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09:00-10:30 Session KN2: Keynote lecture
Inclusive resilience: a new approach to risk governance
Being critical around resilience: bring about a future different from the present
11:00-12:45 Session 1A: Track session
Location: Room B104
Assessing urban resilience to extreme weather events based on human mobility perturbation
SPEAKER: Zaishang Li

ABSTRACT. The frequent occurrence of extreme weather events such as rainstorms and consequent floods has posed serious threats to cities, often leading to traffic paralysis, facility damages and even fatalities and injuries. There is substantial need to enhance the resilience of cities to the impacts of extreme weather events, for which quantifying resilience is of fundamental importance, as it sets the benchmark for assessing the effectiveness of any resilience enhancement measure. A number of resilience assessment approaches and associated resilience indicators have been proposed in prior research. However, most of the existing approaches are either too theoretical or too complex to be implemented in practice, and are not developed specifically for measuring cities’ abilities to deal with extreme weather events. Human mobility, which represents the characteristics of people’s displacements in an urban space, is subject to perturbation when extreme weather events happen. Perturbed human mobility represents a reflection of the impacts that extreme events exert on cities and their populations. In this study, an approach is proposed for assessing urban resilience, by measuring the level of perturbation of human mobility caused by extreme weather events. Specifically, it is assumed that the average travel distance of urban population will decrease due to disrupted commuting conditions. Hence, a performance indicator is proposed, by calculating the ratio of average travel distance of urban population during an extreme weather event to its normal level. A larger performance indicator suggests less impact of the extreme weather event to urban human mobility and hence supposedly less impact to overall urban functionality. The value of the performance indicator varies as the extreme weather event evolves over time. Drawing on Bruneau’s resilience assessment framework, an urban resilience indicator is then proposed, which can be calculated by integrating the value of performance indicator over the entire lifespan of an extreme weather event. The proposed urban resilience assessment approach and resilience indicator were validated in a case study based on a specific mode of transport. The trajectories of 7,100 taxis in the City of Nanjing, China collected between June 3rd and June 17th, 2017 were processed to assess the resilience of the city to a record-breaking rainstorm that happened on June 10th, 2017. Each trajectory was composed of a series of GPS locations, which were reported by GPS sensors attached to the taxis every 10 seconds. Daily and hourly travel distances of each taxi were calculated, and the performance indicator was calculated at these two granularity, respectively. Then, based on the proposed approach, the urban resilience indicator, as reflected by the taxi mobility, was calculated. The results showed that the proposed approach was able to capture the impacts of the rainstorm event on taxi mobility in Nanjing, and demonstrate the evolution of the impact over the lifespan of the rainstorm event. In addition, the results showed that the resilience indicator based on hourly travel distance noticeably outperformed the one based on daily travel distance, at marginal additional computational costs.

Resilience in the Anthropocene

ABSTRACT. Topic and research background The Anthropocene stands for the ´Era of Man´ and emphasizes a new geological epoch of increased human impact on planet Earth. Communities all over the world have become more vulnerable and are looking for ways to adapt to global change and increase their resilience. How to govern a diverse community to become more resilient? How can a holistic approach help governance?

Objectives The objective of this study is to bridge the gap between disciplines working on resilience, draw lessons for improved governance of diverse communities in vulnerable areas, and thereby build adaptive capacity in the face of the Anthropocene.

Approach We use an interdisciplinary theoretical literature review and examine different conceptualizations of the Anthropocene and resilience that brings together literature from the fields of Cultural Geography, Futures Studies and Systemic Design.

Findings or results In cultural geography, the concept of the Anthropocene is seen as arbitrary, as there are different cultural understandings of what causes global climate change: supernatural, natural and human influences. Explanations co-exist in complex ways within and across cultures. Cultural Resilience is the ability of groups or communities to maintain their local traditions, knowledge and values as a way to cope with external stresses and disturbances as a result of change.

While also using the classic geological definition of the Anthropocene, the futures field also increasingly uses the concept as an opportunity to push for sustainability transformations. By inviting communities to futures workshops, participants gain agency over their futures and can develop scenarios rooted in their own existing practices. Engaging with futures work can in turn increase community resilience, which is conceptualized as adaptive capacity, or the potential to adjust to many different future contexts.

Today's challenges of society as climate change, economic inequalities and violence are interrelated so they require systemic solutions. To face complexity it is now necessary to use creative and structured innovation approaches, such as Systemic Design, which provides specific tools in order to design new relations among the entities of a territory, to visualize the hidden potentialities and to boost proactive collaboration among local actors. Such process is generated inside this method allowing territories to be understood in a deeper and wider perspective.

Conclusions The results show that each field of study has a markedly different perspective of the concepts of the Anthropocene and resilience. However, each of these perspectives highlights important aspects. For this reason, we conclude that there is a great potential for transformative change in a complementary use of knowledge, using a multidisciplinary, holistic research approach.

Big Data from social media to understand collective action

ABSTRACT. Disasters can foster social cohesion among affected people. In this work, we use text data collected from Hurricane Sandy (2012, New York City) as a case study and show that it is possible to analyze how a grass-root disaster relief network emerged after a natural disaster, and subsequently how social media played a key factor. Social media, such as Facebook and Twitter, can aid in measuring the depth of social cohesion amongst users of #OccupySandy. We posit that social Media became essential to complement and enhance the relief efforts from the government and volunteers to cope with the aftermath of hurricane Sandy.Furthermore #OcuppySandy users formed a socially cohesive - still active group - around their shared perception of a inadequate management from government officers. For the analysis we use a mixed method approach, combining natural language processing and matching learning with qualitative review of Facebook and Twitter for # OccupySandy. Movements like OcuppySandy can help detect potential collective actions, that in turn can be used by disaster response agencies to improve their actions.

The uses of vetiver grass: a remarkable resilient planning for the Rohingya refugee camps in Bangladesh

ABSTRACT. Rohingya crisis is an international concern across the globe. It has been estimated that the 830,000 Rohingya refugees are taking place in the refugee camps as well as the majority of the refugees are women and children. The condition of the Rohingya refugee camps is highly congested which outbreaks, many diseases and makes difficult to provide services and facilities. The resilience of refugees in long-term displacement is needed to ensure a safer life for the refugees. The big data analysis is needed for the Rohingya refugees to ensure what kinds of services will ensure a healthy and resilient life to them. By analysis the factors it would be a great help for the international humanitarian organizers, government, aid works to do cross-functional approach for giving sustainable life to the refuges in recent studies, it has been anticipated that the human settlement is at risk of flooding and landslides during monsoon. The flooding is co-related to the sea –level rising, which is also related to climate change impact. The landslide will occur because people are reshaping the slopes for making the house which also goes against the rules of nature. Nature will take its own revenge to get back to its previous position. The upcoming disasters will create a huge humanitarian crisis in the overcrowded camps like Kutupalong and Balukhali because 585,000 refugees are taking place in these camps. This will create inaccessible for trucks to supply relief, medicines, food and other necessary elements in the refugee camps. The cost-effective resilient plan is needed for the land use planning to reduce the impact of landslide and flood. To protect the slopes of the camps we can use Vetiver grass because the strong and finely structured root systems are as strong as Iron. It can also perform against any climatic change, slope protection and stability. That's why it was called "Miracle Grass". The Vetiver grass will give both natural and social outcomes. The natural outcome will be enhancing the amount of grass will bring a greenish nature and the social outcome will ensure environmental protection as well as cherish the lives of refugees. The paper also aims how the use of Vetiver grass can protect the vulnerability of refugees as well as create the greenery environmental impact in the Rohingya refugee camps. It will also figure out that the Vetiver grass could be a low –cost and environmentally friendly alternative solution to create the sustainable resilient livelihood for the refugees in the camps.

Communicating risks: factors influencing Filipinos living in high-risk areas to follow preemptive evacuation procedures

ABSTRACT. With recent mega disasters, risk communication has become one of the important areas in disaster risk reduction. Pre-emptive evacuation has been a practice in the Philippines to lessen the number of casualties. Risk perception as part of the risk communication process was explored using the three predictors of the Theory of Planned Behavior. The researcher surveyed 1,200 respondents from the provinces of Aurora, Eastern Samar, and Davao Oriental of the Philippines regarding factors that influenced the participants to follow pre-emptive evacuation orders. This study explored factors that include attitude towards being safe, secured and comfortable, and acceptability of being called an evacuee; societal factors that include local officials, friends, experts, television and radio; and perceived control that includes difficulty and confidence in following evacuation and influences from government, family and faith. The researcher explored the significance of socio-demographic and economic variables such as age, sex, civil status, income, education, home ownership, living arrangement, awareness and knowledge on the proximity of the evacuation center. The researcher also investigated the effectiveness of NDRRMC’s communication process in giving evacuation orders. Results were scored based on the recommendation of Francis and colleagues (2004), statistical models such as factor analysis, data reliability test, and Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) were used to examine the validity and relationships of factors. Overall, socio-demographic and economic determinants were significant in following pre-emptive evacuation procedures, with subjective Norms having the strongest positive impact on the desired behavior. The respondents experienced the highest social pressure to the local officials; however, level of importance of external referent differs across all the provinces. The aggregated results showed strongest relationship of income, awareness of the evacuation center and knowledge on the proximity of the evacuation center to the three predictors of the Theory of Planned Behavior; however, findings show nuances on the significance of socio-demographic determinants unique to locations in the provinces. Results revealed that the existing programs of the government on disaster management are focused more on building awareness that helped in building the intention to follow pre-emptive evacuation procedures. Results emphasized the interaction between important players in risk communication process, specifically giving pre-emptive evacuation procedures, rather than specific control of one player over the other. The dependency of the Local Government Units to the National Government Agencies that affects the risk decision-making process stresses the importance of streamlining the communication flow of the NDRRMC. Aggregated results revealed that the three predictors were found to have positive impact to the intention and showed strong behavioral intention to follow pre-emptive evacuation procedures. Subjective Norms have the strongest positive impact to the desired behavior. This revealed that the respondents still experienced social pressure and motivation from external referents. Risk communication strategies should be designed context specific.

DisplacementSim: simulating population displacement using agent-based simulation approach

ABSTRACT. Population displacement is generated by a variety of natural, technological, and human made triggers. Disaster events such as flooding, hurricanes, wildfires, dam failures, industrial explosions, wars, and conflicts are examples of these sources. Level of displacement caused by these triggers is also impacted by individual, family, community and environmental characteristics and attributes. As such modelling population displacement has been very complicated theoretically and technically. Understanding temporal and spatial patterns of displaced population is very crucial for humanitarian and emergency management agencies that are providing support services to displaced population. Despite of advances in data collection, analytics, and prediction models, humanitarian agencies are still looking for tools that can provide them with information that can better predict and estimate population displacement in time and space where they can expedite and optimize their logistical supports. Use of agent-based modelling (ABM) has shown promising results in population displacement in recent years. Availability of data, software and hardware platforms and tools, have created potentials for developing detailed modelling and simulation tools that can be used by various agencies that are dealing with various types of population displacement. This paper presents the methodology and applications of an Agent-Based Modelling and Simulation platform called DisplacementSim.

The use of Big Data to monitor global data on disaster losses in the Arab Region
SPEAKER: Nuha Eltinay

ABSTRACT. Big Data ecosystems emerged as a revolutionary systematic approach to managing data across disciplines. Nonetheless, the lack of standardisation of disaster data losses, issues around balancing openness with privacy while capturing the dynamics of hazards, exposure and vulnerability in the context of climate change, remain a global challenge. With the aim of building Urban Resilience for Human Settlements, this paper explores the challenges of utilising Big Data to translate city resilience indicators from the reductionist numerical indexes to operational action plans. This is based on the rationale that such comprehensive resilience assessments are critical to effective national disaster risk reduction plans, where climate change adaptive principles can easily be mainstreamed into city planning and urban governance. A detailed analysis of the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction (SFDRR) Monitor system (online tool) will be undertaken to assist in understanding national governments reporting mechanisms, by which climate change-induced risks are better understood and aimed to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). After the adoption of Sendai Framework in 2015, the 2018 system is now the official online tool to report to both the Sendai Framework and SDGs reporting processes. A theoretical framework of Data associated terminologies (Accessibility, Sharing, and usability) will be explored to enable critical appraisals of prescribed policy responses to Sendai 38 indicators in achieving its 7 Global targets. Recommendations from this paper will inform the debates around the United Nations 2015 Global Frameworks call on nation states to create innovative knowledge sharing national DRR platforms, to support the accessibility to all stakeholders in disaster risks management, and capture of trans-boundary nature of climate change effects to reduce mortality and economic losses from disasters, decreasing damage to critical infrastructure, and increasing the number of countries with national and local DRR strategies.

11:00-12:45 Session 1B-I: Track session
Location: Room C201
Measuring the unquantifiable?

ABSTRACT. By 2050, 66% of the global population will live in urban areas, yet already 98% of cities are experiencing the effects of a changing socio-ecological environment and increasing risks associated with natural hazards and human-induced threats. Defining strategies and metrics for Resilience has led to a generation of measurement frameworks. Measurement frameworks often represent the outcome of risk governance; in a recent Overseas Development Institute’s (ODI) report, 39 resilience frameworks were reviewed, yet only two of those specifically considered cities.

With a myriad of frameworks, how do we know what risks are being measured in a city and why? And whether it is the best way to measure resilience in cities? Are the risks being amplified through the frameworks? Employing abductive reasoning within a critical realist framework, this paper explores these questions through a comparative analysis of frameworks using a hypothetical city scenario. Five frameworks focused on development will be used: 1) Rockerfeller’s City Resilience Index, 2) UNISDR’s Making my City Resilient Campaign, 3) BRE’s 12 cities assessment, 4) IIED’s Tracking Adaptation and Measuring Development (TAMD), and 5) The ecological sequestration Trust’s ‘Resilience.io’. All these frameworks measure resilience of cities in their own way.

The analysis provides empirical evidence in three areas: 1) secondary characteristics/ indicators of resilience are being promoted to be measured in cities by listing and categorise them to see common trends, 2) how the interpretation is being applied-is it a conceptual or prescriptive approach to infrastructure and buildings? and 3) whether the outcome is measurable, and reduces risk. The comparison of the frameworks provides data on gaps and opportunities to consider whether resilience does mean ‘a single thing’ in cities, what scale of measurement application is appropriate and provide feedback on risk management. With this evidence, the measurement frameworks can be positioned better and lead discussions on considering a unified approach at global level with one global framework approach to provide better understanding of governance to risks.

Analysing city-scale resilience using a novel systems approach

ABSTRACT. In an increasingly complex world, the resilience concept helps deal with uncertainty and unexpected change. However, its polysemy has sparked debate in the literature leading to ambiguity in terms of conceptualising, measuring and applying the concept across different disciplines. For example, in the physical sciences, resilience is often conceptualised as preventing change with the aim of ‘bouncing back’ to normal conditions as quickly as possible after a disaster. In contrast, the social sciences often define resilience as enhancing coping capacity in various systems, concentrating on adaptive learning and transformative change. This paper aims to bridge this gap through understanding the complex interactions and interdependencies between critical infrastructure, flooding and human vulnerability which determine a city’s resilience. A systematic review on the concept of resilience was conducted in order to understand how resilience was being defined, measured and operationalized within the context of flood risk management (FRM). Findings suggest that resilience is a tripartite concept which includes the capacity to withstand, the capacity to absorb, and the capacity to adapt and transform. Taken together, these concepts conceptualize both the slower and faster scales of resilience, across multiple spatial scales. However, when it comes to ‘doing resilience’, all three capacities are rarely accounted for. This paper will incorporate the findings of the review into a systems approach to urban resilience. Instead of a purely physical approach to FRM, a systems approach explores the complex web of social and technical interactions and how they combine to affect critical system functionalities. In particular, an abstraction hierarchy of how the city functions will be modelled, with individual buildings/households at the bottom and the functional purpose of a city at the top of the hierarchy. Each scale is connected through means-ends links in order to capture functionality - with the functions being increasingly abstracted with each layer of the hierarchy. Along with the different spatial scales, it also incorporates the different temporal scales of resilience. For example, the immediate exposure to flooding can be analysed using graph theory metrics to see how the impact of a building being flooded propagates through the wider system, allowing identification of critical nodes. Moreover, it can also account for the slower variables of resilience by adjusting the node strength higher up the abstraction hierarchy in light of different policy or adaptation strategies. Again, this can be compared to the baseline during a flood event of a given magnitude. In essence, the abstraction hierarchy contributes to a better understanding of the complexity of the city and helps to determine the crucial points of failure when a city is subject to flooding, and what the failure of such a service would mean for different populations and their corresponding vulnerabilities. The first step in operationalising the resilience concept is presented in this paper using results for Natchez City, USA and Hulme, UK to explore the role of exposure and how a city absorbs the impact of a flood.

A dilemma of language: 'natural' disasters in academic literature

ABSTRACT. For over 40 years scholars across various fields have been emphasising that disasters are ‘not natural’. The most common definition of a disaster is ‘A serious disruption of the functioning of a community or a society at any scale due to hazardous events interacting with conditions of exposure, vulnerability and capacity, leading to one or more of the following: human, material, economic and environmental losses and impacts’ (UNISDR, 2018, authors emphasis). This highlights that disasters occur due to the interaction of natural hazards with social and human vulnerability, including development activities that are ignorant of local hazardous conditions. Vulnerability originates in human experience and ‘represents the physical, economic, political and social susceptibility or predisposition of a community to damage in a case [of] a destabilising phenomenon’ (Cardona, 2003, p.37), meaning that a series of extreme (yet often permanent) conditions make some social groups fragile. Thus, disasters do not impact all communities and societies equally: disasters impact disproportionately on the poor and marginalised. Nevertheless, many scientific disciplines refer to disasters as ‘natural’. For many researchers that focus mostly on the “natural hazard” component of a disaster, the construct may seem to be valid. But in many social science disciplines the term sits uncomfortably at best, particularly given the contemporary understanding of the role of vulnerability in driving disaster impacts in society. This paper argues that by putting the responsibility for failures of development on ‘nature’, we enable those who create disaster risks by accepting poor urban planning, increasing socio-economic inequalities, non-existent or poorly regulated policies, and lack of proactive adaptation and mitigation to avoid detection. We support the argument by analysing over 300 academic papers published since 1976 in six key journals in disaster studies. We find that research using the misnomer often focuses on impacts of hazards and risks and discusses vulnerabilities of those affected; this highlights that authors realise that whilst hazards are natural, disasters are not. Despite the widespread awareness in academic community of the problem, the use of the misnomer actually appears to be growing. As we increasingly see disasters framed in “narratives of destruction” that are hazard-centric and depoliticised, we must find ways to push back against the trend. A great concern is the use of the misnomer among scholars that are researching human vulnerability. The analysis shows three most prominent contexts within which the misnomer is used: 1) Trying to highlight the difference between natural and human-induced hazards (using the phrase as a way to indicate that the disaster has a “natural trigger); 2) Using the term as a buzzword (without considering the implications); and 3) A hazard-focused approach to the problem (with authors falling into this language without thinking). All these uses are problematic as they disconnect the reality of the most vulnerable by continuously blaming “nature”. If science is really to support those in society most at risk, our language must be used to accurately apportion blame to the real root causes of disaster; i.e. the socio-economic rather than the natural.

A review of flood vulnerability indices for coastal cities

ABSTRACT. Combinations of qualitative and quantitative measurements are increasingly used to identify vulnerability to disasters in urban areas around the world. In the context of increasing global urban populations and changing climatic conditions, these indices provide policymakers and researchers with a means to measure vulnerability between urban areas and in specific locations over time. However, urban geographies and sub-geographies are subject to different kinds of disaster scenarios and experience vulnerability in different ways. As such, a number of indices spanning spatial scales and disaster categories have proliferated in recent years in attempt to provide an empirical basis with which to understand vulnerability. This paper focuses specifically on vulnerability indices designed to measure vulnerability to coastal flooding and provides a systematic review of literature related to the design and implementation of these indices in order to determine overarching conceptual groupings, relevance of indicators, utility of measurement at different spatial scales, and weighting methodologies. This review of existing methods will lead to a summary of the field of flood vulnerability index creation, including a comparative analysis of the applicability of indicators across categories. Flood vulnerability index methodologies are identified through keyword searches in Google Scholar and other academic databases. This literature review necessitates an overview of definitions of vulnerability and its component parts, including exposure, susceptibility, and resilience, as defined by the authors. The majority of included literature combines indicators in terms of these three categories, as well as a number of sub-categories related to economics, social systems, environmental characteristics, institutional aptitude, and others. Reviewed indices combine indicators using a range of methodological approaches including Principal Component Analysis, Factor Analysis, Cluster Analysis, and Graph Network Analysis. This paper catalogues the component parts of over 30 indices and presents the categories, indicators, and combinatorial methods used in each case. The results show that a great deal of variability exists across indices in terms of the spatial scale to which the index is applied, ranging from entire nations to cities to census block groups, as well as both the geography of focus and the kind of flood vulnerability measured (i.e. riverine, estuarine, or mixed conditions). Similarly, I find that the methods used to combine indicator values, as well as the weights attributed to each, vary throughout the literature, highlighting a degree of subjectivity related to context and data availability. While no consensus has been reached on a universally-accepted methodology for calculating flood vulnerability, I argue that prevalent trends in the field highlight thematic areas of agreement, topics for further study, and best practices. This paper concludes with a proposal for a minimum set of indicator variables for use in computing index scores based on existing literature, as well as suggestions for inclusion of novel variables and standardized data sources available at a global level.

Heritage conservation and tourism: uneasy alliances towards cultural resilience

ABSTRACT. Resilience is becoming an increasingly important topic of academic study. Heritage conservation and heritage tourism share heritage sites as a common object of study, and the notion of resilience originally emerged in both areas as an ecological approach. More recent inroads into social resilience in these two areas (heritage conservation and heritage tourism) have yet to examine resilience from a cultural perspective, i.e., what we call here “cultural resilience”. The notion of cultural resilience for this conference presentation is limited to the context of physical built heritage.

Cultural resilience is a complex notion. It requires consideration not simply the built heritage (physical site), but also intangible dimensions, like the relationships between the site and its stakeholders (past and present), and what the site means to them. Stakeholders here include those directly related to the site’s heritage, local area residents, and vulnerable populations, historically oppressed or marginalized groups that may have a direct claim on the site for social well-being and cultural identification. Identity politics, power relations and economic issues arise here that also need to be addressed. How heritage conservationists use and operationalize this concept at built heritage sites is not only challenged by the social and political context in which the site is embedded, but also the tourism stakeholders whose interests like primarily in site use and marketing for visitation. It requires identifying diverse values and interests, addressing the capacity of the heritage sites to withstand exposure, hazards, material degradation, plus use and visitation; conservation needs in light of use and visitation; it’s importance to local / area residents; area aesthetics; resource constraints, and the well-being of vulnerable populations and diverse groups who may have direct interests and affiliations with the site.

In-depth review of the academic literature and the notion of resilience in heritage conservation and tourism studies, was performed in order to identify analytical parameters useful for addressing cultural resilience in heritage sites that are also visitor destinations. These parameters were applied to a case study of Alcatraz Island, USA, a National Parks Service managed protected site. Results indicate that an integrated approach between heritage conservation and tourism is needed in conserving, planning and managing the site. Close attention is needed to understand how each side perceive the interactions between tangible (e.g. buildings) and intangible (e.g. values and symbolism, relationships) aspects of the site. Identifying common ground and principles requires multi-stakeholder collaboration and must include those who stand to be most impacted by decisions made by heritage conservation and tourism experts. Power relations and participatory issues abound, particularly with respect to vulnerable populations and historically marginalized groups affiliated directly with the heritage site. A preliminary definition and some guiding principles for cultural resilience in the context of built heritage are proposed.

Natural disasters and human development: linking exposure, vulnerability and resilience concepts through the geography of floods
SPEAKER: Isabel Paiva

ABSTRACT. The concepts of natural disasters and human development interlock to form the base of discussion concerning the socio-economic and environmental consequences of extreme natural events. The tragic nature of such episodes has strengthened debate about the level of development in relation to the exposure and vulnerability of local populations to natural disasters. If the geographical distribution and frequency of extreme natural events (earthquakes, hurricanes, floods, droughts) can be explained through the vulgarities of the natural characteristic of a region, then economic damage, loss of life and prospects for reconstruction shows us a geospatial distribution that follows the patterns of human development. The localization and the study of reoccurring natural disasters such as floods are particularly useful for the analysis of the relationship between human development, vulnerability and resilience to a natural catastrophe. Furthermore, the forecasting, management and response to the ever-increasing number of major floods, has highlighted differences between wealthy and poor countries. This study uses worldwide flood data in the three last decades to explore the relationship between the level of human development and the degree of vulnerability of populations at risk of natural disasters. Through the analysis of data and mapping the floods occurrences, the study tries to answer the questions related to the linkage between exposure to hazard, social vulnerability and resilience.

Resilience rediscovered: a critical review in the context of disaster resilience at community level

ABSTRACT. Resilience is the ability to go back quickly to the normal state of the system and in a better state as well. A resilient supply chain is that being faithful to the essence of supply chain, being true to its essential function, that even in times of disruptive events, it will continue to link processes effectively though collaboration and have unified goals of all the players in the of supply chain. The paper aims to provide a conceptual framework about a resilient supply chain. It presented an analysis of experts ‘judgement, several literature studies including empirical evidence, anecdotal analysis on becoming a resilient supply chain. Hence, a model was developed which forms the correct relationship of the drivers of a resilient supply chain. This model explained a state of affair of a resilient supply chain. Lastly, a proposed methodology was discussed using multivariate analysis to understand clearly the cause and effect relationship.

11:00-12:45 Session 3C-I: Track session
Location: Room C202
A living cultural landscape: the Farm Pond Landscape in Taoyuan, Taiwan as an example

ABSTRACT. Farm Pond is a unique cultural and natural landscape in Taiwan, although it is often mistaken for natural creation. Farm Pond not only reflects the natural environment conditions such as hydrology, climate, topography and soil on Taoyuan plateau, but also expresses the wisdom of Hakka people and their rice culture. However, in recent years, with the rise of industrialization and urbanization, the focus of industrial development in the Taoyuan has shifted from agriculture to processing and electronics industry. The economic function of the water storage in the Farm Pond is no longer in sight. It is increasingly being abandoned or changed into shopping malls and housing. Therefore, the function of Farm Pond and the surrounding green farmlands, as well as the development of the neighboring community, are all need to be redefined.

"Settlements, rice paddy fields and ponds" were the first cultural landscapes on the Taoyuan plateau. In the past, they were a kind of coexistence system, but now because of the change in economic activities, agriculture has declined, and Farm Pond lost its original meaning. This study proposes three directions that give modern “Farm Pond” a new meaning for urban functions and places. (1) The field of urban leisure: Farm Pond Ecological Park (2) The field of landscape art: Art works intervention and education promotion (3) The field of partnership community: re-linking the broken relationship between the "communities, green spaces, and ponds" breaks.

It is hoped that the conclusions proposed in this study will be helpful to the future use of Farm Pond and the definition of places, and is different from the methods and strategies for the preservation of traditional cultural landscapes.

