previous day
all days

View: session overviewtalk overview

09:00-10:30 Session KN3: Keynote lecturer
Location: Main Auditorium
GESTUAL: research and local action in the urban margins. Resistance and resilience
Anticipate! Field notes in the Human Age: the case of Canaan, Haïti and Medellín, Colombia
11:00-12:45 Session 1D: Track session
Location: Room B201
Wildfire risk awareness and preparedness of predominantly Māori rural residents, Karikari Peninsula, New Zealand: a foundation for building community resilience
SPEAKER: E.R. Langer

ABSTRACT. Communities in Aotearoa New Zealand frequently experience a variety of natural hazards, including earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, tropical cyclones, floods, snow storms, landslides and wildfires. Natural hazards cannot be predicted, but events like wildfires which are relatively numerous (about 4100 small wildfires annually) provide an opportunity to explore community resilience. Wildfires have had a greater effect on rural communities in recent years, with 16 homes lost in rural fires throughout New Zealand during the 2016-2017 fire season, the greatest number lost in 100 years. With climate change likely to bring increasing temperatures and more severe drought conditions to drier areas of the country, further increases in wildfires affecting rural and wildland-urban interface communities are anticipated.

This paper focuses on the risk awareness and preparedness of residents for a wildfire in the Far North, New Zealand Aotearoa. A remote rural community on the Karikari Peninsula has experienced repeated wildfires following the unsafe use of fire by residents. The small community (730 residents, 2013 Census) was affected by a human-caused wildfire in 2011 which destroyed three homes, nine ancillary buildings and approximately 145 ha Māori-owned farmed exotic grassland and shrublands and two local residents lost their lives in the response. A qualitative study was completed 3.5 years after the wildfire focusing on local Māori residents. Following dialogue with agency staff and fire force volunteers in 2014-15, we conducted semi-structured interviews and a focus group in May 2015 with 25 community members (22 Māori) who had been directly affected by the 2011 wildfire.

We found that participants possessed a high level of awareness of the local wildfire risk which was directly related to their understanding of the local environment, past wildfires, attachments to land, information passed down within Māori whānau (extended families) and the local rural fire force. Awareness of the local wildfire risk, attachments to land, and efforts by the local fire force and residents influenced participants to undertake preparations to use fire safely, carry out wildfire prevention initiatives and reduce the impacts of anticipated future wildfire events.

The heart of community resilience centred on the strong whānau and connections within the local hapū (subtribe) ensuring that the community worked together and supported one another, particularly following the significant wildfire experience within their community. An increased understanding of fire awareness and preparedness by Māori residents and the broader community will aid fire authorities to work with the community to design strategies to build community resilience to future wildfire and other natural disasters.

Risk management for forest fire in a World Heritage site: vulnerability and response capacity by Rapa Nui indigenous community

ABSTRACT. The World Heritage Site Rapa Nui National Park located in Eastern Island is actually affect by several natural, environmental and anthropogenic threats. These threats endanger the preservation of the Outstanding Universal Values (OUV) of the Site, in addition to the negative impact on the population. The insular condition of the Site, located at 3700 kilometres from the Chilean coast, appears as a factor of vulnerability due to the potential limitation of resources to face a disaster. For this reason, the local indigenous community (Ma’u Henua), which is in charge of the Site management since November 2017, is a key actor in disaster risk management. Assessing the response capacity of this group, in coordination with other actors, is one of the objectives of this research. Under the potential threats in the Site, the increase in forest fires in recent years has alarmed the local and national community, revealing the need to assess this type of risk in detail. According to the record of the National Forestry Corporation of Chile (CONAFE) more than 100 fires have occurred on the island (163,6 km2) between 2010 and 2017. Although the impact on cultural heritage has not been determined, these fires have affected archaeological and environmental heritage, as well as social and economic impact due to the effect on productive activities. This research concerns the assessment and proposals for actions to reduce vulnerability and improve responsiveness to forest fires on the island, considering the role of the indigenous Rapa Nui community as a focus. For this purpose a record of the different groups associated with site management was performed, showing its characteristics, the relationship between them, and capacities for risk management. Likewise, vulnerability factors were identified and evaluated, as well as their impact on the OUV. In particular, fire of September 2017, which affected more than 150 hectares, was analysed, stating how the community's capacity for organization was, available resources, and response from both the island and the continent. The diagnosis and analysis of data allows identifying on the one hand the opportunities that emerge from the new administration led by a committed local indigenous community. However, critical aspects appear in the response system, which are derived from lack of articulation between the different groups, lack of installed capacities, lack of protocols, lack of resources, among others. The significance of the cultural heritage for the current Rapa Nui community was also investigated, due to the close relationship it has with the preservation of the Site. Finally, a model for forest fire risk management for the preservation of the OUV was proposed that considers the knowledge of the local community, its relationship with its cultural heritage and the other groups that are in relation to the Site.

Disaster Risk Reduction beyond command and control: mapping an Australian fire from a complex adaptive systems' perspective
SPEAKER: Alan March

ABSTRACT. The concept of resilience is taking centre stage amidst growing concerns with environmental change and associated increased frequency of natural hazard events. This is combined with the prospect of growing vulnerability of local communities and environments. Much of the discussion around sustainability was based on concerns with natural resource over-exploitation coupled with its unequal distribution and access by nations experiencing different traits of urban and human development. However, debate focusing on resilience is concerned with social-ecological systems' capacity to undergo adaptation and mitigation in an ever-changing environment and uncertain future. In parallel, Disaster Risk Reduction has grown as an area of inquiry and action, particularly within the fields of Emergency Management and Natural Hazard Mitigation. This paper examines the challenges and opportunities posed by using resilience theory in the context of bushfire Disaster Risk Reduction. It draws on the study of the concept of resilience as it evolves and reaches different knowledge domains and is incorporated by different government agencies through policy formulation and implementation in Australia. The paper specifically focuses on the state of Victoria - recognised as one of the most bushfire prone areas in the world. Data collection involved access to academic texts and governmental reference documents, legislation and regulation as well as social media related to the 2015 Wye River - Jamieson Track fires. Data analysis was conducted following a Grounded Theory approach supported by the use of qualitative research software (QSR International's NVivo 11). Findings point to the emergence of an approach that emphasizes the resilience of local communities, critical infrastructure and emergency management services, while also incorporating natural systems - however mostly from an anthropocentric ecosystem services perspective. The paper then portrays how the traditional approach of Command and Control from Emergency Management may clash with complex adaptive system theories of self-organisation (so embedded within the concept of resilience that derives from social-ecological systems thinking) and how that is being addressed in Victoria. It is concluded that opportunities exist for greater integration between different knowledge domains for the development and employment of a concept of resilience that can facilitate comprehensive inter-agency action and result in better mitigation of natural hazards and more resilient local communities and environments.

Humans play a crucial role in coproducing regulating ecosystem services: the case of forest fires in the Carmel-Haifa region

ABSTRACT. In recent decades, we have witnessed an increase in the number and extent of catastrophic forest fires worldwide. In the Mediterranean area, the number of forest fires and the total area burned has been increasing since the 1960s. Israel’s Carmel area has experienced numerous forest fires, including the largest in 1989 and 2010. In November 2016, the adjoining city of Haifa suffered its first large fire at the wildland-urban interface. Haifa sits on Mount Carmel and its built area is interspersed with numerous wadis (dry river beds) which are underdeveloped, vegetated corridors. In the aftermath of the 2016 fire, as for the previous events, resources were channeled towards responding to the fire damage and increasing firefighting with little attention to adapting the social-ecological system to future potential risks. Ecosystem-based approaches for reducing disaster risks have been overlooked which continues to contribute to the overwhelming scale of fires in the area. We define ecosystem services and disservices for fire regulation. We then analyze historical, pre- and post- fire forest management practices in the Haifa and Carmel region through the study of reports, scientific articles and policy documents and expert’ interviews. We focused on how afforestation practices altered ecosystem traits, such as vegetation uniformity, lack of diversity, high presence of invasive species and dense vegetation, that affect fire risk. Ecosystem disservices, which in this case principally refer to increased fire risk brought on by widespread afforestation using Aleppo pine trees, (Pinus halepensis) carried out to greening the Carmel region and beyond, are socially constructed, as would be potential fire regulating services. We suggest that intensive afforestation, interspersed with neglect, inadvertently increased the risk of forest fires, by introducing ecosystem disservices. In contrast to this, sustainably managed ecosystems provide fire regulating services and are less susceptible to large fire events. We derive from the experience of the fires in the region that risk reduction, via embellishing regulating services, necessitates active human management and restoration to more locally diversified and adapted systems. In the Haifa-Carmel region, forest fires are the result of allochthonous ideas of nature and resultant maladaptation to the local ecological and climatic conditions, leading to ecosystem disservices. In urban environments, human intervention, in supposedly “natural” areas, is needed to restore and enhance regulating function of social-ecological systems. We suggest that human capital should become an integral part of the description and definition of regulating services and disservices, particularly regarding fire risk. Neglecting the importance of human capital in ecosystem services and that looking at ecosystems as something that is fixed, “out there” and little subject to human intervention can instead produce risk. We stress that, in the expanding fields of ecosystem-based disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation, we need to move from a description of services as “gifts of nature” to one requiring and integrated social-ecological-technological framework, if we aim to reduce risk, especially in and around the urban setting.

Australian bushfires: hazards, risk, aftermath, and past and future preparedness

ABSTRACT. Bushfires and their spread are caused by natural phenomena and human factors and an understanding of these is critical to managing bushfire risk. Natural hazards include atmospheric conditions, lightning strikes, wind speed and direction and hence fire unpredictability, unmaintained power lines while human factors include arson, outdoor machinery, unattended campfires, ground vegetation and glass litter. Some of these factors can be eliminated or severely reduced by understanding and preparedness for bushfires while others can only be managed in the event. In Australia, risks include lack of training, lack of property preparedness and personal bushfire plans, urban bush fringe lifestyles and lack of understanding and awareness of the nature of the bush and its dangers. Mitigation strategies include town planning (Bushfire Management Overlays and zoning) and building regulations and standards. How does all this work together? Australia is one of the most fire-prone areas of the world. South-east Australia has similar hazard risks to Portugal e.g. hot dry summers and hectares of Australian Blue gums and both are subject to bushfires. Victoria’s worst bushfire disaster ever, “Black Saturday” (7 February, 2009) was “a day of unimaginable horror”. After 11 years of drought, the native eucalypt vegetation was tinder dry and over 30 fires erupted. In the previous week there were 3 days of over 40°C (104°F) and on the day it was 46.7°C (116.06F°), and less than 4% humidity. The fires “unleashed the equivalent of 1,500 Hiroshima atomic bombs, generating winds of up to 120km/h, (74.5 mph) which snapped trees and created fireballs of exploding gases that surged 600m in 30 seconds. It had enough energy to provide Victoria's power needs for a year. The radiated heat of the 100m-high flames was capable of killing people up to 400m away”. Dense smoke reduced visibility to less than 2 metres and survivors remarked on the incredible roar like a jet engine. The fires created their own weather; fire storm and ember attack leapt 40km (24.8 miles; houses simply exploded. The final death toll was 173 persons and countless farm animals, pets and millions of native animals including whole species. Over 1,500 buildings were lost, 4 towns were destroyed - some lost over 1/3 of their population. Suddenly 7,500 people were homeless and 400,000 hectares were burnt. 5,000 volunteers fought 183 fires with a front over 1,000 kms long. Despite the excellent preparedness of emergency services personnel nothing could have stopped the fires. Conversely, and despite constant warnings from the Victorian State government in the week which lead up to the fires, some people remained unaware and unprepared and paid the consequences. Many affected areas were scenic bushland towns and with places of local cultural heritage significance. Hearings of the 2009 Victorian Bushfire Royal Commission captured evidence, frequently confronting, which has since shaped Victoria’s bushfire management regime. As a result new building regulations and standards in bushfire areas are in into force to alleviate the risks of the past. More people have their own bushfire plans. In summary many initiatives have occurred spearheaded by citizen action, government agencies and expert NGOs, including Australia ICOMOS, specifically the preparation of Draft Bushfire Guidelines developed after the Canberra fires, 2003. Using the “Black Saturday”, Canberra fires and Dunalley (Tasmania, 2013) fires as case studies this paper will explore how natural and social components of bushfire risk are currently perceived in practice in affected Australian communities and as related to other natural hazard risks such as cyclones and how practice in rural-urban planning, emergency management and disaster risk reduction has changed as a result. Where are we now? Have vulnerable communities become less vulnerable or more resilient? What has happened to displaced people? What has been the impact on heritage?

