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08:30-09:00Registration & Coffee

LOCATION: TRS 1-148 & 1-150 TRSM Commons - 7th Floor

09:00-10:30 Awards Ceremony & Keynote

NOTE: This session will be livestreamed on YouTube


10:30-11:00Coffee Break & Spin-n-Win (30 min)

Take a break with us! Join us in the TRSM Commons -7th floor to play Spin-n-Win outside the coffee reception area for a chance to win some fabulous prizes courtesy of the Social Media Lab!

11:00-12:30 Session 7A: Bad Actors [WIP]
Jen Ross (The University of Edinburgh, UK)
Shandell Houlden (McMaster University, Canada)
Jaigris Hodson (Royal Roads University, Canada)
George Veletsianos (Royal Roads University, Canada)
Chandell Gosse (Western Ontario, Canada)
“Posting is the new asking for it”: Support for Scholars Coping with Online Harassment
Jacquelyn Burkell (Western University, Canada)
Chandell Gosse (Western University, Canada)
Marta Kopp (Western University, Canada)
“Deep Trouble”: Understanding the Problems of Deepfakes through News Media Coverage

ABSTRACT. ‘Deepfakes’ is a form of machine learning that creates fake videos by grafting a new face (learned from existing images and video) over a pre-existing one in an original video. The technology has been used to create fake pornography, but there is concern that it will soon be used for politically nefarious ends. This study seeks to understand how news media has characterized the problem(s) presented by deepfakes. Using content analysis, we found four different problems dominant in news media coverage: deepfakes are easy to produce and distribute; deepfakes undermine the political process; deepfakes creates false beliefs; and deepfakes are an attack on women. We provide an overview of each problem followed by a discussion about the varying degrees of emphasis given to each problem and the implications this has for the public’s perception and construction of deepfakes.

Barbara Tarter (Marshall University, United States)
Stephen Catt (Emporia State University, United States)
Still Not Dead: An updated analysis of the Russian Facebook Advertisements prior to the 2016 US election


The 2016 US presidential election produced a surprising upset for Democrats, as the.  Polls had clearly predicted a Hillary Clinton victory.  When Donald Trump was declared President, the nation exploded.  An immediate answer to this unexpected result was sought, with a shocking possible explanation — could the Russians have interfered with the elections?  A bipartisan inquiry revealed that over 11.4 million American Facebook users had been subjected to Russian propaganda, in the form of Facebook ads, produced by a Russian troll farm, the Internet Research Agency (IRA). The purpose of this research was to study the 344 Facebook ads submitted one month prior to the election.  The sponsors of each set of ads was initially identified as either a Right Troll or a Left Troll based on the nature of the corresponding messages.  Open coding was then used to classify the ads as either, 1) reflecting pre-existing struggles and past situations, 2) referencing current values, or 3) pertaining to future goals and objectives.  Any reference to Hillary Clinton and Donald Trump was also noted, as was the amount of money spent on the ads, the ad impressions and the ad click-through rate.  Although the majority of Facebook ads were sponsored by Left Trolls, the Right Trolls spent a greater amount of money on their fewer ads, had a lower ad launch rate, and also had a lower click-through rate.  The majority of the Facebook ads reflected current issues, regardless of whether they were Left or Right Troll based.  No Anti-Clinton ads were produced by the Left Trolls prior to the election.  The fact that Hillary Clinton was expected to win the 2016 Presidential election helps explain this absence.  There were only ten ads that explicitly mentioned either Clinton and/or Trump and only a little over $2,000 was spent on these ads.  This study indicates that the Russian Facebook ads published the month prior to the election, had little impact in the final election outcome.

Nara Yoon (Syracuse University, United States)
James Eakins (Syracuse University, United States)
Jeff Hemsley (Syracuse University, United States)
Detecting Coordinated Political Message Diffusion Amplification during the 2018 U.S. Senate Elections
11:00-12:30 Session 7B: Politics 2 [WIP]
Ming-Hsiang Tsou (San Diego State University, United States)
Ksenia Tsyganova (SPbGU, Russia)
Dmitri Tsyganov (SPbGU, Russia)
Online pre-election campaign by polls and likes

ABSTRACT. In this paper we study online pre-election campaign for the Russian presidential elections, March 18th 2018. Our analysis show clusters of groups and pages that unite each candidates’ supporters. The page subscriptions may be farther used to explain online voting behavior. Our analyses demonstrate how online groups subscriptions are related to the users’ political preferences, and how it is expressed in the online user activity via  “likes” to a post or a vote in an online poll.