Post-disaster recovery of cultural heritage at global level: evolution, challenges, and lessons learned from World Bank projects

ABSTRACT. Since its establishment in 1944 to help rebuild war-torn Europe—supporting countries in their reconstruction and development—the World Bank has gained experience in good practices that address cultural heritage in the face of disasters and conflicts. Its approach to heritage has evolved over time, from an initial do no harm safeguard-oriented (1970-1980) progressively enriched to develop specific intervention approach (1980‐2000), to finally establish an integrated approach (2000‐present) integrating culture and heritage into inclusion, sustainability, and resilience of its development approach. At the same time, the World Bank has become, over the past decade, a global leader in disaster risk management, providing client countries with technical and financial support for risk assessments, risk reduction, preparedness, financial protection, and resilient recovery and reconstruction. The World Bank promotes a comprehensive, multi-sectoral approach to managing disaster risk, and its strategy supports priorities for action outlined in the Sendai Framework, as well as contributes to the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals and the Paris Agreement. Several projects and programs illustrate the evolution of the World Bank in supporting post-disaster recovery of physical cultural heritage. Past projects include the Earthquake Reconstruction Program in the historic city of Lijiang, China, after the M 7.0 earthquake in 1996; the restoration of the iconic Mostar Bridge in Bosnia and Herzegovina, in partnership with UNESCO and other international organizations; and the cultural heritage and urban development project in five historic cities of Lebanon (Tyre, Byblos, Baalbek, Saida, and Tripoli) to establish cultural heritage as a driving force for social inclusion and economic development, becoming a good example of how a post-conflict reconstruction can evolve to support sustainable growth. More recently, projects such as the multi-hazard vulnerability assessment of cultural heritage sites in Philippines after the 2013 Bohol earthquake and typhoon Hayian; the rapid assessment of the archaeological structures of Bagan in Myanmar, after the 2016 earthquake; and the renewed and strengthened partnership with UNESCO, including the development of a joint white paper on Integrating Culture, Recovery and Reconstruction for Sustainable Urban Development, show the increasing awareness and commitment to support resilient recovery of cultural heritage. Additionally, since 2017, a technical assistance project on Resilient Cultural Heritage is being developed by the Global Facility for Disaster Reduction and Recovery, through its office in Tokyo, in the framework of the Japan-World Bank Program for Mainstreaming Disaster Risk Management in Developing Countries, and new initiatives are taking shape to include heritage in ongoing programs such as City Resilience, and Recovery Hub –which provides support on needs assessment and recovery planning to government officials and decision makers involved in recovery process following major disasters. The World Bank has developed substantial knowledge and expertise in resilient recovery engagements helping countries assess the impact of disasters and supporting recovery planning including in fragile and conflict situations, and it is progressively including cultural heritage as a crucial sector. This paper will analyse the evolution, challenges, lessons learned, and new opportunities to mainstream post-disaster recovery of heritage at global level.

Risk and resilience: Baiame’s Cave and creation landscape, NSW, Australia

ABSTRACT. Topic: Understanding the Aboriginal relationship with the land and nature, and traditional approaches to land management for building resilience in a pre and post-colonial landscape.

Research Background: For Aboriginal people on the east coast of NSW, Baiame is the creator. At Baiame’s cave, which overlooks a broad grassy valley north of Sydney, Baiame is depicted as an eagle with penetrating eyes, soaring over the land that he created. The site is of immense cultural significance to the people of the Wonnarua Nation and other Aboriginal people in the region. The Wonnarua people have built relationships with local farmers and property owners, seeking to work with them in managing risks to the land and ensuring continued Aboriginal access to the cave, which is essential to enabling revitalization of traditional customs, beliefs and cultural practices within the community.

Objectives: The purpose of the study is to identify and manage risks to Baiame Cave, a place of immense cultural significance to Aboriginal people, its artwork, its immediate landscape setting and the broader landscape over which it looks.

Methodology: A multidisciplinary team, including Aboriginal archaeologist, rock art conservator, cultural heritage and risk management specialists, has undertaken on-site workshops with representatives of the Wonnarua Nation, local property owners and community representatives with the following aims: to identify risks to the site from both natural and human hazards; to develop mitigation strategies to minimize the risks; and to facilitate educational opportunities for sharing Aboriginal culture and knowledge on sustainable land management with the broader Australian community. A risk management strategy has been developed for Baiame Cave and its associated cultural landscape.

Findings: Although natural hazards such as wildfire, flood and drought were found to pose risks to the valley landscape, and natural weathering processes to the rock shelter and its artwork, human hazards including vandalism, wear and tear from increasing visitor numbers, and coal mining, which is transforming the land’s form, were also found to present significant risks. The greatest threat, however, was identified as the loss of traditional knowledge arising from colonial occupation of Wonnarua land, forced dislocation of Aboriginal people, and political, legal and social discrimination over generations, preventing the use of local language and open sharing of cultural knowledge and practices.

Conclusions: Australian Aboriginal people have demonstrated tremendous resilience through 200 years of colonial repression. As barriers are gradually falling, Aboriginal culture is revitalizing, not only internally within Aboriginal communities, but also externally as Aboriginal people are beginning to share their culture and values with the broader Australian community. At Baiame Cave, the Wonnarua people seek to share their culture and educate others in understanding the land, the human relationship with nature and the sustainable management of the natural resource.

From landscape character assessment to the analysis of the risk of loss of landscape values: Arga Mountain as case study

ABSTRACT. Alongside the preservation of natural resources, disaster reduction and adaptation to climate change, landscape preservation is a commitment of European institutions and other international organizations, progressively reinforced in the last two decades. Landscape management in mountain areas of North-western Portugal is a pressing need as a result of the increased risk of loss of historical, cultural and landscape heritage associated with traditional rural communities; the difficult recover of the landscape degradation of the agro-silvo-pastoral spaces and the recognition of the reduced effectiveness of planning policies and the territorial management instruments in force. Landscape character expresses a distinct and recognizable pattern of elements that occurs consistently and systematically, that results from specific combinations between geological substrate, landforms, soils, vegetation, land use, land structure and settlement system. The assessment of cultural landscape character, translated into the cartography of cultural landscape unites, plays an important role in the analysis of the risk of loss of landscape value, as well as in landscape protection planning, considering that it: - Enables the identification of the main elements, factors and processes, both natural and cultural, that conditioned the shaping and evolution of the landscape; - Helps to understand that each landscape unit has its own dynamics and it is differently affected by demographic and socioeconomic triggers of landscape change, as well as by natural hazards; - Grounds the analysis of the functional potential of each landscape unit; - Increases the perception of the uniqueness of a given landscape mosaic by local inhabitants, decision-makers and visitants, facilitating awareness for the importance of landscape preservation policies. Taking the Arga Mountain as study-area, this work addresses the following goals: - Complete the inventory of the natural, built and cultural heritage relevant for the landscape reading; - Identify the historical moments and processes that were crucial for landscape evolution; - Characterize the landscape character and classify the landscape units of the Arga Mountain; - Enlighten the role of agro-pastoral systems in landscape shaping, which must be preserved as an eco-sociological heritage; - Identify the present driving factors and processes of landscape change that may induce the loss of landscape characteristics that are crucial for the maintenance of its character.

The identification and delimitation of cultural landscape units in the Serra de Arga was based on the correlated interpretation of a set of elements that the field work demonstrated to be determinant for the organization of the landscape mosaic: altitude, slope, lithology, geomorphological units, land use, archaeological remains, historical and vernacular heritage. The spatial relationships between these elements of the landscape are analysed in geographic information system, resulting in the identification of four large units, divided into subunits. The analysis of recent landscape dynamics identified the main trends of landscape change between 1995 e 2015 and the resulting risks of loss of landscape values, related with phenomena like depopulation, agricultural abandonment, forest fires and expansion of invasive alien species.

11:00-12:45 Session 4C-I: Track session
Location: Room B201
Analysing the cost-effectiveness of heritage-conservation interventions: a methodological proposal within project STORM

ABSTRACT. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis (CEA) may constitute a valuable decision-support tool for the allocation of resources destined to cultural heritage preservation in what it allows comparisons among alternatives without the need for monetising the expected outcomes which, when dealing with heritage assets, are largely made of non-use values, and thus inherently difficult to price. Nevertheless, its application in the heritage sector is still somewhat limited, conceivably due to difficulties in ‘effectiveness’ appraisals. STORM (Safeguarding Cultural Heritage through Technical and Organisational Resources Management) is an H2020-funded project dedicated to the development of sustainable solutions for the preservation of cultural heritage sites facing natural hazards and climate change. Within its scope, a methodology for the CEA of conservation interventions in archaeological heritage sites was developed and applied to a case-study in one of the project’s pilots, the Roman Ruins of Tróia, Portugal. Following the STORM approach to heritage protection from natural hazards, the proposed CEA was built within a Disaster Risk Management framework. The paper will describe the STORM CEA methodology, and namely the definition of cost and effectiveness indicators, including discount rate and eco-compatibility considerations; as well as report on the case-study application, which concerned the analysis of five possible strategies to address the structural risk posed by a sand dune weighing upon the walls of a well in the largest workshop of the Roman Ruins, Workshop 1. The analysis showed that options relying on ordinary maintenance are slightly costlier, but more effective, than the ones resorting to extraordinary maintenance; and that uncertainty in effectiveness appraisals seems to be adequately tackled by expert opinion. The most cost-effective option corresponded to the less intrusive strategy, i.e. the one relying on maintenance to a higher extent, which is in line with current perspectives on the conservation of archaeological assets, and seems to indicate the procedure is robust.

Man-made risks and preventive strategies for architectural heritage under threat from urbanization

ABSTRACT. Historical architectures are non-reproducible cultural heritages, which not only have witness human wisdom and cultural evolution, but also remain a valuable resource for strengthening the community identity and promoting the sustainable development of society and economy. It is our collective responsibility to safeguard these architectural heritages for the present and future generations. However, the disaster risks threaten the safety of historical buildings at any time, undermining their art, historical and social value. Earthquake, flood, storm and other natural disasters seriously endanger these structures even threaten human life. But, inconceivably, the disaster risks associated with human activities such as air pollution, climate change, soil erosion, species migration, conflicts, explosions and fires have damaged these heritages even more serious than natural disasters. Urbanization and heritage protective destruction activities also led to the vulnerability of these historical buildings. Obviously, any successful post-disaster recovery is not as good as putting an end to disaster risks earlier. Therefore, identifying the causes of man-made disaster risks, monitoring not only heritages but also the environment around, making early warning measures in advance, and preventing the occurrence of man-made disaster risks at the first of beginning are fundamentally important. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the human factors which caused these disaster risks and related evaluation system, to explore corresponding monitoring techniques of buildings as well as their environment around, discuss architectural heritage risk reduction policies and preventive conservation strategies for protecting our precious resources from man-made disaster risks.

The first part of the paper explains the value of architectural heritages and their vulnerability to disaster risks, emphasizing the important significance of architectural heritage protection. The second part analyzes the various human factors associated different kinds of man-made disaster risks and evaluates the disaster consequences to architectural heritage, then proposes the predicting and early warning means through a real-time building and environment monitoring system to prevent the occurrence of man-made disaster risks. The third part of the paper, by typical case studies, analyzes the extent of damage of the architectural heritage caused by different man-made disasters, then evaluates the situation of the monitoring and early warning system, discusses current preventive conservation methods. The fourth part of the paper discusses the risk reduction policies and specific preventive conservation strategies against man-made disaster risks. Finally, the paper emphasizes the destructive power of the inappropriate human activities to architectural heritages, puts forward the conclusion that strengthening disaster risk governance, promoting real-time building and environment monitoring techniques, improving public awareness of heritage protection, and increasing the ways of public participation are essential to reduce man-made disaster risks of architectural heritage. Through theoretical analysis and case studies, this paper discusses the human-driven forces which cause disaster risks and corresponding prevention measures against these risks, making a unique contribution to improving disaster risk management mechanism and preventive conservation theory of architectural heritage.

Historic buildings resilience: a view over envelope energy retrofit possibilities
SPEAKER: Magda Posani

ABSTRACT. ABSTRACT: 2018 is the European Year of Cultural Heritage, officially defined by the European Parliament and Council in May 2017. Therefore the need of defining and promoting good practices in conservation and enhancement of historic buildings in Europe is much a current issue. In the last decades, an increasing attention has been paid to the improvement of energy performances and indoor thermal comfort in existing constructions to guarantee their reuse and keep them alive. Moreover, historic buildings, by definition durable and resilient constructions, should be prepared for the new challenges of climatic changes. The present study considers strategies, technologies and materials proposed in literature for historic buildings energy and thermal retrofit, focusing particularly on envelope refurbishment interventions. The suitability of the solutions for preserving historic valuable constructions is also accounted, mainly via considering the principle of authenticity and vapour permeability for compatibility. The efficacy of the interventions, in terms of energy savings, is then investigated. Results show that existing solutions can lead to significant decreases in buildings energy consumption, 22% to 51% averagely, but only part of them appears suitable for historic buildings preservation.

An indicator for the economic loss in value of damaged cultural heritage properties
SPEAKER: Xavier Romão

ABSTRACT. The Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction (SFDRR) upholds the development and implementation of measures to reduce hazard exposure and vulnerability to disasters. Among other aspects, the SFDRR recognizes the importance of cultural heritage and its irreplaceable value for society, thus emphasising the need to assess the impact that potential hazards may have on the built cultural heritage. Developing adequate risk assessment and management processes are fundamental towards this end and it is known that systematically collected and robust disaster damage and loss data are essential for such processes. Thus, the development of systems, models and methodologies to collect and handle such data are seen to be a current worldwide priority. One of the challenges for the disaster risk management sector is to broaden loss assessments to include non-direct losses. For example, non-monetized losses need to be integrated into loss estimation procedures to obtain a sound quantification of disaster impacts. In this context, the losses to cultural heritage and the relation between them and society (e.g. economic losses in tourism resulting from damaged cultural heritage) are particularly important but existing loss and damage databases rarely capture those effects. The topic of economic valuation of cultural heritage has been the subject of several studies over the past years and several methodologies have been developed to elicit monetary expressions of cultural values. However, most of these methods were not developed to estimate the loss in value of damaged cultural heritage properties. The quantification of the loss in value introduces an additional level of subjectivity due to the difficulty in estimating losses across the multiple types of values that are embodied in a cultural heritage property as a result of a certain amount of physical damage in the property. In this context, the proposed paper will present a methodology defining an indicator to estimate economic losses that represent the loss in value of cultural heritage properties due to damage caused by hazardous events. The methodology establishes an indicator estimating the loss in value of cultural heritage properties as a function of the (physical) damage they suffered and of the positive estimated economic impact that cultural heritage has in a given country. This indicator is not meant to reflect the true value of economic losses. Instead, it reflects a standardized measure of potential economic losses that is comparable across countries. Details of the methodology are provided along with its potential applications within the SFDRR.

Cyclic behaviour, dynamic analysis and seismic vulnerability of historical building archetypes in Hungary

ABSTRACT. Hungary is located in the Carpathian Basin, a region with a regular low-to-moderate seismicity and a relatively small occurrence rate of high intensity events. Most of these events happened before the advent of modern seismology, leaving damage records that enable the study of their effects on structures. A method for the estimation of the magnitude of historical seismic events exists and uses Dynamic Structural Analysis (DSA) to produce fragility functions. The Bayesian framework of the method allows to incorporate physical and epistemic uncertainties of different sources in the final magnitude estimates. Hence, to obtain reliable magnitude estimates it is important to reduce the uncertainty in both structural resistance and demand. This requires different investigation levels on the building typologies, the materials, the collapse mechanisms, and the ground motion (GM) patterns of the affected region. Despite the historical buildings investigation, the incorporation of uncertainties in the structural models requires considerable computation. This paper studies the effects of the 1763 Komárom earthquake (Western Hungarian Kingdom), by the Nonlinear Static Analysis, together with the EC8 N2-method, and DSA, Incremental Dynamic Analysis (IDA), of 8 historical building archetypes characterizing the building and material variability and 30 selected GM records. The physical uncertainties are incorporated using Monte-Carlo Simulation and an OpenSEES Pinching4 hysteretic material model is calibrated for IDA. The resulting fragilities show relatively high damage probabilities at low acceleration levels.

Architectural heritage of Sri Lanka: post-disaster lessons learned

ABSTRACT. During the last 2 decades Sri Lanka faced many natural and human created disasters which had a strong impact on the Architectural Heritage of Sri Lanka. The Boxing Day Tsunami of 2004 had a great impact on the architectural heritage of the coastal areas of Sri Lanka. The 30 years of war in Sri Lanka also had many repercussions on the Heritage Architecture including World Heritage Sites which were targeted for attacks. Sri Lanka also face floods, landslides and droughts but these disasters have minute impact on heritage architecture and therefore not considered in this paper.

This research is based on my post Tsunami and during and post war documentation of heritage architecture of Sri Lanka. Heritage architecture in this context is defined as structures which were constructed more than 100 years ago and culturally important architecture.

This research is a two-pronged research where impact on heritage buildings as a result of natural and man-made disasters were carried out. The impact of Tsunami on heritage architecture was carried out in the coastal areas of Sri Lanka, specially along the Eastern and Southern Coast. The survival and the destruction of the buildings were identified and reasons for each analyzed in depth including conservation methods, etc. It was discovered that some heritage architecture received more damage compared to others which had the same impact from the Tsunami. The prolonged war situation in Sri Lanka and heritage architecture targeted for destruction and the causes were also studied in detail. Survival of heritage architecture in a state of war was discussed with local inhabitants and their opinions documented as far as possible. The information gathered was analyzed.

The disaster impact on heritage architecture is varied. The impact and the damage caused by Tsunami was based on strength of the wave, vegetation around the structure, conservation methods, distance, etc. The cultural heritage architecture including more recent buildings of cultural activities received presented a comparison point.

The heritage architecture during the war had two categories. One was the intentional targets and the other was the unintentional impacts of war. Both caused damage throughout Sri Lanka and the causes for these damages and endurance were multi-layered. On one hand the heritage architecture was selected as targets to have a maximum impact on the population and the other was always accidental even though the both caused damage.

The results of this research also laid the foundation for recommendations for heritage architecture during disasters.

11:00-12:45 Session 4E/4I-I: Track session
Location: Room C104
Resiliency planning in antagonistic communities

ABSTRACT. The basis of this US centric paper will be to discuss how to plan and work with politically conservative and antagonistic communities who are often opposed to land use changes and property restrictions. Planners are well trained to see ways to make the urban form “better” but we often overlook the fact that many people simple do not want we propose. Considering that the US is inherently a suburban nation which takes property rights very seriously, telling a community that they need to curtail certain property rights for the betterment of the overall community is often a daunting task. As the Trump election shows, there are a lot of “smart people” who are out of step with what people think. Planners need to remember not everyone wants to be Portland.

Thus this paper will discuss why people in conservatively antagonistic communities think the way they do, often and supporting polices that go against their best interests. The paper will be based in research which centers on resiliency planning, demographic sorting, climate change narratives, anti-Agenda 21 debates, and community empowerment. The theoretical basis of the paper will further be examined through the case study of three politically conservative Lake Michigan communities (Ludington, Grand Haven, and St Joesph MI) who participated in a resilient master planning process.

The results of this paper and presentation shows that much of what did to be successful in our planning mirrored the literature. We found: that it was necessary to understand our community before anything began; that the narrative mattered; and that power dynamics and giving power to the community were key to our success.

Structural health monitoring and Bayesian decision analysis for resilient masonry towers

ABSTRACT. In the aftermath of natural hazards there are diverse challenges and limitations to assess the structural capacity and identify the status of historical structures. An effective management of heritage buildings requires an approach which can provide strategies that maximise its resilience. By using knowledge which is acquired from Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) it is possible to make timely interventions to decrease the vulnerability of structure, to minimise the consequences from failures and to decrease the time required to restore the original performance, which is directly related with the structural capacity. This paper deals with historical masonry towers, as a widely diffused historical structural typology on which SHM techniques has been tested. The role of Bayesian decision analysis and Value of Information (VoI) as supporting tool in structural management and therefore in enhancing the resilience of architectural heritage is investigated.

Risk and urban design in favelas: the close relationship between participation and territorial management

ABSTRACT. Risk is an important part of urban design projects in favelas in Brazil and around the world. The logic of urban design in favelas attempts to address this issue in one way or another. Our hypothesis is that resilience is directly associated with the way project methodologies are constructed, identifying the actors that actually imprint their logic on the territory, guaranteeing their own future survival and that of the project. The slum upgrading projects in favelas in Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo are usually the result of government contracts that define the scope of the work of architects-urban designers, and the limitations and the relationships with the residents and other planning agencies. After the works have been completed, management of the territory must incorporate the local logic of construction in favelas, and its peculiar insertion in the city and in society.

Earthquake risk perception in Khokana, Nepal before and after the 2015 Gorkha Earthquake

ABSTRACT. Whereas risk perception research started in the 1960s in the US and in Europe, there is still a scarcity of risk perception research in many countries in Asia, including Nepal. This study investigated the change in the earthquake risk perception of the residents of Ward 21 (Khokana Village) of Lalitpur Metropolitan City in Nepal after the 2015 Gorkha Earthquake. In a survey conducted in November 2016, 106 respondents (76 males, 29 females, 1 unclassified; mean age 48 (SD 16), age range 18-83) rated four risk perception items on a Likert scale of 1 to 5 for two periods, before and after the earthquake. Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to compare the paired before-and-after data. The results show that after the 2015 Gorkha Earthquake there is a statistically significant change in the perceived likelihood of earthquake (Z=-6.617, p<0.0005) with effect size r=0.46; in the perceived knowledge of disaster mitigation actions (Z=-6.970, p<0.0005), r=0.48; in the anticipation of financial loss due to an earthquake (Z=-3.886, p<0.0005), r=0.27; and in the dread or fear of earthquakes (Z=-8.092, p<0.0005), r=0.56. This study proves that actual experience of a disaster can significantly heighten risk perception. Three of the four effect sizes are large. In this study, we are also reporting the kinds of impacts residents anticipate if a strong earthquake will hit their village again: loss of property (82%), injuries (66%), loss of family members (58%), and loss of livelihood (25%). Majority of the residents plan to keep themselves safe from a future earthquake by leaving their house and staying in open spaces (88%), reflecting the low confidence of the residents on the durability and safety of their house. This study can contribute in filling in the gap in empirical risk perception research in Nepal. Next steps should include investigating whether higher risk perception eventually leads to more precautionary behavior, such as improving housing safety.

Evaluating service level of Point of Distributions (PODs) during the Michigan Flint Water Crisis

ABSTRACT. In the United States, drinking water is delivered to communities by one million miles of pipelines. Most pipeline systems were constructed in the early to mid 20th with a lifespan of 75 - 100 years. Currently, there are approximately 155,000 active public drinking water systems. It provides drinking water to 90% of Americans. The quality of drinking water remains high, but the legacy and emerging contaminants need to pay close attention. When public drinking water systems are unable to deliver safe water, the provision of emergency water supply becomes a necessity. Depending on the incident scale and duration, temporary or existing emergency water supply system could not support the tremendous amount of water needs from an affected community. The Flint water crisis, Michigan in the U.S. began in 2014 as the drinking water source for the city of Flint was changed to the Flint River to reduce the water fund shortfall. In October 2015, more than 90,000 Flint residents were directed not to use their lead-contaminated water. Instead, they were asked to use bottled water. To fulfill the huge and growing amount of water needs from the residents, the city initially utilized five local fire stations as Points of Distribution (PODs). Then, the city opened new nine PODs to increase the POD capacity and accessibility of the residents. The objective of this study 1) reviews existing emergency water distribution system including POD strategy and operation 2) conducts spatial analysis to evaluate spatial and social equity of the PODs operated during the Flint water crisis. We found that there is limited literature to provide an effective POD planning and operation guidelines for delivering bottled water and emergency supply kits, especially for an intermediate-, and long-term emergency water distribution. Also, the PODs in the city were primarily sited to provide equal distance to the affected residents. The average distance to PODs from the residential areas was 3.43 miles (five fire stations) and 2.78 miles (nine PODs). However, three out of nine PODs had significantly higher water demands than the other PODs. The average number of assigned households to the nine PODs was 5,754, and the standard deviation was 2,573. Finally, we identified that the POD locations relatively satisfied spatial equity, not social equity such as low-income and minority. The results of the study will be used to understand the role of spatial and social equity in POD planning and operation as a public facility. Further, it will be used to develop a framework for an effective POD design and location for the future water crisis in urban areas.

Stereotomy-related studies considering the effect of limited angle of friction on minimum thickness values for semi-circular masonry arches

ABSTRACT. Conceptual understanding of the behavior of masonry structures is essential for the structural assessment of cultural heritage buildings. The theoretical studies of present paper can help to quickly evaluate the safety of existing structures with special emphasis on structures with unknown stereotomy. The Couplet-Heyman problem of determining the minimum required thickness necessary for the equilibrium of an arch is based on the definition of the thrust line. The thrust line, that must be kept wholly within the structure depends on loading, overall geometry and stereotomy (brick- or stone laying pattern). The classical approach of the literature is to assume certain stereotomy conditions (mostly radial) and derive the corresponding unique thrust line and minimum thickness value based on limit state analysis. Modification of this problem set up however quickly leads to an optimization problem: i.e. considering the stereotomy a-priori unknown, a range of minimum thickness values becomes available for the same loading and overall geometry conditions. While it is relatively straightforward, that this range of minimum thicknesses possesses an upper bound, this paper focuses on finding a lower bound – a global minimum. It is demonstrated that stereotomy-related constraints are essential for a well-posed constrained optimization problem. First the necessary condition for a non-vanishing lower bound of minimum thickness values is derived analytically considering the assumptions of limit state analysis, namely infinite friction and a no-tension material model. The method is applied to the case of the semi-circular arch of constant thickness subject to self-weight, though it is applicable to other arch geometries as well. For a full analytical treatment of the problem, a simplified structural model is considered: the arch is represented by its center line as reference axis and its self-weight is assigned to this axis uniformly distributed according to arch length, regardless of stereotomy. The lower bound thickness to radius ratio (t/R) is found to be t/R = 0.0819. A numerical method is introduced to demonstrate the existence of a valid stereotomy at this lower bound. The resulting stereotomy of the lower bound has an unrealistic topology from an engineering point of view with almost tangent sections around the middle hinge. This would conflict with the original assumption of no-sliding (implemented in the model as infinite friction). Therefore, the effect of a limited angle of friction is investigated on the lower bound minimum thickness value. The applicability of the proposed methodology is also highlighted, as this constraint can be formulated in the same geometrical manner - requiring the line of action of the resultant force to lay inside the friction cone. It is concluded, that relaxing the no-sliding assumption significantly reduces the admissible range of minimum thickness values by resulting higher lower bound values.

11:00-12:45 Session SS-HAIH: Special session: Humanitarian Architecture and Incremental Housing
Location: Main Auditorium
Creating social and spatial integration frameworks: overcoming the emergency approach to urban refugee reception models
Centre for World Citizens, Reyhanlı, Hatay, Turkey
Examining the efficacy of community participation in hazard mapping for disaster risk reduction

ABSTRACT. Introduction A core issue in the operationalization of disaster risk reduction efforts is the ability to empirically define disaster risk. While the Sendai Framework has called for the inclusion and mainstream use of risk maps (UNISDR 2015 sec. 24), there continues to be tension over sources of the knowledge used to inform such assessments. Gaillard and Mercer (2013) adeptly term this a ‘battlefield of knowledge and action.’ This research seeks to deepen our understanding of knowledge used to define spatial hazard exposure through a comparison of individual household, collective community, and scientifically based hazard assessments. Fundamentally, this study seeks to examine the efficacy of community participation in local hazard assessments. The following two hypotheses are tested:

Hypothesis 1: Household, collective community, and scientifically-based hazard assessments produce the same level of hazard exposure Hypothesis 2: Household and collective community hazard exposure assessments more accurately predict actual hazard events than scientific-based sources

Context This study draws from participatory action research conducted in partnership with the local government unit (LGU) of Carigara in the province of Leyte in the Philippines. As part of a six month hazard mapping project led by the Municipal Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Office (MDRRMO), 427 individuals from across 49 constituent barangays were engaged in workshops to produce localized hazard maps. These community-based hazard maps built upon earlier scientifically-based maps produced by the Philippine Department of Science and Technology (DOST).

Methods Baseline survey data prior to the production of local hazard maps was collected from 2,162 households – an approximately 20 percent sample of the total municipal population. Survey questions asked households to assess their hazard exposure (low, medium, high, or no exposure) for landslides, storm surge, and flooding. Using InaSAFE software, a GIS hazard scenario analysis tool, exposure levels were computed for all surveyed households using DOST and community produced hazards maps. Paired t-tests were then used to compare (1) individual household hazard assessments; (2) community hazard assessments developed through workshop activities and; (3) scientific hazard assessments developed by DOST. Further, one case community was examined to explore hazard exposure for one hazard, flooding, during Tropical Storm Basyang in February 2018.

Findings and Recommendations Findings reveal that local knowledge from households and collective community assessments frequently assigned higher hazard exposure to settlement areas compared to scientifically-based maps, but often omitted exposure entirely for less populated regions. Local knowledge sources were found to be a more accurate predictor of actual exposure for populated areas, however scientifically-based assessments had significantly higher coverage for less frequent hazards, such as storm surge and landslides.

Conclusions Foremost, the findings of this study demonstrate the need to triangulate sources of knowledge for hazard assessments. Communities were unable to assess exposure for low probability, high impact events. Practically, while community participation is a more accurate predictor of local disaster risk, local knowledge, like scientific knowledge, has limits on its efficacy. Rather than view knowledge as dichotomous, there is a need to further explore integration strategies.