Guidelines for increasing resilience of informal settlements exposed to wildfire risk

ABSTRACT. Internationally, there is increasing concern with the development of improved ways of dealing with disasters (UNISDR, 2015). Wildfires (also called bushfires in Australia) bring about greater disaster risks at the urban-rural interface of wildfire prone areas, where lives and properties are more exposed. Usually, these risks are even greater in contexts of informality, where settlements have been built with little consideration of risks. The aim of this paper is to report on the production of guidelines to develop resilience to wildfires for communities living in informal settlements exposed to wildfire risk. The investigation is approached through action research. It is the result of a collaboration that took place between academics, public servants, professionals and community representatives of Aguita de la Perdiz in Concepcion Chile, within the context of the seminar ‘Prevention of Forest Fire Risks in Urban Settlements and Buildings: a Planning and Design Approach’ organized by the Universidad del Biobío and the Nodo the Arquitectura Sustentable in Chile and facilitated by experts from the University of Melbourne and Bushfire and Natural Hazards Cooperative Research Centre (BNHCRC) from Australia. Aguita de la Perdiz is an interesting case because it is an informal settlement with ongoing wildfire risk where the local community is engaged in mitigation activities. The product of the seminar and the participants’ discussions and analysis were condensed in a set of guidelines structured in two main sections: (1) general principles that influence the behaviour of fire and house destruction; and (2) applying the principles by analysing wildfire risk and developing a design response. The first section describes the key elements that influence fire behaviour in a typical forest and how this translates to principles of house destruction. The second section elaborates on understanding risks at different scales and on identifying likely fire behaviour in a specific location and context. This then forms the basis for development of a design response that identifies key actions for houses, the site, and settlement improvement and community development for house and community survival. These guidelines – and the process of producing them – will contribute to the dissemination of knowledge about general design and planning strategies to mitigate wildfire risk, as well as to build local capacities. Furthermore, it is argued that the collaborative process undertaken to develop the guidelines is replicable in other places to address context specific issues. The report was written in lay-language, generally accessible to a wider audience, and is complemented by clear graphics that communicate core principles. This case demonstrates that there are certain core scientific, methodological and professional principles that can be transferred to other settings. However, understandings of the range of locally particular aspects of hazards and resultant risks need to be developed locally, in parallel with solutions themselves that are relevant to local communities. This is particularly relevant in the case of informal settlements with a strong desire to maintain local autonomy, while maximising the benefits of local municipal assistance in terms of legal, financial and coordination facilitation.

Track: 3G - Urban planning, urban design & resilience Submitting for ORAL presentation

Updating integrated watershed conceptual model for Citarum River Restoration Program

ABSTRACT. Citarum river is the biggest river in West Java and the most strategic river for indonesian development. It has three cascade reservoirs so that it could serve the most developed area in Indonesia such as Jakarta and West Java Province, not only water supply for irrigation, hydropower, aquaculture and fresh/drinking water but also flood control for its downstream area. However, there are still annual flood prone area and water scarcity area in its upper part such as Bandung City. Despite of its strategic position, Citarum river stand as one of the worse river in Indonesia. In the last two decades, under climate change and land use change influences, its environmental degradation has deteriorated public health and livelihoods, especially for urban area around its flood prone area. Nowadays, it is shown that all the effort of structural flood risk reduction, such as river normalization and dikes development based on previous masterplan are useless. Many study of developing additional water supply system for any urban area in its catchment area, including Bandung and Jakarta City is not only financially/ economically but also environmentally not feasible. That’s why, it is believed that furthermore in-depth study of Citarum river which addressing the actual parameter of its problems based on appropriate approach is critical for social and economic development of Indonesia. This paper provides a comprehensive review to identify key parameters that previous study had been neglected so that they achieved a bias conclusion that had been used to recommend a program development which is proved as useless solution. Secondary data and site identification are performed to support the hydrology, hydraulic, social and environmental key parameters identification analysis. An open sources hydrology and hydraulic mathematical model were used to see the impact of neglected key parameters. Interviews with local people and stakeholder were performed to verify the predicted social and environmental key parameters. The identified social and environmental key parameters were used to develop hydrology and hydraulic model scenario. Based on current results, it is found that the structural solution could only be useful when it is implemented after social and environmental problem have been solved. It is also found that the social and environmental problem key parameters converge to human activity where ground water, solid waste (garbage), sedimentation, and pollution are its product that will drive the Citarum river performance. For a short and medium term, a non-structural and structural solution are proposed to control the last three of those key parameters based on which Citarum catchment area is divided into several watershed areas. Each of this watershed area has an autonomy control system of solid waste, sedimentation and pollution. An integrated watershed management conceptual model encountering the above key parameters is then proposed based on this preliminary result. Further study is still on going to see the performance of this model when it is applied in the upperpart of Citarum river. The performance of these pilot project will be used to improv the proposed model.

11:00-12:45 Session 3E-I: Track session
Location: Room C201
Multicriteria risk assessment-based evacuation management

ABSTRACT. Modern society is exposed both to the ‘ancient threat’ of natural disaster and artificial ones related to human activities. The phenomenon of urbanization has contributed to the increase of cities population and, consequently, to the dangerous increase of its density. Unfortunately, such phenomenon has brought with it a greater impact on citizens, private and public assets upon the occurrence of a catastrophe. Only after a high price paid, in terms of loss of human lives due to human error and inefficacy plans, society has realized the need to improve emergency procedures introducing new solutions and innovative instruments. In the event of smoke fires, bomb alarms, toxic gas leaks and even earthquake, the main objectives are two: a) ensure that, people inside the building, are alerted of the possible danger before it threatens their safety and b) help them to reach safe places in the shortest time. Scientific community is actually attracted by the problem of the Emergency Management, and the research has already started to exploit the new Computer and Automation technologies involved into the Smart Cities ecosystems that are rapidly growing worldwide. In this work, authors try to understand how is possible to improve the four core phases of the Emergency Management activities as well as Mitigation, Preparedness, Response and Recovery. By identifying potential emergency scenarios, and involving regulations referred both to the human behaviour and to the safety standards on infrastructure construction, it is possible to define some guidelines to design an effective Decision Support System. Such Decision Support System, thanks to a Dynamic Real-Time Risk Assessment, is able to process heterogeneous data, come from different sources, and to carry out an active support for the buildings evacuation procedures. The main aim of the proposed work is to supply, through an information system, an in-depth knowledge regarding the events in progress and possible impacts on the considered building. Producing an automated response means to speed up the evacuation process immediately following the catastrophic event. Indeed, deciding what are the best actions to be taken immediately after the crisis is necessary to reduce cascading effects, when an emergency occurs. Clearly, making the best decisions is crucial to achieve mitigation and an optimal emergency management. The architecture proposed in this paper consists of a hybrid approach based on techniques and models of operational research and management engineering. Through such approach, authors implement a smart decision-making system able to provide the optimal evacuation routes from each considered infrastructure sector after the onset of a catastrophic event.

Enhancing resilience of a critical road axis in Mexico
SPEAKER: Roberto Gomez

ABSTRACT. The failure of a bridge, whatever the cause, has a high direct and indirect costs to society. The majority of failures on bridges in Mexico are due to the effect of scour. Out the 15 major longitudinal and transversal road corridors of the country, 6 "run" along the coasts of the Gulf of Mexico and the Pacific Ocean in areas of high influence of tropical storms and extreme precipitation events. This paper presents the first results of a project aimed to develop tools and techniques for implementing strategies to enhance resilience of road infrastructure to tropical storms and hurricanes. The main goal of the paper is to describe a strategy to assess the vulnerability of a road coastal axis under tropical storms and hurricanes. A general methodology is presented which was designed by the Institute of Engineering of the National University of Mexico. This methodology comprises several tasks: identification and location of a bridge structure; assessment of its real structural conditions by means of a visual inspection and records from the national bridge management system; probability based classification of risk using meteorological information; evaluation of soil and substructure types; and development of mathematical models of bridges with major risk. Finally, a preliminary evaluation of capabilities to regain the functionality of the most vulnerable identified bridges, in a suitable manner, in order to decrease economic losses and prevent future failures is presented. The project was funded by the National Center for Disaster Prevention of Mexico.

Development of a physical services index for flooding hazards in built environments: the case of Metro Manila

ABSTRACT. Most hazard assessments focus on the magnitude and probability of occurrence of trigger events, such as rainfall and tropical cyclones. While useful, they overlook the role of the natural and built environment in shaping how hazards are manifested, particularly in modifying the magnitude and frequency of the hazard and in amplifying trigger events. As an example, the overall hazard magnitude resulting from an extreme rainfall event will likely be different if it occurs in a heavily built area with waterways that are clogged with solid waste and contaminated with human waste as opposed to an area with more permeable surfaces and functioning sewers and storm drains. Aside from potentially higher flood volumes, inadequate solid waste collection and wastewater treatment can also lead to contamination of floodwater, creating human health hazards. Combined with the vulnerabilities of exposed populations and assets, this confluence of hazards may result in potentially more disaster losses than the primary triggering event would have caused. This paper developed a physical services index based on an integrated flood hazard framework that recognizes the dual role of physical urban services in the amplification and cascade of flooding hazards and as an indicator of pre-existing development gaps, which are hazards in themselves. The physical services index has 6 components, namely: urban growth, water balance, water accessibility, sanitation and sewerage, municipal solid waste, pollution loading and water quality. It was converted into a system dynamics model to map hazard relations and was parameterized using the conditions of Metro Manila, a megacity with inadequate urban services and subject to persistent flooding. The index, through the model, is a useful tool for policy evaluation. It can be used to trace and assess the effects of different scenarios on hazard processes and hazard levels. It can likewise be used to identify trade-offs and solutions that are robust and offer multiple benefits. As an approach for understanding and addressing flood hazards, it also expands the notion of what constitutes as flooding hazards which promotes resilience thinking and broadens the horizon of responses to address not just acute shocks but also chronic stresses. For Metro Manila, the effects on physical services index under urban development scenarios were explored. Results show that under conditions of strict groundwater regulation and proportional growth of waste management services with the population, the effects of population on index levels can be tempered by less physical urbanization. Conversely, if population growth ceases, the gains in the index values due to demand reduction is outweighed if physical urbanization continues to increase. Suboptimal index values, even under the most conservative scenario of zero increases in population and built-up surfaces, also indicates that measures to limit flood volume, such as flood control infrastructure and land-use planning to limit the expansion of built surfaces will no longer suffice. Large deficits in urban services also need to be addressed to prevent the cascade of flooding hazards and to improve health outcomes and well-being. Measures that reduce flood volume while improving urban services offer the greatest potential.

Role of HEIs in achieving regional cooperation for effective multi-hazard early warnings in Asia

ABSTRACT. Asia reported the highest number of affected people by coastal hazards during the last two decades. Coastal hazards are significantly increased with rapid change of climatic conditions across the globe. The issues are further complicated with the rise of population live in coastal areas as well as with development activities take place in coastal regions. In order to control and minimize these devastating results of coastal hazards, leading international frameworks, practitioners and academics have introduced innovative strategies to reduce disaster risks and enhance resilience. Among these strategies, multi-hazard early warnings have been identified as an effective way of dealing with different types of coastal hazards. However, the level of development of multi-hazard early warnings in Asia show uneven progress across member countries in Asia. Hence, member countries in the region call for a regional cooperation to share knowledge and resources towards achieving effective multi-hazard early warnings in the region. However, there are many capacity gaps that the effectiveness of regional cooperation. In this context, higher education institutions are identified as important agents who can develop capacities among member countries towards effective regional cooperation. This paper is based on the initial stage of a project funded by the European Commission Erasmus Plus to enhance capacities among higher-education institutions in Asia towards effective multi-hazard early warnings in Asia. The study has been carried out among 15 member countries in Asia and Europe with key stakeholders. In order to identify the present level of regional cooperation towards multi-hazard early warnings and the role of higher education institutions in Asia, the study conducted a regional survey using a survey questionnaire. The results revealed that there is a regional cooperation between member countries towards effective MHEWs in Asia thought it suffers with many issues. The survey further revealed that there are needs to improve capacity development, training methods and innovations in multi-hazard early warnings in the region. The role of higher education in Asia does not deliver to its expected level. This is because of limitations in funding availability, lack of coordination with other institutions/ stakeholders, gaps in knowledge, lack of supportive policies and political support, lack of self-interest and awareness, lack of information and communication barriers. These findings will help the policy makers to identify the gaps in HEIs to enhance their role in developing regional cooperation towards effective multi-hazard early warnings in Asia. Accordingly, the project will fulfil this utmost important need in developing multi-hazard early warnings in Asia through conducting trainings among members of higher education institutions and other key stakeholders in Asia.

An innovative strategy to increase the resilience of flood-vulnerable communities while reducing risk of population displacement and psychological trauma

ABSTRACT. [3E] - Preventing natural hazards from turning into natural disasters Submission for Oral presentation


Protecting communities from “natural” disasters, and the displacement and psychological trauma that accompany them, is a challenging prospect. Vulnerable communities are faced with responding to increasing climate change-induced crises and adapting to a dramatically changing environment, having only a limited set of tools that are largely inadequate to cope with the intensity and urgency of the impacts. Today’s and tomorrow’s increased frequency of natural hazardous events requires forward-looking and creative strategies to limit the likelihood that hazards such as heavy rains or intense storms will evolve into disasters, impacting communities and their housing and causing repetitive loss and the need to rebuild.

To date, standard flood mitigation strategies have relied heavily on systems that either attempt to control and redirect water (e.g. levees, dams, sea walls) or to try to avoid it (e.g. buy-outs, land-use restrictions, permanent static elevation). How might we, instead, embrace Mother Nature, adapting ourselves to new ways of appreciating the presence of water, and our buildings to new ways of accommodating flooding, without significant damage to the built environment or human psyche, or objectionable changes to customary ways of life?

