleas for materials and which led to the production of a large bank of task-based primary and secondary CLIL units. The presentation will show highlights of the data bank and discuss the different task types –mostly those related to History- under the light of the newest contributions in the field (García-Mayo (2015), Llinares, Morton & Whittaker (2012), Moore &Lorenzo (2015). Karen Jacob and María Juan-Garau will discuss how task-based units of work in combination with ICT were used to provide three groups of EFL learners from Spain and Poland, aged between 14 and 16, with opportunities to develop transcultural awareness and will show how the experience not only broadened the learners’ horizons both linguistically and culturally, but provided them with the tools to begin the process of becoming transculturally competent citizens.

Introduction (5’): María del Pilar García Mayo (Universidad del País Vasco UPV/EHU) & Roger Gilabert (Universidad de Barcelona)

Presentations (15’ + 15’)

Fran Lorenzo (Universidad Pablo de Olavide). CLIL from process to product: task based teaching and CLIL classroom material.

Karen Jacobs & María Juan-Garau (Universitat de les Illes Balears) Encouraging transcultural awareness through content- and task-based lessons

Discussant (10’): Rick de Graff (Utrecht University)

Questions from the audience and conclusion Roger Gilabert (Universitat de Barcelona) & María del Pilar García Mayo (Universidad del País Vasco UPV/EHU).

18:30-19:30 Session 12B: Mesa redonda/Round table: Enseñanza de lenguas y diseño curricular/Language teaching:
Location: SALA/ROOM 4
El escenario actual de la enseñanza de ELE en Brasil: de la idealización a la realidad
SPEAKER: unknown

ABSTRACT. Hoy en día la oferta de la enseñanza de español como lengua extranjera (ELE) es obligatoria en la educación básica del ámbito educativo brasileño. La aprobación de la Ley 11.161, la llamada “ley del español”, de 2005, trajo consigo una gran euforia en el campo de la enseñanza y divulgación de la cultura y de la lengua española en el país. Brasil, por fin, con la oferta de la enseñanza de español en las escuelas, iniciaba un proceso de fortalecimiento de vínculos con los países vecinos y también con España, país con el que ya hace casi dos décadas mantiene buenas relaciones comerciales. Delante de tal contexto, esta mesa redonda tiene por objetivo analizar, primero, el escenario de la lengua española en la enseñanza básica; segundo, el contexto de un curso presencial de licenciatura en Letras Español; tercero, el entorno de un curso de licenciatura en Letras Español en la modalidad a distancia y, por último, el ambiente de un curso de español para fines específicos en el contexto universitario de Turismo. El análisis se fundamenta en los documentos legales que rigen la educación brasileña, entre ellos están: Brasil-OCN (2005); Brasil-LDB (1996); Brasil-PCN+ (2006); BRASIL (Parecer CNE 776/97). Para ello, presentaremos las etapas del proceso de enseñanza, desde la elección del libro de texto hasta el trabajo del profesorado con sus aprendientes en clase. Podemos afirmar que los resultados evidencian que la enseñanza de ELE representa un progreso significativo en el contexto brasileño, sin embargo, hace falta, todavía, una reforma curricular pese la actual situación de relieve del español en Brasil.

18:30-19:30 Session 12C: Mesa redonda/Round table: Lenguas para fines específicos/Language for specific purposes
Location: SALA/ROOM 5
El discurso académico y profesional de la economía en el Corpus PUCV-UCSC-2013: desde los géneros multisemióticos y los mecanismos de encapsulación al procesamiento con tecnología Eye Tracker
SPEAKER: unknown

ABSTRACT. En las últimas décadas ha existido un interés creciente por conocer los géneros multisemióticos que se leen y se escriben a través de distintas disciplinas tanto en ámbitos académicos como profesionales, así como por indagar en los procesos psicolingüísticos que permiten el acceso a la construcción de conocimientos especializados. Desde este escenario, en esta mesa redonda se provee evidencias empíricas a partir de los textos escritos del Corpus PUCV-UCSC-2013, el cual fue recolectado fundamentalmente en base a la información proveniente de los programas de asignaturas de dos carreras universitarias de pregrado (Ingeniería Comercial y Contador Auditor) que se imparte en el área de economía en dos universidades chilenas. De este modo, en esta mesa, se describe los 11 géneros discursivos identificados a partir de los 222 textos (entre los más frecuentes: Manual, Guía Didáctica y Guía de Ejercicios) y se identifica los 3 artefactos multisemióticos prototípicos (Gráfico, Tabla, Fórmula). Asimismo, se presenta los resultados de un análisis de relaciones intersemióticas desde la RST (Rhetorical Structure Theory) entre el sistema verbal y el sistema gráfico visual en otro género que se ha identificado como parte de este corpus académico, pero que se origina en un contexto profesional: el Informe de Política Monetaria (IPOM). Junto a ello, también se identifica diversos mecanismos de encapsulación por medio de pronombres neutros, tales como ello, eso, esto y aquello. Se cierra este panorama descriptivo con una presentación de los hallazgos preliminares de una investigación experimental con tecnología Eye Tracker acerca del procesamiento de segmentos textuales, compuestos por dos sistemas semióticos (palabras y gráficos), tomados del género IPOM, por parte de alumnos universitarios de economía. De esta forma, esta mesa muestra el recorrido multidimensional de una investigación basada-en-corpus que, provista de métodos de diversa naturaleza, construye una visión integral desde los rasgos de los textos disciplinares académicos y profesionales, hasta el estudio de los movimientos oculares registrados en el proceso de lectura de textos con conexiones entre diversos sistemas semióticos. Por último, como parte de las proyecciones, se destaca el aporte de estos datos para la construcción de un corpus para aprendientes de economía en formato web y de uso en línea.