The emergency cycle in Ecuador after the 2016 earthquake: the importance of reintegration and contextualization from emergency camps to permanent housing projects

ABSTRACT. In the aftermath a tragedy, the population affected by panic and prostration eagerly accepts the help that is available. Governance, NGOs and even small associations are often praised about their input during the emergency phase but criticized in its response to the recovery phase. Frustrations, indignation and disapproval by their potential beneficiaries are due to lack of comprehension of the real needs of the people and not contextualized actions and projects. In addition, investments and financial aid given during the emergency phase - should be used for contextualized actions that lead to the recovery phase (Coloumbel, 2007).

This article is based on experiences of emergency aid actions in the coastal region of Ecuador after the April 2016’s earthquake, following which various types of emergency solutions were put in place. Based on empirical research mirroring ethnographic approach in the village of Canoa and the city of San Vicente, interviews with displaced families were conducted after the end of the emergency phase in august 2017. The original purpose of those surveys was to highlight the distinctions between formal and informal camps, in regards to the quality of shelter construction in the emergency phase. However, after interviewing the displaced people on site it was possible to understand the families housing situation before, during and after the hazard, and the survey was repurposed to find evidences about their experiences during all the phases. Moreover, by questioning the displaced people, the effectiveness and relevance of first phase of emergency and the reintegration solutions were questioned and criticized. These interviews showed that the rights of the displaced people and the rules of the camps during the emergency phase were relevant factors to evaluate living quality in those spaces. Furthermore the quality of temporary constructions and different uses of camps were relevant in light of the permanent solutions created after the emergency and transitional phase.

During the emergency phase, it is difficult to understand the actual needs and concerns of displaced people, and t is also challenging to assist decision makers and other actors to avoid ineffective and decontextualized actions. Collaboration and exchange of information among actors using contextualization researches from camps to reintegration projects, can lead to more pertinent solutions to aid building a resilient community. The main objective of this study is to highlight the concept of contextualization as key issue for better understanding the reintegration and that should present since the emergency phase.

The 8th ICBR Lisbon 2018 publication outputs and the contributions of the Special Session and the thematic track on Humanitarian Architecture and Incremental Housing: Special Issues and Elsevier books
14:00-15:45 Session 2D/3B-II: Track session
Location: Room C104
Understanding the relationship between financial capacity and disaster resiliency: a qualitative study on the residents of Oshawa, Ontario

ABSTRACT. Over the last few decades, we have seen an increase in the frequency and severity of disasters. This has led to an increase in the number of affected people which is largely due to the magnification of existing socio-economic problems such as inequality, discrimination, entitlement, and poverty. Recent experiences- such as the 2005 Hurricane Katrina and the 2013 floods in Calgary- reveal unlike impacts of disasters on different social groups with varied social, financial, and political statuses. However, the relationship between families’ financial capacities and their experience in disasters remains still unclear in developed countries. In response, this qualitative study uses a narrative approach to explore the relationship between financial capacity and disaster resilience within the City of Oshawa in Ontario, Canada, as a typical middle-scale city in developed countries. This study applies the concept of emergency preparedness as a key indicator to explain the nexus of financial capacity and resilience. The results show that while financial capacity facilitates the individuals’ and families access to certain resources and increases their resiliency, several extra factors such as experience and education, both formal and informal, also influence individuals’ and families’ vulnerability and resiliency to disasters. These findings help community leaders to make informed decisions and increase families’ overall resiliency, acknowledging- their various financial capacities. Furthermore, the findings let individuals and families evaluate their vulnerability and resilience based on their financial capacity, education and previous, allowing them to better prepare themselves for disasters in the future.

Community flood resilience across the globe: empirical analysis of measurement and dynamics
SPEAKER: Finn Laurien

ABSTRACT. Given increasing flood risks worldwide driven by a growing population and values of property at risk as well as changing climate patterns there is a growing need to better understand the benefits of investments into building resilience. To this effect a holistic approach has been developed by the Zurich Flood Resilience Alliance (ZFRA) for measuring community flood resilience in developing and developed countries (see Keating et al, 2017). The framework aims to measure community level resilience to flooding, building on the five capitals (5Cs) of the Sustainable Livelihoods Frame-works. The 5C-4R framework is structured around three levels consisting of five capitals, 88 sources graded by experts and 152 questions, which are collected by a mixed method approach of five dif-ferent data collection methods.

Our study here is the first large scale analysis of data collected in 118 communities across the world. Considering the level of detail and multi-dimensional attribution of relevant resilience aspects as well as the challenges imminent with such large scale analysis, it is a first step and should give im-portant information on baseline resilience indicators as well as make it possible to allow compari-sons between communities across the world. The goal of this paper has been to find common pat-terns how flood resilience can be enhanced across the 118 communities.

This elaboration of baseline studies shows first results for a principal component analysis (PCA) for each component of five capital framework. It identifies the common pattern of the flood resilience measurement framework. In addition, a cluster analysis has been conducted, using 3 general community characteristics (education, past flood experience and poverty) to better understand the similarities between the 118 communities. The results of both PCA and cluster analysis have shown that the Community Flood Resilience Measurement Tool is able to identify different com-munity groups in terms of the baseline endowments and to assess whether the flood resilience measurement tool is consistently measuring the Sources of Resilience. We glean learnings about the communities from the baseline data, which will be critical when we proceed to test the post event and endline data against the baseline in a next step.

Community cooperatives as an alternative risk financing instrument for DRR and CCA in Indonesia

ABSTRACT. While many developed economies successfully utilise existing disaster risk financing instruments, primarily through the transfer of disaster risk to the private sector, these instruments appear to be inappropriate to the needs of fast-growing, developing and middle-income countries such as Indonesia. This study is seeking to develop a more appropriate instrument for the needs of these countries. This is an account of the early phase of a study that is seeking to develop an appropriate cooperative model for disaster risk financing in fast-growing, middle-income countries. The study will focus on Indonesia as an example of a country that experiencing this strong economic growth and the associated capital and assets but is also highly exposed to natural hazards. As a consequence, the country is exposed to increasing levels of disaster risk that are unlikely to be sustainable using existing models of disaster risk financing. This paper synthesises the literature to understand the current status of disaster risk financing in developing and developed economies, and critically examines existing disaster risk financing instruments in the context of their suitability for fast-growing, middle-income countries, including their strengths and shortcomings.

Dimensions of physical resilience to disasters

ABSTRACT. Recent analyses of disaster impacts show that a high proportion of the world’s population most affected by extreme weather events is concentrated in urban centers. More people and assets are located in areas of high risk. The proportion of world population living in flood-prone river basins has increased by 114%, while those living on cyclone-exposed coastlines have grown by 192% over the past 30 years. Over half of the world’s large cities, with populations ranging from 2 to 15 million, are currently located in areas highly vulnerable to seismic activity. Rapid urbanization will further increase exposure to disaster risk. As a result, cities are becoming extremely vulnerable to threats posed by natural hazards (Malalgoda et al., 2013). Increase in severe weather events and disasters have highlighted the need for cities to augment their ability to withstand the disaster risks that they may face, and to mitigate and respond to such risks in ways that minimize the impact of severe weather events and natural disasters on the social, environmental and economic infrastructure of the city. In the light of all the above, city leaders need to make significant transformative changes and investments in the resilience of their cities. At the same time, Urbanisation represents a major business opportunity. More investment in infrastructure and built environment will be required over the next 40 years than has occurred over the last 4 millennia (WEF, 2012). Consequently, the construction and real estate development sectors are estimated to grow dramatically in the next 10 years (Global Construction Perspectives and Oxford Economics, 2011). One estimate projects investment in urban development to increase by 67 percent—from US$7.2 trillion in 2011 to US$12 trillion by 2020 (Global Construction Perspectives and Oxford economics, 2011). A total of US$97.7 trillion will be spent on construction globally during the next decade and by 2020, construction will account for 13.2 percent of world GDP (Ibid.). Cities as they grow and function, need to understand the impact of disasters and the need for investment in physical resilience while identifying and developing mechanisms that can support these activities. As highlighted by Bozza, Anna et all (2017), a resilient structure plays a critical role within the urban environment. In fact, it can enhance the resilience of the local community because of its capability to ensure essential services and emergency response and shelter for deallocated citizens. Furthermore, severe economic and human losses can be expected due to the damage to and collapse of buildings in the face of shocking events. A city’s physical environment needs to be assessed and made resilient as necessary based on hazards, exposures and vulnerabilities towards extensive and intensive risk scenarios there by allowing infrastructure systems to cope with disasters and reducing impacts of possible worst-case scenario. To be able to assess the physical environment, it would be necessary to unpack the attributes or dimensions that underpin its functioning and sustainability. These include:

a. Governance b. Financing c. Understanding of risks d. Urban development and design e. Ecosystem services f. Capacity – institutional and societal g. Preparedness and response

Risk perception and capacities for DRR of people with migration background in two Austrian case studies

ABSTRACT. In the context of DRR, people assess information differently and take action on different issues (UNISDR, 2017). Although research has identified immigration as an important dimension of demographic change that needs to be taken into account in the communication of natural risks and DRR (Martens, 2009) and that migrants are considered a vulnerable group, further research on diversity aspects of DRR is scarce in Europe. Within the project “CCCapMig“ an interdisciplinary team researches coping capacities, risk perception and the level of preparedness of people with migration background in the context of natural hazards, focusing on the impacts of floods and heavy precipitation events. The study aims at developing recommendations for tailored risk communication strategies for stakeholders in DRR and the target-group itself. The research is carried out in two case study regions in Austria, where high exposure to natural hazards, historical flood events and a long tradition of labour-in migration coincide. This paper describes the interdisciplinary approach which combines methods of social and spatial science and outlines the obstacles during the research process, in particular reaching people with migration background for interviews and focus groups. The methodological setting comprised of qualitative and quantitative methods. Short street surveys and interviews with inhabitants living in hazard zones, focus group discussions and detailed family surveys were combined with an analysis of the built environment and open spaces as well as the exposure to natural hazards. In addition, expert interviews with stakeholders involved in DRR, complemented by an analysis of structural factors, demographic data, current risk communication strategies and legal instruments were carried out. The theoretical background for the research design was co-created at the beginning of the project and integrated the Protection-Motivation Theory after Grothmann and Reusswig (2006) in the Sustainable Livelihoods framework adapted for disaster risk management (FAO, 2008). The interpretation and discussion of the data revealed the diversity within migrant groups and that ethnicity is often not the prevailing factor that determines vulnerability. Age, gender, the level of education and economic capacities play an important role for the capability to recover from past and prepare for future events too. Surprisingly, language skills or the lack of are not in all phases of the risk cycle an obstacle: during an event and the rescue and recovery phase language barriers are not as hindering as during the phase where people prepare themselves for future events. During the prevention phase poor German skills make it more difficult to understand private households’ prevention issues like self-provision, adaptive building design and to participate in communal decision-making processes. In addition, natural hazards are associated with a low probability of recurrence and rank low within other (daily) risks and struggles under people with migration background who have not been affected recently. The research also shows that there is not one ideal channel to communicate risk but that a variety of approaches reflecting the diversity within this target-group is needed. The paper concludes with preliminary recommendations for stakeholders and people with migration background.

Identifying key factors enabling disaster recovery of households
SPEAKER: Jonas Joerin

ABSTRACT. Track: 2D Understanding disaster recovery processes Presentation style: ORAL PRESENTATION

The ‘recovery’ is considered the least understood phase in the disaster risk management cycle. So far little research focused on identifying the key factors that enable recovery processes of households. However, we consider the period after a disaster as a critical one which determines whether an affected household will regain its functions or not. Essentially, returning back to only the pre-disaster level means that a future hazard with the same intensity will cause the same amount of destruction. Thus, ‘successful’ recovery processes need to deliver an increase in the ability of households to deal with a similar type of hazard in the future. Accordingly, households that better recover from a disaster likely reduce their risk exposure and become more resilient.

In this study, we first review the critical factors that may influence whether households perceive a recovery process and outcome as more or less positive. These factors include aspects related to the recovery time, risk exposure, level of education, involvement in recovery process, etc. of households. In a second step, we analyse through a case study-based approach how people in Chennai, India, recovered after the 2015 South Indian floods. Through a household survey (n=521) conducted in two affected areas ten months after the disaster occurred, we collected information on how affected households perceived the recovery process for rebuilding their houses. We analyse those data by using binary logistic regression analysis to identify which factors made people evaluate the recovery outcome of rebuilding their house as better than before.

Key results from this study show that the recovery outcome for rebuilding the house was perceived as better by households with lower education levels, located in the more affected area, lower sense of responsibility to protect their house and those who needed less time to rebuild their house. Another key result shows that households who were more satisfied with their house recovery process include those who were more involved in the recovery planning and whose house was less damaged.

Based on these results, we identify that the recovery process was ‘successful’ for households whose house only had minor damages, are living in risk prone areas and with lower education levels. This implies that those households were able to build resilience and thus, their houses are likely better prepared against a future flood hazard with equal intensity. We conclude this study with a discussion about which factors (e.g. participation in recovery planning) contribute to a successful recovery process and what is needed to build resilience against disasters.

A suite of built-environment oriented metrics for enhancing community resilience in high-density cities
SPEAKER: Jiduo Xing

ABSTRACT. A robust, flexible, interconnected and smart built environment, including the building stocks and infrastructure systems, holds a prominent position in providing a livable and resilient society with economic vitality and sustainable development. The failure of any subdivisions could lead to cascading catastrophes to adjacent and/or interdependent components or even the dysfunction of the whole community. There has been increasing recognition that infrastructure resilience could help cities of various scales tackle the unprecedented challenges resulting from natural disasters, man-made threats, climate extremes and chronic stresses. While a variety of community resilience metrics, indicators and frameworks have been proposed, they may not satisfy the demands of high-density cities like Hong Kong in terms of enhancing the community infrastructure resilience against prevailing urban concerns such as congested living environment, deteriorated infrastructure facilities, shortage of quality infrastructure services and fragility of infrastructure system during the time of crisis.

This paper aims to devise a suite of built environment oriented metrics for decision makers in high-density cities to optimize community infrastructure management and operation towards resilience and sustainability. The metrics are built by filtering out and synergizing critical built environment relevant indicators from published literatures and developing new ones to meet the urgent needs of high-density cities. A qualitative and analytical research method is adopted to design the indicators and categories of the proposed metrics; and quantitative and statistical methods are used for establishing the performance measurements. In addition, interviews with experts, government officials, and community stakeholders are convened to validate the research findings and unveil possible improvements for the proposed metrics. Finally, a case study is discussed by applying the proposed metrics for verification. Benefits and limitations are recognized in this paper as well.

Children’s role in disaster preparedness, response and recovery: a pilot study in Chennai, India

ABSTRACT. Background: Children represent the largest population segment in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) and are often the first and most affected victims in natural disasters (Norris, et al., 2002). Lack of basic resources such as food, shelter, and social support, coupled with an inability to make sense of their surroundings leads to decreased ability to cope and increased vulnerability. However, children can also play an active and valuable role in the development and application of strategies and practices to minimise disaster risk and vulnerability (Amri, et al., 2017; Ronan et al., 2016). The United Nations Sendai Framework has recently identified children and youth as agents of change and advocated for their active involvement in preparedness activities (UNISDR, 2015). Although there is preliminary support for this stance (e.g., Amri et al., 2017; Ronan et al, 2016), it has not yet translated into larger scale, action-oriented, active involvement of children, worldwide, including in India (e.g., Joerin, Steinberger, Krishnamurthy, & Scolobig, 2017).

Objectives: The objective of this project is to involve children actively using a participatory approach to develop a disaster resilience education programme to increase their and their community’s resilience to natural hazards.

Methods: This mixed methods study is being conducted in the inner-city flood-affected communities living in poverty, Chennai, India. We use participatory research methods as the key approach to engage children and the community. We held two focus group discussions with children (N=18) focusing on their experiences during the flood, how it shaped them, consequently their thoughts about preparedness for such events and their own role in it throughout the cycle of a disaster. A smaller group of children (N=10) and the first author have been meeting as an informal group, once in two weeks on an average to co-develop a disaster education intervention. Quantitative data on the children’s knowledge of hazards, their fears, worry and their views on how prepared they are for common hazards in their area are being collected as well.

Results: Preliminary results from the development of the intervention indicate that children enjoy the process of participation. They also identified areas that need adult intervention and potential support systems in order to fill that gap. Children co-developed the education intervention with a focus on interactive and creative methods of learning – with the use of street plays, song writing, and interactive theatre.

Conclusion: Children’s active involvement in creating this intervention has shaped its structure and content, making it interactive and fun. Children are truly innovative agents of change with an enthusiasm to engage meaningfully in disaster preparedness activities. However, sustaining this enthusiastic participation in the medium to long term is a challenge – interest and support of their participation from their family, school/ extra-curricular activities and the child’s own commitment are some of influencing factors to their continued participation.

14:00-15:45 Session 3F/3H-I: Track session
Location: Room B104
The concept of resilience in Sweden: governance, social networks and learning

ABSTRACT. The concept of resilience is multi-dimensional, multiscalar, and contextualized. This paper outlines the assumptions of a project funded by the Swedish government, aiming at understanding what resilience means in the Swedish local context titled Societal Resilience in Sweden: Governance, Social Networks, and Learning. We also report preliminary results from the first round of case studies in three Swedish municipalities. Global shifts ripple down to the local level, creating tangible consequences for local communities and therefore the unit of analysis for this project is the Swedish municipal level. The three main theoretical fields we take up in this work are governance, social networks, and learning. We investigate resilience vis-à-vis governance because the main criticism of resilience as a concept is its neoliberal character. How does this play out in one of the foremost welfare states in Europe? We research social networks and how they promote (or not) resilience at the local level because network thinking allows us to investigate actors and the ties that bind them. Finally, we take up translational work and interrogate the kind of knowledge production and transfer useful for the promotion of resilience on the ground. The interim and preliminary results we report in this paper concern case studies in the municipalities of Malmö, Örebro, and Arboga, in which, as a first step, we conduct formal social network analysis in the relational architecture of the actors in involved in migration issues.

Bermanism: building reflexive practice into resilient infrastructure planning

ABSTRACT. Traditional resilience infrastructure planning operates under the fundamental premise that rising tides are a threat to our homes, our cities, and our way of life. Thus, the role of infrastructure is to protect, using hard and softscaping to minimize risk while maximizing the amount of land or assets that can be saved. This paper proposes a new direction in resilient infrastructure planning which provides an opportunity to engage in a process of "problem-setting" rather than "problem-solving." Problem setting forces us to ask the critical questions of "resilient infrastructure for whom?" and "resilient infrastructure for what?", rather than resort to quick fixes to maximize protection. In an era where it is impossible to defend every inch of our coasts, infrastructure projects provide practitioners the opportunity to set priorities that can transform existing destructive environmental and social practices. To examine the role of transformative infrastructure, we proposed an intervention in Chelsea, MA, an industrial coastal town near Boston in which low-lying industrial functions retain priority access to the waterfront and are most vulnerable to the impacts of sea level rise. In this area, we asked, what in Chelsea should be protected, and what should be released back to the sea? How could a new type of resilient infrastructure help build a higher quality of life for residents? To begin, we examined existing assets in and connected to Chelsea including transportation networks, employment centers, and housing stock. We then identified sources of risk and vulnerability, both in terms of exposure to pollution as well existing and future exposure to coastal and pluvial flooding. When considering our intervention, we discovered that a traditional infrastructural response, like building a seawall to protect the entire industrial area, would not only fail to address long-term issues of economic and social inequality, but would do little to transform Chelsea into a better place to live. While we did identify four critical pieces of infrastructure to protect with a multi-functional berm- a regional food distribution complex, a commuter rail line, an arterial road, and a highway- we also decided not to protect everything. In return, the low-lying industrial area could be converted to a floodable wetland area, creating new opportunities for green space and storm water management in the heart of the city. This iterative process of problem setting, identification of critical infrastructure, and design intervention, is a conceptual framework we call "bermanism." Bermanism allows communities, planners, and policy makers to not only set strategic priorities, but imagine a transformative future in an era of climatic uncertainty. This intervention defines resilient infrastructure as more than an object: it is the result of a negotiation between social, environmental, and economic priorities. This paper demonstrates how this conceptual framework for resilient infrastructure can be applied to other cities confronted by sea level rise. In doing so, it contributes to the literature by arguing that resiliency projects are most impactful when they include an iterative process of reflexive priority setting.

Integrating housing as critical infrastructure in urban agendas

ABSTRACT. Housing, particularly affordable housing is not often viewed as a de facto critical infrastructure in urban agendas or public policies. However, housing is a public interest issue and bears special characteristics, which reflect on its criticality. Considering housing as a piece of public infrastructure, is complicated by the fact that a house itself is fundamentally considered to be for private use, and often an entirely private asset. However, housing is more than just the house and when considered in this light comprises aspects of both “soft” infrastructure (e.g. social connection) and “hard” infrastructure (e.g water and sanitation networks). Here the challenge is conceptual, yet an understanding of the ways in which soft and hard infrastructures converge within housing, and houses themselves, has significant potential to influence the shift of public policies toward people-centric and community-driven approaches. We posit that dialogues on resilience offer an opportunity to reposition housing as a critical infrastructure in policy discourses and urban strategies. Through the lens of resilience, housing can be framed as a critical asset, a public interest issue, and a risk for cities that needs to be accounted for. Additionally, housing is a powerful tool for the reduction of social and economic vulnerability, particularly for the low-income communities. This approach positions housing as a fully-fledged component in resilient strategies and, by extension, as critical infrastructure. In demonstrating the opportunity that resilience frameworks present for housing and its framing as critical infrastructure, we will adopt the following premises: 1. Housing as a sector, and as a field in urban development, addresses more than the physical house, it is a fundamental component of community building and city shaping. 2. Housing sits at the core of urban functionality, linking physical, social, and economic elements. 3. Housing is not typically considered a part of infrastructure in urban development and planning. 4. Recently, disaster recovery and urban risk management policies have started to acknowledge the physical house as vital infrastructure. 5. This had led to an increased focus on the resilience of the physical aspect of housing, which is a positive step forward but has to go further. Therefore, since housing links many of the urban systems and elements which are understood to be critical for resilience and counter vulnerability, city resilience strategies should acknowledge housing as a critical and long-term process. Our analysis will consider several commonly accepted resilience frameworks (UN, 100 Resilient Cities, and others) and assess their capacity to support housing as a critical component of resilience planning. We will also identify and elaborate how housing provides a critical foundation for many of the components of these frameworks through case studies and examples. In showing how resilience is a relevant conceptual framework for the integration of housing as critical infrastructure in urban agendas, we will demonstrate an approach to policy making and program design that has the potential to transform cities, making them stronger, more adaptable, and capable of recovering from sudden changes in their physical, social, and economic environments.

Critical infrastructure resilience: the critical role of “the population”

ABSTRACT. Critical infrastructures (CIs) are indispensable for the well-functioning of economies and societies around the word. Disruptions due to natural hazards or other adverse events can have disastrous and cascading consequences, especially if the preparedness as well as coping and adaptive capacities of the socio-technical system of critical infrastructures are low. In the face of global environmental change, likely to trigger natural hazards, cyber and terrorist attacks, as well as dynamic developments of social vulnerabilities, CI resilience has become paradigm of many national strategies. On a global scale improving the resilience of CIs has become an important goal of agreements of the Post-2015-Agenda such as the Sustainable Development Goals or the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction. While CI resilience is often approached with a rather technical perspective, particularly from both, governments and CI providers, this contribution will showcase that “the population” plays a key role in increasing the resilience of these systems, which so far has rather been neglected. Based on a large-scale household survey conducted in the area of Cologne, Germany in the frame of a research project funded by the German Ministry of Research and Education, this presentation will highlight to what extent different socio-economic groups in Germany are aware of the risk of CI disruptions, how well they are prepared for long-term outages, and who they perceive as responsible for the emergency response in case of a disruption. Results show major gaps in the preparation to outages within certain groups of the population. Moreover, the survey reveals differing expectations regarding the provision of emergency response that diverge from planned capacities. All in all, the findings stress the importance of including the population as a diverse group of actors into an integrated CI risk management. Hence, the presentation calls for a paradigm shift to adopt a more holistic, socio-technical perspective on CI, aiming at increasing the overall resilience of these systems. Despite the fact that the study was conducted in a developed country with a high level of CI protection, results may still have global implications and contribute to the Post-2015-Agenda as well as to scientific and practical discourses of CI resilience. Drawing on the findings it can be argued that it is highly recommendable to consider the heterogeneous needs of the population when developing integrated risk management plans and minimum supply concepts. Moreover, the results highlight the importance of all stakeholders’ awareness of potential CI failures. With increasing dependency of CIs in developing countries, this finding and its implications have a high potential to be translated to other cultural and economic settings in order to increase the overall resilience of socio-technical systems.

Comparative study of infrastructure resilience policies and practices for bay areas
SPEAKER: Yifan Zhang

ABSTRACT. Infrastructures provide a large number of fundamental and necessary systems, facilities and services that underpin the prosperity, sustainable and balanced development of a country, region, city and other areas and communities. Recent studies have defined the concept of infrastructure resilience as an ability of an infrastructure system to cope with, resist, absorb, recover from or adapt to unanticipated disruptions. The four well-known bay areas in the world – San Francisco, New York, Tokyo and the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macau bay areas – have already implemented a variety of policies and practices focusing on regional infrastructure resilience within city clusters respectively. However, there are less comparative studies about the common grounds and differences among them. This paper aims to compare different policies and practices presented by four well-known bay areas in the world in order to identify gaps and common grounds between the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macau bay area and the other three ones. Comparative case studies are conducted on the four bay areas to obtain a holistic understanding on the infrastructure resilience policies and strategies the areas have adopted to tackle their common natural and man-made hazards. First, the concepts of regional infrastructure resilience and city cluster, as well as the basic information of the four bay areas are summarized and introduced. Second, their infrastructure resilience policies and implemented measures are reviewed irrespectively for tackling increased flooding, sea level rise and their influence on infrastructure lifeline systems including transportation through the region, water network, and pipeline system. Finally, common ground, differences and gaps of infrastructure resilience among the four bay areas are analyzed from the following points of view: policies, research metrics, research framework, implemented measures and future development direction.

The lost agency in control: a case study within the Atchafalaya River and Mississippi River Deltas

ABSTRACT. “Today, this bifurcated nature partly explains a sort of indifference or scepticism in regard to Gaia. It is as if nature were acting out of character, no longer that which human rationality conquers, but that which plunges us into disarray; it is not longer the backdrop for our human projects, with no project of its own, but is intruding in our dreams, values and projects. How can one not give in to the double temptation of either climatic scepticism, or geoengineering that would put nature back in its place as the thing we should be able to dominate?"(1)

“The military engineers of the Commission have taken upon their shoulders the job of making the Mississippi over again — a job transcended in size by only the original job of creating it.”(2)

Contemporary American littoral ecologies reflect an Industrial Age platform of thinking–one where human interventions are defined by the control of nature through the shaping of environment. This re-configuration of environment is an act to sustain constant methods of resource extraction, urban dwelling, and social practices. Obsolete mindsets of control, manipulation, and authority established in the Age of the Industrial Revolution are habitually reinforced through antiquated constructs of legislation, governance, and cultural debt. These constructs manifest in the form of static control infrastructures: levee walls, earthen levees, lock and dams, outlets, canals, pump stations, spillways, etc. The static networks were accepted centuries ago fostering centralized methods of control often surrounding a single node of preservation interest. Early implementation of these control networks distilled superficial values of ecological stability throughout the delta territory, spawning immense agricultural and industry growth within territories subject to dramatic environmental fluctuation. This false permanence is currently perpetuated by the same, centralized system of control infrastructures. These networks behave as self generating machines of growth, meaning every construct requires expansion–biasing value frameworks to urbanized infrastructural edges and de-valuing natural ecologies and buffer zones. The lost agency is defined through a continual commitment to authority over nature–distracting design disciplines, planners, and policy makers from developing new techniques of coexistence that work to eliminate centralized methods of control and promote decentralized methods of littoral settlement.