Amphibious, or buoyant, foundations are one answer. They provide a cost-effective, adaptive flood risk reduction strategy that works in synchrony with a flood-prone region’s natural cycles of flooding, rather than attempting to control them. A buoyant foundation is a retrofit to an existing building that enables it to remain in place until flooding occurs, when it rises and floats on the water’s surface until it returns to its original position as the floodwater recedes. Although this is a solution that is not universally suitable for all types of flooding or construction, it is nonetheless a damage-preventive strategy that in appropriate situations has much to offer to communities in crisis that have few if any other low-cost, low-impact, culturally acceptable options that create minimal disruption to daily life.

Amphibious retrofit construction can be applied to individual buildings or neighborhoods, and provides numerous potential benefits in comparison to alternative strategies. This paper will highlight two case studies. Amphibious construction along the Malacatoya River in Nicaragua, which is under continuous threat of flooding, has been proposed as an alternative solution to alleviate the forced relocation of indigenous communities by the Nicaraguan government. An amphibious approach would allow residents to remain in their homes safely, without the devastation of repetitive damage or the trauma of forced removal from their homelands. A second case study is a project that is currently under construction in the Mekong Delta in Vietnam. The goal is to implement amphibious retrofits to housing to increase community resilience and improve financial and psychological stability by reducing property damage and the need for relocation, now that annual flooding is becoming more severe due to climate change and upriver dam construction. It connects to larger themes of developing strategies for community resilience that are innovative, feasible and economical while preventing the negative impacts of forced displacement and psychological trauma.

Learning from less-advantaged communities how to cope with natural disasters

ABSTRACT. This paper poses the question as to why communities with few resources at their disposal often seem better able to cope with natural disasters than developed communities. The paper highlights the strategies for dealing with natural hazards found in developed countries, particularly concentrating on the recent floods in Europe that are shown to have been produced by climate change, and the prevention and avoidance methods proposed in the face of future flooding. Using two case studies, one from the Pacific Islands and one from South Asia the paper then looks at how traditional communities have adapted through organic processes to natural hazards. The paper discusses the resilience of communities in Niue and Cambodia and the attitudes that have enabled them to utilise traditional knowledge to develop vernacular strategies for dealing with natural hazards. These organically evolving adaptive strategies for hazard prevention differ from the westernised approaches of containment and control through engineering systems. The paper concludes by speculating on how the approaches used by communities with few resources and the strategies they have developed for increasing resilience to future disasters could be applied to the European context, given climate change is leading to more severe flooding and in 50 years living with regular flooding may be more common place.

Seismic vulnerability and risk assessment of Gangtok Region, India

ABSTRACT. About 59% of India’s land is prone to moderate to severe earthquakes (M > 5) which makes it one of highest seismic risk prone areas in the world. Destructive earthquakes (M > 6.5), which are highly unpredictable, don’t occur frequently which makes people, local authorities ignore the importance of the earthquake resistant building design, disaster preparedness and post disaster management. The damage scenarios can act as the base for preparation of disaster management plans, taking mitigation measures and prepare population living in the high vulnerable areas. The research used HAZUS methodology is used for assessing vulnerability and damage caused by the 18th September 2011earthquake at Gangtok (68 km from the epicentre) which is the capital city of state of Sikkim, a major hub for tourism and economy. The scale and the details of the results are directly based on the amount of information used in the execution of methodology. Parameters like magnitude and type of earthquake, distance from epicentre to the study area, geology and local conditions of soil etc, and building characteristics for the vulnerability and damage assessment,. Damages reported by the local authorities were used as the reference to validate the generated results and discuss the applicability of the method in Indian context. Based on the terrain conditions, the possible hazard zones and elements at risk, risk map was also generated. The results showed that concrete types of buildings were highly vulnerable and there is a high probability of damage to such buildings. These scenarios were matched with the reported damage. The research concludes that the HAZUS methodology can be used in Indian condition as HAZUS building types have some similarity with Indian building types.

11:00-12:45 Session 3G/4B: Track session
Location: Room C202
FLOODLABEL: how new planning tools create flood-resilient cities

ABSTRACT. Annually, floods cause immense economic and human losses around the world. To create resilient communities, current flood risk management strategies in urban areas have to amend in light of changing climate patterns. To assess current approaches in urban areas, and to develop future management strategies that are tailored to dynamics in frequency and magnitude of flood hazards, a sound and accurate understanding of resilience is crucial. Urban resilience is derived from the understanding of ecosystems resilience. Thus, urban resilience is understood as the ability of an urban area to absorb turbulences and learn, adapt or reorganise following a disturbing impact. The aim of this paper is to improve resilience and adaptive capacity of cities in a smart manner to sustain urban living in Europe. We present the FLOODLABEL prototype, a new geo-technology and ICT-supported instrument, which can involve both private stakeholders and civil society in the decision-making processes. The results show that flood labels are able to integrate the expertise from risk assessment studies, spatial simulation, urban planning and planning support science to enhance urban resilience. Nevertheless, the implementation of flood labels request governance arrangements, which trigger new communication pathways. However, the presence of new smart tools raises the discussion of who benefits from the hazard information provided and whether co-producing knowledge can improve such communication pathways to move towards more resilient communities. Thus, the question arises, whether hazard tools generate knowledge or solely act as means of marketing flood protection and mitigation solutions as well as direct urban hazard management towards privatisation. This can in turn influence the market value of properties and, thereby, fundamentally question social justice within new risk communication tools, as such developments can lead to greater inequalities within society.

Transformative practices? Resisting evictions in Lisbon Metropolitan Area

ABSTRACT. The presentation will draw from an on-going PhD research on forced evictions in the Lisbon Metropolitan Area (LMA). Forced evictions have recurrently been approached as a phenomenon of the Global South, related to rural land crabbing or urban slum clearance, ejecting people from their homes in the name of “progress”. However, there is increasing evidence of violent displacement in the Global North, related to new forms of social inequality and heightened housing insecurity (Brickell et al. 2016: 1-2). The city of Lisbon and its metropolitan area provides a fascinating case to investigate these dynamics. Lisbon is a European capital, and thus a city of the Global North, but at the same time is has often been conceptualized as a semi periphery, as an intermediating space between the North and the South, or, an example of the “South of the North” (Nunes and Serra 2003: 216). In terms of eviction, in Portugal, there is a long history of demolition of shanties, in a process during which only a part of population has been offered alternative housing, resulting in some parts of population being simply displaced. These expulsions continue until today in some Portuguese municipalities, such as Amadora and Vidigueira. This is an interesting backdrop to the more recent phenomenon of financialization of housing and the evictions from private rental apartments. In the last years, LMA has seen a strong wave of civil society movements fighting for the right to adequate housing and to the city. It can be argued that their action has resulted in increased political and media interest, making housing a central theme in the 2017 local elections. This year, in the run-up for the 2019 legislative elections, many civil society housing rights movements aim for increasing the pressure to change some key laws related to housing, such as New Regime on Urban Lease Scheme of 2012, and push for the effective implementation of inclusive policies such as 1° Direito (First Right) and Programa do Arrendamento Acessível (Affordable Rental Program). The study will examine the processes that legitimize the right to housing and to stay put for some people and disassociate others from it, by analyzing how these processes are being negotiated, reworked, supported or contested by diverse groups of actors. It will reflect on the strategies mobilized by different actors, such as the officials of Portuguese state institutions, real estate and land owners, community organizations and residents to address evictions and right to adequate housing. The project will ask whether the practices of resistance are transformative to the existing conditions of social life and to the power relations between the elites and residents of marginalized neighbourhoods. The presentation bases itself in the qualitative data acquired by ethnographic methods: participation observation as well as informal and semi-structured interviews during the year 2018.

Building resilience: an adaptive framework for Greater Bay Area sustainable development

ABSTRACT. Resilience as a goal of climate-responsive design presents new challenges to architects. Their responsibilities for the increasingly risk-prone Greater Bay Area (GBA) are critical. The concept of resilience is coined in post-hazard protocols evaluating the ability and capacity of systems to persist. However, debate arises between engineering and ecological resilience. Robustness, Redundancy, and Resourcefulness in the engineering perspective are basic, yet limited to the physical. Additional ecological dimension of Risk Avoidance, Rapidity, and Recovery prior to and after the event, thus, are keys to systems of different scales in transferring the state of equilibria in creating opportunities and advancing preparation. Environmental expert, Gunderson, exclaimed that the engineering perspective is inadequate for design because of the assumption on a system at equilibrium. Nonetheless, ecosystems in natural settings do not have single equilibria with functions monitored at proximity. Canadian ecologist, C.S. Holling, argued from an ecological perspective that resilience as the “ability of a system to return to equilibrium after a temporary disturbance.” Adaptive resilience is not bound to the ability to ‘spring back’, but to absorb shock, and change through renewal, reorganization, and adaptation. An integrative framework is determinate to address urban vulnerability in GBA.

The objective of this paper is to investigate adaptive resilience as a network of systems between buildings and neighbourhoods in GBA. Analysis of the impact on regional resilience framework of neighbourhoods reveals the strategies addressing the unique localities. Firstly, in the context of this mega-city, risky locations such as seacoast and floodplains confer important economic benefits. The buildable land, well-appointed sites for collection, and transhipment of goods set GBA apart from land-locked regions for technological growth. Secondly, mega-city escalates the disaster potential by concentrating people and investments. The disproportionate amount of material wealth is bound up in the built environment. Historic typhoons inflicted billions of properties damage in GBA which took weeks to resume challenges social resilience. Lastly, new development without environmental resilience consideration paving over water-sheds reduces infiltration, speeds runoff, and increases flood volumes. The impacts of creating conditions for disaster are also opportunities to enhance resilience by implementing adaptive strategies, like blue-green infrastructure. In conclusion, this paper would demonstrate how resilience as a dynamic design strategy can tackle the geographical characteristics of GBA socially, environmentally, and economically for a sustainable future.

Walking as a key factor in the resilient low-carbon city

ABSTRACT. Future cities will increasingly face wicked problems relating to climate change and fossil fuel scarcity. Reduced CO2 emissions, minimum health impacts, and planning cities for resilience against fossil fuel scarcity are important tasks for planners and designers. The planning and design of ‘resilient walking neighbourhoods’ could contribute partial solutions for many issues. The paper shows the key urban place characteristics of more or less walkable, resilient neighbourhoods. The results help to identify neighbourhoods' key urban place characteristics that commonly contribute to or take away from walking resilient neighbourhoods. It suggests that the findings could provide directions for better development control to improve neighbourhood planning and design over time as development occurs. Methodologically, both qualitative and quantitative methods are used in different parts of this study in keeping with the ‘convergent parallel mixed methods’ approach. Data collection was conducted through field observations of the key urban place characteristics, and face to face interviews with residents and users about their walking experience within 400 metre sample neighbourhoods. Prior to each data collection day, the researcher observed the streets with the highest frequency of users to collect the information, as the most frequently used streets are able to provide valuable data. The research scope was limited to two main streets from each neighbourhood, covering major, collector and local streets due to time and resource limitations. The interviews were carried out with ten people in each sample neighbourhood, with participants having to be 18 years and older for ethics requirements. These interviews took approximately 15-20 minutes, with most of the questions being open-ended, while data were also recorded on an A4 paper sheet in writing. Sample questionnaires were prepared in parallel with empirical research data. These questionnaires gathered the perspective of the locals in relation to the built environment and how they feel about ‘resilient walking’ in their neighbourhood; what their neighbourhood lacks, and their suggestions for change if any. In this research, the focus is to improve or redevelop ‘resilient walking neighbourhoods’ to prepare for fossil fuel scarcity in the future. Therefore, there was also a need to undertake in-depth studies of existing conditions in different neighbourhoods in various locations, which the researcher has chosen to undertake using two methods. One is an in-depth study of cases in Melbourne from urban to regional setting (Melbourne, Port Philip, Moreland, Hume) and some cases in internationally well-established walkable neighbourhoods (Freiburg, Germany and Malmo, Sweden) to gain richer data and to compare the scale of resilience to fossil fuel scare city in Melbourne cases with international cases. Analysis of resilience and walking related values using key literature provided opportunities to reveal the most resilient walkable neighbourhoods in the case studies. These data collected and assessed in the case studies show the existing resilience levels of neighbourhoods regarding fossil fuel scarcity. Therefore, the key urban place characteristics which represent the most ‘resilient walkable neighbourhood’ can be taken as an example to improve neighbourhoods towards less fossil-fuel dependent scenarios. It will make the future cities more resilient to fossil fuel scarcity and could also lead to low carbon interventions

Assembling an alternative: pushing the development of a new housing programme in Porto

ABSTRACT. The aftermath of the recent economic crisis has aggravated existing housing problems, namely in the main Portuguese cities, where the sudden capital concentration – encouraged by new public policies and tourism trends – has profoundly changed the housing market. To the already existing precarious housing conditions (as shown by Leilani Farha’s report) one must now add the fact that not only the poor but also a substantial part of the middle classes are struggling to find affordable houses in these territories. This context led to the rise of a broad public debate that is taking place in different forums and earning increasing attention of the media. It also led to the proposal of a New Generation of Housing Policies by the Government, which has the merit of, not only acknowledging the problem, but also framing it by a set of new intervention tools able to establish goals and to identify actors and their responsibilities. Based on a specific case, we will present the opposition those new discourses and policies are facing, as well as the opportunities they create for the development of alternative practices. We will also discuss the role academic and third sector organizations may have in this process. In Porto, Habitar (a third sector association) joined MDT-CEAU-FAUP (an academic research group) to trigger the creation of a new local housing programme they are developing in partnership with the municipality and IHRU (the national agency for housing and urban renewal). The programme targets run-down buildings’ owners who do not have the means or the will to enter the established housing market. It will grant them incentives as well as financial and technical support for the renewal of their property, through a simple, fast and transparent process centralised in one sole front office. The renewed housing units will then be accessible at affordable rents. It is a sustainable low cost programme, based on the activation, connection and mediation of already available resources and actors. This process will show how technical work is essential to move from individual practices to general policies. It will also show that this technical work is not created in a vacuum, but inside a network of social representations and relationships that can be changed. As a conclusion, we will argue five points: 1. Implementing a transformative technical solution depends on the creation of a previously non-existent political space. 2. This political space must find shelter in the existent established institutions. However, it must be construed by elements based on a cultural matrix common to all actors involved in the conflict. 3. Those elements have a social expression. However, they are not necessarily the ones to be found in the discourses and practices of different actors. 4. The aim is to express the conflict in ways that contain the arguments of activists and experts groups; but, at the same time, those ways must be able to occupy a broader social space. 5. A technical solution will never be transformative if it cannot function both inside and outside established institutions.