18:30-19:30 Session 12D: Mesa redonda/Round table: Enseñanza de lenguas y diseño curricular/Language teaching
Location: SALA/ROOM 6
English-Medium Instruction in Higher Education: Achievements and challenges ahead...
SPEAKER: unknown

ABSTRACT. Los programas de grado (y postgrado) en los que se imparte toda o parte de la docencia en una lengua extranjera se multiplican por las universidades europeas, y nuestro entorno no es ninguna excepción (Alcón & Michavila, 2012; Fortanet-Gómez, 2013; Doiz, Lasagabaster & Sierra, eds.,2012). Ello es consecuencia de las políticas activas de fomento del plurilingüismo promovidas ya desde antes de la puesta en funcionamiento del Espacio Europeo de Educación Superior (EEES) (Pérez-Vidal 2014). En el horizonte de todos esos esfuerzos hallamos la internacionalización de la educación, por lo cual el inglés es la lengua mayoritariamente escogida como vehículo de enseñanza y aprendizaje en dichos programas (Cots, Llurda & Garrett, eds., 2014). De ahí que, con frecuencia, se denominen Grados con ‘Docencia en inglés’ o EMI, del inglés ‘English Medium Instruction’ (Smit & Dafouz, 2014). La oferta de ‘Docencia en inglés’ representa una alternativa, en algunos casos, y en otros, un complemento, a los programas de movilidad de estudiantes. Consecuencia de ello es que se suela incluir bajo el paraguas de lo que se ha venido a denominar la ‘Internacionalización en casa’ (Nilsson, 1999). Podría considerarse que la mera puesta en funcionamiento de una titulación de este tipo de programas supone un gran logro para la institución que la lanza, sobre todo si el grado internacionalizado consigue una buena acogida entre los estudiantes de nuevo acceso. En este sentido las estadísticas indican que las notas de corte de las PAAU suelen ser superiores en las titulaciones EMI que en sus homólogas impartidas en L1. Sin embargo, los grados que utilizan el inglés como lengua principal de enseñanza han de hacer frente a con contradicciones y desafíos importantes, que con frecuencia pasan inadvertidos o son minusvalorados por sus promotores, a pesar de que pueden llegar a comprometer los resultados que de ellos se espera (Escobar Urmeneta, Ed., en evaluación). Esta Mesa Redonda aspira a ser un espacio de intercambio y reflexión sobre dichas contradicciones y desafíos, a partir de las experiencias de ‘Grados en Inglés’ implantados en los últimos años en nuestras universidades, y tiene como objetivo contribuir a generar un diagnóstico compartido sobre el estado de la cuestión respecto a los mismos. Más concretamente, las panelistas E. Alcón (Universitat Jaume I), R. Alonso Alonso (Universidad de Vigo), R. Alejo (Universidad de Extremadura), E. Dafouz (Universidad Complutense de Madrid), C. Escobar Urmeneta (Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona) y C. Fonseca (Universidad de Huelva) abordarán críticamente casos referidos a universidades radicadas en CCAA diferentes, mientras que el contrapunto internacional será ofrecido por T. Cadierno (University of Southern Denmark). En las presentaciones se identificarán y examinarán los principales retos que han emergido en las fases de diseño, despliegue y ejecución en relación con el profesorado, el alumnado, la docencia, el aprendizaje de la lengua extranjera y el de los contenidos, la evaluación o el apoyo institucional. Asimismo, se analizarán de forma crítica las estrategias desplegadas por las diferentes instituciones para afrontar dichos desafíos.