The declaration from the 1927 Flood Control Act formalized through American Federal law sets forth the commitment to control nature, with man-made constraints defining pre-determined and allowed paths of water flows and limits. Cognitive effects of this defined approach include the reinforced division of humans and nature; the edge, established by mankind to mediate between the ‘natural setting’ and the constructed habitat of human artifice. The construct of edge as exists today is solely in service to protect human achievement [the anthropocene], reinforcing the division of man and nature and working in opposition to coexistence. Inherently, the concept of edge defines a border, creating an inside and an outside; the inside is depicted through notions of ‘protected’, ‘secure’ and ‘safe’. The first theme of the paper aims to provide the contextual work of the early environmental control infrastructures and the risk associated with these strategies–questioning the fundamental existence of the constructed edge and an interiority of territory. Through these means, the paper will argue the constructed edge has produced a singularity; a centralized method of existence that works to confine littoral settings. The second theme of the paper proposes the live edge–an ecological approach working with site-specific contours, settlements, and buffer zones to co-exist within the dynamic littoral environment. This approach demands the decentralization of existing static control infrastructures and requires the implementation of layered responses to evolving littoral environments. These concepts were generated from the research and design work of Pamphlet Architecture 36, Buoyant Clarity, and are expanded for the premise of this paper and proposed presentation.

1- Latour, Bruno, and Christophe Leclercq. Reset Modernity! ZKM, Center for Art and Media, 2016. 2- Twain, Mark. Life on the Mississippi. Reader’s Digest Association, 1987.

14:00-15:45 Session 3I-I: Track session
Location: Room C201
Increasing community resilience through community-based disaster risk management in Honduras

ABSTRACT. Research background The Swiss Red Cross is implementing a community based disaster risk management (CBDRM) program in Olancho, Honduras. It aims to strengthen disaster resilience among vulnerable communities. The program started in 2005 after several emergency and relief operations. Currently the program is implemented in 3 municipalities (Catacamas, Dulce Nombre de Culmí, and San Esteban). Applying a community-based approach, community committees are organized, trained, equipped, brought to official recognition and linked to the national Disaster Management system. Prevention and disaster risk mitigation builds on risk studies (including geological, hydrological, geomorphological and meteorological), complemented with traditional risk knowledge and coping mechanisms of the communities. Based on this combined knowledge, prevention and mitigation measures are defined, prioritized and established in a participatory way. Capacity building also takes place at the level of local authorities. The risk studies serve as an instrument for risk oriented decision making and are officially recognized and integrated in the municipal development and investment plans. The objective of this study was to understand whether community-based disaster risk measures, such as soil-bioengineering contributes to strengthen community resilience in disaster prone areas.

Main research question: To what extent do community-based soil-bioengineering techniques allow for effective mitigation of landslide events in the study area considering technical, environmental and social criteria for evaluating overall sustainability of this approach?

Data collection The study has been conducted in 31 communities in the Olancho district in Honduras. In addition to the data collected through surveys and 10 semi-structured expert interviews in February/March 2018, this study draws on data collected by the staff of the Swiss and Honduran Red Cross on a continuous basis since the inception of their activities in 2005.

Results Between 2015 and 2017, 157 slope stabilization sites were established based on soil bioengineering measures. An assment of the established sites in 2018 showed: 1) 100% of the sites are regenerating very well; 2) 95% of the landowners maintain their sites well and; 3) 75% of the sites fulfill their function of soil stabilization. The socio-economic data show that the systematic development of the collaboration with the communities has had a decisive influence on the success rate of the concrete disaster risk reduction measures. Key elements of building this relationship used by the Swiss and Honduran Red Cross are the following: Long-term project duration (contact with the communities over 5-10 years), participative and inclusive mapping and analysis of vulnerabilities and capacities in each community, establishement of community disaster management committees, regular visits to the communities, reliable delivery of promised services requiring also a contribution (planting material and labor) from the community. This has led to a high level of trust and commitment from the communities. Several landowners of stabilized sites used the expression “A situation of risk turned into a situation of opportunity” because the benefits do not only consist in soil stabilization but also provide the opportunity to plant and sell medicinal herbs, fuelwood, vegetables and fruits.

Conclusion The Swiss Red Cross will strengthen its promotion and implementation of community-based mitigation and soil-bioengineering, in terms of i) providing conceptual support and capacity building through learning events and; ii) give a stronger focus to community-based mitigation and “green” measures in the policy dialogue.

Whose resilience, whose knowledge? Cognitive (in)justice in Disaster Risk Reduction education

ABSTRACT. The call for resilience building through the Hyogo Framework for Action and the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction prompted a worldwide response of mainstreaming Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) learning in school curricula as well as in non-formal and informal channels of education by government and non-state actors. While there have been varying levels of response, less known are the effects of aligning local hazards and disaster learning practices with the dominant features of mainstream DRR education policy. To date, the literature on DRR education typically revolves around national policy studies and their implementation at the school level. Indeed, there had been less attention afforded to the issue of cognitive justice, specifically the impact of mainstreaming to local epistemologies and to peoples’ culturally adaptive practices to hazards and disasters. Elsewhere, the issue of cognitive justice has spurred a long-running debate in disaster research. There is a critical collective asserting for indigenous and place-based knowledge to be given due emphasis alongside a largely techno-scientific approach to hazards management. The critique is specifically directed at international development projects aimed at mitigating the impact of hazards through interventionist means, negating the value and usefulness of local peoples’ existing hazards management practices.

This paper discusses the politics of knowledge construction in DRR education by answering this key research question: How do different actors and institutions employ place-based knowledges for risk reduction in K-12 formal, informal, and non-formal education, in places that are perennially exposed to cyclones (e.g., Western Australia, Vanuatu) or typhoons (e.g., the Philippines)? The analysis critically examines the framing of the concept of resilience and knowledge building for DRR education by focusing the discussion on how communities and institutions localise global approaches in responding to the call for building resilient communities. It then zeroes-in on how education stakeholders unevenly regard different knowledge systems in teaching about hydro-meteorological hazards and disasters. The paper also problematises the singular framing of resilience by providing examples of how cyclones-exposed individuals and communities understand, learn, and live with recurrent hazards, identifying areas of disjoints as well as opportunities for improvement in the policy-practice nexus of DRR education. Ultimately, the author provides their insights on the features of an equitable and effective DRR learning – a valuable resource in disaster education governance at the local, national, and international levels. Data for this presentation comes from the author’s fieldwork in cyclones-exposed communities of Western Australia, the Philippines, and Vanuatu. The methodological strategy involves ethnographic techniques in conjunction with layered data collection methods that include the following: qualitative content analysis, key informant interviews, and participant observation.

Disaster activities to approach non-participants in disaster trainings and promote cooperation among local actors

ABSTRACT. One of the big problems for enhancing community resilience in urban areas in Japan is that participants in community-based activities for disaster risk reduction (DRR) are the same every year and the majority of residents especially the young tend not to get engaged. As they are non-participants, effects of the activities for raising disaster awareness cannot reach them. Moreover, conventional disaster activities tend not to consider who stay at local communities when disasters occur. Especially at satellite cities, officer works at different cities and takes time to go home without public transportation, even if they can, in large scale disaster occurring. They are local students, housewives, and local business owners and workers who could be the first responders at the local community in daytime on weekdays. The author and his seminar students attempted to overcome these challenges by holding or joining activities targeting small kids often followed by their parents. In the activities, we could approach the young parents who are not usually engaged in community activities, while raising disaster awareness of the small kids as future generation of resilience through playing games by understanding what would happen after disasters and what to do before and during the disaster situations. To do so effectively, the games are based on some education theories such as Action Learning modified by the author to attain better outcomes in a short period such as for 10-15 minutes. One of the characteristics of our activities is to hold them with local commercial organizations such as Junior Chamber International whose members usually stay at the local areas in daytime on weekdays, or to join festivals for general citizens held by a university with cooperation from a local government. The former activities could be catalysts for further cooperation among the actors who could respond together in daytime on weekdays, while the latter festivals would attract more residents so that the activities could approach more kids and their parents. This paper shows the activities above held in a satellite city in Japan, and demonstrates outputs of the activities with focus on the effects of disaster education on kids and poses challenges in the activities for further cooperation among local actors. Introducing these activities and their lessons would be beneficial as basic information for promoting preparedness not only by individual actors but also cooperative preparedness among actors, as prescribed in the item of (i) to promote the cooperation of diverse institutions in the Priority 4 of the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030.

Social cohesion through urban planning: strengthening community resilience in multi-ethnic urban neighbourhoods
SPEAKER: Bo Tackenberg

ABSTRACT. The social infrastructure of a city plays a critical role in preventing and mitigating severe damage during crisis and disaster situations or in times of rapid social change. Similarly, post-catastrophe recovery is also essentially based on a sense of community that connects the members in disaster-struck neighbourhoods. Numerous studies have shown that social cohesion constitutes a significant factor in strengthening the resilience of a community. Sociological research into the ability of communities to withstand disasters has coined the term of “community resilience” as an adaptive and coping mechanism of social systems for dealing with unexpected external disturbances (including natural disasters, technical accidents, economic crises or social unrests). The concept of community resilience locates adaptive and coping potentials in social processes as well as in both the individual and collective capacities of members of society. Resilient societies can thus call upon the social and self-help abilities of their citizens, which are developed and proven in the normality of everyday social life. Urban planning contributes significantly to the promotion and organisation of public life. Particularly the public space is an important place of communication for which urban planning strategies create offerings to connect people and to actively experience social participation. However, in multi-ethnic societies trustful relationships among neighbours and an active participation in social life are frequently put into question. Ethnic-cultural heterogeneity and social cohesion often seem to be negatively related: The more diverse a society or a community, the lower the willingness of its members to develop close ties with their fellow community members and to intervene on behalf of a common good (e.g. ensuring safety and security). Urban planning thus faces the challenge of developing convivial neighbourhoods that promote and foster social cohesion and a sense of community in an increasingly heterogeneous context that enables diverse communities to pursue collective-action efforts and to provide for collective goods. Community organisations and relief agencies have developed a variety of urban planning strategies for strengthening social cohesion against the background of growing ethnic-cultural diversity. In line with the key objectives of the “Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction”, their implementation is intended to generally reduce the vulnerability of particular social groups (e.g. in the context of migration, social disadvantage, etc.) and to stimulate community resilience by encouraging residents to achieve a more sociable life in their respective socio-spatial environments. The presentation will introduce initial findings from the German research project ResOrt (Resilience through social cohesion – The role of organisations). Theoretically rooted in Robert J. Sampson’s “collective efficacy”-approach and adapted from an extensive review of policy papers and practical guidelines the presentation will be based on guided interviews with experts from a broad variety of organisations in the fields of district development and community work. The focus of the presentation will be a practice-oriented model comprising different dimensions and interdependences of social cohesion and community resilience, proposing future directions of supporting urban planning in the face of crises and rapid social change.

Developing flood risk reduction programmes through community risk mapping in Sudan

ABSTRACT. Floods in Sudan have a significant impact on the most vulnerable people. Drowning is a major cause of death during floods and other water-related disasters. In Sudan, flood response and safety interventions in flood prone areas are minimal. Government officials do not provide sufficient human or financial resources to implement comprehensive flood risk reduction programmes at a community level. This leaves a void which local communities and the NGO sector seek to fill.

Nile Swimmers have worked with UNICEF to deliver a phased Community Flood Risk Analysis programme in targeted communities in White Nile State and West Kordofan State. The aim was to collect qualitative data to enable Nile Swimmers to design and develop community-based flood risk reduction interventions targeted at the most vulnerable populations in selected flood-prone areas. The second phase of the programme is to pilot the delivery of flood risk reduction interventions in the targeted communities.

Nile Swimmers develops community-level water safety interventions using a risk-based approach. The organisation specialises in carrying out flood risk assessments and risk mapping exercises using the participatory approaches of the Drowning Risk Assessment Toolkit (DRAT). The objective of DRAT is to enable communities to understand water safety risks in their daily lives and the impacts of these risks.

The flooding experienced in Sudan in 2017 caused limited damage in communities compared to previous years. This led to a wider range of responses on the effects of flooding beyond loss of life and damage to property. Issues that were highlighted repeatedly included: lack of access to safe drinking water (for both humans & animals); insufficient infrastructure and transport links to access services (such as healthcare & education); and inadequate local skills to provide a "first responder" level of basic emergency medical care to the community.

The issues raised are all exacerbated by the impact of flooding. However, they are all problems that communities continually face in daily life. To build local resilience to flooding in these communities, the second phase of the programme must be responsive to the identified local needs. The package of interventions to be delivered needs to encompass: drowning prevention education; water, sanitation and hygiene; and first responder training.

This presentation will discuss the challenges and successes of delivering a community led risk mapping project in Sudan, present the results of the first phase of the study, and provide updates on the progress of the pilot projects in the second phase. On-going monitoring of communities is required to fully understand the impact of these interventions on community resilience to future flooding disasters.

14:00-15:45 Session 3K/4D-I: Track session
Location: Room C202
Exploration of the transformation of shelters of the displaced citizens of Myanmar in Bangladesh

ABSTRACT. ‘Rohingya Influx’, as one of the most alarming humanitarian disasters in recent world, is creating a worse situation day by day. Bangladesh makes effort to accommodate the huge number of Rohingya people coming from Myanmar from humanitarian point of view. Since before this much influx, Bangladesh has been facing illegal influx and land encroachment by rohingyas from a very long time. These people are creating their spaces to live on the land of Bangladesh, but following their own construction techniques. The way they start their life here and the way they transform these spaces day by day, is a matter of concern for the existing authority. This study aims to find the type of their settling spaces and the process of progressing the transformation of the abiding spaces. The methodology includes both quantitative and qualitative research methods. Observation, primary & secondary data and drawing software are going to be used. The outcome focuses basically on the type of dwelling and the transformation process of the dwellings in Bangladesh by the displaced citizen of Myanmar.

Housing, land and property issues of Syrian refugees in Lebanon originating from Homs City

ABSTRACT. This study explores housing, land and property issues affecting Syrian refugees in Lebanon originating from Homs city in the context of a crisis entering its 8th year in 2018. Given the non-encampment policy adopted by the Lebanese Government since the beginning of the Syrian displacement, the objectives were to study the means (and how they changed) that refugees are using to secure shelter in a protracted crisis, in addition to shelter conditions and security of tenure. Access to housing was studied in light of social networks between Syrian refugees and local host communities that predated the crisis, and within changing legal hosting policies that have tightened the grip on the legality of their presence in Lebanon. The research methodology adopted an extensive literature review on urban refugees and the Lebanese context, and data analysis using a mix of quantitative (household survey) and qualitative data (focus group discussions and key informant interviews), focusing on the population of refugees that have been displaced from the city of Homs to Lebanon as a study sample. Findings indicate that strong pre-war community ties facilitated Homs refugees’ access to housing and helped maintain a certain level of stability. However, these ties have been strained through the protracted crisis, pushing refugees to rely heavily on informal rental markets. These markets operate outside any regulatory framework that monitors rent hikes and protects refugees from evictions. They have been able to supply housing since the beginning of the crisis and are widespread in low-income urban and peri-urban areas. Refugees’ vulnerability amidst a predatory informal market is further aggravated by the hosting legal framework which has hindered their legality, mobility and ability to work. Consequently, the study identified the role of different stakeholders in responding to the refugees’ crisis in Lebanon, assessing their impact and limitations. One interesting characteristic found in the studied sample is the low reliance on aid from INGOs, namely aid in the form of housing assistance. This finding can be read as an indicator of agency, resilience and the ability of the informal market to absorb rising housing needs, on one hand, but on the other hand, an indicator of increasing risk of impoverishment in a protracted crisis for a population with fragile work opportunities. Hence the urgent need to adopt a sustainable approach to enhance refugees’ livelihood and protect their HLP rights in the host country.

Acknowledgments: This project was done in partnership between UN-Habitat and UNHCR in Lebanon and is the result of the extensive fieldwork and collaboration of a vast team at both agencies. Thanks go to the team members (credited in the publication), and the multiple contributors and reviewers for their valuable input and remarks which greatly enriched the study. Special thanks go to the refugees who welcomed us and shared their perspectives with us.

Exploration of the impact on environment and land use in case of Rohingya influx in Bangladesh: guideline for sustainable survival

ABSTRACT. With the consequence of ‘Ethnic Cleansing’ in Myanmar, a huge number of (approximately 6,07,000 within August, 2017 to October, 2017)Rohingya people has taken shelter in Teknaf, Ukhiya areas in Bangladesh. This influx has caused a humanitarian crisis and since this large number of people can not be returned for humanitarian reasons, Government of Bangladesh is making effort to accommodate this people for short time period. But Bangladesh is paying high price for Rohingya influx and the attempt to accommodating this much people. The negative impacts include environmental and spatial concerns as well as social and economic issues. The area, the displaced citizens of Myanmar are living in is being imposed of a rise in temperature and change in land use pattern. The goal of this study is to explore the amount of of environmental degradation focusing on the temperature rise and the land use before and after Rohingya influx. The methodology includes quantitative and qualitative research methods. Both primary, secondary data and software are going to be used. The outcome of the research would answer the queries about the negative impacts on the climate of the focused area because of Rohingya influx, the spatial impacts on land use pattern and how the affects can be minimized by architectural interventions through practice of sustainability.

Temporary and decentralized approaches in protracted refugee situations: the case of the Syrian refugees in Lebanon
SPEAKER: Faten Kikano

ABSTRACT. Track: 4D Anticipating and responding to forced displacement: focus on people Oral presentation

Refugees’ displacement lasts on average almost two decades before they manage to repatriate, resettle or integrate in the host state. Yet, host countries and institutions persist in dealing with refugee situations as temporary crises, adopting policies based on exclusion designed to spur refugees’ prompt resettlement or repatriation. Lebanon’s strategy towards the ongoing seven-year Syrian refugee crisis is no exception. Yet, the Lebanese response represents two particularities. First, despite the overwhelming number of refugees, Lebanon has adopted a non-encampment policy. This aimed at avoiding the experience of Palestinian camps, which evolved into militarized spaces outside the governance of the Lebanese state. Second, the Lebanese Government has assigned the management of the crisis to municipalities, leading to decentralized policies varying from exclusionary to tolerant and permissive. Thus, refugees concentrated in areas where authorities are lenient, settling informally and bringing about significant transformations in the urban and rural landscape. The sudden population growth in these areas has strained the already precarious economy, infrastructure, and services, and caused an imbalance in the social fabric and the delicate sectarian stability.

This study examines the reasons leading to current Lebanese policies. It evaluates their impact on the number of refugees hosted, the modalities and types of settlements, and on resulting economic and social conditions. The analysis was carried out through two case studies in areas with high refugee density: First, an Informal Settlement in Dalhamieh, a rural village with vast agricultural land under the authority of the municipality of Zahleh in the Bekaa governorate. Second, in Nabaa, a densely populated and poor urban neighborhood on the outskirts of Beirut, administered by the municipality of Burj Hammoud. Data was directly collected between 2015 and 2017 through field observation, semi-structured interviews, and group discussions with more than 50 stakeholders including municipal authorities, camp managers, community members, and refugees.

Results show that the municipality of Zahleh, reluctant to manage the crisis allowed settlements, provided they remain ‘invisible’ and remote from the city. This was advantageous to refugees who formed a homogeneous community where they felt secure and kept their traditions and culture. On the downside, the settlement is causing serious environmental challenges and dwellings are difficult to maintain in the winter. As for Nabaa, most landlords do not easily comply with municipal rules. They replaced local tenants with Syrians who pay higher rent. Currently, 80% of residents are Syrians and due to competition for housing and jobs, inter-communal tensions are dangerously growing. In both models, Syrians suffer from exploitation and frequent evictions.

Findings confirm that temporary approaches aiming at the exclusion of refugees increase their vulnerability and delay their repatriation or resettlement. In fact, the LG’s decentralized approach and their unwillingness to actively address the crisis as a protracted one in terms of planning and organization, and the disparities in local policies have led to the formation of informal, uncontrolled, and vulnerable urban and rural Syrian ghettos, an outcome that the LG, by prohibiting camps, was trying to avoid at all costs. These ghettos are often located in the poorest areas, where given the decrease of international humanitarian assistance, authorities and residents are unable to handle demographic, economic and social pressures.

Refugee participatory design for shelters: experiment in Jordanian Syrian camps

ABSTRACT. There are around 666,000 Syrians who are registered as refugees in Jordan. As of May 2018, approximately 120,000 are hosted in the two largest camps in Jordan; Zaatari and Azraq. Various articles and reports have found a variety of issues arising from the metal one-room shelters that are provided to the refugees in those camps. This work is part of a research around the architecture of emergencies in the Middle East. A key finding of this study was that community participation is a very important step towards an enhanced shelter design. Participatory Design (PD) is one way to engage the users of the space in the design development process for current but also future shelter habitat. However, there are also challenges in how to form a technique that is easy to use for non-designers and allow them to contribute with their unique input. In a step towards proposing a future designed shelter for Middle Eastern refugees and displaced people, experimental participatory design sessions were held with 43 residents from both Zaatari and Azraq camps. The main objectives of the experiment were to understand the residents’ priorities, how they use the space, the functionality and to address issues they had identified from current camp experience. A further aspect of the study was to identify how cultural and social dynamics affect the choices of the participants. The study included men, women and children in order to have a range of users input. The sessions were structured firstly with discussions about the experience of living in shelters, what were their expectations before arriving to the camp and what are the challenges they face in their current shelters. Participants in each session agreed on a list of activities they typically undertake inside their shelters and require space. Three groups in Azraq and six groups in Zaatrai were given sets of prepared materials to form 3d mock-ups of their preferred shelter design. A fourth group in Azraq drew a 2d plan instead. The mock-ups were then transformed into 2d plans to prepare them for analysis and comparison. Findings showed that most designs had a similar approach to function. There were no clear differences between the outcomes when comparing the different camps’ responses, but they were found in terms of participants’ gender. Main differences included the courtyard size, the number and position of entrances, the size and position of windows, number of rooms, and function relationships. The main factors which influenced the participants’ design decisions were culture and privacy. The experiment showed the importance of participatory design in knowing the users’ needs, while empowering them at the same time. Finally, it was found that a degree of flexibility is preferred in any given design to allow the residents to add their identity on their shelters and thus increase their feeling of attachment to the designed habitat.

Beyond the threshold: an approach to execute existing humanitarian disaster in vulnerable forcefully displaced Myanmar citizens (Rohingya refugee) camp with the potential environmental risks in Bangladesh

ABSTRACT. The purpose of this paper is to focus on the magnitude of humanitarian crisis in vulnerable "forcefully displaced Myanmar citizens" (Rohingya Refugee) camp and the potential environmental risks finding which can be foreseen in hill territory of Bangladesh because of this crisis. More than a million of forcefully displaced Myanmar citizens have crossed into Bangladesh fleeing from the brutality of Myanmar Army since 2015. Denoted as "Ethnic Cleansing" by U.N. officials this vulnerable Rohingya migrant has created humanitarian crisis along with risks for the environment of the hill territory which is yet to be uncharted to the world. The paper will focus on the brief narration of mass gang-rape, genocide, fierce beating, human trafficking and the violation of other human rights which are faced by vulnerable Rohingya migrant. This paper will also disclose the aftermath of Rohingya migration with other humanitarian crisis of refugee shelter, health, rural fabric, ecological and demographic diversion of the hill territory of Bangladesh. Moreover, to spotlight those sensitive humanitarian issues inside existing the Rohinga Refugee camp along with the environmental risks because of this huge migration in the southern hill area of Bangladesh will be executed in boarder aspects throughout the anecdote of this paper.

14:00-15:45 Session 4C-II: Track session
Location: Room B201
Radical pragmatism: the post-disaster reconstruction work of Taiwanese architect Hsieh Ying-Chun and Atelier-3
SPEAKER: Chen-Yu Chiu

ABSTRACT. In the past 20 years, architect HSIEH Ying-Chun and his team - Atelier-3 - have conducted more than 3000 houses in the post-disaster areas in East Asia. Facing varied critical site contexts and socio-political conditions, HSIEH and his team applied the reinforced lightweight gauge steel frame for housing reconstruction with three fundamental principles: 1) single-line drawings for participatory design, 2) simplified joints for collaborative construction, and 3) open system for adopting and submitting to climatic and geographic condition. Based on the above three principles, this paper thematically reviews the architectural practices of HSIEH and his team with selected key projects. These examined projects closely present how they initiated, articulated, communicated and implemented their principles in different sites. The analyses conclude that 'self-reliance' can be seen as their fundamental philosophy encapsulated in their notions of sustainable construction, green building, cultural preservation and creation of local employment opportunities. Following their philosophical ideologies, HSIEH and his team have treated the survivors as the 'producers' of their own houses, instead of the 'consumers'. Meanwhile, by designing and building the houses together, the survivors had a chance to re-build their communities, regain their socioeconomic status, and re-establish the intimacy between architectural production and everyone's everyday life. As a critique of dominant trends of consumerism, elite professionalism and aestheticism seen in today's architectural practices in general and post-disaster humanitarian projects particularly, HSIEH and his team's work provides an insight into the society of East Asia and illuminates its challenges and opportunities.

Seismic assessment of the National Palace of Sintra: a multi-disciplinary approach

ABSTRACT. The presence of important built heritage in Lisbon and surroundings, a seismically-prone area, requests always greater measures to protect them. The Nacional Palace of Sintra, a complex structure composed of different unreinforced masonry buildings, is one of the most ancient palaces in Portugal, based on Arab foundations. It has survived to the 1755 Earthquake, although some parts were reconstructed at the time, and to the 1969 Earthquake, that caused some visible cracks and pavement settlement in the Bonet building (belonging to the most ancient part). In order to perform a complete and adequate seismic assessment of the Palace, a collaboration was developed with several multi-disciplinary expertise: structures, construction and materials, topography and architecture. An historic approach was developed, before conducting experimental tests, by studying the history of the Palace and its construction evolution in detail. After this study complete, it was possible to define the most appropriate places to retrieve specimens of the walls. With these samples, and after laboratory tests, it would be possible to characterize the type of construction by date, the type of materials and its own properties, what represents a really important step for the seismic assessment of the structure. In addition, double flat-jack tests were also carried out in most of the places where samples were removed, with the aim of evaluating the mechanical properties of the masonry (e.g. compressive strength, Young modulus) to implement in the numerical model. Complementary to the other above-mentioned tests, a Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) survey, an innovative non-destructive test, was also performed to characterize the masonry not only where samples were retrieved, but also in pavements with vaults and walls that are built against the bedrock. Different frequency antennas allowed to discover construction techniques, types of material, anomalies (e.g. voids, cracks, water). For the dynamic characterization of the Palace, ambient vibration tests were also performed in different blocks of the structure, contributing to the development of a calibrated numerical model. The process of calibration (mechanical properties) is expected to be one of the major difficulties, since there is a large number of uncertainties despite the experimental tests performed. From an architectural and topography point of view, a 3D model of the Palace in BIM (Building Information Modelling) is also being created and printed to increase the existing visual data of the Palace and to support the numerical analyses. In the near future, a 3D laser-scan survey will be carry out and information will be included in the already developed 3D BIM model. The present paper addresses the above-mentioned in-situ tests performed and presents the first numerical results with the aim of evaluating the seismic safety of the National Palace of Sintra, within a R&D project for the identification of structural anomalies and vulnerability factors. This study is coordinated by Instituto Superior Técnico and promoted by Parques de Sintra – Monte da Lua, SA. In a later stage, the seismic action to consider for the nonlinear analyses will be defined together with PSML, considering different impact factors and the national code.

Welcoming floods in the Santa Clara-a-Velha heritage site
SPEAKER: Adib Hobeica

ABSTRACT. The notion of built heritage is often associated to outstanding and valuable elements that have been lasting, despite the potential danger of disappearing. Moreover, some remarkable historical buildings and complexes are also located in hazard-prone areas, a fact that constitutes an additional challenge for their endurance. In these particular cases, we argue that the heritage status held by these structures can be associated not only to their particular historical and cultural values and meanings, but also to their role as reminders of living with the latent risks. This paper focuses on the integration of disaster risk reduction into the conservation, restoration and recovery of heritage sites. In particular, it examines how floods have been dealt with throughout the lifetime of the Monastery of Santa Clara-a-Velha (Coimbra, Portugal), a historical monument that was recently targeted by a requalification project, after the regime of the Mondego River had been significantly modified by regulation works in the 1980s. This Portuguese national heritage complex illustrates a long-lasting complex relationship with the river’s waters since its foundation in the 14th century, in which resistance, resilience, retreat and resignation strategies were successively favoured. Having been partially submerged for centuries, the ruins of the Monastery (the church and the associated cloister) were finally brought back to a dry environment in the beginning of the 2000s, thanks to the construction of a cofferdam around the complex. Outside the cofferdam, a new structure to host a museum for the related archaeological findings was built, elevated on stilts. The research intended to highlight the mindset and the prevalent flood-risk culture underlying the most recent intervention in the monument site, and therefore adopted the case-study method, involving desk review, interviews and in loco observations. Our analyses of the process suggest that although risk mitigation was clearly dealt with by the entities and stakeholders involved in the requalification project, a contingency plan has not been considered to anticipate the possibility of the heritage complex functioning during and rightly after flood events. Indeed, as a consequence of the two 2016 winter floods, the complex remained inoperative for almost three months. Yet, we consider that the design could have explored the possibility of ‘welcoming floods’ and thus assessed the feasibility of visiting the Monastery’s premises while submerged, providing its visitors with a temporary, unexpected and fascinating occasion to experience the flooded monument, just as it used to be for centuries. This opportunity could have represented a ludic and pedagogical possibility to explore interconnections between history and memory, while floods would actually give continuity to the former.