Quality of inhabiting in the urban margins of the Lisbon Metropolitan Area: the role of academia

ABSTRACT. Portugal is currently discussing a new generation of housing policies and a Basic Law for Housing aiming to combat the persistence of structural housing problems in sub-urbanized marginal urban areas, self-produced or publicly promoted, and the accelerating of gentrification in the central areas. At the same time resistance groups emerge from civil society and from those marginal urban areas invoking the right to housing and the right to the city. In this context it is urgent to reflect on the role of academia. This communication intends to address the main reflections and actions carried out in the last two decades by the academy, in particular, by the schools of Architecture and Urbanism around those housing urban margins, focusing on the Lisbon Metropolitan Area and inspired by the notion of the right to the city as claimed fifty years ago by Henri Lefebvre. It will be questioned the pertinence of the crossing of this notion of right to the City with the most recent notion of resilience applied to the vulnerable urban margins or to the self-produced or informal city. As a case study, we will deepen a self-reflection on the research and action developed in the last decade by the Study Group of Socio-territorial, Urban and Local Action of the Faculty of Architecture of the University of Lisbon (Grupo de Estudos Socio Territoriais, Urbanos e de Ação Local da Faculdade de Arquitectura da Universidade de Lisboa). We will underline the intricacies of its internal and external articulation, with other research groups from the Faculty and other faculties, local and central government, other civil society groups, local associations and inhabitants. The aim is to identify the strengths and weaknesses of the group and its dynamics, the scope and limits of its actions in housing urban margins, in the perspective of the collective construction of the Right to the City and of a social production of knowledge. Inquiring the discourse of resilience, the aim is to broaden the discussion of what to do and how to do, calling for a more transforming and emancipatory praxis, at the level of teaching, reflection and intervention on housing urban margins.

Urban ecological planning as a long-term instrument for risk governance in Guangzhou

ABSTRACT. Topic and research background Urban ecological planning (UEP) has been adopted in many Chinese cities as a means of restoring the degraded urban ecosystems resulted from the country’s rapid processes of urbanisation, socio-economic development and population growth over the past four decades. The aim of UEP is to steer sustainable socio-economic development and achieve the national environmental agenda — ecological civilisation. The complexity of the urban environmental degradation prompted the central and local governments to plan for comprehensive actions to govern risks and to foster resilience while trying to promote sustainable urban development. Urban ecological systems, with its multiple ecosystem services, is essential to assisting urban environments to rebound from pollution and environmental degradation, hence building resilience to climate change impacts and benefiting the health and wellbeing of urban inhabitants. Therefore, UEP is well aligned with the Sendai Framework’s aim to manage the changing dynamics of human-nature linkages in cities to stay resilient within planetary boundaries. What is the role of UEP in environmental risk governance and what can UEP contribute the sustainable socio-economic development in megacity Guangzhou? This key question leads to an empirical knowledge inquiry on ecological planning policies and actual governance model, from which the paper proposes ways forward for governance innovation in sustainable development. 

Objectives The paper has three-fold objectives: 1) to critically analyse the guiding principles and major goals of UEP policies in Guangzhou, 2) to understand UEP’s role in risk governance in Guangzhou through illustrating the institutional and policy frameworks, and 3) to propose ways forward for resilience thinking in UEP and governance innovation in sustainable development.

Method Building on the summary of relevant theories and concepts including risk and resilience, sustainable development, environmental governance and urban planning, the paper possesses an empirical focus by conducting in-depth interviews to key urban ecological planners and carry out policy analysis.

Findings or results (expected) UEP, departing from its urban ecology perspective with an aim to restore the urban ecosystems, composes a fundamental part of risk governance in Guangzhou. Despite thriving liberty in socio-economic development, risk governance in Guangzhou is mainly a top-down model yet is in a transition towards more collaborative, inter-sectoral governance. The notion of resilience used in UEP in Guangzhou is mainly on the technical (environmental) level, which is insufficient for risk governance. The success of the latter also requires broad socio-economic engagement taking into account the fast-changing dynamics of urbanisation in Guangzhou.

Conclusions The fact that Guangzhou adopted the UEP as a systemic approach to resolving environmental degradation reflects the government’s long-term vision for risk governance and value for human-nature harmony. The stable institutional and policy frameworks are a guarantee for the implementation of the UEP. However, the lack of socio-economic engagement in implementation UEP is a gap in which the government needs to address, in order to provide passages of transition to the additional aim of risk governance in Guangzhou - to promote sustainable urban socio-economic development.

11:00-12:45 Session 4H-I: Track session
Location: Room C104
Increasing resilience to increase value: from mere survival towards opportunities for future

ABSTRACT. Resilience must be one of the active qualities in every construction. If you consider resilience as passive, i.e. “prevention of failure or recovery of damages”, you are not considering it as an opportunity to increase building value. We would like to introduce the concept of resilience as an “intrinsic capacity of the project to generate active value within the building system”. Rather than waiting for or adapting to problems, the project should foresee possible changes required, through strategic choices which trigger new interactions amongst components (both tangible and intangible). Changing can be seen not only as the reaction to a harmful event, but also as a physiological change due to changing needs and time passing, the rehabilitation and re-use of the building, building management plan and planning the end of life procedure, … This definition of resilience should overcome the problems arising by relating resilience and sustainability, giving to resilience those characteristics of direction and behavioral guideline that can also lead to sustainability. We assume that the significance of resilience does not depend so much on the individual objects, but rather on the relationship between parts that the project is able to create. These links must be directed towards specific binding requirements, which directly derive from the "design program". This program should represent the essential project conditions, called invariants, classifiable as immaterial and material. Immaterial invariants establish the unavoidable goals and are implicit in the project because they define its planning, conception and development process. Material invariants define the technological consistency, the techniques and products/components used in the project; they define the methods of building, management in use, maintenance and life cycle characteristics. The approach we want to pursue is meta-planning, aimed to give guidelines. So the immaterial invariants of the project determine the established performance for the resulting design and can be summarized as follows: time variable management; transferability; design and production innovation; qualitative multifunctionality of the architectural system; constructive re-active system. The invariants, in turn, have been translated into technological and functional resource-requirements and objects, due to their strong circularity in the use and reuse of the involved resources and because they give substance to the concept of "active resilience" of the project understood as capacity of regeneration of its intrinsic value. This contribution shows how increasing resilience is not a cost but an occasion to produce an economic value, a duration value, a performances value, etc...

An investigation into the impact of individual differences on immersive learning environment preparedness training


Tack: 4H Exploring New Pathways to Improved Resilience Decision-making

ORAL presentation

Immersive Learning Environments (ILEs), such as the Hydra/Minerva Suite, use sophisticated technology to recreate emergency situations, such as terror attacks or natural disasters, in a controlled environment. Using video, audio and written communications, as well as live action role play, ILEs allow students to practice and develop their emergency management skills in a safe environment. ILEs have been shown to enhance problem-solving and decision-making, as well as improving self-confidence and team working, in high pressure situations. However, limited research has been undertaken to assess how different people respond to ILE training, and how these individual differences may in turn impact on trainee’s performance. For example, ILE training has been shown to increase anxiety levels in some individuals, which could impair engagement with the preparedness training. However, not everyone will show an increase in anxiety in response to ILE training. Individual differences, such as personality traits, can affect people’s response to ILEs. For example, research suggests that people who are highly neurotic will be more likely to find the training stressful compared to those who have high levels of conscientiousness or who are more open to new experiences. Further, individuals who have high levels of self-efficacy may have an increased level of persistence, and therefore show better performance when undertaking high pressure training. Finally, other factors, such as people’s current mood state, can be important as previous research suggests that people suffering from low mood could find ILE training more anxiety inducing compared to those in a more positive mood state. Therefore, the current study investigated whether personality traits, and current mood state, can impact on a participant’s levels of arousal, anxiety and workload perceptions during Hydra/Minerva training. Participants were recruited from a Policing course, and undertook training on a Hydra/Minerva emergency scenario, such as responding to a firearms incident. Participants were asked to complete a personality questionnaire (neuroticism, conscientiousness, openness subscales of the IPIP Big-Five; Goldberg, 2001) and the general self-efficacy scale (Jerusalem & Schwarzer, 1995). Mood state was assessed using the Patient Health Questionnaire (Kroenke, et al. 2003). Participants also completed the Stress Arousal Checklist (Mackay, et al.1978) at the start, middle and end of the training. The results indicated that individual differences have an impact on people’s response to ILE training. People who reported low mood levels, and those with high trait neuroticism, experienced higher levels of anticipatory anxiety. These results indicate that trainees who are in a low mood state, or who are more neurotic are likely to need additional reassurance and support prior to undertaking ILE training. Reducing anticipatory anxiety in these individuals could enhance learning and performance during the training. Conversely, those with high levels of self-efficiency, and those who were more open to new experiences, showed higher levels of arousal during training, which indicates that these students were more engaged with the training. Overall, the results show that individual differences can have an impact on ILE training outcomes and that trainers need to be aware, and to be able to respond, to these differences.

A multi-sectorial assessment of drivers to build food security resilience to shocks in Niger

ABSTRACT. Understanding new pathways and alternatives to build resilience and particularly systemic approaches considering the intersection of social, economic and demographic variables deserve more attention. These could provide more clear guidance on policy interventions for resilience building. We illustrated this potential by analyzing multiple drivers from various sectors on food security resilience (FSR) in Niger, one of the most under-deserved and underdeveloped countries worldwide, and where droughts have become more frequent and severe. We took advantage of the LSMS-ISA data to attempt defining as flexibly as possible the concept of FSR and move forward with its measurement and the investigation of policy-actionable drivers taking a multi-sectorial perspective.

Food security status was used as reportedly self-assessed by household heads through Food Insecurity Experience Scale (FIES) collected by panel data in two waves from September to November 2014 (post-planting) and from January to March 2015 (post-harvest) and representative of Niger and 26 additional strata representing settings and agroecological zones. According to changes in food security status (food secure vs food insecure) from one wave to the next, we identified four potential trajectories, two of which were compatible with resilient trajectories of recovery and resistance to shock impacts. Two shock exposures were considered, rain deficits at onset of rainy season (May-June) and being affected by drought in previous year to the time of interview. Weighted estimates of each trajectory were provided for the country and rural vs urban areas. Associations with over a hundred factors were explored using multinomial logistic regression models. Analyzed samples ranged from 626 households in the case of exposure to droughts, 1084 households affected by rain deficits, and up to 3108 households to describe weighted resilient trajectories.

Our findings pointed to a severe lack of food security in general and in particular lack of FSR to droughts in the country. However, we found that households with access to the national water network and located in highly-dense farming areas tended to be more resilient (i.e., able to maintain food security). Healthy crops, price stability of agricultural products to be purchased by households and particularly of food items were also associated to food security resilient households in times of drought. Female-headed households remain particular vulnerable groups and need reinforcement of effective protection and development policies to improve their FSR and ensure social inclusion in the long run.