Anmol Panda (Microsoft, India)
Lia Bozarth (University of Michigan, United States)
Han Zhang (University of Michigan, United States)
Mugdha Mohapatra (Microsoft, India)
Sunandan Chakraborty (Indiana University - Purdue University Indianapolis, United States)
Joyojeet Pal (Microsoft, India)
Extending the extremes: a survey of factors that amplify extreme speech in political discourses on Indian Twitter

ABSTRACT. In this mixed-methods study of political discourse, we study the affordances of Twitter in the context of free speech in In- dia. We critically examine specific cases of the legal prosecu- tion of free speech and the use of extreme speech in attacks on people to document the risks to citizens when they engage in antagonistic online discourse, particularly against the state or political institutions. We follow this up with an in-depth quan- titative study of the use of extreme speech through 828 hash- tags used by over 5000 political actors on Twitter and find that politicians are rewarded, through higher retweet rates, when they engage in extreme or uncivil messaging. We contextual- ize these findings to the postcolonial history of India and the laws and institutions that enable differential consequences for engaging in various forms of speech. In conclusion, we pro- pose that the affordances of social media need to be carefully considered for their unintended consequences, and that func- tional access to free speech may differ dramatically based on one’s access to institutions.

James Cook (University of Maine at Augusta, United States)
Gender, Party, and the Kavanaugh Nomination: American State Legislators on Twitter

ABSTRACT. On July 9, 2018, President Donald Trump announced the nomination of Brett Kavanaugh to the US Supreme Court. On the morning of October 7, 2018, newspapers announced Kavanaugh‘s swearing in as the newest Supreme Court justice. During the intervening weeks, concern regarding the future of the court and multiple allegations of sexual assault led to considerable discussion regarding the nomination. In this talk I present and discuss research into gender and party patterns of discussion regarding the Kavanaugh nomination by state legislators on the social media platform Twitter during the fall of 2018. Results from a multistate analysis of over 100,000 social media posts by state legislators will be presented.  

11:00-12:30 Session 7C: Public Sector & Academia [Full Papers]
Bertrum MacDonald (Dalhousie University, Canada)
Jessamy Perriam (The Open University, UK)
A Tweet is Not Just a Tweet: public sector understandings and analysis of social media customer service data

ABSTRACT. Twitter data is often analyzed in academic settings with either qualitative or quantitative methodologies in mind. In comparison, this paper describes the qualitative and quantitative ways that non-academic public sector organisations analyze their Twitter data after customer service interactions.

Uugangerel Bold (National University of Mongolia, Mongolia)
Borchuluun Yadamsuren (Northwestern University, United States)
Use of social media as an educational tool: Perspectives of Mongolian university educators

ABSTRACT. This exploratory study aimed to assess the usage of social media in Mongolian higher education, as perceived by the university educators. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 25 educators in individual and group settings. This study provides an insight of social media usage in Mongolia.

Vanessa Dennen (Florida State University, United States)
Stacey Rutledge (Florida State University, United States)
Lauren Bagdy (Florida State University, United States)
Social media use in high school settings: Rules, outcomes, and educational opportunities

ABSTRACT. This study uses activity systems analysis to examine how rules shape high school students’ social media networks and tool use. Findings show how layers of rules govern their social media use. Adults exist outside their networks, but play an important offline role in regulating teenagers’ activities.

Maria Gintova (Ryerson University, Canada)
Examining social media use by immigration agencies in Canada: privacy, quality and effectiveness

ABSTRACT. Social media has become an important part of government communication routines. This paper argues that there are important privacy and quality considerations to be taken into account in government social media use. It also explores what constitutes the effective use of social media by government.

11:00-12:30 Session 7D: Scholars [WIP]
Zinaida Adelhardt (Friedrich-Alexander-Universität, Germany)
Christine Greenhow (Michigan State University, United States)
Bret Staudt Willet (Michigan State University, United States)
Holly Marich (Michigan State University, United States)
Scholarship Reconsidered: Examining New Scholars’ Social Media Practices
Dan Albertson (University at Buffalo, The State University of New York, United States)
Twitter Activity at Recent LIS Research Conferences: An Inner-Disciplinary Comparison and Discussion of Future Research Opportunities
Axel Bruns (Digital Media Research Centre, Queensland University of Technology, Australia)
Jean Burgess (Digital Media Research Centre, Queensland University of Technology, Australia)
Kim Osman (Digital Media Research Centre, Queensland University of Technology, Australia)
The expert in the debate: Mapping scholarly contributions to the 2018 Australia Day debate across social media

ABSTRACT. We explore how scholarly contributions (as a proxy for expert, trusted opinions) to popular debates are shared and engaged with via social media. Using conversations on Twitter about Australia Day - a historically contested date - as a case study, our preliminary findings suggest that scholarly contributions do manage to carve out a presence in the public debate across ideological positions.