A methodological framework to assess disaster risks at cultural heritage sites: the case of the Roman Ruins of Tróia

ABSTRACT. The UN’s Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction (SFDRR) 2015-2030 has emphasised the protection of cultural heritage within its disaster resilience framework, particularly in its Priority for Action 1 ‘Understanding disaster risk and Priority’, and in Priority 3 ‘Investing in disaster risk reduction for resilience’. Recognising this progress, the STORM (Safeguarding Cultural Heritage through Technical and Organisational Resources Management) project aims to provide a cooperation platform for enhancing knowledge, processes and methodologies on the sustainable and effective safeguarding and management of European Cultural Heritage.

Within the context of the STORM project, this paper aims to present an integrated methodology of risk management for cultural heritage properties facing the adverse effects of natural hazards and climate change-related events. Applicability of the proposed method to the field of heritage conservation is particularly taken into account. The paper develops a Cultural Heritage Risk Index comprising three components: ‘hazard’ (leading to sudden- and slow-onset disasters), ‘exposure’ (tangible and intangible elements of heritage sites and their associated values), and ‘vulnerability’ (susceptibility and coping and adaptive capacities), to measure the level of risks.

The proposed risk assessment methodology was applied to the case of the Roman Ruins of Tróia, in Portugal. The three above-mentioned risk components were analysed and incorporated into the risk index for measuring the level of risks. Undertaking the assessment procedure in Tróia enables the clear identification and ranking of the natural hazards and climate change threats affecting the site, and subsequently, classifying their associated risks into the acceptable, tolerable and intolerable regions. In accordance with the STORM risk map concept, relative risk maps were generated to allow sharing a common understanding of the risks among the risk management team, including site managers and other stakeholders. The output of the site risk assessment offers a more reliable guidance on the ascription of risk treatment priorities, thus further supporting decision making on risk mitigation and preparedness strategies.

Protecting cultural property in armed conflicts and following natural disasters: the work of the Blue Shield

ABSTRACT. The Blue Shield is the international NGO set up in 1996 to advise UNESCO on the protection of cultural property in the event of armed conflict. The organisation is committed “to the protection of the world's cultural property, and is concerned with the protection of cultural and natural heritage, tangible and intangible, in the event of armed conflict, natural- or human-made disaster” (Article 2.1 of the 2016 Statutes).

While many argue that cultural property always gets damaged and destroyed during conflict and there is little that can be done, the paper will discuss the Blue Shield’s view that such damage and destruction is frequently avoidable and has been seen as bad practice by military theorists for over 2,000 years. The paper will provide a brief review of the history of cultural property protection that culminated in the Allied Powers in the Second World War acknowledging the importance of protecting cultural property by creating the Monuments, Fine Arts and Archives Sub-Commission (MFAA). Unfortunately, the MFAA team was largely broken up at the end of the war and, despite the 1954 Hague Convention on the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict and its two Protocols of 1954 and 1999, the military - and heritage community - essentially forgot the importance of trying to protect cultural property during conflict. It was only following the disastrous destruction and looting that followed the war in the former Yugoslavia and the 2003 invasion of Iraq that the issue returned to the agenda.

The paper will then go on to outline how the Blue Shield works with the military and other relevant organisations to raise the profile of cultural property protection and how, through proactive protection and resilience building, it aims to mitigate the impact of armed conflict and natural- or human-made disaster. Progress has been slow but recently significant steps have been taken.

Some remarks on a rational and interdisciplinary approach to the safety and conservation of historical centres in Abruzzo Region
SPEAKER: Adriana Marra

ABSTRACT. In the last decade, Central Italy was struck by very long earthquake sequences and suffered heavy damage caused by events characterised by high magnitude. This is the case of large in area in the Lazio, Marche and Umbria regions hit by the sequence started in the summer 2016 and the Abruzzo hit also by the L’Aquila earthquake occurred on April 6th, 2009. All these events impacted on a very complex territory characterised by a few highly urbanised areas and small towns fragmented in many minor municipalities and small villages. In such a context, the primary matrix of the built environment is the historical one; each settlement is generally associated to relevant architectural and landscape features founded on consolidated history of the area. From such a perspective, the problem of the conservation and of the resilience of minor historical centres and settlements in the Central Italy is becoming a key issue at International level due to the strong interrelation between cultural, social, technical and financial aspects. This is the background of this paper that moves from the assumption that lessons learned from the implementation of measures able to recover the built heritage, and more generally the territory in the L’Aquila area following the 2009 earthquake can be useful to refine some interdisciplinary problems like the knowledge of the built environment in view of performance assessment and the definition of monitoring protocols aimed at preserving the construction during its ordinary life, but also in the event of earthquake sequences. In order to avoid a too general statement of the problem and also to perform a validation of the envisaged interdisciplinary approach to the problem, the attention of this contribution is focused on some historical and construction peculiarities that can be found in the Abruzzo region, namely the fortified sites. The region is rich in castles, towers and fortified enclosures that have undergone numerous transformations over time. Some of these have developed creating the magnificent villages that, with their fortified residences, define the territory, others have been abandoned becoming suggestive ruins of which, still today, can be appreciated the main features, namely the ancient city walls interrupted by several defensive towers. It is a topic that appears worth investigating due the specific nature of the construction, but also because in many cases these typologies represent the early core of many small villages distributed in the area. Historical and architectural features of the construction of interest are analysed by means of the traditional methods adopted in the context of restoration processes; historical, architectural, constructive and structural knowledge are however reviewed and discussed in the light of the interventions eventually designed and/or made on selected structures after the 2009 earthquake. The results of a kind of SWOT analysis are presentedin order to provide a contribution in the development of advanced tools for protection of historical heritage from environmental hazards.

Urban metabolism of residential structures

ABSTRACT. In the debate on planning for climate change, we tend to propose a compact and mixed-use city paradigm as a sort of universal solution, as it reduces journeys, enables the switch to more collective forms of transportation and this way decreases GHG and energy-source emissions. There are ever more international policies which address efficient and sustainable resource management. The United Nations General Assembly announced its Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) in September 2015. and adopted the Paris Agreement (COP21) in December 2015, following on from the IPPC Report. Responding to SDG-11 in October 2016, a New Urban Agenda was proclaimed during Habitat III, which is one of drivers of the change that the document defines in order to 'Adopt sustainable, people-centred, age- and gender-responsive and integrated approaches to urban and territorial development' is: 'Reinvigorating long-term and integrated urban and territorial planning and design in order to optimise the spatial dimension of the urban form and deliver the positive outcomes of urbanisation' (United Nations, 2016, pp. 3–4). These goals lead to many specific questions, such as that on the desired densities, the ideal proportions of open spaces including green ones, the role and extent of transportation networks, etc. The one which is particularly valid is the issue of scale. Upgrading the scale of climate-friendly solutions to that of a neighbourhood, town or region, may bring added values. The urban metabolism models which address flows of resources to and from a settlement should take into account analyses at various scales. Another perspective is the Circular Economy (CE) and the potential for the reuse of resources. Although urban metabolism models usually address flows of energy or water, land is rarely discussed as a resource which should be considered in climate change policies. Nevertheless, the theory of a sustainable urban metabolism applies to land consumption too. Land consumption should be reduced, multi-sourced and the land - recycled and recovered - similarly to other resources; this 'trias ecologica' provides the founding principle for the circular economy. Despite the slow pace of its transformations, land consumption may be visualised in the form of a Sankey diagram as a particularly viable 'urban resource flood’. The praxis of urban planning and design shows many creative solutions for reducing land consumption. Our objective within the current paper is to review the practices of dealing with the densification of residential and mixed-use development. From the point of view of urban metabolism, we are seeking the optimisation of future land consumption. We illustrate our approach with examples coming from urban design practice, this way building a framework for the assessment of urban interventions. The main criteria include density of development, former land use, location, accessibility. After briefly summarising the research into Urban Metabolism (UM) and the Circular Economy (CE), the current paper investigates aspects related to land use transformations. Later, we discuss the examples of land consumption analyses and introduce a methodology of assessment which uses flow analysis – a Sankey diagram. The method is applied to the three case studies coming from the practice of the Dutch firm We Love the City. The research results are then discussed and observations for the improvements of the assessment methods considered and summarised.

14:00-15:45 Session SS-WR: Special session: Wildfire Risk
Location: Main Auditorium
Enhancing wildfire resilience to extreme wildfire events
Lessons from an Australian wildfire disaster: integrating urban planning, building and emergency management
Wildfires in Portugal: where and why?
SPEAKER: Adélia Nunes

ABSTRACT. Fire has been a key tool used by humans for several thousands of years and a vital component in ecosystem dynamics. Uncontrolled fires cause, however, large environmental and economic damages, especially in the Mediterranean region. Nowadays, wildfires rank top of all European forest problems, affecting landscape, wildlife, vegetation, soils, water and air quality, as well as the human wellbeing Portugal has the highest relative burnt area of all southern European countries, between 1980 and 2017. Therefore, several studies have been addressed to the drivers behind wildfires in Portuguese territory, linking them mainly with climate/weather conditions and changes in the landscape mosaic, as a consequence of agricultural abandonment and a marked increase in land covered by shrubs, grass and other light vegetation that is very prone to fire. The association between social and economic vulnerability and wildfire incidence, particularly in terms of burnt area, has received less attention. Based on the assumption that the association between burnt area incidence and socio-economic vulnerability varied geographically, the main goals of this study are: to analyse the spatial patterns of burnt area on a municipal level; to identify the most critical social and economic variables associated with spatial incidence and recurrence of wildfires, by comparing the performance of classical linear regression and geographically weighted regression (GWR) modelling; to map spatial variation in the relationships between social and economic vulnerability and wildfire incidence in order to identify spatial clusters. The results obtained clearly show a strong spatial association between the incidence of burnt areas and some socio-economic variables that contribute to wildfire vulnerability in mainland Portugal. In general, the results demonstrated that the municipalities with high burnt areas displayed high social and economic vulnerability as a result of the higher ageing index and unemployment rates. Conversely, higher income populations and the prevalence of higher livestock densities, namely sheep and goats, influence negatively on the burnt extension. The overlap between socio-economic vulnerability, in terms of low socio-economic status of residents, and wildfire incidence in Portuguese territory suggests a need to evaluate wildfire management policies with regard to socio-economic conditions.

Urban planning of interface zones in towns located in the area affected by the mega fires of 2017 in Chile

ABSTRACT. The forest fires occurred in the center-south region of Chile in January and February 2017, affected over 500,000 ha and 7623 people, between the regions of Coquimbo and Araucanía, causing damages for 550 million dollars. These fires have been classified among the most serious in the world to date, with the "firestorm" denominated as "sixth generation" in the international scale. An important part of the affected area corresponded to the so-called "secano interior" (interior dryland), which is located on the eastern slope of the Cordillera de la Costa, with medium to low mountain ranges and narrow valleys associated with streams near to which towns of around 2000 inhabitants are located, providing facilities and services that serve the rural population, which is mainly engaged in agricultural and forestry activities. The fire occurred during the hottest January recorded so far, with temperatures above 30°C, favourable winds for the propagation of fire and low humidity conditions, along with abnormal water stress due to a prolonged drought, which together to the difficult geography and the existence of predominant monocultures plantations, native forests, shrubs and grasslands, triggered the rapid expansion of fire over the territory. In the current scenario of climate change it is likely to expect that these conditions may repeat, so a new mega fire in the area is possible. Communes located in the interior dryland were the most affected in the regions of O'Higgins and Maule, in the heart of the area where the fires occurred, which is why they have been defined as study area. In particular, the location of populated centres in relation to the risks of forest fires, their instruments and policies of urban planning and urban design specially at the interface edges are explored. Through an analysis of current and updated proposals of planning instruments, regarding their land use zoning, housing density, building standards, roads and emergency facilities, in addition to interviews to key institutional actors and the revision of the current legal framework, the absence of regulations and considerations specifically associated with interface areas in urban planning and in urban projects was observed, as well as other difficulties for the territorial management of those areas. The sectoral vision and institutional capacities are limited and focus on the management of the forest fires risk itself, without considering the relationship of these areas with pre-existing and new population centres, ignoring the importance of these small towns for the rural population that is dispersed in this territory. The current strategies and efforts of prevention and mitigation of wildfires risk are currently placed in monoculture and ecosystems both as a threat and as the main exposed area to fires, with little consideration of the vulnerability of the population located near them. A more comprehensive and less sectoral treatment of the interface areas should be considered, emphasizing the planning of exposed towns in accordance with the risks that may affect them, including fires. Equally important is the design and implementation of urban projects that reduce the vulnerability of the interface areas.

The 8th ICBR Lisbon 2018 publication outputs and the contributions of the Special Session and the thematic track on Wildfire Risk: Special Issues and Elsevier books
16:00-17:45 Session 2A-III: Track session
Location: Room B201
Displacement and rapid urbanisation: a literature evaluation of the challenges of the displaced people due to oil-led environmental disaster in the Niger Delta Region

ABSTRACT. The rate of the urbanisation of the developing countries in recent years is phenomenal and unprecedented, much more than it has been in the history of man. This rapid urbanisation has led to urbanity gradually taking over rurality in line with the argued urban age phenomenon. Surprisingly, some of these countries have kept urbanising rapidly amidst poverty. Edward Glaeser, a Harvard Economist, termed this kind of urbanisation as 'poor country urbanisation', urbanisation without industrialisation. It implies that the urbanisation of these countries is happening without the building of factories and industries, hence, the concentration of the urban population on consumption cities (where the economy consists of non-tradeable goods). This type of urbanisation suitably explains the rapid urbanisation occurring in the oil-rich Niger Delta region of Nigeria. Scholars in this region, see oil as one of the factors that contribute to the rapid urbanisation of the oil-rich region. Although there is no consensus among the scholars as to how oil contributes to the rapid urbanisation of the region. However, one of the outstanding argument is that oil contributes to urban population growth in the region through the streams of forced migration resulting from forced displacement of people due to oil led environmental disasters. Recently, statistics reveal that there are about 29 million people forcibly displaced who have continued to seek safety in cities, and they are often vulnerable. The level of these set of people in any community may as well mean the level of the vulnerable people in such communities, and this in one way or the other may have consequences on the development of such communities. It is arguable that for a country with a high rate of the displaced people to catch up industrially with the rest of the world, there should be sufficient policies meant to ensure that those who fall under these categories in both the cities and rural areas receive a long-term mode of livelihood and safety. While considerable studies have focused on the challenges of urbanisation in the region, there seems to be the neglect of the hardships that bedevils the forcibly displaced people in the oil communities whose force migration contributes to this rapid urbanisation. Accordingly, this study aims to identify the challenges of the displaced people due to oil led environmental disasters in the Niger Delta region and also evaluate the possible ways to alleviate their hardships. With the use of a comprehensive literature review, this study seeks to answer these questions: what are the challenges/difficulties faced by the forcibly displaced people in the oil-rich communities in the Niger Delta region? In what ways can these hardships be alleviated? The answers generated from these research questions will form the central part of the policy recommendation to the government in the region.

Participatory Geographic Information Systems for integrated risk analysis in the outskirts of Arequipa, Peru

ABSTRACT. Arequipa is located in the southern Peru and is the second largest city in the country, geographically prone to natural disasters, in particular to earthquakes and floods. In recent years, the Peruvian government has been encouraging risk analysis using Geographic Information Systems, in order to map, classify and quantify the posed danger and vulnerability of risk prone areas. However, due to lack of accurate data and only carrying out a desktop GIS work, these risk analyses results are incomplete and not reliable.

This article proposes a methodology that was carried out and tested in the peripheral areas of Arequipa for the development of an integrated risk management model using Participatory GIS (P-GIS) at three levels: identification of dangerous hotspots, modelling of disaster scenarios and urban design for resilience development. Different PGIS techniques are used on each of the stages of this methodology in order to allow more efficient access to information during the four stages of an emergency cycle: response, recovery, mitigation and risk prevention.

The PGIS methodology consisted of the following stages: Firstly, the production of participatory social maps, in order to identify the most disaster prone areas, as well as to compare and integrate them with the existing desktop GIS work. Secondly, a mobile application was developed in order to provide real-time risk monitoring information about the occurrence of disastrous events and the improvement of emergency response. Once the most dangerous areas were identified, subsequently, a highly accurate risk model was produced based on the acquired data by an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). Finally, a participatory urban regeneration plan was proposed, including the relocation of vulnerable settlements, improvement of accessibility, enhancement of public spaces and strengthening of social resilience.

Oil-spill environmental hazard and community adaptive livelihood alternatives: the Nigeria case

ABSTRACT. It is important to establish that when the issues of oil spill responses are mentioned, the national oil spill detection and response agency comes to mind. This is, due to the fact that the National Oil spill detection and response agency is an institutional framework that is established to co-ordinate implementation of the National oil spill contingency plan (NOSCP) with the mandate to embark on joint investigation visit, ensures remediation of impacted oil spill sites and monitors oil spill drill exercises and facilities inspections. The agency which is with the vision to create, nature and sustain a zero tolerance for oil spill incident in the Nigerian environment is with no doubt the most relevant agency in the context of oil spills remediation, investigations and compensation intervention intermediary. Even though, other (oil spill) disaster management related agency exist within the Nigerian context. The fact that NOSDRA is directly mandated with vital roles in regards to oil spills deem necessary to visit and re-visit their intervention strategies between the communities, and the oil and gas sectors whose activities and or facilities have contributed eminently to environmental devastations and livelihood disruptions of vulnerable communities. Importantly, since the Agency deals with liaising with different stakeholders in the oil and gas industry to evolve practical methods of environmental management to cope with the dynamics of the petroleum sector. That, also emphasise on the power bestowed to the agency and thereby create the importance to evaluate their responsibility in regards to the interventions between communities and the oil and gas industry. This study aims to identify the interventions strategies by the agency in regards to intermediary actions between the community and the oil and gas industry in relations to oil spills incidents, compensations, remediation’s and clean-up process. The subsidiary objectives of this paper were to evaluate the barriers/ challenges hindering intervention process and measures that could be applied for reductions as a means to improve intervention process and strategy. Data were gathered from key representatives from the oil spill related agency to answer the question; what are the most and effective intervention strategies employed by the agency in regards to oil spill affected communities and the oil and gas industry, and how are the measures improved the intervention process? The paper gives recommendations on how the strategies could be improve to reduce community vulnerability to oil spill hazards.

Effectiveness of early warning and community cooperation for evacuation preparedness for mega-risk type coastal hazard in childcare centers

ABSTRACT. Childcare centers are institutions that take care of children aged 0-5 years, who have reduced capability on autonomous walking and require assistance in case of disasters. Therefore, it is even more difficult to ensure their safety in case of multi-hazard disasters that require urban-scale evacuation, such as earthquake and tsunami. During the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake (GEJE), 722 childcare centers were affected by earthquake, of which 78 facilities severely damaged by tsunami in prefectures of Fukushima, Miyagi, and Iwate. Despite the devastating damage, there were only three casualties of infants under the care of nursery, indicating that counter-disaster measures contributed to avoiding further fatalities. This paper aims to investigate factors that contribute to strengthening the resilience of childcare centers from mega-risk type coastal hazards, focusing on the effectiveness of early warning and community cooperation that were observed in areas affected by GEJE. As method, field survey and interviews to former teachers of facilities inundated by tsunami were conducted from November 2012 to September 2016 in Kesennuma and Kamaishi (municipalities located respectively 130 km and 220 km from Sendai), with the purpose of analysing the following topics: situation before GEJE (overview of facility, disaster prevention plan and evacuation drills), during GEJE (damages, early warning, cooperation of local community for evacuating nursery infants, sheltering and rescue), and after GEJE (efforts to strengthen the resilience of facility). The main results are as follows: facilities located near sea side tends to be more concerned about the risk of tsunami and started evacuation to higher places even before the announcement of tsunami warning; the tsunami warning was verified through municipal disaster prevention radio system and nationwide warning system for mobile phones; the destination of evacuation was changed several times, to areas even higher than the designated inundation hazardous areas, due to the increasement of the risk for higher tsunami and secondary hazards, such as tsunami fires; facilities that had preventively designated the emergency meeting place with parents in elevated sheltering places could start evacuation immediately after earthquake, while facilities that had designated the emergency meeting place with parents within the facility had a delayed evacuation; facilities that started early evacuation could get more cooperation from the local community (residents, employers of companies located in the vicinity, teachers and students of elementary schools, etc.) for evacuating nursery children in urban environment, transporting them by piggyback ride or using multi-passenger buggy stroller in steep slope; facilities that had delayed evacuation had relatively greater difficulties in getting cooperation from the community, as well as difficulties to move forward due to traffic jam. As conclusion, after GEJE, childcare centers located in the seaside tend to designate the destination of evacuation in even higher places, to avoid risk of secondary disasters, such as tsunami fire; planning the evacuation procedure according to the severity of multi-hazard early warning, under the knowledge of the children’s parents; and ensure in advance the regional cooperation and partnership for disaster preparedness.

Interactions between single-hazard early-warning systems and multi-hazard maps: the case of the Everest region in Nepal
SPEAKER: Eva Posch

ABSTRACT. In mountain regions, villages might be threatened by quite different natural hazards like e.g. floods, debris flows, rock falls, snow avalanches and glacial lake outburst floods (GLOF). Rescue ways and areas are significantly varying depending on the specific type of natural hazard. In the case of a popular tourist destination – the Everest region in Nepal- the potential GLOF of the Imja lake poses severe risks to numerous villages downstream of Imja and Dudh Koshi rivers. While early warning systems and multi-hazard maps have been widely analysed in literature, most research has not adequately addressed the potential critical interactions between single-hazard early warning systems and multi-hazard maps. The main purpose of this study is to explore these potential interactions as well as communication issues due to missing community involvement in the development of early warning systems and multi-hazard maps. Applied methods include literature study, field observation and a qualitative survey in 2018. In the case of the Everest region, a combination of single and multi-hazard approaches were used to set up a GLOF early warning system. The GLOF early warning system is a single hazard early warning system, whereas the corresponding hazard maps used to inform the public are multi-hazard maps. These maps show the potential GLOF inundation depth but just along the river course, offside of the main river geomorphic hazards such as e.g. debris flow, rock fall or earth and debris slide hazards are presented and classified as low, medium and high. However, no information is provided, which process led to the presented and classified geomorphic hazard. Being entitled “GLOF risk management” these maps are not only confusing experts but also tourists and community members if being perceived at all. While the location of GLOF evacuation centres are presented in the multi-hazard maps, most confusingly some are located in geomorphic high hazard areas. First results of the case study emphasise the importance of risk communication and community participation. A potential dangerous confusion concerning hazard areas is caused by the unfortunate combination of a single hazard early warning system with multi-hazard maps. When setting up single early warning systems it is valuable also to think about multi-hazards, since alarm sirens and evacuation centres should not be located in areas of high geomorphic hazards. In the most threatened village the multi-hazard perspective was not carefully considered and the alarm siren placed in an area of high rock fall hazard. By closely examining the interlinkages between the GLOF early warning system and the multi-hazard maps in the case of the Everest region, Nepal, the study underlines the significant role of a holistic community-based risk management and communication. Potential development pathways for improvement of early warning system will be shown.

Community-based multi-hazard early-warning system in disaster-prone rural areas of Pakistan

ABSTRACT. The disaster impacts increase when there is no proper multi-hazard early warning system to support disaster management mechanism for communities as immediate responder. During last few years, the communities living in rural areas of Pakistan have been experiencing serious challenges due to ineffective multi-hazard early warning system. The communities living in remotely located rural areas of the country lack access to real-time risk information and knowledge about using modern technological equipment therefore they experience high level losses in lives and livelihood. The disaster risk reduction measures are often undermined since multi-hazard early warning measures designed for communities do not consider importance of disaster education, access to disaster risk information, analysis of disaster forecasts and national coordination mechanism for hazard communication and also communities’ lacking response to hazard alerts. The threat assessment is central in disaster management process since, the message of upcoming hazard may reach the communities however it essentially depends on how they react and realize about the scale of hazard they are going to face. In previous disaster cases of Pakistan, people received emergency alerts but were ignorant about the level of hazard severity therefore it became very difficult to avoid higher losses when disaster affects were very near and communities were unprepared. The research is based on both qualitative and quantitative methods whereas, the primary and secondary resources related to Community Based Multi-hazard Early Warning System including field visits, interpersonal discussions, expert views and community experiences along with national policies are used to analyze the whole process. The community based multi-hazard early warning practices in disaster prone rural areas primarily rely on hazard advisories disseminated through mosque loudspeaker to inform people about evacuation places and counter-measures to save lives and their belongings in case of any flood or earthquake. In some cases, people gather around community notables to learn about the disaster hazards and workout for possible countermeasures to avoid such losses. In rural areas, the notables are usually community elder or religious scholars who with their limited knowledge and information sensitize people about disaster hazards. The non-governmental organizations have been extending their support for communities with their limited capacities however, the need for benefitting out of modern sources of disaster forecast and information requires significant expertise whereas such limitations seriously hamper multi-hazard early warning and disaster management efforts for the community. Moreover, the lacking disaster education and awareness about the management of its consequences along with inherent flaws in community based multi-hazard early warning practices further increase the risk of loss during disasters. The obsolete methods without modern technological equipment become a reason of excessive destruction. The inadequate disaster legislation for access to risk information, capacity building of communities and role of government officials at local levels for proper coordination and mutual support are most prominent reasons that result in highly difficult situation to manage disasters at community levels.

Gaps in evacuation planning for the coastal communities; case study in the Philippines: BASECO Compound

ABSTRACT. The recently concluded International Workshop on multi-hazard early warning and resilience building in coastal communities which was conducted in Kandy, Sri Lanka in March 2018, as part of the Erasmus+ Capacity Building for Higher Education grant, CApacity Building in Asia for Resilience EducaTion (CABARET) highlighted the need to look at the gaps in evacuation planning for coastal communities. This study is a result of the sandpit organized during the workshop which aims to look into this need through the framework of international collaboration among Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) from Myanmar, Sri Lanka and the Philippines in order to compare strengths and weaknesses in evacuation planning across the three countries and which hopefully will result in new insights that will strengthen the various components of evacuation planning.

The total length of the coastline of the Philippine archipelago is 36,269 km, which is one of the longest in the world. These areas are susceptible to multiple hazards which includes, but not limited to, hydrometeorological and geophysical hazards such as: flooding, storm surge, coastal erosion, tsunami, ground shaking, lateral spread and liquefaction. Unfortunately, majority of coastal communities are composed of fisher folks and informal settlers which are among the most vulnerable sectors in society to the impacts of these hazards.

The study site for chosen for this study is the BASECO Compound, an urban coastal community at the port area of Manila with an elevation of approximately 2 meters above sea level on reclaimed land using garbage and other materials. It is a densely populated community with a population of 60,000 in 2015 in a land area of just 53 hectares.

The questionnaire developed during the sandpit session was used in order to assess the evacuation planning in BASECO and compare it with case studies from Myanmar and Sri Lanka. The questionnaire aims to determine the existing coastal hazards, identify vulnerable groups, assess the community's capacity and preparedness, as well as draw insights and suggestions for an effective and site specific evacuation planning from the community.

The three counties share common vulnerability conditions which covers physical, social, economic and environmental factors increasing the susceptibility of coastal communities to the impacts of coastal hazards. This includes poverty, old age, poor health, lack of education and access to basic services, and coastal communities being composed mostly of informal settlers among other things.

This emphasises and validates the importance of a collaborative approach of this study which is line with the global targets of the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction namely to enhance international cooperation to developing countries through adequate and sustainable support and increase the availability of and access to multi-hazard early warning systems and disaster risk information and assessments to the people.