A conceptual integrative approach to monitoring, evaluation and validation of Climate Change Adaptation measures for urban resilience

ABSTRACT. Climate change is not science fiction it´s our daily live and reality. Like Rayendra Pachauri (2014) stated “Nobody on this planet is going to be untouched by the impacts of climate change,”, posing the fundamental challenge of adjustment under uncertainty in all of our life’s – we have to be prepared for the unexpected. The United Nations (UN 2017) included resilience building against climate-related extrem events in the SDG´s Goal 1.5, as well as urban resilience in part 15 of the New Urban Agenda Habitat III in Quito (HABITAT III). In order to make sure this development take place and decisions foster and not hindering, the IPCC (IPCC 2014) points out the Pathway concept, which illustrates decision points on a climate-resilient-pathway. Hence, the establishment of a baseline to measure against (Cutter 2014), which is consequently used to monitor and detect decision points and directions of development is necessary. Furthermore, Bakkensen (2017) claims the lack of validation of resilience measures and states the importance of including the aspect of time to validate sub indicators of resilience. The inherent complex nature of this multidimensional phenomenon requires external validation approaches (Burton 2014), which requires also new data sources and approaches hence conventional data sources lack to cover the spatial and timely resolution for resilience validation. Establishing and monitor resilience is a fundamental prerequisite to understand pressure, processes, characteristics and dimensions of resilience building, but how to respond to revealed threats and challenges remains unanswered. Hence, linking resilience to precise and concrete adaptation measures consider this gap and provides answers in an urban planning context within limited resources and constraints of the existing system. Still, in order to close the transformation cycle it is fundamental to monitor and evaluate the impacts of those adaptation measures on resilience building so that it can be ensured to develop into the right direction. Crucial is to mention that the bundle of methods and actions we understand today as the best to face climate change might evolve and challenges our ability to continuously stay alert and constantly reevaluate the situation. This is only possible if tools are available cutting through sectors, including stakeholders, inform and activate civil society and explain linkages and benefits to accept and understand sacrifices today to prosper in the long term. Therefor the central aim of our work is to link the fields of adaptation measures and resilience into one congruent framework to understand the interrelation and more importantly the opportunities and necessities of monitoring, evaluation and validation in context of climate change adaptation and urban planning thoroughly.

Effects of perceptual indicators in the evaluation of disaster resilience: a revision of the Coastal Community Resilience Model in the Southeastern Pacific Coast of Chile

ABSTRACT. Tsunamic events are a frequent hazard to coastal towns and various models have been developed to find out the physical, environmental, economic and social resilience indicators, among others, that affect community resilience. Despite this, resilience models that have incorporated the perceptual dimension for the evaluation of coastal resilience of human communities are missing. Indeed, there is little information regarding the specific perceptual indicators that allow cities to better cope and adapt to the impacts of tsunamis, and this information is especially scarce for developing countries such as Chile. The aim of this study is to revisit an existing resilience model for the coast of Chile (The CORE model) to explore the extent to which perceptual indicators influence the resilience capacity of this study area to tsunami hazards. We used the PCA methodological approach because it provides information on how variables are grouped and contribute to explain resilience variation. The study was applied to fourteen coastal villages, distributed within four towns, three communes, and two regions of Chile. A total of 28 indicators were subjected to Principal Components Analysis (PCA) in order to determine which subset of indicators affect resilience and specifically whether perceptual indicators affect resilience positively or otherwise. Twenty-one of these indicators address the physical, environmental, and social resilience aspects of the villages. The seven perceptual indicators were obtained from a preliminary correlational study with the following results; subjective knowledge (SK) was positively correlated to intention of evacuation (IE) while objective knowledge (OK) was negatively correlated to risk perception (RP); past evacuation experiences (PE) was found to be positively related to both risk perception and intention of evacuation; and evacuation place attachment (EPA) was negatively correlated to risk perception. The PCA results indicates that all indicators influence the resiliency of the villages, yet their relative influence differs. Particularly with respect to the perceptual indicators, these were found to have a high relevance for resilience. The OK and EPA contributes the most to PC1 (eigenvalue = 7.46, 26.6% of total variance), with only the special needs population (social indicator) and forest buffers (environmental indicator) indicators with higher loading values. On the other hand, the RP and PE indicators contributes the most to PC2 (eigenvalue = 5.86, 20.9% of total variance), with only social capital, population poverty (social indicators), food provision distance (environmental indicator), and population density (physical indicator) indicators with higher loading values. The influence of perceptual indicators was found to vary also with respect to the urban, rural and indigenous character of villages. Overall, the PCA has been a useful tool to identify indicator clusters that affect the resilience of the coast. Furthermore, the incorporation of perceptual indicators would be crucial in future resilience studies in zones under tsunami hazard in order to recognize the grouping of multi dimensional indicators. Finally, our findings shed light on gaps in planning policies and opportunities for planning coastal resilient communities considering the perceptual dimension of resilience, particularly for the case of Chile and other developing countries.

Enablers for improving seismic resilience of vulnerable buildings: a myth or reality?

ABSTRACT. The increasing frequency and scale of losses from recent earthquake disasters and previous studies have shown that some stakeholders’ practices in the natural hazard mitigation sector could serve as impediment to property owners decisions to retrofit their buildings. This study focuses on examining how other stakeholders practices involved in earthquake resilience can be used to improve the resilience of earthquake vulnerable buildings. A mixed method approach, comprising of Semi-structured interviews and a questionnaire are used in this study. The research findings from this study showed four key enablers essential for achieving seismic resilience in vulnerable regions area. These possible enablers include the annexation of seismic risk appraisal in valuation assessment, publicly available GIS Earthquake Hazard map of earthquake-prone buildings, improved accuracy in earthquake risk assessments and the use of a risk-based insurance premium system. These potential enablers suggests how the other stakeholders and policy regulators can work together to develop earthquake-resilient and sustainable urban communities.

Challenges of post-disaster reconstruction projects: an empirical investigation according to project management knowledge areas

ABSTRACT. Successful management of post-disaster reconstruction projects (PDRPs) can ensure the efficient use of resources and lead to improved outcomes. The literature on PDRP management is yet in its embryonic stage and systematic research efforts are necessary to address the topic. Paper compares the challenges faced in conventional projects to those in PDRPs according to project management knowledge areas, through an analytical evaluation of the interdependencies between different areas of expertise. A descriptive-exploratory research was designed and qualitative data from interviews with 11 managers with PDRP experience from different countries were analysed. Cause-and-effect relationships between the factors leading to frequent changes in scope, time overruns, cost overruns, and low quality were identified. Outputs suggest that managing stakeholders, risks and communications appears critical to cope with an evolving scope, while procurement management has a significant impact on project outcomes due to resource scarcity.

11:00-12:45 Session SS-GR: Special session: Gender and Resilience
Location: Main Auditorium
‘It’s just what women do’: notions of vulnerability and resilience in post-conflict, post-disaster Nepal

ABSTRACT. This paper considers the opportunities lost or gained to address the needs and interests of recognised vulnerable groups in drafting the new 2017 Nepal Disaster Risk Reduction Act. Pregnant and newly delivered women and their newborns are top of the disaster vulnerability lists but this does not necessarily translate into action on the ground. This was shown starkly after the 2015 Nepal (Gorkha) earthquake where rural women spoke of the difficulties of reaching hospitals over damaged roads; giving birth on hospital floors strewn with glass; and living outside, with no food or extra clothing after the event. Some of the worst experiences were shared by those who were initially displaced during the ten years of civil war and then again by the 2015 earthquake. Women and their families were living in old houses because of the affordable rent. However, these were the houses which collapsed during the earthquake. While house owners subsequently received support to rebuild their houses, those who were renting and displaced could not afford the higher rents of the new houses. This paper draws upon two pieces of research in Nepal: the first was undertaken as part of the UK Research and Innovation (UKRI) Global Challenges Research Fund (GCRF)-funded MANTRA Project; the second comprises analysis of interviews carried out among earthquake-induced IDPs in Nepal.

Social capital and gender following disaster: the case of the El Morro community, Chile

ABSTRACT. This paper examines the role of social capital in empowering women following a disaster. From a gender perspective, the three types of social capital, including bonding, bridging, and linking are analysed throughout the different stages of a disaster. The results of a quasi-ethnographic work and a seven-year longitudinal research carried out in a small-scale fishing community affected by the 2010 Chile earthquake and tsunami (through methods of semi-structured interviews, focus group, participatory observation, and documentary review), showed that women’s social capital played a critical role in coping with and recovering from the disaster. Bonding, bridging and linking social capital can facilitate the mobilisation of women’s resilience and their empowerment, increasing their chances of survival and recovery. Our study also showed that women's informal networks were useful in dealing with the short- and long-term consequences of the disaster. These findings can contribute to designing and implementing disaster management strategies that promote women’s social capital and resilience in developing countries.

Building capacity and developing community women leadership for disaster resilience in Fiji
SPEAKER: Helen Giggins

ABSTRACT. Worldwide disasters have a cumulative global impact, while the nature, characteristics and typology of disasters vary widely across regions and localities. Communities in Fiji, particularly in remote and rural locations, are highly vulnerable to hazards. Women in such contexts are usually embedded in their communities and have strong potential as community leaders to contribute to disaster resilience. This paper presents the outcomes of an action research project conducted in Fiji in 2017. The project focused on building capacity of Fijian women in disaster risk assessment, preparedness, response and recovery. The main objectives of the project were fourfold. The first objective was to consult with key local stakeholders in Fiji to ascertain capacity building needs, the corresponding form of training and the directions of the long-term outcomes of the training. Secondly, to develop a suitable and contextual ToT training package based on consultations with key stakeholders. Thirdly, to provide structured disaster resilience ToTs to local trainers nominated by stakeholder partners in Fiji. Finally, supporting trainers to run a training course for women community leaders in a remote/rural location and evaluate the training in the process. The team worked with key local stakeholders in Fiji to provide training-of-trainers (ToT) and support for empowering women leaders for disaster resilience. Beginning with a project planning workshop in Suva, a ToT on women and disaster resilience was then run in Nadi for stakeholders from key agencies in Fiji. A team of Fijian policewomen trainers who were trained at the ToT were then provided a training package and support to run a training course in Naboutini village. Initial assessment of the training undertaken in this pilot study was very encouraging, including positive feedback from the stakeholders involved and indication of a strong appetite for further training to be undertaken in the community. Future work will look to facilitate mechanisms for long-term assessment, quality assurance and sustenance of the capacity building initiative through local ownership.

The 8th ICBR Lisbon 2018 publication outputs and the contributions of the Special Session and the thematic track on Gender Resilience: Special Issues and Elsevier books
14:00-15:45 Session 1B-II: Track session
Location: Room C201
The concept of resilience in Chile since the earthquake of February 27, 2010: state of the art and future challenges

ABSTRACT. Before 2010, resilience to disasters in the academic field in Chile was based on a psychological and social work approach, studying it mainly at the individual or family level. The 2010 earthquake was a tipping point in relation to risk management in Chile, the involvement of the state, civil society organizations and academia; before, the Chaitén volcano eruption (2008) had given indications of a change, whose scope was noticeably smaller. Both events and those that have continued happening since then (volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, floods, massive forest fires, and an extensive drought) have kept disasters in the public sphere. From the review of academic articles and books, government policies and plans, websites of civil society organizations and research centers, and the search of the concept in social networks, the evolution of the term resilience (in the face of disasters) is analyzed, along with its uses, and institutional and political implications. Academic research and the emergence of research centers in various regions of the country, the creation of NGOs, the strengthening of humanitarian aid organizations, etc. as of 2010, constitute themselves resilient responses and can become catalysts of initiatives to reduce the vulnerability of the population as well as improve response and recovery after an event. However, although there are numerous publications and seminars on resilience, permeability of the results is little towards the community in general. By the same token, international institutions, civil society and some municipalities have promoted initiatives aimed at improving resilience in cities, from different existing frameworks: the development focus of UNDP, the Making Cities Resilient campaign of UNISDR, and 100 Resilient Cities of the Rockefeller Foundation. There are some examples of notable improvement in municipal resilience, although they are still an exception. At the level of national institutions, progress has been slower, although continuous. The National Platform for Disaster Risk Reduction operates from 2013. In 2016, the National Commission for Resilience against Disasters of Natural Origin was created, and in 2017 it produced the "National Strategy for Research, Development and Innovation a Resilient Chile in the Face of Disasters of Natural Origin". However, numerous reconstruction processes are still underway, and the legal framework has not been modified after 8 years of the presentation of a project that, although incomplete, considered for the first-time comprehensive risk management and not just the emergency. The concept of resilience has expanded and is now known to the population; for example: "community resilience", "resilient planning", "urban resilience", "resilient landscapes", "resilient social housing", "resilient coastline", "Chile, a resilient country", etc. are widely employed. The media and particularly social networks have had a multiplying role, but not without risk in terms of misuse and the political bias with which the term has been used on several occasions. In addition, little discussion it is observed on the scope and consequences of the term resilience, adopting it rather as a premise, without questioning its implications from practice, thus posing numerous challenges for academics, politicians and decision makers for the following years.

A people-centred approach to programme design: exploring adaptation ideas to vulnerabilities in Darfur, Sudan

ABSTRACT. The Vulnerability Risk Assessment (VRA) is a stakeholder led participatory assessment tool developed by Oxfam that helps to jointly identify root causes of vulnerabilities, priority hazards, existing capacities and the generation of transformative solutions to these vulnerabilities.

The VRA has been used globally in diverse range of contexts and recently Oxfam has been exploring how it can contribute to linking humanitarian and development programming in protracted crisis like Darfur (Sudan). By building bottom-up co-owned adaptive solutions this assessment can provide a reframing of chronic issues and promote programming that moves away from intermediary service-delivery towards building resilience and supporting transformational change for the communities. It can also support improved collective actions and more accountability for duty bearers in places where lack of good governance, exclusion and inequalities are often root causes of continued vulnerability and poverty.

The objective of this case study is to present the process and the outputs of the VRA that was carried out in North and South Darfur in November 2017 in partnership with 2 local partners - Kabkabya Smallholders Charitable Society and Jabal Marra Charity Organisation.