Rémi Toupin (UQAM, Canada)
Florence Millerand (UQAM, Canada)
Vincent Larivière (University of Montreal, Canada)
Public or scholarly engagement? Investigating who shares climate research on Twitter

ABSTRACT. This paper aims to provide a framework to assess who tweet about climate research through the analysis of users Twitter bios. First results indicate a significant engagement by users outside of academia, providing an insight on how research may reach a broader public on Twitter.

12:30-14:00Lunch Break (Self-Organized: 1h 30min)
14:00-15:00 Session 8A: Panel: Canadian Perspectives on Privacy and Trust -- Now and Then
Janis Goldie (Huntington University/Laurentian University, Canada)
Sara Bannerman (McMaster University, Canada)
Angela Orasch (McMaster University, Canada)
Leslie Regan Shade (University of Toronto, Canada)
Canadian Perspectives on Privacy and Trust -- Now and Then
14:00-15:00 Session 8B: Panel: Connected Seniors: Practice, Attitude, and Well-Being Enabled by Social Media
Guang Ying Mo (Ryerson University, Canada)
Zack Hayat (Interdisciplinary Center (IDC) Herzliya, Israel)
Barry Wellman (NetLab Network, Canada)
Esther Brainin (Ruppin Academic Center, Israel)
Molly-Gloria Harper (Western University, Canada)
Connected Seniors: Practice, Attitude, and Well-Being Enabled by Social Media
14:00-15:00 Session 8C: Panel: Trust & Mistrust in Wikipedia: Evaluating information and information policies
Zachary McDowell (University of Illinois at Chicago, United States)
Matthew Vetter (Indiana University of Pennsylvania, United States)
Jonathan Obar (York University, Canada)
Trust & Mistrust in Wikipedia: Evaluating information and information policies
14:00-15:00 Session 8D: Panel: Disclosing sexual violence via MeToo
Kaitlynn Mendes (University of Leicester, UK)
Rachel Loney-Howes (University of Wollongong, Australia)
Anabel Quan-Haase (Western University, Canada)
Disclosing sexual violence via MeToo and the formation of digital intimacies, privacy and trust
14:00-15:00 Session 8E: Roundtable: Online Hate and Foreign Policy: Insights from Canada’s Digital Inclusion Lab
Priya Kumar (Digital Inclusion Lab, Centre for International Digital Policy, Global Affairs Canada, Canada)
Roundtable on Online Hate and Foreign Policy: Insights from Canada’s Digital Inclusion Lab

ABSTRACT. As our daily lives are increasingly mediated through online platforms, social media, and digital devices, we are starting to see that digital technologies are having a profound impact on how we interact with social, political, economic, and cultural structures and trends. We are now only beginning to see the human rights implications of how digital technologies, in combination with the structure of current content moderation strategies, are reshaping contemporary politics. The events of Christchurch, NZ demonstrated that online ‘othering’ and narratives of division seep into offline spaces and can have catastrophic ‘real-life’ impacts that demand innovative policy responses from governments around the world. This roundtable will introduce participants to some of the research and policy work being conducted by the Digital Inclusion Lab at Global Affairs Canada to help better understand how online hate and other harmful content is shaping behaviour offline – including violence. In this roundtable, participants will get a peek at how a policy lab embedded within a government department goes about developing a data strategy for policy development around emerging threats such as online hate. Participants will also get an opportunity to discuss, share insights and best practices around collecting public online data and digital tools can be used strategically to protect populations and to advance policy interventions that promote human rights, freedom and inclusion.

15:00-15:30Coffee Break & Spin-n-Win (30 min)

Take a break with us! Join us in the TRSM Commons -7th floor to play Spin-n-Win outside the coffee reception area for a chance to win some fabulous prizes courtesy of the Social Media Lab!