16:00-17:45 Session 2B/2C-II: Track session
Location: Room B104
Risk governance: coordination, inclusion and protection with and for European cultural heritage

ABSTRACT. Track: 2B - Oral Presentation

Topic and research background: The historical and cultural heritage might be in danger due to various reasons, including the lack of awareness, economic crisis, terrorism, natural and climatic changes, and mass tourism. Diyarbakır Fortress and Hevsel Gardens nominated as UNESCO World Heritage Site, in July 2015, had experienced many attacks in 2015 and 2016. Therefore, the reasons to choose this topic are as follows: (1) terrorist attacks started in 2015 created dangers in the preservation and protection of the cultural and historical heritage; (2) security risks in the area of historical and cultural heritage (i.e., thief, narcotic crimes); (3) based on the opinion of the Ministry of Environment and Urbanisation, there is a need to integrate the on-going process of preserving, conserving and reconstructing/design of the cultural and historical heritage sites with the society and local life; and to touch to the society; (4) during the process of reconstruction, new historical traces were found and thus the urban construction was currently stopped; (5) with regards to local economy, terrorist attacks resulted in an economic decline in terms of tourism in specific and the local economy in general; (6) based on the priorities mentioned by the Ministry of Environment and Urbanisation, there is a need to design, plan, orient, implement and facilitate the traffic routes in order to establish a secure traffic to ensure the safety of the historical and cultural heritage.

Objectives: This paper aims to create a model to ensure public participation with adaptive governance with multiple stakeholder platforms. Two original contributions of this paper is first to create a new model/modelling to preserve, protect and reconstruct/design of the historical and cultural heritage; second, to create a roadmap to be implemented it in other regions.

Methods or approach: This paper is based on face-to-face qualitative interviews conducted with researchers, policy makers, private sector representatives, the general public and specialized communities such as art curators, galleries, art historians.

Findings or results: This paper reveals the need to create a social platform with an outreach that will produce benefits for a broad community and to raise the awareness of local pollution toward cultural heritage.

The National Plan for Disaster Management of Bangladesh: process, product and promulgation

ABSTRACT. The National Plan for Disaster Management (NPDM 2016-2020) of Bangladesh was prepared by the author of this paper for the Ministry of Disaster Management and Relief (MoDMR) with support from the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) and is aligned with national, regional and international frameworks including the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction (SFDRR). It consists of a set of objectives to operationalize broader aims of disaster risk reduction through identifying priority actions, providing a roadmap for implementation of at least 20 core investments, incorporating resilience in sectoral plans, exploring public-private investments, ensuring inclusivity, addressing emerging risks, promoting risk governance and illustrating how the work of various stakeholders can contribute. It embodies both rapid and slow onset disasters and it also includes recurrent, anticipated and climate induced disasters. The development process of NPDM 2016-2020 consisted of a preliminary desktop review, then guided by a steering committee to draft its initial contents. The process was participatory and inclusive, involving consultations with a wide range of stakeholders. The plan provides two main implementation guides: Broad policy direction in terms of national level action plans to guide disaster risk management in Bangladesh in alignment with SFDRR; Action plans with indicative timeframes until 2020 and 34 core targets to be continued until 2030. It follows eight key strategic directions for achieving resilience: Upgrading existing disaster management programs and policies; Disaster risk management governance; Investments for building resilience against chronic disasters; Social protection; Inclusive development; Private sector engagement; Resilient post-disaster response and recovery; and Emerging risks. While the process of developing NPDM (2016-2020) and the product itself were significantly rigorous and thorough, its promulgation in terms of implementation, institutional capacity building and uptake at different levels of governance and at-risk community remains uncertain. Resourcing, both financial and human, is a key challenge, compounded by other typical developing country factors, for example political accountability, reliance on external actors and endemic corruption. Despite such challenges, Bangladesh has made major recent socio-economic gains, achieving a lower middle income country status. Being a highly disaster-prone, addressing disaster risk has historically been a major focus, with investments in DRR significantly decreasing disaster mortality in recent decades. Thus, given such achievements, and the political will to engage in developing a comprehensive plan of action, it can be expected that many of the targets of NPDM 2016-2020 would be addressed substantially over the long term.

2017 coastal El Niño in Peru: an opportunity to analyse the influence of hazard mitigation plans on local resilience

ABSTRACT. The challenge of ensuring that disaster risk information is effectively translated into knowledge, decision making and the consequent increase of resilience has not yet been overcome. Hazard mitigation plans are intended to help localities understand their disaster risk and identify actions to reduce it. However, despite the existence of studies that measure the quality of these plans in different countries, studies measuring the influence of this quality on the resilience of localities are lacking. Therefore, this ongoing research aims to identify the influence of the quality of these plans in (1) the reduction of direct damages and (2) the increase in the rapidity of recovery from a disaster, two important factors in the definition of resilience. For this, a methodology with two levels of analysis was proposed. In the first, the variables of quality of the plans (QPI) and level of implementation (LII) are correlated with the variables of level of damage (LDI) and rapidity of recovery (RRI), of an affected localities group. In the second level, two localities are selected (the highest and the lowest LDI), to apply multiple techniques, mainly qualitative. As application case, was chosen, the 2017 coastal El Niño heavy rains event in Peru, considered the third most intense "El Niño Phenomenon" of the last 100 years, and which left more than 1.5 million affected and 1.6% of the GDP in losses. So far, in the first level, the variables of QPI and LDI have been analysed in 5 localities (of 15 selected), finding a low correlation (R2 = 0.04). However, when disintegrating QPI in subvariables corresponding to quality categories, it was observed that the quality categories of “policies and proposed actions” (R2 = 0.15), and “fact base studies” (R2 = 0.25) would be the most influential in the reduction of damage. In the second level, the cities of Piura and Sullana were analysed, in which the spatial distribution of affected dwellings, the risk map of the plan and the land use zoning maps in force were contrasted. Through this, specific areas were identified in which the plan would have effectively contributed to harm reduction or which would need corrections in the risk estimation. The pending activities correspond to include, in the first level, the analysis of the ten remaining localities and the LII and RRI variables; and in the second level, the development of field inspections and key informant interviews. The culmination of these activities will allow to consolidate the findings. It is emphasized that the proposed methodology can be applied in other countries and with other types of hazards, allowing an effective improvement of the plans and their implementation process, after a disaster occurrence.

Resilience pathways of critical infrastructure in cities

ABSTRACT. Global exposure to disasters has risen over recent decades ; a trend which will likely continue alongside global climate change and as the majority of global population growth takes place in hazard-prone urban centres in Asia and sub-Saharan Africa . Cities are exposed to an increasingly diverse range of hazards including emerging cyber threats and terrorism . The rising costs of disasters is an increasing concern for the public sector and the insurance industry; direct losses from disasters in the last decade are estimated at $1.4trn USD .

In 2017 Arup and Lloyd’s launched a major global research report exploring how designers, investors, city officials and insurers can work together to build resilient infrastructure systems. The report sets out new research, global case studies, and practical guidelines for infrastructure owners, practitioners and insurers. The report emphasises the importance of systems-level resilience across infrastructure planning, design, construction, operation and supply chains.

The study analyses four different critical infrastructure systems - energy, water supply, Information Communications Technology (ICT) and transport - through case studies and consultation with global infrastructure sector experts. The three case studies demonstrate how infrastructure has been impacted by catastrophic events in the past, how stakeholders responded at the time, and indicates what actions they could take in the future to effectively address risk and enhance resilience at a systems level.

This presentation will share the key findings from this research including:

• An introduction to infrastructure resilience and city resilience concepts. • An overview and analysis of the key trends that affect city infrastructure risks and resilience. • Discussion of the key city risk and resilience principles derived from analysis of real-world case studies and consultation with global infrastructure sector specialists. • Analysis of the potential implications and considerations for infrastructure planning, design, and operation, including sector-specific insight. • A series of recommendations and next steps that could help move action forwards within the insurance industry.

The report identifies three approaches or “pathways” (shown in Figure 1 overleaf) that can improve infrastructure performance after a shock or stress, supported by a number of specific and practical principles that city officials, asset owners, operators and other stakeholders can apply to planning, design and operations. These principles help to operationalize key resilience themes identified in the research such as decentralisation, diversification and redundancy.

Resilience through insurance: a comparison of the role of insurance in flood resilience for households and businesses in England

ABSTRACT. Resilience to flooding is influenced by adaptations or behaviour that address risk reduction at all stages of the disaster cycle. This includes: physical adaptation of buildings to limit damage; individual preparedness and business continuity planning; and provision of resources for reinstatement through insurance or recovery grants. In the UK implementation of such strategies lie mainly with private property owner and their private insurer while government policy promotes greater uptake by these actors as part of an integrated strategy. In the context of increased flood events the provision of affordable market based insurance has been increasingly challenging and in 2016 a new insurance arrangement (Flood Re) was put in place to support transition to affordable market based insurance. However Flood Re is specific to residential property and excludes many categories of property previously guaranteed cover including small businesses. The research used a survey of frequently flooded locations in England to explore the different experiences and behaviour of households and businesses at risk from flooding with respect to insurance and recovery in this evolving scenario. The results show distinct differences between households and businesses that could point to greater opportunities for enhancing resilience if policy and practice recognised those differences.

16:00-17:45 Session 3F/3H-II: Track session
Location: Room C201
A risky business: the impacts of hazards on traders located in different marketplaces in Port-au-Prince, Haiti

ABSTRACT. On February 13, 2018, a fire ravaged the Iron Market, one of the most iconic marketplaces in Haiti’s capital, Port-au-Prince. The event, symptomatic of the vulnerability of marketplaces in many low- and middle-income cities across the world, impacted hundreds of petty traders. Yet, marketplaces are overlooked as an important urban infrastructure in urban resilience and petty trade studies, as well as in urban planning and humanitarian practices. In response, this paper explores the influence of marketplace infrastructure and environment on traders’ capacities to fulfill their needs and to maintain or rapidly return to trade after facing hazardous events. The paper is primarily based on the analysis of 125 trader interviews conducted in four distinct marketplaces in the Haitian capital, Port-au-Prince, in 2017. It is organized into four parts. First, the traders and four marketplace environments are profiled to appreciate the role that petty trade and the different marketplace environments play in lives of traders. Second, trader accounts of shocks and stresses in the marketplace are presented to underline the distinctions between different marketplace environments. Third, the financial impact of the loss of marketplace assets due to the earthquake and fires are explored, as well as the different in return-to-market speeds between marketplaces. Finally, these findings are discussed to explore the ways marketplace infrastructure may influence traders’ capacities to maintain trade and fulfill their household needs during crises. Findings suggest that traders located in a covered market which withstood shocks were better positioned than their counterparts in other markets to sustain their household needs as they were able to restart trade relatively quickly. In contrast, traders in covered markets which collapsed were impacted the most as the loss of market assets was absorbed within the domestic sphere and the ability of traders to borrow. This also resulted in longer recovery time and in the reduction of traders’ capacity to direct income into meeting household needs. Traders in open-air markets may be less affected by the earthquake but endure worse working conditions and exposure to meteorological hazards. These findings pose several implications for research and practice. The study supports the need to examine marketplaces in low- and middle-income cities in empirical studies on urban resilience. It also exemplifies how the failure of an urban infrastructure can impact households located remotely. Findings also demonstrate that traders face different risks depending on the kind of environment they occupy. Finally, it provides additional evidence for local governments and non-governmental organizations in Haiti, and internationally, to consider marketplace infrastructure in their strategies to build resilience for low-income citizens.

Risk sensitive land-use planning for resilient urban building infrastructure: a study in Dhaka City

ABSTRACT. Dhaka, the Capital City of Bangladesh, with an area of around 1,500 km2 currently hosts nearly 18 million people and has experienced unplanned and haphazard development through phenomenal spatial growth in the last few decades. A significant part of the city’s building infrastructure is at high risk of various disasters particularly earthquake due to construction activities on wetlands through land-filling. The present study based on primary (site response analysis, SWOC analysis, key informant interviews etc.) and secondary data suggests a risk sensitive land use planning given the potential risks of earthquake such as amplification and liquefaction. Maps concerning earthquake potential and earthquake micro-zonation of Dhaka have been prepared focusing ground response analysis. However, the study identified several factors (e.g. low public interest, lack of political will, deficiencies in management capacity, lack of budgetary allocations for proactive measures, weak link between existing laws governing DRR etc.) as the major barriers for ensuring risk sensitive landuse planning in the study area. The study also reveals that promoting risk sensitive landuse planning is likely to enhance city’s infrastructural resilience and knowledge on mirco-zonation map prepared for Dhaka City focusing earthquake hazards can effectively be applied in other earthquake vulnerable cities like Sylhet and Chittagong.

Understanding and communicating risk to cultural heritage: the future of preserving the past

ABSTRACT. Recent earthquakes in Mexico (2017), Italy (2016), Myanmar (2016), and Nepal (2015) have made it clear that the past isn't safe. Earthquakes, floods, landslides and fires threaten treasured heritage worldwide. After the M7.1 earthquake in Mexico, 1,847 heritage building were damaged, including 351 historic monuments, 14 museums, and 8 archaeological areas –nearly 20% of the overall economic losses. Cultural heritage is not just about monuments or traditions, but about the people who identify with the underlying culture. Understanding this, we can help reduce irreplaceable losses and manage the economic repercussions. Identification and communication of risks to tangible and intangible assets allows site managers to work to protect sites, communities to plan and prepare for likely scenarios, and policymakers to prioritize investments to manage the risks, as well as spurring action by many stakeholders. The practices of disaster risk management and the preservation of cultural heritage need, therefore, to find common ground for collaboration. Risk identification and communication for cultural heritage have proven a valuable methodology to bring together the disciplines for more effective action, so that professionals and stakeholders can (a) understand the scope of cultural heritage at risk; and (b) communicate likely impacts to inform planning and preparation. The World Bank and the Global Facility for Disaster Reduction and Recovery are collaborating with UNESCO, ICCROM, ICOMOS-ICORP, the Institute of Disaster Mitigation for Urban Cultural Heritage at Ritsumeikan University, and other institutions and experts, to promote the integration of both disciplines, enhancing the global understanding of risk over cultural heritage assets and the use of communication tools to foster community engagement. For instance, interactive activities like the Disaster Imagination Game can help communities—including neighbours, local authorities, and heritage specialists—to understand and communicate risk. This methodology, developed in Japan, brings together different stakeholders from a historic area to analyse and assess the situation, asking them to reflect on key questions related to a specific risk scenario in their cultural heritage area, and then prepare people and places to face possible disasters. Ultimately, they discuss and decide upon potential solutions to avoid or mitigate risk, along with preparedness measures and plans for emergency response. In addition to engage participants in understanding and communicating risk to cultural heritage to spur actionable preparation and prevention action, this interactive activity also helps disaster risk management practitioners in understanding the specific challenges and needs of the cultural heritage sector. This paper will present some methodologies and results from different multi-institutional activities designed to raise awareness on the growing need for disaster risk management of cultural heritage, improve the understanding of risk assessment process and communication strategies, and support a multi-disciplinary network of practitioners, experts, and development partners.

Managing risks from critical infrastructures: elements of infrastructure interdependencies that have the potential to affect the post-disaster recovery

ABSTRACT. Society demands that infrastructures operate constantly in an ‘always-on’ mode. However, interdependencies that exist between critical infrastructures such as energy, transport, water (including sanitation), as well as information and communication technologies make them more vulnerable and exposed to natural disasters. Such vulnerability induce greater challenges to post-disaster recovery efforts, particularly when faced with failures extending simultaneously across multiple infrastructures during the recovery period. The restoration of interdependent network systems following a disaster remains an immense challenge to most organisations. This is due to the fact that there is no unifying theory that can serve as a common standard for rehabilitating interdependent systems during post-disaster recovery. Accordingly, no adequate modelling or simulation technique have been previously utilised to provide an integrated network analysis which could evaluate the impacts of infrastructure interdependencies on post-disaster recovery processes. This paper investigates elements of infrastructure interdependencies that have the potential to impede the post-disaster recovery. Using an exploratory study, the current paper contributes towards an understanding of the risks that interdependencies pose to the post-disaster recovery of large infrastructure systems.

Vulnerability and infrastructure inadequacies: building better humanitarian facilities

ABSTRACT. Aged humanitarian aid agency infrastructure that is also poorly constructed can become a major hazard for those working in such environments and those it is expected to serve and support. Similarly urgently required new humanitarian facilities when poorly planned and built can negatively affect already vulnerable communities, emergency resource storage and distribution and disaster recovery. Human resilience is increased when built environments are well considered and constructed, and respond to local conditions and material resources, new knowledge and technological advancements. Case studies from Bangladesh, Papua New Guinea and other situations where infrastructure inadequacies have compromised the safety of vulnerable communities, aggravated the situation of displaced communities and affected vital resource distribution are presented and discussed. A comparison of current facilities, construction methods and materials demonstrate the issues. Programs for increasing efficiency from within the context of developing and developed nations are discussed and demonstrate how engagement with the displaced, local communities, volunteers and working in partnership with local organisations can lead to stronger systems planning, better infrastructure design and build capacity of vulnerable communities.

16:00-17:45 Session 3L-I: Track session
Location: Room C104
The gendered body politic in disaster policy and practice

ABSTRACT. Oral Presentation to be considered for track 3L.

The field of gender and disasters emerged from the notion that a disaster is a physically and socially-constructed event. Recognition that women’s position in society and the home created vulnerabilities to disasters has led to the development and application of gender in disaster policy and practise over the last two decades. Gender research has been important to ensure women’s needs are recognised and assistance provided in an appropriate manner within disaster contexts. However, ‘gender and disaster’ has become synonymous with the interests and concerns of women due to structural inequalities in society that extend into the field of disaster management. Drawing on body politic within social and political theory, which discusses how men are considered the ‘neutral’, idealised gender, this paper considers how an inclusive understanding of gender and disasters may be developed through considering the strengths of and challenges for men. There has been limited analyses of the broader perceptions and experiences of men residing in communities impacted by disasters. Therefore expanding this scholarship will provide a foundation for understanding men’s stories and experiences of disaster.

Whose visions of the city? The challenge of inclusivity in rebuilding after disaster

ABSTRACT. The devastation caused by some major disasters is so considerable that it necessitates the reconstruction of the physical and social fabric. Whose visions guide such reconstructions and what alternative visions might be applied? To what extent does, or could, the rethinking and rebuilding incorporate an overt and critical commitment to inclusivity across intersecting axes of gender and generation, race and ethnicity, abilities and vulnerabilities, and other spatial manifestations of power? This paper explores recently reconstructed cities (or parts of cities) from an intersectional perspective but with, for reasons of manageability, an initial primary focus on gender.

Disaster Risk Reduction in urban slums: empowering women in resilience measures

ABSTRACT. In South Asia presently 34% of the population lives in urban areas. Overall it is expected that the urbanization rate in the whole region will reach 50% by 2026. Rapid urbanization and development goes along with increasing disaster risks. A big segment of this population lives in slums or ghettos and the numbers are expected to rise. This segment of urban population is at much higher risk in disasters due to inaccessibility to resources, increased poverty, non regulated housing and lack of WASH facilities. These risks are further compounded for vulnerable groups such as women and children who are disproportionately underprivileged in terms of Human Development Indicators. A study based on empirical tools that included data from primary and secondary resources was conducted in the urban slums to understand the specific socio economic factors that contribute to the increased vulnerabilities of these women. The study also quantified their knowledge base and skill set to serve as a baseline to design interventions that mitigate their risks and equip them to respond proactively to disasters. Some of the socio economic factors identified through the study were; lack of education, informal work industry, religion, lack of economic empowerment and inadequate awareness on self preservation measures. DRR and resilience is part and parcel of sustainable development in the environmental, economic, social and political spheres. It was understood that there was a need to integrate efforts towards SDGs, climate change adaptation and DRM in the urban slums in line with the Paris Agreement ensuring consideration of preexisting vulnerabilities and limited resources available to strengthen their resilience. Based on the output of this study, a disaster preparedness tool was developed with the aim to empower these women to not only mitigate their risks but to become effective responders in line with Sendai Framework Priority Area 1 & 3. There was a conscious effort to steer clear of the preexisting equalities and ensuring that resilience was derived through initiatives that were community based and non resource incentive specifically for the women in the slums who are extremely marginalized. The conclusion of this study led to development of resilience tool based on contextualized urban risk assessment with specific focus on women in urban slums; a high risk community but with little visibility and political weight. It was understood that – hazards and risk in urban slums are predominantly human-induced, and exacerbate natural events and effect women more than men. Various economic, social, and economic aspects further compound the risks that urban women face but resilience can be incorporated through simple solutions identified with the support of the local community and imbedding the same through education, religion and norms. This paper attempts to use the findings of this research to identify not only the contributing factors of increased vulnerabilities of these women in urban slums, but also provide a CBDRM based solution that is effective in enhancing their resilience.

Female empowerment: requirements for design education

ABSTRACT. SUGGESTED TRACK CODE: 3L SUGGESTED TRACK NAME: The significance of Gender for the Creation of Resilience and Sustainability FORM OF PRESENTATION: Oral TITLE Female Empowerment: Requirements for Design Education ABSTRACT Women are cultural bearers. As mothers and grandmothers they are transferring traditions to the next generation. They are also adapting the traditions to the current situation. They are furnishing the home with whatever means available, thereby working as lay designers. Thus, they have the ability to contribute to everyday resilience and a sustainable future, provided they are empowered with the tools and authority to do so. On the other hand, professional designers are often engaged in sustainability projects in cooperation with lay people, but lack competence in the significance of gender and are unaware of the specific female traditions. Additionally, they are also often negligent to their own gendered attitudes. This raises the question of how the topic of gender should be included in and linked to the matter of sustainability in design education. Just as important, there is the question of how one should become aware of and change the gendered attitudes among teachers and students. The aims of the investigation have been to find efficient ways to implement the topic of gender related to sustainability and resilience, and to uncover teachers’ and students’ attitudes and behaviour towards to gender. The investigation is a case study of the Department of Product Design at Oslo Met Oslo Metropolitan University (previously Oslo and Akershus University College of Applied Sciences). As this design education is quite similar to others, the outcome should be of international relevance. The analysis is based on data from the two events: A seminar for the teachers and a lecture for the master students, and a questionnaire that was sent to the participants. Oslo Met’s implementation plan for diversity, governmental documents and scientific publications have also been be examined. The investigation showed that some teachers, more males than females, found little or no relevance of the topic, and some males were reluctant to discuss the matter. Those who found it relevant meant that the topic should be integrated as early as possible, both at a general level and in courses related to design history, universal design, ergonomics, methodology, culture and aesthetics. The male teachers’s answers to the questions were rather specific. The female teachers gave more value driven and sometimes vague comments, indicating that they had a low estimation of their own competence. Both males and females put forward harmony, likeness and consensus as ideals, while only a few mentioned the possibility of utilizing gender differences as a driving factor in the development of a sustainable future. There was generally a low awareness of the gender’s significance for a sustainable development, and none of the role of women in particular. The answers from the students expressed the present situation in a nutshell: Teachers and students are still working within an outdated frame of reference. We are only partly aware of it, and reluctant to take up the question, due to its delicacy. They had no knowledge of the relevance for a sustainable development, which reflected their teachers’ unconsciousness of it. As sustainability is already integrated in most courses, it should be easy to combine it with gender and female traditions. Improvement of competence in the field is highly required. The greatest challenge is to create awareness of the significance of the topic. Males must dear to confront and discuss it and to analyse own attitudes. Females should be empowered not only to speak, but to take action. They should also become more conscious of their own specific abilities as bearers of a female cultural tradition. The situation mirrors that of the areas where sustainability projects are performed and which future designers will meet when they take part in such projects.

‘A walk with the lads’: masculinities’ perspectives, gender dynamics and resilience in Soacha, Colombia

ABSTRACT. Soacha is a municipality in the periphery of Colombia’s capital Bogotá, whose population has soared over the past two decades with a constant influx of displaced people coming from different areas of conflict all over the country. This has created fragile, vulnerable and informal urban settings, categories which best describe 50% of the settlements in the municipality. High levels of tenure insecurity, territorial control by gangs, intra-urban displacement, violence, a generalised lack of protection of the population, disenfranchisement and lack of rights set the backdrop in which the daily lives of hundreds of thousands of people transcur. Yet, in these most adverse circumstances, people have managed to create communities and, in spite of lack of support of any kind from local authorities, to build neighbourhoods which they can call ‘home’.

As part of the Horizon 2020 project, ‘Preparedness and Resilience to address Urban Vulnerability’ (PRUV), which is aimed at reshaping the practice of humanitarian action and development aid in urban areas, we have carried a gender-segregated research in one specific locality, Altos de Florida. We have applied the Urban Vulnerability Walk methodology to understand the vulnerabilities of both men and women. This methodology was developed by Plan International and UN-Habitat in 2013 to explore the safety needs of adolescent girls in cities. Yet, when applied to men, it became evident that men were trying mostly to conceal their own vulnerabilities and use the walk to reinforce values –such as control- linked to the normative dimensions associated to the notion of hegemonic masculinity. However, this exercise also helped us understand important elements of gender dynamics and their contradictory relationship to the development of resilient practices among these communities. A similar research has been carried out in Nairobi (Kenya), and also in Jakarta (Indonesia). The results of these three experiences will be contrasted to understand the ways in which a masculinities’ perspectives can help us get a better grasp at gender dynamics in different settings.

We found that insecurity of tenure challenges the normative views on masculinity of men in these communities, which has massive implications not only to gender dynamics, but also to how people interact and work collectively in order to face the challenges posed by the vulnerable situation in which they find themselves. While the methodology was useful to identify vulnerabilities and risks, it proved equally useful to better understand the resources of the community, both of the women and the men, in order to overcome the difficulties in which they are immersed and to build a sustainable future.

Reducing the vulnerability of Antandroy women to drought (Madagascar)

ABSTRACT. Drought is one of the most devastating disasters. It can last for months, even years. The consequences are the same, but the planning of disaster responses varies according to the financial, technical and human means possessed by the affected areas. The poorest countries or communities are the least resilient and struggle with the impact of drought. In the south of Madagascar, more specifically in Androy, drought reigns and handicaps the income-generating activity of the population, which is mainly formed by agriculture and livestock farming. The drought breeds famine and deteriorates the living conditions of Antandroy which is ethnic group from Androy's areas. People's vulnerability to a hazard differs according to age, sex, race, religion... The precariousness of the situation of the Antandroy women caused by the drought pushed the choice of this study, whose main objective is the resilience of the Antandroy households in front of the drought. In other words, this work targets to reduce Antandroy women's vulnerability, economic growth and sustainable development of the region. To carry out this study, the work was conducted in three stages which are the documentary research, the methodology of data collection in the field and finally the delimitation of the field of study. To survive, Antandroy households have to sell their livestock at derisory prices. Men are often forced to migrate out of the Androy to find work. So, women became guardians of homes, and they are alone to face the harsh reality of life. As head of the family, the women get more responsibility than when they get their husband near them. Moreover, there are several factors that increase the vulnerability of these Antandroy women. It comes mainly from the low level of education, the discriminatory culture that disadvantages women's status, household size and poverty. Thus, the development of income-generating activities reduces exposure to drought. This includes the diversification of activities in different sectors, the use of varied seeds, the rational management of land and the environment such as the protection of the environment, the definitive eradication of the practice of slash-and-burn cultivation and bushfires. Compared to men, their vulnerability is more pronounced. That’s the reason why, their resilience is important and should be reinforced. For example, the woman must be creative in order to survive her family, digging the river to find water, picking leaves and cactus fruits as food for her household. The determination of Antandroy women to improve their living conditions contributes to the reduction of their vulnerability to drought. Furthermore, campaigns on gender equality by the public administration and civil society are key to turning the situation of those women into a long-term one. In addition, the political will from the Malagasy government remains the major solution for the realization of water projects in the far south affected by the scarcity of water.