The participants have been selected to form a Knowledge Group (KG) that worked together to complete five tasks to help build a shared picture of both natural and human-made risk exposure in their communities. The KG participants explored frequency and scale of impact to agree on a set of priority hazards and social issues. Subsequent discussions explored the impact of these hazards and it was a valuable opportunity for stakeholders to see the diversity of consequences and how these occur across different timeframes, scales and different groups. In this case, they bridged natural/climate change related risks and social issues linked to power, governance, government investment/budgeting and human-made shocks like conflict.

The range of issues identified, and the varied ways people and livelihoods are affected showed the complexity of vulnerability in protracted crises and the need for analysis that goes beyond linear and restrictive thematic specialties and siloes. Risks affect people differently and there is a need to better understand how their risk profile is determined, escalated and/or perpetuated by both individual and contextual factors.

As the VRA is committed to exploring bottom-up innovations around adaptive change, the focus was also on designing potential solutions that would enable communities and affected populations to have improved capacities to cope, thrive and achieve well-being. Using the Africa Climate Change Resilience Alliance ‘Characteristics for Adaptive Change’ a shortlist was developed into implementable strategies. For resilience programming to be successful and sustainable at scale it needs to invest in technological and governance solutions that address both the equipment and skills needed to adapt livelihoods and lifestyles to climate change but also tackles human behaviours linked to power, inequality and accountability.

The VRA provided an opportunity to strengthen stakeholder relations and collaboration between government actors and community members which can assist the design and implementation of inclusive and more sustainable adaptive measures to build resilience of households, communities and the systems to their priority risks.

Community local knowledge for flood risk management and external stakeholders: experiences from Malawi

ABSTRACT. In research circles and international policy arenas, local knowledge (LK) for disaster risk reduction (DRR) is increasingly being viewed as key to increased community resilience to various hazards. In the developing world, non-governmental organisations (NGOs) and local governments, together with other stakeholders, are heavily involved in the process of community-based disaster risk reduction (CB-DRR). CB-DRR is based on the underlying idea of fostering the participation of vulnerable populations, putting them at the centre of risk reduction activities, and integrating LK. However, participation and integration of LK very often stay a mere ‘tick box’ exercise, and LK is very often side-lined.

With the majority of studies focused on documentation of the vast array of LK available within communities, understanding of how this knowledge is being used by external stakeholders (i.e. NGOs and local governments), working with rural communities, is limited. Therefore, the aim of this study is to provide deeper insights into how NGOs and local governments view and account for LK, by focusing on flood risk management (FRM) in the Lower Shire Valley, the most vulnerable region affected by annual flooding in Malawi.

Through a thematic analysis of a series of key informant interviews (n=39) and focus group discussions (n=3), with local government and NGOs working in the Lower Shire Valley, this study explores the role of LK in existing CB-DRR projects in communities.

Consulted external stakeholders show a high level of awareness of the importance of LK for FRM at local levels. However, the understanding of LK is limited to the application of traditional early warning systems, hence leaving LK underused for mitigation, response and recovery. A number of perceived benefits of LK were reported, most significantly the increased sustainability of community-based projects where knowledge is taken on-board. However, examples of the explicit use of LK in community-based projects remain scarce. Participants indicated that LK is used during the Participatory Vulnerability and Capacity Assessments (PVCAs) and is included in the Village Contingency Plans, and local materials and workforce are commonly employed during project implementation phases. However, results show that the level of confidence in LK is quite low, due to a lack of documentation, knowledge sharing and a repeatedly mentioned need for ‘validation’ with conventional scientific methods. In addition, participants perceive that LK is disappearing.

The findings of this research show that LK, despite being seen as a valuable resource by external stakeholders, is currently underutilised in FRM. There is an apparent need for local level action in which external stakeholders, together with local communities, will be involved in the process of LK documentation. Furthermore, documented knowledge needs to be tested in real-time conditions, in order to be further employed in practical and policy-making approaches at local levels.

Rethinking resilience in the context of natural hazards: towards an agency-centred approach of resilience
SPEAKER: Eva Posch

ABSTRACT. Communities in remote mountain regions in the Global South are highly vulnerable to natural hazards with numerous scales of impact, durations and effects and often vague future dynamics due to global climate change. The ability of local people to proactively cope with, adapt to and transform in the face of hazard processes is a major parameter of resilient mountain development. While resilience-based approaches have been widely analysed, there come several issues with its use. Resilience is mostly used as analytical concept being measured by quantitative methods using selected indicators as proxies. However, measuring resilience is rooted on the idea of benchmarking which assumes that people are homogeneous, rational agents with the same abilities and willingness to act. Classical resilience analysis implies the formulation of a desired outcome one wants to strive towards and which can be measured. But while certain outcomes may be perceived as desirable for some, they might not be for others. It is not obvious what a desirable outcome to strive towards is, nor what should be done to reach it. Most research has not adequately addressed these issues. The purpose of this paper is to introduce an agency-centred perspective on resilience. Specifically, we propose a conceptual framework which analysis the logic of existing agency arrangements considering social, political and historical structures but also cultural worldviews and personal values and beliefs. We critically discuss conventional conceptualizations and operationalizations of resilience. Empirical findings from two country specific case studies from Nepal are presented, which are based on quantitative surveys and qualitative interviews from 2017 and 2018. We challenge classical approaches to ‘measure resilience’ in remote mountain regions in the Global South and argue why the focus on benchmarking pose a major shortcoming of conventional resilience assessments. We present findings that capacities to cope, adapt or transform in the face of natural hazards need to be addressed individually. The agency-centred perspective on resilience is the starting point of this research; agency is perceived as combination of being able and willing to act in the face of natural hazards. While the subjective ability to act is influenced by external factors such as access to assets, the willingness to act is shaped by individual goals and trade-offs which are inter alia rooted in cultural worldviews, values and beliefs. A deeper understanding of individual agency arrangements is a requirement for understanding resilience to natural hazards. In developing practical recommendations to increase resilience, we need to better understand people’s agency and recognise their priorities and decisions. By closely examining these interlinkages between cultural worldviews, personal values and beliefs and existing agency arrangements, we contribute to a more holistic approach to resilience.

Index study: social vulnerability to drought in rural Malawi

ABSTRACT. In Sub-Saharan Africa, meteorological drought is a frequent hazard. Climate change is predicted to increase drought frequencies, and alongside a growing population present unprecedented pressure on water resources. Drought as a disaster may manifest in many ways, a key factor determining drought impact is the vulnerability of the socio-economic receiving system and communities. Social Vulnerability Index (SVI) studies seek to quantify the intangible aspects of vulnerability using a numerical system of indicators to score the susceptibility to hazard. Previous studies have primarily focussed on kinetic hazards such as earthquakes and floods. Drought has a very different signature, with slow onset characteristics, a wide spatial extent, and complex socio-economic effects. SVI studies on drought remain relatively scarce, especially in the developing world context. The present study focuses on Nsanje in Southern Malawi, one of the most deprived Malawian districts and amongst the most vulnerable to climate change. With 89% the population engaged in agriculture, hydro-meteorological hazards, coupled with climate change, environmental degradation and rapid population growth perpetuate the disaster-poverty cycle. This study was conducted during the 2016 drought when the region was in a state of food emergency. Due to the unstable nature of Nsanje’s food system the population are frequently dependent on aid, as donor resources are finite it is crucial to understand where resources can be best targeted. The objective of the paper is to develop and test an index assessing the relative social vulnerability of communities, identify the causes of vulnerability, and the plot their spatial variability. This will allow the operationalization of drought theory for the efficient targeting of assistance. Using a questionnaire with structured and semi-structured elements, focus groups were conducted in 34 villages spread across the district. Participants represented local development structures, disaster management committees and regular community members. The study results emphasize the livelihood reliance of Nsanje on subsistence farming. Vulnerability arising from crop sensitivity is lowest in the Eastern regions of the district, adjacent to the Shire River. Adaptive capacities scores were higher in western areas of the district. Animal sales are an important component to the adaptive capacity of communities, allowing income during crop failure. Feedback from the communities indicates access to riparian mash land is of critical importance during drought. Many marsh communities however did not report sufficient levels of historical food security. The causes of this instability are largely due to destruction of crops and animals by flooding, particularly the catastrophic 2015 Shire floods. The development of a drought specific SVI is challenging in a multi-hazard environments such as Nsanje, particularly in the context of a hydrological system prone to extremes of drought and flood. The research presented here is relevant to decision makers in planning and implementing humanitarian interventions in the area. The findings of this study call for greater emphasis to be placed on developing methodologies which aim to understand social vulnerability to drought within multi-hazard framework. This is particularly important in the case of hydro-hazards where climate change is exacerbating the extremes of the hydrological cycle.

Sustainable child-centred disaster resilience education program: participatory action-research study in Bangladesh
SPEAKER: Mayeda Rashid

ABSTRACT. This PhD project involves a study on disaster resilience education for children in Bangladesh within the framework of a participatory action research (PAR) paradigm that also aligns with a child-centred disaster risk reduction ethos (CC-DRR). The primary goal of CC-DRR is to increase children's understanding of the disaster risks in their community and develop their ability to take even a lead role in reducing those risks.

Over the last decade, a number of researches have been conducted on different types of disaster risk reduction (DRR) education programs for children. These studies suggest that such programs enable children to be more resilient not only in terms of increased knowledge in understanding risk but also increased preparedness and confidence at both the individual and household levels. However, despite the positive findings, significant challenges still prevail. In spite of generating effective outcomes, the area of development and evaluation lacks a guiding model. This includes one that speaks to both the effectiveness and sustainable implementation. On the other hand, disaster risk reduction education programs for children are mostly designed and implemented by non-formal educators like development and humanitarian agencies. As a result, the literature here is primarily based on the evaluation of programs, such as those of NGOs, many of which have been identified with significant methodological limitations. Besides, in terms of positive outcome, the studies to date typically rely on knowledge indicators and, further, do not identify the explicit elements of the programs responsible for generating specific positive outcomes.

Thus, based on the research and reviews to date, this study aims to conduct rigorously designed research focused on disaster risk reduction (DRR) education for children, particularly those that involve children’s active input and participation. In doing so, it has the aim of identifying the specific elements of the DRR education programs for children that produce the best DRR and resilience outcomes (as recognised by the children who participated in such programs and the NGO practitioners who are implementing such programs) in understanding risk, reducing vulnerability, enhancing capacity and increasing resilience within their schools, households and communities. Additionally, another aim is to examine implementation factors, including those structural and process factors that facilitate or impede sustainable implementation of such programs in a classroom and school setting. Thus, the study is focused on designing and testing a sustainable child-centred disaster resilience education program that consists of theory, research and stakeholder-identified elements thought to be responsible for generating effective DRR and resilience outcomes and what underpins effective implementation.

The study is currently ongoing. The first phase of primary data have been collected in Dhaka, Bangladesh through focus groups discussion with 41 children; interviews with 10 child-centred DRR practitioners from international NGO (e.g., Save the Children, Plan International and Community Participation and Development Bangladesh); interviews with 10 government officials from the Department of Disaster Management (DDM), the Ministry of Education, National Curriculum and Textbook Board (NCTB), Department of Primary Education, Department of Secondary Education; and observation of several CC-DRR program activities implemented by different NGOs in Bangladesh. At this stage, the collected data are being analysed through a mixed methods, and PAR-informed, data analytic strategy, including using various means to ensure reliable, valid, trustworthy and triangulated findings. From these findings, and through incorporating these findings, the sustainable child-centred disaster resilience education program will be developed. The program is expected to consist of a set of several components. For each of these components, program theory will be designed to guide evaluation in the later stage. The designed program will be then tested within a guiding PAR framework in a school setting in Bangladesh later this year.

As the proposed research is first of its kind, it will provide an evidence-base to assist in the development and implementation of CC-DRR-focused, participatory education programs. It will also constitute a major contribution to the international literature on children’s role in disaster risk reduction.

14:00-15:45 Session 2B/2C-III: Track session
Location: Room B201
A climate-resilient Dominica informed by a risk-opportunity framework

ABSTRACT. Small Island Developing States (SIDS) are in a precarious and vulnerable place at the frontlines of climate change. Cyclones and hurricanes are occurring with increasing frequency and intensity, causing impacts that are further complicated by slow-onset issues such as sea level rise, increasing rainfall, and temperature extremes. Disaster risk management becomes uniquely challenging because as these events occur with increasing frequently and intensity, the islands face cyclical scenarios in which emergency preparedness, response, recovery phases must be managed simultaneously and within a compressed period of time.

The Caribbean island nation of Dominica is a prime example of of a place in such a precarious position. Having incurred massive damage to its productive sectors and housing as a result of the Category 5 Hurricane Maria – an estimated 57% of homes were either moderately or highly damaged and 18% completely destroyed – Dominica’s Prime Minister vowed that Dominica would become “the first climate resilient nation in the world.” Working alongside existing ministries involved in the current recovery, the degree to which disaster recovery and climate resilience will compliment each other and how they will be managed remains to be seen. Dominica’s population is modestly sized, its education levels and development are high, the government is centralized, and its populace is well aware of the realities of a changing climate and the need to adapt. All these conditions combined, it seems that now is a very apt time to be able to integrate disaster recovery and climate adaptation, while bending the narrative of SIDS from dependence and vulnerability towards leadership and strength.