15:30-17:00 Session 9A: Climate [WIP]
Jess Perriam (The Open University, UK)
Madeleine Martin (Ryerson University, Canada)
Comparing Twitter Use by a Government Organization and State Watchdog Institution for Environmental Regulatory Governance Activity
Yan Chen (Dalhousie University, Canada)
Camille Caesemaecker (Agrocampus Ouest in the city of Rennes, France)
Tuihedur Rahman (Dalhousie University & Saint Mary's University, Canada)
Kate Sherren (Dalhousie University, Canada)
Cultural ecosystem service delivery in dykelands and marshes using Instagram: A case of the Cornwallis (Jijuktu'kwejk) River, Nova Scotia, Canada
ABSTRACT. Climate change and sea level rise have brought devastating risks to coastal areas around the world. In the Bay of Fundy area of the Canadian Maritime Provinces, there is 364 km of dykes protecting 32,350 ha of drained agricultural land in Nova Scotia. After over 400 years’ development, a high proportion of dykeland is now used for transportation, residential, commercial, and recreational purposes. The dykeland has contributed to the local lifestyle, cultural, and history. The Department of Agriculture is charged with the maintenance of the dyke system and is making decisions about which dykes to reinforce for new climate conditions, which to realign (shorten), and which to simply abandon. Decision-makers need to better understand how people value and use dykeland and marsh ecosystems. We analyzed the cultural ecosystem services delivered in dykelands in the Cornwallis River catchment and Grand Pré by using 4 months of Instagram data (e.g., photos and texts). The results show two different landscape portraits: 1) dykelands were more associated with aesthetics, recreational use, social relations, and female users; and 2) marshes (i.e., a restored freshwater wetland in this study) were more used by males and locals for artistic and educational value. However, foreshore salt marshes were absent in the dataset which may indicate that people did not use and benefit from this ecosystem frequently from the socio-cultural perspective. Thus, the managed alignment is suggested to defend coastal areas under the condition of preserving the primary CESs delivered and the most iconic landscape features in the existing dykelands. CESs like recreational use and social relations may be replaced in the re-aligned dykeland. A discussion on the methodology implies that social media data are valuable in large-scale quantitative understanding to supplement other in-depth analysis, while showing some limitations that need to be fully realized.
Atsushi Nara (San Diego State University, United States)
Nana Luo (San Diego State University, United States)
Sahar Ghanipoor Machiani (San Diego State University, United States)
Alidad Ahmadi (San Diego State University, United States)
Ken Tominaga (San Diego State University, United States)
Ming-Hsiang Tsou (San Diego State University, United States)
Examining human decision making factors toward wildfire evacuation using Twitter
Daniel Lundgaard (Copenhagen Business School, Denmark)
What characterizes communication within echo chambers on Twitter? An empirical analysis of the communicative content shared within an echo chamber in the climate change-debate
15:30-17:00 Session 9B: Privacy & Trust 3 [WIP]
Suay Ozkula (The University of Sheffield, UK)
Christoph Lutz (BI Norwegian Business School, Norway)
Shruthi Velidi (BI Norwegian Business School, Norway)
Aurelia Tamò-Larrieux (University of Zurich, Switzerland)
Moritz Büchi (University of Zurich, Switzerland)
Eduard Fosch Villaronga (University of Leiden, Netherlands)
Chilling Effects of Profiling Activities: Exploring the Consequences of Big Data-Driven Surveillance
Clara Hanson (University of California, Los Angeles, United States)
Whose privacy? How “user” shapes messages about digital privacy

ABSTRACT. I examine the term “user” in privacy news with topic modeling and regression. I show “user” has unique meaning compared to other common terms for person. I theorize it collapses people with different privacy needs into a single term, and may inhibit reasoning about multifaceted privacy problems.