Empowerment in the era of resilience building: a gendered appraisal of community-based disaster risk management among informal settlers in Metro Cebu, the Philippines

ABSTRACT. As the economic, social and environmental impacts of climate change become increasingly apparent in the Philippines, so too is the prominence of disaster risk reduction and management (DRRM) in local and national development agendas. Within this landscape, community-based approaches have become the unquestioned orthodoxy, framed by narratives of participation, resilience and empowerment. Among urban poor informal settlers, state-endorsed disaster risk reduction interventions are often facilitated via homeowner associations, with Filipino women serving as critical drivers of grassroots action within these spaces. This paper interrogates the extent to which these community-based mobilisations are serving to address or exacerbate gendered inequalities that underpin vulnerabilities to risk. Drawing on extensive qualitative evidence collected over 7 months of fieldwork between 2014 and 2017, I argue that grassroots ‘resilience-building’ and community-based DRRM are decidedly gendered in practice, highlighting how both the degree and nature of participation in these activities is shaped by gender stereotypes, perceptions and experiences. While grassroots ‘resilience building’ and community-based DRRM may thus be reinforcing rather than redressing existing gender inequalities and power differentials, participation in homeowner associations and associated risk management activities is also facilitating meaningful (albeit unintended) personal transformations among female members, that women themselves depict as a process of empowerment. These findings reinforce the importance of understanding the socio-spatial manifestations of gender roles, power and agency to the development of inclusive DRRM and resilience-building strategies.

16:00-17:45 Session 4B-I: Track session
Location: Room C202
Belgrade: reconstructing Balkanism, reconstructing rights

ABSTRACT. The context for this exploration will be Belgrade in the aftermath of NATO’s 1999 NATO targeting. The focus will be on how the reconstruction of the city, including the transitional post-socialist identification, is contingent with undulating systems of control. An aspect of control is further found in EU’s contractual relations in that the Europeanization of all Western Balkan countries requires their full political separation (balkanization) from each other - homogenization, and subsequent recognition of each other. A way of achieving this has been through a process of association; Belgrade, as well as Western Balkans, are seen as a transitional zone in need of attaining democratic values and socio-political co-operation. One element of cooperation is seen by the the reconstruction of Belgrade being mainly driven by international investment, foreign loans, contractual stipulations by the European Union and corrupt Serbian politicians. One of the outcomes of reconstruction is gutting out all sense of socio-economic diversity and alternative design and cultural practices.

Since 1999, New Belgrade’s unfinished and unfilled CIAM blocks are now being filled with shopping centres and private multi-use buildings, appropriated to suit the narrow interest of neo-liberal entrepreneurs – consumption and privatization made possible by de-nationalization laws whose governing notion is that public companies and individual buildings should be privatized. The socialist right to a residence is now being replaced with a new understanding: the residence as a commodity. The once relatively hegemonic brutalist block-type building typology has been diversified, though now driven by a global neo-liberal economics. Diversification has translated into a demarcation between neighbourhoods, where there is a discrepancy in aesthetic language and socio-economic levels. While there is a greater level of heterogeneity in the current typology of Belgrade’s buildings and products, the fact that these are predominantly causing economic polarisation makes the hegemony fiercer than its socialist predecessor. This is evident in the ordering of values and ways of living, lack of transparency to do with urban development, privatization, de-socialization and de-Romanization (forceful relocation of the Romani to the fringes of the city).

In this post-1999 political landscape, Henri Lefebvre’s thinking on the ‘right to the city’ is being eradicated; Belgrade is more exemplary of Michel Foucault’s disciplinary and Gilles Deleuze’s control societies. The stated framework will specifically be mapped in terms of two central areas of Belgrade – Savamala and Belville. This is not only because the two zones exemplify severe gentrification, but also because gentrification is removing the alternative practices and ways of thinking about the city found within Savamala and Belville. These alternatives, such as the Mikser House/Festival and the Romani settlements, evoke Maria Todorova’s association of Balkanism where ‘inhabitants do not care to conform to the standards of behaviour devised as normative.’

Refugee integration in Portugal: the new challenges of the European Relocation Program (2015-2017)

ABSTRACT. Since 2015, Europe has witnessed the largest mass displacement since World War II. During this period, more than one million people would apply for asylum in the European Union (EU), the great majority escaping from the war and trying to reach Europe, via the Mediterranean, generally with origin in Syria, Eritrea and Iraq. The islands and coast of Greece and Italy are some of the places where the vast majority of refugees and migrants entering the EU have arrived. Many of these people are seeking to reach other EU countries — such as Germany, Austria, Hungary or Sweden — to which are directed almost three quarters of European asylum applications. The “European Agenda for Migration”, presented by the European Commission on May 2015, would reflect this concern. And, at the level of immediate response, it would propose the implementation of an emergency relocation mechanism, within the EU during the two following years, in order to transfer 160,000 people from Greece and Italy, under extreme migration pressure, to other EU Member States. In response to these decisions, the Portuguese Government would announce in 2015 the availability to receive 4,574 refugees, over the two following years, and would create a “Working Group on the European Agenda for Migrations”, coordinated by the High Commission for Migrations, with the goal of gathering efforts from Portuguese institutions and citizens, who show willingness and conditions to support the reception and integration of these refugees. According to the International Organization for Migration (IOM), the EU Relocation Program's situation is currently of 33,811 people placed in 24 countries - 21,824 from Greece and 11,987 from Italy - and Portugal is currently positioned at the 6th position in the European ranking of refugee relocation processes — with 1.532 relocated persons, 1.192 from Greece and 340 from Italy. Showing that despite being a small country, Portugal has tried to make an effort on this particular matter, with very tangible results, like the 50% employment and professional training success rate of the asylum seeker received in the country, the 100% and 81% integration rate in its national health and education systems or the establishment of a focused scholarship program to access Portuguese public university system. So, after the ending of the two-year European Relocation Program, which finished in 26th September 2017 — and in the context of the 8th ICBR - International Conference on Building Resilience, under the theme “Risk and Resilience in practice: Vulnerabilities, Displaced People, Local Communities and Heritages” — the aim of this paper is to analyze the Portuguese Relocation Program, that lasted from December 2015 to November 2017, trying to produce not just a mere description of the implementation of this particular program, but a portrait of a different approach on a national asylum policy, that was based on a dialogue between national institutions, local stakeholders and people of different origins and cultures, seeking to ensure a structured response capable of promoting the integration of relocated refugees in the Portuguese society.

Future scenarios for cities: are calculated models enough?

ABSTRACT. Investments in urban risk reduction for resilience do not happen in a vacuum but need to be aligned with urban development, requiring approaches tailored to the respective current and future risk levels as well as social economic and environmental surroundings.

With increasing risk levels and triggered by policy documents of the Post-2015-Agenda, urban resilience moved to the center of attention and was adopted as a development paradigm in many cities, striving to increase the cities’ capacities for preparing for, responding to, learning from and adapting to adverse events and changing environmental conditions. Moving into the phase of implementing adopted aims, the availability and use of suitable methods for integrated urban development are essential prerequisites. Such methods should provide help for identifying ideally both, potentials to mitigate climatic impacts as well as possibilities to prepare for future climatic and social risks.

While in the past, urban governments and planners predominately addressed physical aspects of the built environment to increase the robustness of cities against natural hazards, it is now widely acknowledged that only a mixture of so called hard and soft measures will successfully contribute to cities’ overall resilience. However, this paradigm shift is not yet well reflected in the methods city governments and urban planners use to drive urban development processes. The latter are mostly planned based on quantitative models, projecting past trends into the future under certain assumptions regarding climatic and demographic trends. The resulting scenarios do however neither consider strategic visions determined by city governments and social transformation nor do they incorporate the potential impact of changes on larger scales beyond the administrative borders.

This contribution will present the method of participatory scenario development, which aims at incorporating future socio-economic and political development trends into the compilation of alternative urban futures. The method largely builds on the participation of urban administrative stakeholders and results in four different potential future scenarios including storylines, which provide a valuable frame for both, physical and socio-economic urban models as well as for political decision-making. As an example, the presentation will showcase participatory scenario developments conducted in the course of a research project financed by the German Ministry for Research and Education. Scenarios were developed together with the urban administration of Bonn and Ludwigsburg, two cities striving for increasing their resilience towards heat stress. It will show, how this new method can help policy-makers to better understand interlinkages between policies and spatial urban development processes, including benefits and pitfalls of planned policies and trends. Furthermore, it will provide evidence how participatory scenarios can build a frame for climatic and socio-economic modeling. While the intersection of various scenario methods represents a challenge, it has large potential to culminate in more realistic and holistic scenarios for urban futures, which can inform decision-making for urban authorities to make their cities more resilient.

Right to the city? Socio-spatial inclusion of economic migrants and refugees in Southern Europe: two case studies from Lisbon and Turin

ABSTRACT. Topic and research background The paper [a] Addresses socio-spatial inequalities concerning economic migrants and refugees in metropolitan areas in the South of Europe and [b] Puts in perspective local initiatives with a renewed vision of the Right to the City, as elaborated by Lefebvre, paying attention to the materialisation of the Right to adequate Housing for all.

Objectives We aim at investigating the role of local authorities and organised civil society in re-generating inclusive socio-spatial transformation linked to cultural diversity.

Approach We focus on two case studies considered exemplary by local authorities and presenting significant agency by civil society actors.

In Portugal, the case study concerns Marvila, a neighbourhood located within the Lisbon municipality. Refugi.Arte em Marvila is a planned art-based inclusive shelter for refugees, economic migrants and low-income residents A local architectural cooperative ‘Working with the 99%’ has been spearheading the process. The objective is to contribute to the inclusionary revitalisation of Marvila Street and surrounding areas through the rehabilitation of a municipal under-used heritage facility: Marquês de Abrantes Palace.

In Italy, the case study is located in Valli di Lanzo in the Turin’s metropolitan area. Here the Morus association supports a small number of migrants with refugee status helping them to find housing and employment in the region. To do this, volunteer workers map individual needs and competencies so as to match these with appropriate opportunities This process helps to identify art, sport, professional activities and to build relationships among new arrivals and longstanding residents.

Both the cooperative and the Morus association have supported a range of cross-cultural projects.

Findings In Lisbon, the presence of the cooperative in Marvila Street, points to the importance of long-term involvement for successful inclusionary interventions. Moreover, the involvement of a multidisciplinary team has broadened the perceptions of the area, helping to bring out its potentials. Also, the focus on community participation has led to a gradual appropriation of the project by local residents. In Turin, emergent collaborations between Morus Association and local authorities focusing on hosting and refugees support are still being developed. At present, many local authorities fear that proactively supporting refugees and asylum seekers may trigger opposition by sectors of the local population.

Conclusions Compared to local authorities, civil society actors have been offering more flexibility and capacity of action for the inclusion of economic migrants and refugees. While the resilience dimension of housing policies is being weakened by the lack of municipal initiative, grassroots activities centred on cross-cultural encounters seem to have a potential for generating socio-economic initiatives based on active citizenship. The paper discusses these initiatives in terms of their potential concerning: (a) the ability to stand on their own feet; (b) the opportunities for involving local institutions in generative debate and actions; (c) the risk of being co-opted by local authorities; and [d] to what extent they constitute an original move towards materialising the Right to City and the respect of the right to housing for all.

Development of humanitarian logistics network design: a genetic-algorithm approach

ABSTRACT. Disaster as defined by United Nations is a serious disruption of the functioning of the community or society due to hazardous event. Disasters have been frequently occurring in all countries in random order. It is therefore, important to help the disaster’s victims to provide for their immediate needs in a timely manner. This will also lead to helping them build resilience in time of this hazardous event. The study aims to design a humanitarian logistics network to reach the beneficiaries in shortest time possible and in cost effective manner. The study approaches are field site visits, interviews from the authority concerns and the use Genetic Algorithm Approach. The results showed that the proposed model is better than the existing Humanitarian Logistic Network Model of the case study Organization being investigated. The considerations of the multiple objectives such as responsiveness, risk and cost effective manner in the design makes the humanitarian logistics model feasible and applicable in the organizations. The study concludes that providing a decision support system to the emergency managers and decision makers there will be an effective and efficient humanitarian logistics in the country.

Collective adaptation, social capital and self-organization of urban and peri-urban coastal communities on Java
SPEAKER: Boris Braun

ABSTRACT. The low lying coastal areas of Northern Java are prone to an interplay of natural and human-made hazards. A slowly emerging absolute sea level rise is enhanced by land subsidence up to -19cm/a in some urban areas, due to expressive groundwater extraction and massive surface load. As a consequence, the local population is exposed to frequent tidal and river floods. How are people able to maintain their livelihood in these multi-risk environments? Our study focuses on bottom-up strategies of households along the North Coast of Java, namely the megacity of Jakarta, the regional urban center of Semarang and peri-urban villages in Kendal and Demak. We apply a mixed method approach including focus group discussions, key informant interviews and a quantitative household survey (n=950). Our results indicate that local people have so far being able to accommodate to their multi-risk environment. Rather surprisingly, outmigration from these areas is marginal. Rather than retreating or gaining permanent structural protection, people have found ways to live with floods and subsidence. Coastal hazards have become a ‘usual’ experience and are not perceived as “risks”. We found that the strong social capital and a high level of self-organization are key factors in enabling the local communities to maintain their livelihoods, e.g. by creating informal insurance systems and networks of mutual help. Collective action and mutual neighborhood support are deeply embedded in people’s daily routines and practices. These habits have become one of the most important non-physical risk reduction practices. However, social relations in the study areas are mostly in-ward looking and favoring the formation of bonding ties between community members. While social capital enables local people to cope with coastal hazards, long-term and innovative adaptation is constrained by lacking bridging and linking ties to the outside world, connecting local households to communities and stakeholders from other areas or from other parts of society. Our paper aims to discuss how the identified bottom-up approaches can be aligned with top-down strategies to increase the adaptive capacity of local communities and to open up new pathways for coastal hazard management. It seems to be particularly important to maintain neighbourhood cohesions in relocation programs and to provide spaces of opportunities that enhance social interaction between different neighborhoods for developing bridging ties. In this way existing coping capacities are maintained and long-term adaptation can be improved.

Democra-city. Participatory approach and upgrading of the marginal self-produced city

ABSTRACT. Contemporary cities are called to face problems and take up challenges that cannot find a solution in current global paradigms of intervention. Rising socio-spatial inequality and urban exclusion urge communities to participate in decision making processes heading to the transformation of their neighbourhood. A participatory approach is more and more often evoked while generating practices of emancipatory nature almost worldwide. However, participation has been also increasingly appropriated by the neoliberal discourse and sometimes becomes a mere expedient for the co-optation of consensus. This paper aims at critically reflecting about limits and virtues of participatory approach and about its socio-spatial impact on marginal self-produced city. The notion of 'self-production' has been already used by researchers of the Gestual - Grupo de Estudos Socio-Territoriais, Urbanos e de Ação Local of the Faculty of Architecture of the University of Lisbon. It refers to Lefebvre’s production of space notion - not only to self-construction - and it aims at drawing attention to the energy spent by the 'producers' of spaces. Through a comparative analysis of empirical cases, I intend to understand to which extent diverse types of participatory interventions and interactions between the actors interfere in the production and transformation of space and can contribute to community emancipation, but also in which circumstances an alternative city model emerges and which forms it may take. Different interventions will be evaluated at the level of: - strengthening democracy among the actors involved and community empowerment; - social and urban inclusion, as well as spatial justice; - urban and housing quality, and - environmental and socio-economic sustainability; to identify which processes can lead to a more democratic, empowered, inclusive, just, more qualified and sustainable marginal city. Such cities I define here as ‘democra-cities’. Two neighbourhoods of the Metropolitan Area of Lisbon will be considered: Cova da Moura (Amadora) and Bairro da Torre (Camarate) for representing different participatory essays, namely small participatory local interventions. The critical interpretation of the two processes and the assessment of these experiences against current trends at a global level will be carried out at the light of Henri Lefebvre's Droit á la ville, in its emancipatory meaning of Droit á l´Oeuvre (Right to the Work) which is everybody’s right to active participation, co-authorship and co-transformation of the neighbourhood and the city. In this sense the paper discusses the notion of a more imaginative and experimental participatory approach, a kind of ‘deambulatory’ attitude of listening to people and places that, when implemented in a different and case-specific way, can effectively contribute to increase urban and housing quality as well as create social inclusion and emancipation, in line with Lefebvre’s Oeuvre.

Housing and tourism in the increasingly urbanised Azores: challenges and opportunities for the right to the city in São Miguel Island

ABSTRACT. Current global urbanisation trends are manifested in the Azorean archipelago in the growing number of building permits and building constructions and reconstructions, especially those related to housing (Statistic Regional Service of the Azores – http://srea.azores.gov.pt). This phenomenon is particularly evident in the larger and most central island of São Miguel (Rocha & Ferreira, 2010). However, the Azores is also one of the Portuguese regions with higher risk of poverty (Diogo, 2015). In São Miguel confined insular context, the urban margins where lower income groups live correspond to areas relatively integrated in (or close by) main urban centres.

Currently, this urbanisation process has also been fostered by the recent growth of tourism, equally more significant in São Miguel, boosted by its promotion since the mid-1990s and the opening of airspace to low-cost airlines in 2015. Tourism tends to be linked to the commodification of socio-spatial assets, and thus to processes of gentrification, ‘museumification’ and ‘disneyfication’, which usually contribute to increasing socio-spatial disparities and fragmentation (e.g. Delgado, 2005; Gant, 2012; Pavel, 2015).

In this context, in São Miguel, most important urban centres have been under major transformations – e.g. growth of housing rental for tourism, changes of use, renovation of older or abandoned buildings, construction of new ones – some of them partly promoted by public policies, such as the funds for urban upgrading and renewal and the programme “renew for rent – affordable housing”. Some of these usually market-driven urban transformations have had impacts on areas where lower income groups live, normally through gentrification, promoting the emergence of resistance movements claiming for a greater ‘right to the city’, developed by groups of the organised civil society, such as those gathered by the project Caravan for the Right to Housing (https://caravanapelahabitacao.wordpress.com).

Based on a research project about the impacts of tourism on the Azorean landscape (Melo, 2017), this presentation aims to reflect particularly on those felt on the housing of urban margins, taking into account the urban transformation trends at place in main urban centres of São Miguel, as well as on resistance movements that arise from them and on challenges and opportunities that emerge to a greater right to the city.

Delgado, M. (2005). “Ciudades de mentira. El turismo cultural como estrategia de desactivación urbana”. Archipiélago, 68, 17-27 Diogo, F. (2015). “A pobreza nos Açores no context naciona, resultados do IDEF 2010-2011”. In Rocha, G, Borralho, A., org. Novas Tendências Populacionais. Lisboa: Edições Colibri, pp.155-175 Gant, A. (2012). “La fabricación de monumentos antiguos en la Era del turismo de masas”. E-rph, 11 [on-line] Pavel, F. (2015). Transformação Urbana de uma Área Histórica: o Bairro Alto. Reabilitação, identidade e gentrificação. PhD in Architecture. Lisboa: Faculdade de Arquitectura, Universidade de Lisboa Rocha, G. & Ferreira, E. (2010). “Territórios e dinâmicas migratórias nos Açores”. Cidades - Comunidades e Territórios, 20/21, 97-110 Melo, V (2017). Tourism and Landscape in the Azores: change, challenges and opportunities. Research contributions towards collaborative planning and management strategies. Research project submitted to the Regional Fund for Science and Technology (FRCT) of the Azores

16:00-17:45 Session 4G-II: Track session
Location: Main Auditorium
Architecture and war: a look at the city of Aleppo


4G - Humanitarian Architecture in practice: Reducing Risk and Building Resilience in incremental housing and post-disaster reconstruction

This theme Architecture and War, has as main scope the reflection about the role of architecture and its relation with the contexts of war, destruction and crisis. In fact, one of the great scourges of the twenty-first century is the explosion of conflicts and threats that arise from all parts, abruptly and unexpectedly. Daily the media report situations of war, attacks, and deaths, where armed confrontations have increasingly become a reality, making this a pertinent topic of urgent reflection. Faced with these contexts of instability we must find solutions to problems that are being created, believing that more and more the word unpredictability is part of the daily lives of many people who deal with it day by day. In the background, being the architecture in its structural base a system of ordering, rule, harmony, in the confrontation with the collapse, establish new logics of survival and spatiality towards this unpredictability. In this sense, understanding the assumptions underlying this restructuring are the main objectives of this research and intervention, based on the following points: to analyze the theme of destroyed cities and the role that architecture plays in its relation with memory of spaces and places destroyed; realize the true importance of emergency architecture in a scenario of destruction and collapse; propose a transitional shelter solution to respond to real needs by focusing on a specific example, as context of analysis, in the face of an immediate response situation in several times: short and medium term. So from the study of the city of Aleppo and its massive destruction since the start of the war in 2012, assumed today as the symbol of the massacred city where in addition to everything there are still hundreds of inhabitants who cohabit in this context of destruction, the main purpose of this analysis is to understand the forms of survival and the responses of architecture to new logics and ways of life as a strategy for urban reflection and reconstruction. Thus, this proposal has as its main focus emergency responses, and how architecture and the architect can be fundamental movers in the process of transition between the immediate, a situation of destruction and uncertainty, until a definitive moment, corresponding to the regeneration and recovery of the destroyed city. The main result of this approach is effectively, given the contexts of unpredictability and uncertainty, to see how one can through architecture find solutions that adapt to different events, needs and atmospheres. This being the major challenge of this study, to find, through the tragic example of Aleppo solutions that mold and adapt to any emergency of war, promoting new states of urbanity and safeguarding conditions of basic human habitation in extreme situations.

Managing Mount Sinabung evacuees with non-generic disaster management

ABSTRACT. Mount Sinabung is an active volcano located at Karo Regency, North Sumatra in Indonesia. The activity of this volcano never recorded in the last 300 years which makes Indonesian Volcanology Center (PVMBG) classify as volcano type B. There are no Early Warning System (EWS) and volcano monitoring stations for this volcano until this volcano erupted. Mount Sinabung became active and suddenly erupted in August 2010 causing 15,691 people evacuate in 24 camps. Mount Sinabung still erupted until now and make this volcano still in emergency status. There are many evacuees lived for many years in the camp make them vulnerable in economics, social, and education. This research aims to identify the disaster management has been done responding Mount Sinabung eruption. This research uses qualitative research methods by studying and recording data from various sources of information as secondary data and interviewing informants as primary data. This research uses purposive sampling and continued with snow ball sampling method. The data obtained then analyzed with deductive thinking. The result show that the Government of Indonesia has implemented Non-Generic Disaster Management to make evacuees become resilience by relocate evacuees in 3 stages. The first stage for 370 households in 2015, second stage for 1,683 households in 2016 and the third stage for 1,655 households in 2018. The relocation build permanent house, communal facilities such as church, mosque, jambur at new location about 43 Km from Sinabung Mountain. The government also provide agricultural land and initial capital for them to start their new life better. This policy proven as the best solution to make evacuees become resilient facing the eruption. Evacuees has started their new life, they started farming, socialize, and practice their ancestry ritual like guro-guro aron even Mount Sinabung still erupted until now. The relocation make evacuees become resilient so they can cope with their own resources. The policy of Government of Indonesia to relocate evacuees even the volcano still erupted is a Non-Generic Disaster Management because they relocate in emergency phase. In general disaster management cycle, relocate usually done after the emergency phase is over. The relocation proven to be an effective way to gain resilience on evacuees. When a disaster occurred is needed a policy to implement quick response to solve the problem of evacuees with the aim to making them become resilient.

Improved vernacular flood-resilient post-disaster housing reconstruction in Pakistan

ABSTRACT. Track 4G Humanitarian Architecture in practice: Reducing Risk and Building Resilience in incremental housing and post-disaster reconstruction

Submitting for oral and poster presentation

Topic and research background Following three years of extreme flooding in southern Pakistan between 2010 and 2013, and widespread destruction of housing, numerous post-disaster shelter reconstruction projects were implemented across the country. With limited resources available efforts were focused on learning from and improving vernacular architecture to enhance its flood resilience. However, a lack of guidance meant that the effectiveness of such design improvements was unknown.

Objectives The key objectives for this research, which uses the reconstruction as a case study, were to provide rigour and evidence for future decision making about reconstruction and building back better.

Methods or approach Researchers were commissioned by the Donor and the INGO working to coordinate the shelter cluster during the time of the flooding, to conduct an evidence based research study looking to holistically evaluate the different shelters. Academia, NGOs and independent reviewers collaborated to identify patterns, achievements and failures in the reconstruction.

A robust methodology was developed to assess existing shelter against consistent criteria with input from the Pakistan shelter working group to ensure these criteria remain relevant. Buildability, maintenance, life cycle cost, material quality and thermal comfort were just some of the topics within the assessment criteria.

Achievements included the increased use of improved vernacular architecture, namely the use of stabilised earth construction. Issues which were identified involved basic structural detailing missing; such as ring beams and lintels.

Working with a University in Pakistan, the project incorporated physical testing of full scale wall panels subjected to simulated 2010 conditions. With the aim of testing to fill the guidance gap, and provide an evidence base for design decisions, different disaster risk reduction methods employed in the field by shelter agencies where explored. The relative performance, cost, and embodied carbon of each design decision was recorded.

Findings or results Key findings include that sacrificial mass and stabilised render covering an unstabilised earth wall - design principals used by many agencies - do not provide sufficient flood resilience; these panels failed just as quickly as panels which were simply earth alone, with the extra investment not resulting in better performance.

Low carbon and low cost improved vernacular flood resilient shelters can be designed, providing the correct principals are followed; that stabilisation is applied throughout the wall, to the height where flooding is likely to occur.

Conclusions The research has informed a design decision guide (in lieu of building codes which are not currently appropriate for vernacular construction), aimed to provide practitioners with the tools to make informed choices about their designs. Shelter agencies using the guide will be able to demonstrate how design choices impact the performance of shelter against flooding and heavy rain, and what the cost and carbon implications of these choices are. Shelter agencies following this guide will be able to design flood resilient shelters which are low cost and low carbon, and avoid making ineffective DRR additions that offer little improvement.

Incremental shelter and homeowner post-disaster expansions and modifications
SPEAKER: Aaron Opdyke

ABSTRACT. Despite increasingly robust knowledge of recovery processes after disasters, the transition to sustainable housing in the aftermath of crises continues to be fraught with challenges. Incremental approaches to shelter have emerged as a central theme in post-disaster assistance, offering greater choice to affected populations while recognising the non-linear time scales of recovery. This research examines 32 post-disaster shelter projects in the aftermath of Typhoon Haiyan in the Philippines. Drawing from 1,474 household surveys, land tenure and household income were assessed, examining their respective impact on expansions and modifications. Four years after Haiyan, results show two out of every three households provided with short- and medium-term shelter assistance had expanded or modified their dwellings and over half of those resettled through government assistance had altered their homes. Household incomes were found to be 16% higher for those that expanded or modified shelter, while those with more secure tenure were almost a third more likely to have made improvements to their shelter. These differences reinforce the linkages between shelter, livelihood, and land, but importantly draw attention to incremental shelter as not such a programmatic approach, but foundation for shelter in recovery.

Upcoming temporary and memorial city

ABSTRACT. Today, we face a brutal and atrocious war and a huge humanitarian crises in Syria. This constant conflict and migration have a large impact in all inhabitants and refugees. These persons want to come back to their country and their homes. We need to find better temporary solutions for now, but we also have to think about the future and for those who want to come back as soon as their city is free. Thinking in he post-disaster reconstruction is a way to deal with this problem. Architects and planners have to consider about create a new place for the inhabitants in their cities through a quick response for those who want to come back to their country and participate in its reconstruction. This way, it is proposed a urban project for the future of Syria and the goal is to create a place for housing people while the city is being rebuild and receive the displaced people that want to come back after the war and help to build their country. In parallel, it acts as a criticize of the light reflections that have been applied in some post-conflict cities across the years in such complex subject.

The story of Viðlagasjóðshús (disaster-relief houses) in Iceland: resilience housing after the volcano eruption in the Vestmannaeyjar Island

ABSTRACT. Climate change has led to a drastic increase in the number of natural disasters worldwide. This has led to exponential growth in the number of people who have been forced to flee their homes. Studies of the present situation project that about 500 million people will have fled their homes by the year 2050. The global community is facing a challenge of immense dimensions. More and more of the affected people live in relocations and transitional environments for ever longer periods. “Transitional shelter”, originally planned as a short-term remedy while working on a long-term solution, has unfortunately often become synonymous with poorly designed and constructed dwellings, that ultimately become permanent.