This paper puts forward the framework of ‘risk-opportunity’, whereby risk and opportunity are inextricable from each other, but may be used as a simple diagnostic to weigh one concept against the other. Hazard-perspectives – simple viewings of the effects of a hazard such as riverine flooding, for example, from the vantage point of specific populations such as able-bodied citizens, children, or the elderly – inform resiliency strategies, devised for – and co-created by – a variety of stakeholders to not only reduce risks and address multiple hazards, but develop social capital while activating it. Two components of social capital – bonding within existing networks of families in a neighborhood and bridging between networks of different ethnicities or in different locations – must link to “explicit, formal or institutionalized power or authority gradients in society” in order to build trust, enhance transparency, and ensure forward motion across the entire spectrum of recovery and adaptation.

The risk-opportunity framework will be used to identify stakeholder concerns and suggestions regarding the early response phase, the transition into longer-term recovery phases, and to examine how an opportunity-oriented approach can help to shape recovery and climate adaptation processes through messaging and media outreach, post-disaster planning, program design, and climate-forward national policy.

Governance of urban social-ecological systems: a theoretical reflection for resilience through urban planning practices

ABSTRACT. Topic and research background Today, more than ever, human and nature are closely coupled in complex and interconnected social-ecological systems (SES) referred as “cities”. The Anthropocene - the new geological era which we live in is characterised by climate change, environmental degradation, biodiversity loss and increasing risks. The Sendai Framework serves as a practical guideline to manage the changing dynamics of human-nature linkages in cities to stay resilient within planetary boundaries. As urban SES evolve to host increasing numbers of inhabitants, the environmental externalities emerging from these systems are also becoming more complex and profound. Since urban planning plays a significant role in the way we govern the complexity of urban SES, what can we learn from complex systems to improve urban planning for sustainability? This key question leads to a theoretical knowledge inquiry on Systems, SES and the governance of such systems, from which the paper proposes ways forward for resilience thinking to improve urban planning practices for climate risk reduction and environmental sustainability. 

Objectives The paper has a three-fold objectives: 1) to describe the nature and structure of Systems and urban SES, 2) to reflect on the theoretical perspectives of governance of urban SES, and 3) to propose ways forward for resilience thinking to improve urban planning practices for climatic risk reduction and environmental sustainability, as for example cored in the Sendai Framework.

Methods or approach Two main methods are applied: descriptive approach and deductive reasoning The paper possesses a theoretical focus on systems complexity and governance of urban SES through descriptive approach. Relevant theories and concepts include: risk and resilience, complexity theories, adaptive cycle and Panarchy, actor-network theory (ANT), systems approaches, sustainability and urban planning theories. Deductive reasoning is also applied to suggest explanations on the incompetences of current urban sustainability practices, and also to provide suggestions on adaptive governance for building resilience.

Findings or results (expected) The nature and structure of SES are intrinsically complex, interconnected and co-evolving. Risks in the present environmental reality are increasing both in complexity and profundity, which indirectly translates into the degree of challenges in governance and resilience building. Urban inhabitants are actors with triple functions in SES who are not only impacted by environmental problems, but also are the producers of such problems, and therefore can also take part in problem-solving processes.

Conclusions Knowledge of the nature and structure of SES are essential to inform urban governance for addressing environmental risks. Increasing risks in the present environmental reality prompt the urgent need to recognise the largely disciplinary and siloed characteristics of the current urban governance, as well as to adopt a more participatory, systemic and inclusive approach and thinking. Last but not least, the triple functions of urban inhabitants as actors in complex SES is a key insight to improve urban governance for better policies and actions that would eventually enhance resilience building, and therefore should be promoted broadly to make urban inhabitants proactive managers of the systems.

Business continuity as a means to strengthen Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) in a coastal community of oyster farmers

ABSTRACT. Oyster farming in the Philippines is an important livelihood in many coastal communities which are usually composed of fisher folks and informal settlers that are among the marginalized sectors of the country and are most vulnerable to natural hazards. The Philippines sits in a region where hydro-meteorological and geophysical hazards are common often lead to disasters. Thus, disaster risk reduction measures (DRR) are important in order to prevent loss of life and reduce damage to properties.

The study focuses on the DRR initiatives between Ipil Action Group, an association of fisher folks living along the coast of an estuarine environment and Agricultural Sustainability Initiatives for Nature (ASIN) Inc., a start-up company whose mission is to provide high quality, traceable and sustainable agricultural produce using environmental friendly sound practices.

Basic geological hazard assessment of the study site using available maps and data from government agencies and institutions were done and its potential impacts to the oyster supply/value chain and business continuity were evaluated. Business continuity strategies were then suggested based on identified gaps and potentials for collaboration. One of which is the promotion and distribution of a more disaster resilient oyster growing method combined with a timely and accurate multi hazard early warning system (MHEW). ASIN and Ipil Action Group is developing a simple and open communication system using cellular phones whenever there are severe weather systems that may affect the area. This early warning system communication protocol will also apply for tsunami warnings and other instances where critical information needs to be relayed to the community as soon as possible. This initial activity to ensure the safety of their disaster resilient oyster rafts and their livelihood during typhoons served as a springboard to strengthen DRR in the study site.

Concerns on environmental protection and management also surfaced during collaborative discussions which highlights their understanding of how environmental quality will affect their livelihood of oyster farming and how environmental degradation may exacerbate the impact of disasters. These concerns are in resonance with the Sendai Framework as it broadens the scope of disaster risk reduction to cover environmental and biological hazards and risks and the promotion of health resilience.

The ongoing and proposed business continuity initiatives to address the identified gaps are anchored on a close collaboration between the community organisation, business sector, government and higher educational institutions (HEI) which hopefully will enable capacity development. Optimistically, these initiatives will lead to a resilience within the community which covers geologic hazards, health, sanitation and the environment.

Business continuity and DRR initiatives are hand in hand in increasing the resilience of partner community organizations to disasters by enabling them with proper knowledge and continuous support. Sound and sustainable business practices can provide stable, long term livelihood opportunities which will also be able to reduce the risk of the oyster farmers to disasters by helping them overcome poverty.

Building resilience to natural disasters using financial instruments

ABSTRACT. The emergence of environmental issues from global warming and the increase of natural disasters requires a global approach that integrates the sustainability concerns into the economy. The implementation of sustainable development involves the use of dedicated financial instruments both from the public and the private sector, which may be triggered using appropriate indicators, to address the needs which arise when natural disasters takes place and facing other environmental challenges. These financial solutions ought to be clearly identified, defined and budgeted to be used in an integrated way and at the right time. An important element to be considered is the transfer of risks between participant actors which may adopt different forms of partnerships between the public and the private sector.

This research aims to conceptualize and identify the different type of financial instruments, traditional and innovative solutions, actors, funds and agreements, and possible forms of public-private partnerships, to improve the resilience of the society against natural disasters. By reviewing traditional post-disaster arrangements and innovative pre-disaster financial instruments, as well as partnership forms to integrate different actors, it is observed how risk financing may complement and promote risk reduction.

The promotion and establishment of public–private partnerships is essential to better engage the private sector in disaster risk reduction fostering a culture of disaster prevention and benefit from technological and innovative solutions.

The analysis is based on: a) a literature review, mostly to conceptualize and define the elements and scope of the research; and b) a case studies search, from which main barriers, key limitations, relevant lessons and best practice, that features the links between public-private partnerships and disaster risk reduction, may be extracted using mostly qualitative analysis over a number of cases.

This research involves to analyze the dynamics of possible financial instruments to identify the current state of art, future trends and possible recommendations for policy-makers.

The results illustrate how public-private partnership projects may be evaluated to extract conclusions about the applicable solutions to provide financial solutions adopting this types of schemes.

In sum, the paper involves the conceptual definitions of financial instruments for covering losses and economic damages from the occurrence of disasters, the identification of actors and funds, activities of the actors, initiatives following the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction, and innovative solutions to engage the public and private sector. This engagement should be done in an integrated form which can greatly contribute to make the society more resilience towards the recurrent natural phenomena which affects specifics geographical areas.

Risk of flooding: precautionary actions of villagers living in flood-prone rural area

ABSTRACT. People living in areas prone to natural hazards, hardly learn lessons from past natural hazard experience and may not take precautionary actions in order to secure their future (Kunreuther, 1978, Peek and Mileti, 2002, Gebrehiwot and van der Veen 2014). There are some studies related to the above theme based on experiences of developed countries. However, doing research on this theme in a developing country such as Sri Lanka is very important, because the frequency of occurrence of natural hazard is at an increasing trend in Sri Lanka. Also it is needed as empirical findings show that a significant percentage of monetary damage due to natural hazard can be reduced through the precautionary actions. The objectives of this study are twofold. Firstly, to identify why only some people take precautionary actions in order to secure their future life while others do not take. Secondly, to identify type of precautionary actions taken by people living in flood-prone rural areas.

The study is based on secondary and primary data collected from Kudaligama Grama Niladare division. Kudaligama village is situated in Kaluthara district in Sri Lanka. The village is affected by floods every year. Secondary data were collected from the Divisional Secretary office and GramaNiladrie office. Primary data were collected through a sample survey. Simple random sampling technique was used to select sample from a list of households located in flood prone areas.

Rogers (1983) and Prentice-Dunn (1997) have introduced protection motivation theory (PMT) to study health behavior of individuals. Later Mulilis and Lippa (1990), Grothmann and Reusswig (2006), Gebrehiwot and van der Veen (2014) have developed socio-psychological model based on PMT to analysis behavior of individuals living in natural hazard area. This study also used socio-psychological model in order to achieve above objectives.

According to the survey findings about 35 percent of households have taken precautionary actions in order to mitigate damage caused by the flood. Taking precautionary action is an optimal strategy for them as flood makes huge damages for their houses and utensils. The most popular precautionary action is the structural change of homes. Significant number of households has changed the structure of their home. Some people have built two story homes. Some have increase the height of the foundations.

The majority of households (65 percent) have not to take precautionary actions to mitigate damage caused by the flood. Findings show that most of households who did not take actions are from poor and less educated community. These households can be categorized into two groups. Some of them want to take actions but they do not have capacity to do so. Hence their decision is not an optimal decision but it is sub optimal. Other group did not take action and it is an optimal decision for them. They are used to live with flood. They do not consider flood as a hazard. They consider flood as golden water because they receive lot of donations during the flood period. Hence there is no motivation for them to take precautionary actions or shift to hazard free area.

According to the findings some households want to take actions but they do not have capacity to do so. Hence government or other stakeholders should support for them to take precautionary actions. As for the other group who considers their decision is an optimal decision there should be a separate program to motivate them to take actions.

Effects of legal frameworks in the resilience of coastal towns under tsunami hazard: governance in the Southeastern Pacific Coast of Chile

ABSTRACT. Disaster governance is a characteristic of resilience, referring to the interrelated set of institutions, instruments, norms and actors to reduce the impacts of a disaster. As governance has been fragmented in developing countries, the concept of governability has emerged, referring to a state of dynamic equilibrium with a multidimensional character and emphasis on the construction of a legitimate and effective response between the market, state/government, and the demands of the civil society. On the Chilean coast, it is important to explore whether the response to disaster tends towards governance or governability, since the regulatory framework have not considered the capacity of the territory and population. This problem was explored after the 2010 tsunami,when various territorial planning instruments were developed to increase resilience. Hence, the objective of this study was to explore the normative and spatial orientation of territorial planning instruments, and to contrast the results with the capacity of the territory. A content analysis was undertaken of the regulatory framework of 14 coastal villages (N=19 instruments) using 21 resilience indicators in respect to the physical, social, ecological and perceptual dimensions of resilience. By using the Atlas-ti software, we obtained codes and themes related to resilience (e.g. redundancy), which originated semantic networks, and allowed interpreting the orientation of the instruments towards resilience in a quantitative (e.g. frequencies of mention) and qualitative manner (e.g. redundancy of evacuation routes). Subsequently, the information was spatialized using GIS and contrasted with spatial information on the capacity of adaptation of the territory in case of tsunami. First, results indicated that the orientation of the instruments to resilience is positive as well as negative, i.e. regulations that contribute to and obstruct resilience were found. Second, the extent of the orientation of the instruments varies; while the Communal Regulatory Plan influences all resilience dimensions, the Civil Protection Plan in case of Tsunami, and the Regional Emergency Plan, influence the physical and social dimensions respectively. Finally, the instruments support the most aspects of the territory referring to the physical (e.g. evacuation routes) and social dimensions (e.g. emergency staff), and to a lesser extent those linked to the perceptual dimension (e.g. perception of risk). In contrast, instruments do not provide regulations in respect to the ecological dimension of resilience (e.g. sandunes, costal forests). Accordingly, although there is an orientation of the current regulatory framework regarding the resilience of coastal communities, this orientation is weak and counterproductive, especially considering that the instruments do not establish norms binding among themselves, there are no instruments that assure the role of the ecological dimension of resilience and, above all, that consider the ability of inhabitants to adapt in terms of how they perceive and use their territory in the event of a tsunami. Overall, results indicate a tendency to governance over governability, and at the same time, sheds light on the aspects (i.e. indicators) that influence on this, facilitating decision-making and funding allocation to improve the adaptation of human communities in cases of disaster. Acknowledgments: We thank CONICYT-FONDECYT N. 1150137 for funding this study.

