Tags:Craig interpolation, machine arithmetic, model checking, program invariants, quantifier elimination, SMT and theorem proving

Abstract:

The inference of program invariants over machine arithmetic, commonly called bit-vector arithmetic, is an important problem in verification. Techniques that have been successful for unbounded arithmetic, in particular Craig interpolation, have turned out to be difficult to generalise to machine arithmetic: existing bit-vector interpolation approaches are based either on eager translation from bit-vectors to unbounded arithmetic, resulting in complicated constraints that are hard to solve and interpolate, or on bit-blasting to propositional logic, in the process losing all arithmetic structure. We present a new approach to bit-vector interpolation, as well as bit-vector quantifier elimination (QE), that works by lazy translation of bit-vector constraints to unbounded arithmetic. Laziness enables us to fully utilise the information available during proof search (implied by decisions and propagation) in the encoding, and this way produce constraints that can be handled relatively easily by existing interpolation and QE procedures for Presburger arithmetic. The lazy encoding is complemented with a set of native proof rules for bit-vector equations and non-linear (polynomial) constraints, this way minimising the number of cases a solver has to consider.

Bit-Vector Interpolation and Quantifier Elimination by Lazy Reduction