Houses tell stories about the spirit and social circumstances of the era in which they were built, and about the technical knowledge, culture, and priorities at the time. The “Viðlagasjóðshús” (Disaster relief houses) in Iceland tell the story about swift responses to unexpected circumstances and about the ability of people and houses to adapt. On January 23, 1973, a volcano on Westamnn Island, off the south coast of Iceland, suddenly erupted and the island's roughly 5,000 inhabitants where rapidly evacuated to the mainland. At first, it was impossible to estimate the duration of the eruption and whether the inhabitants would be able to return home. Soon after the evacuation, actions were taken to build houses that could serve as a permanent housing solution, if needed. The Disaster relief fund organized the importation of prefabricated wooden houses from other Nordic countries. In total, 479 houses were built in 20 places around Iceland. These were simple houses that were common in the Nordic countries, but relatively unknown in Iceland at that time. Considerable work was invested in adapting the houses to the Icelandic climate and other conditions. Most Westman Islanders decided to return home after the eruption ended, the houses were left behind and sold on the open market. They have been inhabited by many families, each of whom have adapted them to meet their respective needs.

A survey on the disaster relief houses was conducted in 2016 at Aalto University in Finland. It focused on the advantages and disadvantages of the houses, their qualities as homes and the adaptations that had been made to them. The findings from the survey and interviews with inhabitants demonstrate that the houses have passed the test of time and provided their residents with safety and shelter, both as emergency housing in the aftermath of the disaster and as permanent homes thereafter. They support previous findings on factors that are crucial when solving post-disaster housing problems: first, the importance of locally integrated solutions; second, that the layout design and technical structures allow the inhabitants to adjust the houses according to their needs; third, that the various local stakeholders are always involved in the decision making; and fourth, that long-term solutions are planned from the very beginning of the process.

17:45-19:00 Session Poster
Learning from Syria: applying environmental modeling toward strategic peacebuilding interventions

ABSTRACT. As climate change intensifies droughts and other extreme weather processes, much of the world will face freshwater scarcity, causing major challenges for food production. Without international support, these disruptions will likely lead to increased violent conflict and political destabilization. However, targeted interventions using environmental peacebuilding have the potential to prevent political breakdown, lessen migration, and ultimately help poor regions to achieve sustainable development. This paper analyzes links between Syria’s 2006-2010 drought crisis and subsequent instability and conflict at the subnational level as a case study to better identify precise locations in which drought and sociopolitical impacts are most intimately connected. The study uses GIS mapping of high resolution satellite data in combination with cluster analysis, multiple linear regression, and causal mediation analysis to identify locations within Syria in which the occurrence of drought significantly predicted subsequent migration and protest.

The analysis confirmed links between Syria’s drought crisis, its subsequent internal migration and resulting sociopolitical instability, and its ongoing conflict. Drought led to internal migration: People appear to have fled agricultural areas impacted by drought, moving to cities and areas that were less hard-hit. Syria’s 2011 protest locations correlated both with subdistricts that received significant influxes of people and subdistricts that were impacted by drought. This result suggests that drought increased the likelihood of protest both locally, through its direct impact on farmers, and in other locations, where its impact on protest was mediated by migration of people from one subdistrict to another. Because of the Syrian government’s violent crackdown on protests, the occurrence of protest in a subdistrict significantly predicted the scale of the violence that followed, as measured by the number of civilian deaths directly caused by the ongoing conflict. Through this causal pathway, drought increased the likelihood of protest in a given subdistrict and thus the scale of the loss of life that followed.

The greatest value to have come out of this analysis, however, is not the fact that climate impacts such as drought are linked to increased instability and conflict, or even the role that migration plays in linking drought to conflict. It is the ability to determine, at the subnational level, in what types of locations drought and sociopolitical instability are most closely linked. Mapping Syria’s environmental and population factors revealed the existence of three different areas in which subdistricts could be grouped together according to shared characteristics. Out of the three subregions studied, only the first, an ecologically rich area supporting substantial rainfed agriculture and high population densities, showed strong direct links between drought, outbound migration, and local protest. It is in this type of location where environmental peacebuilding interventions would likely have achieved the greatest impact. The investigated links between climate, migration, and protest proved the strongest in lush regions supporting intensive rainfed agricultural production and high population densities, suggesting that proactive, targeted environmental interventions to support agricultural productivity and water conservation in similar regions could prevent political violence and accompanying human suffering at significantly lower cost than would post-conflict interventions.

Land readjustment for reconstruction in Taukhel, Nepal

ABSTRACT. On Saturday, 25 April 2015, a 7.6 magnitude earthquake occurred in Gorkha district, approximately 76 km northwest of Kathmandu City, Nepal. In less than three months, 300 aftershocks with a magnitude higher than 4.0 on the Richter Scale struck the country. There were more than 9,000 estimated casualties and approximately 23,000 injuries. Thirty-one of the country’s 75 districts were affected, with 14 severely affected. While the National Reconstruction mechanism has officially adopted the concept of “build back better” into their reconstruction framework, the existing mechanisms fall short in terms of allowing communities to access the support needed to secure their right to adequate shelter and minimize the impact of protracted or reoccurring displacement. While progress is being made in some areas, the significant delays in reconstruction are resulting in conditions of protracted displacement that may result in negative impacts on existing communities for years to come. Taukhel, an auxiliary settlement of Macchegaon in the Western part of the Kathmandu Valley, was the most heavily damaged of the three communities in Machhegaon. Of the 86 houses in the community only 26 remained standing, and four people died. Like in other Newari communities, most of the homes in Taukhel have been constructed with sun dried bricks and mud mortar on very narrow plots. Because of the narrow plots, it is extremely difficult if not impossible for the community to rebuild, not least because of the design guidelines laid out by the municipality. Thus, the community is advocating a different technique than many other places: they propose building back better by using land readjustment to improve the safety and quality of the built environment in their community. Land readjustment is a land assembly mechanism that has been traditionally used to enable entrepreneurial land redevelopment in rapidly urbanizing areas. As a land assembly mechanism, land readjustment projects seek to make possible urban infrastructure upgrades, increase housing supply, expand urban areas, and re-distribute land, among other objectives. In addition, LR projects often aim to be self-financed, which is made possible due to the increase in land value because of the readjustment project. While often used for development projects, land readjustment is a tool that has also been used in various post-disaster scenarios. This tool considers a holistic approach to urban redevelopment as it integrates urban economy, city planning, law, and governance capacity. In addition, it brings together practitioners of different expertise, including planners, architects, policy makers, sociologists, environmental engineers, among others, to develop a holistic project. This paper describes the process of land readjustment in Taukhel, Nepal, and its potential to improve resilience in post-disaster communities through architectural practice, urban design, and community engagement. In doing so, it hopes to not only raise awareness of reconstruction challenges in Nepal, but provide a model for new forms of humanitarian architecture and reconstruction planning.

Sustainable Development Goals: how to use the 17 measures into the territory with quality and creativity

ABSTRACT. Worldwide emergency measures for disasters action are an integrant part even into the initial master planning proposals. The demolition work is as well an important step that frequently is not integrated into a plan and, is usually forgotten in planning and it is not inserted into architecture projects. Demolitions can act into climate change and materials need to be recycle under their processes. The UN launched the SDG’s goals in September of 2015, where they want to organize actions into 17 different areas This organisation can be a base for future interventions even at a micro level. The world health organisation is promoting ‘healthy lives, for all for all ages’ and they are spreading this message around the world. Nowadays, these concerns must be attached to any proposal and, particularly into Climate Smart Cities, whether in the occurrence of an earthquake, a storm, a large fire or another catastrophic event. The research emphasises possible hypotheses that accompanied a proposal using a method type. Climate Smart Cities can use clearly a group of first seven measures do initiate a strategic plan, but the complete implementation will connect all 17 measures. These seven will be the number 3, 6, 7, 11, 12, 13 and 15. To create resilience into a proposal the knowledge about SDG’s need an integrant part of an academic level and the non-academic level.

Cost-benefit analysis applied to investment projects

ABSTRACT. The methodologies based on Cost-Benefit Analysis (CBA) comprise methods to evaluate the net economic impact of an investment project, and can be used for a variety of interventions. The CBA is characterized by being an evaluation model that admits monetary unity as the main measure and has been predominantly used in the context of large public investments during the second half of the twentieth century. The cost-benefit analysis (CBA) of investment projects is explicitly required by the new European Union (EU) regulations that govern the Structural Funds (SF), the Cohesion Funds (CF) and the Instrument for Structural Policies for Pre-Accession (ISPA) in the case of projects whose budgets exceed, respectively, 50, 10 and 5 million euros. Since the Member States are responsible for assessing the proposed projects, it is for the Commission to assess the quality of this assessment before approving the co-financing and determining its rate. The present paper aims to present the CBA concepts and its application to different investment projects, identifying the procedures and phases of the methodology. Its importance and potential will be highlighted for various stakeholders in the decision-making process, as well as examples of its application to the construction and / or rehabilitation of: i) school buildings; ii) architectural heritage; iii) buildings intended for tourist activity; iv) hospital buildings; v) building structures; vi) water infrastructures; vii) railway infrastructure. The preliminary conclusions of the study under development, to date, will be presented and discussed as well as future developments.

Integrating the principles of adaptive governance in bushfire risk management: a case study from the South West of Australia

ABSTRACT. Bushfires, and their interconnected social, economic and environmental impacts, are one of Australia’s most pressing disaster issues. Australia has a long history of bushfire management, which dates back around 50 000 years when Aboriginal people first applied fire in the landscape (Bowman, 1998). However, this century, Australia has experienced a number of extreme bushfires, resulting in loss of life and property. Given predictions that bushfire activity will increase due to climate change, the governance of bushfire management is receiving considerable attention across the disaster, natural hazards and planning fields (Melo Zurita, Cook, Harms, & March, 2015). There is a growing imperative to address bushfire risk in wildland urban interface areas (WUI), which in the South West of Australia (SW), despite being highly fire prone, are experiencing the greatest population growth (Anton & Lawrence, 2015). The expansion of settlements into bushland areas, which have ecological value, raises many complex governance dilemmas regarding human safety, asset protection and biodiversity conservation (Bardsley, Weber, Robinson, Moskwa, & Bardsley, 2015).

Developments in Australian bushfire management policy reflect the broader international disaster policy trends of building resilience and reducing risk, as emphasised in the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction (UNISDR, 2015). A number of resilience focused, risk-based policy measures and regulations are being implemented across Australia to reduce the threat of bushfires (March & Rijal, 2015). There is however growing concern that mitigation measures, which rely on metric risk assessment, have limitations in their ability to address the inherent complexity and uncertainty associated with contemporary disaster events (Cavallo & Ireland, 2014). Quantitative risk-based frameworks have been critiqued for focusing too narrowly on regulation and failing to engage the diversity of stakeholders needed to effectively govern risk (Renn & Klinke, 2013). Furthermore, there is concern that the current bushfire risk management model has possible environmental and cultural implications that need to be better understood (Moskwa, Bardsley, Weber, & Robinson, 2018).

Adaptive governance, is a theoretical framework which has emerged in response to the limitations of command and control management regimes and in cognizance of the complexity and interconnectivity of contemporary socio-ecological issues (Chaffin, Gosnell, & Cosens, 2014) . Based on a literature review, this paper will develop a set of key principles for adaptive governance relevant to the field of bushfire risk management. Using these principles, a case study of the South West of Australia, a bushfire prone region with high biodiversity and cultural value, will be presented. Using mixed methods of policy content analysis and in-depth, semi-structure interviews with key stakeholders in the South West bushfire management sector, this paper examines the extent to which the current Western Australian policy setting enables the adoption of adaptive governance principles. Moreover, this paper explores how societal worldviews influence policy and management priorities and hence the ability of the sector to apply adaptive governance principles in practice. The paper concludes by suggesting governance mechanisms that could assist the bushfire management sector become more adaptive in its approach.

Assessing the role of post-disaster resettlement in building resilience: the case of the 2010 floods in Pakistan
SPEAKER: Ali Jamshed

ABSTRACT. Post-disaster resettlement offers an opportunity to “build back better” by developing resilient and sustainable communities. Flood disasters are a perpetual phenomenon around the world causing widespread economic losses and displacing millions of people. Frequency and intensity of flood events have increased in the past two decades, particularly due to climate change. Extreme flood event of 2010 in Pakistan created an extensive internal displacement of rural communities, resulting in a large-scale governmental and non-governmental initiatives to resettle the displaced population in “Model Villages” (MV) away from the vulnerable flood basins. These MVs (based on the concept of “building back better”) were aimed to be resilient and self-sustaining rural settlements with various amenities (schools, health centers, solar-powered houses, paved roads, sanitation facilities etc.). The paper will use the qualitative and quantitative approach to assess the role of MVs in building the resilience of resettled communities. For this purpose, four MVs (two developed by government and two by Non-Governmental Organizations NGOs) will be selected as a case study in Punjab province of Pakistan. Tools like household survey, expert interviews, focus group discussions and personal observations will be used to achieve the objective of the study. Analysis of socio-economic situation of communities as well as the conditions of physical aspects of MVs will help in evaluating current vulnerability and resilience status of the communities. The results of the study will help to guide the policy on post-disaster resettlement and improve the future resettlement process by overcoming existing deficiencies.

New York City’s Flood Resilience Zoning Outreach Process: from community awareness to community empowerment

ABSTRACT. How far will a city go to integrate public participation in developing climate policies? While recent international frameworks for disaster risk reduction have shifted the emphasis from local knowledge towards data and technological advances, New York City’s Flood Resilience Zoning Text Amendment highlights the importance of public participation in shaping the City’s risk policies. The Flood Resilience Zoning Text Amendment incorporates special zoning regulations that apply in the floodplain to promote resilient construction. With 835 kilometers of waterfront, New York City cannot solely retreat. Its resiliency strategy explores a multi-layered defense approach, which includes investments in coastal protection and infrastructure, community preparedness and flood resistant construction. The floodplain impacts a large geography and includes more than 400,000 residents. The biggest challenge is that the high-risk areas include all land uses and building types, from low to high-density communities distributed within 50 of the 59 community boards. Therefore the City could not come up with one single zoning approach, but had to lead several initiatives, which included detailed analysis of residential, commercial and industrial buildings, in addition to 10 neighborhood specific studies to further identify particular issues and challenges these areas faced when hit by Hurricane Sandy in 2012. Historically, the Uniform Land Use Review Procedure has been the process to incorporate public participation in major land use and zoning changes in New York City. However, in order for the City to develop its long-term resiliency plan, Department of City Planning invested in an additional outreach effort that preceded the formal process throughout 2016 and 2017 to explore concerns from communities in the floodplain. This process resulted in over 110 public meetings that included various stakeholders: from residents, business owners, and civic groups, to architects, engineers, elected officials and community boards. This effort challenged the agency to come up with new tools for engagement since the strategy needed to go beyond risk awareness and focus on collecting detailed feedback on how residents see their neighborhoods and building stock adapting to flood risk overtime. Carefully designed table activities used during workshops simplified complex zoning and construction regulations and empowered participants by enabling them to make decisions and visualize the physical changes necessary to increase resiliency. This process was effective on collecting individual experiences, ideas, and neighborhood priorities. As a result the agency was able to obtain a comprehensive understanding of issues people face, varying from physical building constraints to financial challenges. Finally, the project kept communities engaged through constant dialogues and updates, which ultimately led to an outreach summary document that was returned to the public and is informing the zoning proposal. This work will showcase the various strategies the City used and will summarize the results of this effort, especially how this participatory process has been closely shaping the development of zoning rules and land use strategies to reduce flood risks in New York City.

Climate Change Adaptation in big urban centers: the case of New York City

ABSTRACT. New York City has 835 kilometers of shoreline that is very diverse with different neighborhoods, densities, land use and building types. A big portion of these areas is subject to flooding and was heavily impacted by Hurricane Sandy in 2012. The Department of City Planning aims to ensure that zoning and land use policies reflect this diversity, while allowing the City's coastal neighborhoods to adapt to flood risks overtime. As New York City’s context is unique, it is evident that the City cannot solely retreat. Therefore, most of the City's policies are to support the planned density through a multi-layered defense strategy, which includes investments in coastal protection and infrastructure, community preparedness and flood-resistant construction. However, in certain areas where risk is exceptional, Department of City Planning is looking at managed retreat strategies, which involve limiting future density. On the other hand, in areas where risk can be managed, regulations can encourage density in order to increase the resilient building stock while supporting investments in coastal protection. The Federal Emergency Management designates New York City’s current flood risk by mapping the Special Flood Hazard Area, which is the area that will be inundated by a flood event that has a 1-percent chance of being equaled or exceeded in any given year. Sandy inundated beyond the current risk mark, both in storm surge and geography. Additionally, with climate change, sea level rise will increase the likelihood of these events, while also increasing the potential height of the storm surge. Therefore, Department of City Planning recognizes that only addressing the current floodplain is limiting, thus sea level rise projections issued by New York City Panel on Climate Change have been taken into account in the planning process, as these estimates are valuable in flagging areas that will be impacted by daily tidal flooding by 2050, as well as projecting the areas that will likely become the future floodplain. This analysis, in conjunction with 10 neighborhood-specific studies that were developed right after Sandy, informed the need to develop the Special Coastal Risk District: a zoning tool that limits future density and prohibits community facilities with sleeping accommodations, such as nursing homes in localized areas that will be heavily impacted by sea level rise. This tool can be mapped on a case-by-case basis to disallow additional vulnerable populations in the high-risk areas and to allow the city to adapt to climate change overtime. Furthermore, Sandy demonstrated that buildings designed to flood resistant construction standards, could better sustain the impacts of coastal storms. Therefore, the city has been encouraging higher densities in areas that are not as vulnerable to flooding and are in the process of receiving investments in coastal protection. These areas could benefit from additional development rights to increase the resilient building stock while also supporting infrastructure investments. This work explores the different strategies of New York City’s land use policies and how this model can be an efficient way to advance climate change adaption in big urban centers that are vulnerable to flooding.

Recovery from debris flows after Typhoon Morakot: the hot-spring hotels in Taiwan

ABSTRACT. Past literatures suggest that social capital plays an important role in post-disaster recovery. However, very few studies use social capital perspective and focus on the industry recovery process in microscopic point of view, especially for the hot spring hotels in tourism destination.Typhoon Morakot hit Taiwan in 2009 with 2,965 mm rainfalls in 4 days, which led to mass landslides and debris flows in southern Taiwan and caused nearly 700 deaths. Liugui District in Kaohsiung City was famous hot spring tourism destination. Roughly 20 hot spring hotels were in this area. The debris flows caused by Typhoon Morakot directly impacted 7 hotels and surrounding areas. The mainly access road was interrupted for more than 15 monthes. In this study, we conducted literature review on the elementof resilience, and its relationship between social capitals. We uses 8 factors, including “income diversity”, “inter-social capital”, “neighborhood relationship”, “Partnership with professionals”, “ Hazards perception”, ”information and learning”, “ other outside linage” and “disaster recovery strategies”, as an analytic framework to exam the recovery process the hot spring hotels. This study chose four hotels as case studies and using depth interview and filed visit methods to understand the previous 8 factors that influencing the performance of hot spring hotel recovery process. The results showed that the “income diversity” and “inter-social capital” of the hotels are important factors to influence the recovery. The “income diversity:” refers the hotel has diverse revenues from diverse service items/marketing channels/customers types. The “inter-social capital” refers the hotel has support from families, the education level of the business owner and the hotel’s financial condition. In addition, this study finds that “access road condition” and “tourist attractions condition” are also important factors which even beyond all the factors of the social capitals.

Implementation of BIM in the rehabilitation of a building of public interest

ABSTRACT. The number of buildings that have been rehabilitated in recent years has increased, making this, one of the areas with the biggest investment by the public and private sector. In fact, one of the main purposes of building rehabilitation is to increase its life cycle, allowing a better adaptability, increasing quality standards, reducing the utilization of new materials and energy compared to the construction of a new building. Considering this, it is essential to develop norms and methodologies that will supervise and reduce the negative impact of the construction sector, allowing the rise of a new and more sustainable sector. Building Information Modelling (BIM) is one of the emerging methodologies that provide a new approach to the process of control and management of all the information created and developed in the design phase by the various specialities, as well as by all stakeholders during the life cycle of the constructions, through the creation of a digital model of the building. The adoption of the BIM methodology is associated with project planning, cost analysis of the construction or energy analyses, and project deliveries of the building and constructed structures, as a result, nowadays there is a greater demand to adapt these tools in the early stages of the life cycle of a building. In Portugal most of the existing buildings were built before 1990, prior to the first thermal regulations, which is why they tend to have a low energy performance. It is essential to think about thermal efficiency for sustainable development, optimizing energy use without compromising the quality of the interior environment through the use of constructive solutions and more efficient technologies, such as the introduction of thermal isolation and the replacement of glazing spans and window frames. The choice of materials in addition to the regulatory constraints should also take into account other factors related to the environmental impact, and the use of materials made from recycled or natural materials should be preferred, provided they are compatible with the economic requirements and goals of the project. The present work intends to approach the application of digital tools as well as their efficiency in the rehabilitation of a building with the public interest, using a method supported in the methodology BIM. The different analyses concerning the energy performance of the building are presented by testing different constructive solutions and analysing each of them, by using a more sustainable approach regarding the consumption of natural resources regarding the interior environmental comfort and durability of the building, as a way of observing what is the most effective solution and the advantage of using BIM at an early stage of the project. The application of BIM in the rehabilitation of the building allows the combined integrated study of the diverse types of performance of the building. The main conclusions obtained shall be presented in context and future developments of the work.

Development of multicriteria analysis to support the decision to rehabilitate a qualified public building

ABSTRACT. The building rehabilitation emerges as an opportunity for the construction sector to readapt, betting on the requalification of the existing building heritage, improving, if possible, its quality based on sustainability principles. In this sense, when interventions financed through public funds are planned in a qualified public building, there are several opinions that can support the decision to intervene or not. The recognition of a qualified public building implies an increased responsibility in the actions of conservation and rehabilitation of the same. The possible interventions in a qualified public building must be rigorously evaluated in a way that guarantees the preservation of the elements that confer the patrimonial interest to the building. This kind of projects should be rigorously studied to get the most information possible on the current state of the target element of intervention. To minimize the complexity of a decision-making process it is sometimes necessary to apply methodologies and / or support tools such as the models based on Multicriteria Analysis which allows for public decision support in complex problems that usually involve multiple viewpoints and opinions. In this way, it is possible to establish a common language of argumentation and discussion of the perspectives and points of view defended by the different intervening actors, facilitating the generation of new decision opportunities and choice alternatives tending to overcome any divergent points of view. This process will help the decision-maker in definition of the priority interventions to be taken while minimizing their impact reducing expenditure and maximizing the of public funds investment. The work developed includes: i) the complete description of a Portuguese public building object of the study; ii) the survey of the observed anomalies; iii) the detailed presentation of the techniques used in the proposed intervention solutions. The analysis developed consider the technical description of the specific interventions as well as the costs implicit in them. The results obtained will allow to demonstrate that the use of certain techniques in qualified public buildings should be considered at the design stage to ensure that the integrity of the property remains intact during its entire life cycle. In addition will be presented the main conclusions of the study developed and the prospective of future developments, namely concerning the generalization of application of multicriteria analyzes to support the decision making to intervene in the rehabilitation of different types of qualified public buildings.

Comparative analysis of social indicators from the vulnerability cartography between two Brazilian cities

ABSTRACT. The objective of the research was to conduct a comparative study on the spatialization of social vulnerability in the area of urban censuses of two Brazilian municipalities: Bragança Paulista/SP and Campos do Jordão/SP, using a simplified indicator of social vulnerability. After reviewing the literature, we selected 12 subjects of variables as quantitative selection data for the demonstration of a simplified indicator of social vulnerability. We also verified, in reposts provided by CENSO 2010, 9 variables that relate to the following thematic axes: Education, Ethnicy, Gender, Age, Income, Living Condition, Characteristics of Residents, Infrastructure and Basic Services. After a collection and tabulation of these data, we created a spatialized index so that we could represent the vulnerability in the two areas of study. The concept of risk has innumerable meanings and those differ according to the field they are applied to. Thus, risk can be synthesized as the knowledge of the disturbances caused by an event that can affect an individual or community, so the risk is social. The concept of vulnerability has a well-defined meaning within scientific knowledge, although it is used and appropriated by different fields of knowledge, being generally related to risk studies. Its definition within common sense conceives it as the weak side of a subject or issue and as the point where someone or something can be hurt and / or attacked, sometimes being used with the same sense of weakness. Through the elaboration and analysis of social vulnerability in the cities studied, we observed the areas that are considered the most vulnerable and those with the lowest vulnerability, which allowed to establish the patterns of urbanization that impelled and stopped these processes. The spatialization of vulnerability showed a tendency to the central areas of cities with low vulnerability and peripheral areas with high vulnerability obeying the center-periphery opposition pattern. The methodological approach presented provides a simplified mechanism from the main indicators of vulnerability considered for the comparative study of two geographically similar areas. They can be used to create a vulnerability index that provides local and regional information from different geographic areas, aiming to identify vulnerable communities. Finally, it became possible to observe areas that are more or less vulnerable, which allowed us to establish urbanization patterns that impelled and stopped these processes. The spatialization showed low vulnerability in central areas and high vulnerability in peripheral areas, obeying the opposing-pattern center-periphery.

BIM methodology applied to asset management

ABSTRACT. The use of Building Information Modeling (BIM) methodology is rapidly growing in the Architecture, Engineering, Construction and Operation (AECO) sector. This methodology comprises a set of procedures that improve the various phases of the construction process, such as higher productivity due to instant sharing of information, better interdisciplinary cooperation, automation of workflows and optimization of deadlines, minimization of extra costs, reduction of project compatibility errors, etc. These processes are possible due to the clear and transparent information sharing characteristic (interoperability) among all the systems belonging to the Building Information Modeling (BIM) methodology. Building Information Modeling (BIM) is an innovative methodology that enables a new approach to information management in construction, based on the design of a virtual information model. With its development, there was a great growth in the AECO industry, due to the solution of several problems of the constructive industry and the increase of the productivity. The implementation of this methodology is already mandatory in the public works of several countries The BIM model is constituted by elements, and each element is aggregated a set of information, such as price, shelf life, mode of manufacture, among others. In this way, it allows a significant reduction in the loss of information, when there is a transition of information among the various project stakeholders during the various stages of the life cycle. Nowadays asset management is a challenging and increasingly important area in modern society, as efficient management, maintenance and operation of assets (buildings, equipments, infrastructures) can bring numerous benefits to organizations that own them. The global developments and the economic growth have increased the need to know well an organization’s assets, in order to better control them through an holistic analysis, prioritizing and evaluating the organization's fundamental objectives. The objective of this work is to implement to a case study (Laboratory Operative Unit for hydraulic tests) the BIM methodology in asset management. This unit will be modeled in BIM with the information and detail requirements for the implementation of an asset management system, based on ISO 55000 Standards. In the scope of the study will be analyzed the current state of asset management practices in the order to identify the position of organizations in relation to the requirements of the standards. Finally, the study intends to present a method that demonstrates the advantages of the BIM methodology applied to asset management.

Biophilic design toward urban resilience

ABSTRACT. In order to mitigate climate hazards, urban resilience-building policy must adopt a framework that views cities not just as systems, but as ecosystems. Instead of approaching cities as distinct human inventions, urban resilience initiatives must frame cities as an interdependent part of the natural world. This idea draws from environmental ethics, systems thinking, and resiliency theory to bolster the assertion that cities approached in policymaking as complex ecosystems aid flexibility and robustness for all species that inhabit cities and the world around them. This is because green and biodiverse cities dually raise the environmental consciousness of residents alongside both mitigating emissions and increasing adaptability to disturbance. Cities rich with other species that hinge on innate human attraction to nature and natural forces—called biophilia—are best equipped to be resilient to climate change. Biophilic design and planning are well-known, research-backed mechanisms toward elevating both social and structural resilience. Despite this knowledge, even leading cities in climate change adaptation initiatives still generally focus on hazard mitigation that engineer biodiversity and natural forces out of urban areas. Proposed solutions are seldom rooted in working with nature, instead building barriers and bigger walls which aim to keep nature out. The adaptive capacity of structural solutions are rigid and even prohibitive of design for community resilience. Using New York City as a case study, a formal textual analysis presented on a poster will provide analysis of City plans and policies toward climate change adaptation and resilience to future storms. The database presented will rely on coded applications of the words resiliency (or resilience), sustainability (or sustainable), mitigation, and adaptation. Visualizations of coded language data will show how the City is approached with respect to planning for climate change—either as a human-centered system or as an ecosystem. Concluding analysis displayed will highlight the successes and challenges of existing policy and plans, applying theoretical approaches to show how framing plans through an ecosystem lens can strengthen urban resilience strategies in practice.

18:00-18:45 Yoga session

Margarida Lima

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