18:30-19:30 Session 12E: Mesa redonda/Round table: Pragmática/Pragmatics
Location: SALA/ROOM 7
Disembodied gender in computer-mediated communication: multifaceted insights into Facebook, online forums, and blogs
SPEAKER: unknown

ABSTRACT. Since the 80s, computer-mediated communication (CMC henceforth) has increasingly attracted linguists’ interest given its mostly textually-based nature. More recently, however, CMC has experienced a change of perspective “from medium-related to user-related patterns of language use” (Androutsopolous, 2006: 421). Within this “second wave” (Herring, 2010), research has focused on different pragmadiscursive aspects like identity construction, online (im)politeness or relational work, etc. Amongst these, the study of gender has proven a core issue both in the first and second waves in CMC (Herring, 2000; Li, 2005; Fox et al., 2007). Within this framework, this round table aims to analyse how different genders express themselves online given the disembodied nature of CMC, paying attention to how female participants employ language on three different textually-based media: blogs, forums and Facebook. Thus, in her presentation “I know how you feel”: Does gender influence corrective facework on Facebook?”, Carmen Maíz-Arévalo will talk about corrective facework in a common interest Spanish Facebook group, where members only have an online relationship based on their mutual admiration for a Spanish singer. More specifically, she will focus on the strategy of expressing support to repair another member’s face-loss and how gender seems to play a crucial role in its frequency of use and pragmalinguistic realizations. Strategies of support among female participants will also be the main focus of Alfonso Sánchez-Moya’s talk ("'Stay strong, everyone is here for you’: discursive strategies for digital rapport among IPV survivors in online environments"). In contrast to Maíz-Arévalo’s analysis of support strategies employed by Spanish users, Sánchez-Moya’s will focus on these strategies in English and on a different channel of communication –forums. Thus, he will analyse how women who have suffered from IPV (Intimate partner violence) linguistically construct their experiences and what strategies they employ to express their support for other victims in a public forum. Finally, Antonio García-Gómez will tackle in his talk “H8 that I love U”: Self-concept and narrative persuasion in emotional outbursts” the fundamental questions of how the process of disembodiment influences the way gender is reproduced and performed in the blogosphere and which linguistic strategies bloggers may use in order to construct themselves in cyber-interpersonal communication. Hence, he will carry out a contrastive study (Spanish-English) of teenage blogs, paying attention to the different gendered discourses these female teenagers live out when narrating their current and former romantic relationships as an attempt to throw further light on how gender is reproduced and performed in the blogosphere.

Androutsopoulos, J. Introduction: Sociolinguistics and computer‐mediated communication.Journal of Sociolinguistics 10.4 (2006): 419-438. Fox, al. The Medium Makes a Difference Gender Similarities and Differences in Instant Messaging". Journal of Language and Social Psychology 26, no. 4 (2007): 389-397. Herring, Susan C. "Gender differences in CMC: Findings and implications." Computer Professionals for Social Responsibility Journal 18.1 (2000). ___. "Computer-mediated conversation: Introduction and overview." Language@ Internet 7.2 (2010): 1-12. Li, Qing. "Gender and CMC: A review on conflict and harassment." Australasian Journal of Educational Technology 21.3 (2005).

18:30-19:30 Session 12F: Mesa redonda/Round table: Lenguas para fines específicos/Language for specific purposes
Location: SALA/ROOM 10
Escritura académica y escritura profesional: ¿cuáles son las semejanzas? ¿Y qué diferencias plantean?
SPEAKER: unknown

ABSTRACT. Los participantes de esta mesa redonda tienen en común una larga experiencia en: (i) investigación en los mecanismos lingüísticos y textuales característicos de la escritura académica y de la profesional, tanto en lenguas propias como en E/LE; y (ii) en transferencia de conocimiento en la formación en escritura experta a comunidades de práctica de diferentes ámbitos profesionales (jurídico, tecnológico, económico, financiero, comercial, organizativo, fundamentalmente) de grandes empresas e instituciones.

Las cuestiones que se quieren abordar en esta mesa redonda son, entre otras: (a) qué rutinas lingüísticas de la escritura académica coinciden con las utilizadas en determinados ámbitos profesionales y cuáles, en cambio, no son coincidentes; (b) cuál es la diferente actitud de los aprendices respecto del aprendizaje de la comunicación escrita en los grupos académicos y profesionales; (c) qué tipo de conocimiento implícito sobre escritura tienen cada uno de estos colectivos y cuál es su diferente capacidad de reflexión sobre la escritura propia; (d) cuál es es el rol del profesor en cada caso; (e) qué y cuánto aprende el formador en cada una de estas situaciones; (e) en qué medida enriquece la descripción del sistema lingüístico; (f) qué diferente valoración de la formación hacen cada uno de estos colectivos.

21:30-23:30 Session : Cena de gala / Conference Dinner

Location: Hotel Meliá