Karen Louise Smith (Brock University, Canada)
Through an open source browser window: Interventions for networked privacy
15:30-17:00 Session 9C: Affordances [WIP]
Adam Worrall (University of Alberta, Canada)
Thomas MacDonald (Queen's University, Canada)
How it Actually Works: Creator Imaginaries of the YouTube Algorithm as Recursive Governance
Sarah Woloschuk (Western University, Canada)
Anabel Quan-Haase (Western University, Canada)
Cascading Inaccuracies on Tumblr: Technological Affordances, User Actions, and Digital Activism
ABSTRACT. Tumblr is an example of a platform used by young adults for many purposes, including civic engagement. A case study of a post which contained inaccurate information about a public commenting period on the Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunication’s Commission’s (CRTC) website was conducted for this study. We found that user behaviours intersected with specific technological affordances on Tumblr. We also found that existing inaccuracies spread and new ones were created in comment cascades over time. Affordances were leveraged on Tumblr such that information persisted, was visible, replicable and scalable, and tended towards creating a sense of copresence among users. However, replicated and amplified content was often misinterpreted, and the post and its comments quickly became isolated from any larger conversation ongoing about the issue, including any external corrections posts. While many users were passionate about becoming involved, the affordances of Tumblr could not be leveraged in a coordinated way that permitted for rapid dissemination of updates or accurate information. The implications of this study are related to: recommendations for how Tumblr users can subvert unintended negative consequences on their political posts; site features which could be changed in order to make posts and post cascades more responsive to updates and changing information landscapes; and the potential for additional research on other sites to see if similar tendencies are observed in how unintentional misinformation spreads.
Chei Sian Lee (Nanyang Technological University, Singapore)
Hamzah Osop (The University of Sydney, Australia)
Dion Goh (Nanyang Technological University, Singapore)
Sei-Ching Joanna Sin (Nanyang Technological University, Singapore)
Designing a Mobile Crowdsourcing Application Prototype to foster Shared Responsibility in a Community
15:30-17:00 Session 9D: Use & Users 2 [WIP]
James Cook (University of Maine at Augusta, United States)
Donna Smith (Ryerson University, Canada)
David Nieborg (University of Toronto, Canada)
An exploration of interorganizational trust in social media platform partnerships

ABSTRACT. The focus of this research is on business partnerships of complementors with social media platforms in the United States. Partial Least Squares Structural Equation modeling is used to test a 4-construct model. Trust played a key role with respect to a complementor’s views on commitment and innovation, and was the strongest driver of the model with respect to the target construct, relationship value.

Vanessa Dennen (Florida State University, United States)
Lauren Bagdy (Florida State University, United States)
Hajeen Choi (Florida State University, United States)
Demetrius Rice (Florida State University, United States)
Ginny Smith (Florida State University, United States)
Make new friends, but keep the old? University student social media use and friend networks
Christina Koessmeier (University of Duisburg-Essen, Germany)
Oliver B. Büttner (University of Duisburg-Essen, Germany)
Why are We Distracted by Social Media? Examining Reasons for Distraction by Social Media, its Relation to Personality and Distraction Situations

ABSTRACT. Users are permanently distracted. Previous research studied motivation for using social media, but an understanding of users’ distraction is missing. This quantitative online study identified two reasons for why people let themselves get distracted by social media: avoidance and social reasons.

Chandell Gosse (Western University, Canada)
George Veletsianos (Royal Roads University, Canada)
Jaigris Hodson (Royal Roads University, Canada)
Shandell Houlden (McMaster University, Canada)
The Hidden Cost of Connectivity: The Nature and Impact of Online Harassment Among Scholars in Higher Education

ABSTRACT. A growing body of research examines the relationship between scholars’ engagement with online platforms and their experiences with online harassment (Vera-Gray, 2017). Despite an increase in such research, this area remains under-explored (Jordan and Weller 2018). Experiences with online harassment can influence what scholars’ choose to disseminate online, how they engage, and can impact their mental well-being and result in serious professional consequences (Barlow & Awan, 2016). Because of such chilling effects, it is vitally important to study the problem of online harassment in academia. This paper uses the concept of economic vandalism (Jane, 2018) to understand the damaging impact of online harassment. Economic vandalism describes a new form of workplace harassment that includes online spaces and addresses the way online harassment can cause “professional and economic harms” (Jane, 2018, p. 576). Using this framework and survey methodology (N=182), this paper addresses two questions: First, what is the nature of the online harassment experienced by scholars? And second, what effect does online harassment have for scholars? Our findings show that the harassment experienced is closely tied to the core activities of the profession and identity of being a scholar. For example, a frequent trigger for abuse, such as one's teaching activities, and type of abuse, such as having one’s credentials questioned, make scholars more vulnerable by virtue of the work they do. The impact of online harassment reported by our participants supports Jane’s (2018) assertion that online spaces are an extension of workplace harassment.

19:00-21:30Post-conference Boat Tour Around Toronto Islands

If your travel schedule permits, join us for a 2-hour boat tour around Toronto Islands after the conference on Sunday, July 21 at 7pm (19:00). The boat will return to the pier at around 9:30pm (21:30).

You can buy tickets online with the special rate of CDN$15 (including taxes); but hurry, the space is limited, so book soon (password: smsociety).