Development of resilience improvement programs for a large university system: the case study of the Instituto Politecnico Nacional after 2017 Mexico earthquakes

ABSTRACT. The last disastrous earthquakes occurred in Mexico on September 2017 linked to the population’s increasing fear induced by the recent earthquake of February 16th 2018, showed the urgent necessity of implementing specific resilience programs for different type of communities (large urban cities, rural villages or coastal settlements) to facilitate the recovering of the normal life in the shortest possible time, adapted to the local conditions of any community. In urban cities, it is possible to observe a complex network of multiple systems (governmental, university, industrial, neighbourhood system, etc.) coexisting regularly making their ordinary activities without a particular delimitation between them. When an earthquake hits the network, the first reaction of each system is to protect individuals as members of their organizations, and secondly -more or less 30 minutes later- each individual tries to reach its relatives, producing an uncontrolled chaotic mobility where the systems might lose temporarily their figure of authority at least during the next two or four hours. During and after an earthquake event, a large University system possesses a set of features that makes itself especially vulnerable as well as a decisive resilient contributor to the recovery of the ordinary life in the urban region. The aim of this work is to present the application of the Five-Fingers Resilience Improvement Program (5FRI-Program) on a university campus (the largest Civil Engineering School of Mexico with more than 6000 students) as well as some of the original results obtained. The 5FRI-Program is a proposal for auto-organizing geographical-organizational-social delimited urban systems potentially affected by a combination of multiple hazards as earthquakes, hurricanes and/or flooding. The 5FRI-Program is integrated by five main points: 1) nucleation; 2) social survey and resilient core detection; 3) application of the Resilience-Based Design; 4) actions and decisions; 5) Implementation and retrofitting. The application of the 5FRI-Program on a university campus (the largest Civil Engineering School of Mexico) is presented in this work, as well as some of the original results obtained. The case study has a peculiarity that affected -and enriched- its application: according to the Program, the third step was being applied when the two large earthquakes hit Central Mexico in September 7th and 19th, 2017. Due to this, it was possible to configure and create a Civil Engineering Committee for Structural Safety as an active decision taken on the framework of the 5FRI-Program “Point Four: actions and decisions”. It is expected that the 5FRI-Program be adopted for the rest of the Schools and Research Centres of the Instituto Politecnico Nacional, as well as the constitution of a larger Committee of Structural-Geotechnical Safety and Resilience for the whole Institute.

14:00-15:45 Session 3J/4A-II: Track session
Location: Main Auditorium
The underlying mechanism of resettlement dissatisfaction

ABSTRACT. Post-disaster resettlements, particularly ones with a donor-driven approach, are often criticised for their inability to create long-term adaptability for both the built environment and for the people. Studies show that the well-established disaster recovery process is not often sustained until the end of the process. This is a potential obstacle to ensuring that the resettlements last for a long time. Thus, understanding of the resettlement dissatisfaction is essential to determining solutions. Accordingly, this paper aims to develop a model to explain the underlying mechanism of resettlement dissatisfaction. A multiple case study was conducted in Sri Lanka to observe regularities. Attempt is made in this paper to construct a possible explanation for resettlement dissatisfaction which could be explained based on the common features identified across cases. The underlying mechanism model is presented as a graph relating the phases of the resettlement and the desire of the victims to possess a house. According to the identified underlying mechanism, the desire to possess a house remains at its peak through the displacement period. Subsequently, during normalisation, the desire to remain in the resettlement declines for five reasons identified in the present study. The decline in desire to remain, leads to dissatisfaction if resettlement is managed inadequately. Thus, addressing the causes of decline is essential to sustain and achieve the primary purpose of the resettlements.

Improving Disaster Risk Reduction education for Australian construction professionals
SPEAKER: Helen Giggins

ABSTRACT. There is an increasing push from governments and agencies around the world to mainstream Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) in professional practice. The built environment is a major stakeholder when it comes to DRR, and the associated construction professionals have a responsibility to help mainstream DRR within the built environment profession. This research paper examines how DRR practices and knowledge can best be disseminated among construction professionals, by first identifying gaps in the current curriculum. We identify the core DRR knowledge, skills and requirements and determine if the current Construction Management (CM) programs in New South Wales, Australia include these within their degree programs. This includes a study of the current DRR literature focusing on three main themes including DRR, DRR within the built environment and construction professionals. This research paper adopted a qualitative research method involving a three phased approach including a systematic literature review, assessment of current CM Curriculum and a gap analysis study of the results of Phase 1 and Phase 2. As part of the research method a thematic analysis was conducted on a database of documents relating to the key themes of this research. As a result of this 11 core DRR knowledge, skills and requirements were identified as important to construction professionals engaging with DRR. The curriculum of 4 major universities within New South wales were examined and it was found that only 6 out of the 11 core DRR knowledge, skills and requirements were covered within the current CM curriculum. As such, 3 major recommendations have been produced as a result of this research providing guidance to the bodies responsible on how to better disseminate the core DRR knowledge, skills and requirements within the CM related degree programs. The results of this study have found that more needs to be done in relation to the implementation of the core DRR knowledge, skills and requirements within the CM curriculum. There is an opportunity to carry out further research in this area by assessing the CM curriculum across all of Australia and around the world. A longitudinal study is recommended to assess the success of mainstreaming DRR with CM Curriculum and also to assess the success and or failure of the recommendations made within this research paper.

The nature of road reconstruction intervention in post-conflict Sri Lanka: linkages to peace and reconciliation

ABSTRACT. The physical reconstruction of infrastructure is widely accepted as an essential component of building back better to support recovery and rehabilitation after a disaster. In a post conflict setting, reconstruction is additionally related to conflict resolution and reconciliation. Therefore, it is important that the reconstruction accounts not only for economic costs and benefits, but also politically and socially sensitive issues such as trust, equality, regional differences, ethnic identity and inter-ethnic interactions. In Sri Lanka, the various policies, capacities, structures and power politics of government institutions has significantly influenced the reconstruction process in different parts of the country. In this paper the nature of reconstruction intervention in post conflict Sri Lanka is analysed, primarily focusing on the role of national and local governments. As a part of a major study on consequences of post conflict reconstruction, the paper discusses the various elements associated with governance such as ethnic representation, seniority, political power, corruption and elections, in relation to road infrastructure reconstruction in post conflict Sri Lanka. It also derives significant linkages between the nature of reconstruction intervention and the long term impact such intervention can have on reconciliation and peace.

How reliable is Build Back Better at enhancing socio-ecological resilience?

ABSTRACT. The slogan – Build Back Better – has caught global attention, evident in the approach being identified as one of the dimensions in Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR), as per the Sendai Framework for DRR (2015-2030), despite its several severe limitations. The paper critically examines the long term reliability of BBB approach from a socio-ecological systems (SES) resilience framework.

The concept of disaster resilience itself has been understood in varying manner (e.g. engineering resilience = resistance or controlling change; social or ecological resilience = recovery/ adaptation to an improved state and SES resilience = continuous system transformation or self-re-organization). The authors argue that while BBB strategy may seem systemic, it fits squarely into engineering, social or ecological resilience focused on system resistance or at the best, system adaptation (i.e. an improvement from pre-disaster condition in housing, settlements and communities). Moreover, disaster resilience is considered to be an on-going or continuous activities. The characteristics of SES resilience – transformation and on-going – have largely remained untouched within the DRR community. A system can be as broad or as narrow as one defines it to be. For the purpose of this paper, system is defined at the scale of settlement and includes human and built environment’s interactions with the natural environment.

This paper reports on longitudinal (>7 years) examination of housing reconstruction projects using mixed methods methodology (architectural and human geography) to identify reconstruction processes and practices that have been successful at bringing systemic changes or enhancing resilience from SES perspective. Two reconstruction projects are selected for comparative case study investigation: 1) an owner-driven reconstruction project following the 2008 Kosi River floods in Bihar, India and 2) donor or government driven reconstruction project following the 2010 Mentawai earthquake and tsunami in Indonesia. The underlying risk factors, policy, government/governance setup, reconstruction approaches (enabling or providing), on-the-ground practices, capacity building efforts and their long-term impacts were analyzed and compared between case studies. Social sciences method of semi-structured interviews and architectural method of visual documentation were used. 18-20 respondents were selected from each case study based on purposive sampling. The two-country comparison provides richer perspectives and ability to draw-out similar patterns to lead to generalizable findings. The findings suggest that concepts such as – capabilities and capacity building – that have emerged from fields of studies outside built environment, such as – development studies and engineering, social and ecological studies, respectively; have a major role to play in the long-term reliability of BBB. While some of the findings are in line with already accepted – need for an owner-driven, process-driven, multi-stakeholder and multi-disciplinary approach – other findings underscore three things: i) the importance of systems-based strategic visioning (e.g. social profiling, vulnerability patterns and resilience deficits), ii) capabilities-based approach (freedom of choice to the people in developing countries, same as in developed countries) and iii) sustained capacity building efforts (long after the completion of projects). These findings further develop the current scholarship on long term reliability of BBB (through reconstruction) in terms of carving multiple pathways for transformational adaptation or enhancing resilience and thus, DRR.

An innovative approach to post-disaster reconstruction and future resilience through amphibious foundation systems

ABSTRACT. [4A] - Long term reliability of Build Back Better (BBB) Submission for Oral presentation


Amphibious housing presents exciting possibilities in the quest for sustainable and resilient responses to the impending global climate change crisis. Suitable new housing types, offered through disaster preparedness efforts, are needed for populated regions where sea level rise and heightened storm activity are expected to intensify flooding. Amphibious or buoyant foundation systems refer to new or retrofit construction that allows a house to remain close to the ground with the appearance of an ordinary house, but to rise with rising floodwater and float on the surface until the flood recedes, at which time it settles back into exactly its original position. This is a highly innovative approach to disaster preparedness, flood mitigation and climate change adaptation that is in initial stages of technical development and refinement.

In environmentally sensitive locations, amphibious construction suggests how to sit lightly on the land and live WITH the flooding, temporarily, when it occurs. Amphibious strategies accept the presence of floodwater but prevent it from causing significant damage. Amphibious architecture works in synchrony with natural cycles of flooding, allowing water to flow where it will rather than attempting to control it. Since the height to which an amphibious building rises will vary with the depth of the water, amphibious structures can take both changing sea levels and land subsidence in stride, and reduce the challenges of recovery and the necessity of reconstruction.

This paper will report on preliminary results from two funded studies that focus on constructing prototype amphibious foundations for existing flood-prone houses on Canadian First Nations reserves and in Vietnam's Mekong Delta. The First Nations community of Pinaymootang is vulnerable to seasonal flooding of the Interlakes Reserve. Members of the community have been relocated repeatedly during flood events, disrupting their lives and destroying community cohesion. Amphibious houses will support the community’s preparedness and resilience, simultaneously adhering to the “Build Back Better” framework. Amphibious retrofits to houses in the Mekong Delta will increase community resilience and improve the financial stability of residents living in poverty by reducing property damage and the need for relocation in times of severe floods. Project outcomes will inform design standards, in line with “Build Back Better,” to support continued implementation throughout the region.

An amphibious foundation approach encourages recognition of the beneficial aspects of the occasional presence of water: we need not merely learn to live with water, we can thrive with water. While amphibious strategies are not universally applicable, they have great potential to benefit vulnerable indigenous populations that currently face the difficult choice between leaving their traditional homelands or living with the disruption and devastation that severe unmitigated flooding and subsequent lengthy evacuations can have on their communities.

Successful implementation of the amphibious prototypes will most importantly reveal needed changes in building codes and policies to better support and integrate the amphibious approach into reconstruction methods, where needed, and overall preparedness best practices. A fully tested set of design guidelines will ensure that amphibious foundations can play a role in preventing future disasters by enhancing the safety and resilience of housing, settlements and communities.

The role of the architect in times of energy crisis and global warming

ABSTRACT. The worsening energy crisis, not only in terms of scarcity but also as a main contributor to global climate change, largely responsible for the growing amount of natural phenomena that put the population at risk, makes it necessary to regulate the growth of cities, specifically regarding the way that it affects the environment. In this context, urban infrastructure and buildings must provide an ever lower environmental burden in terms of CO2 emissions, energy consumption, and water footprint, among other important indicators. In the case of buildings, not only must their structure be able to withstand a strong earthquake and/or tsunami, but they must also grant passive inner comfort, that is, without the need of extra energy consumption; this is when architects work is fundamental, since they are in charge of designing an envelope that serves such purposes. This presentation reviews the case of the new SERVIU building, a division of the Ministry of Housing and Urban Development of Chile, in Concepción, Bio Bio region, which was designed and built according to energy efficiency standards for thermal behaviour and visual comfort; this building is ready to operate after a catastrophe, especially considering that it is part of the State infrastructure, which should not stop working under any circumstances. The objective was to design an enclosure that would provide thermal comfort and adequate natural lighting in such a way that the operation of the building would be highly autonomous, with lower dependence on energy consumption. For this, a methodology was used that consisted of several dynamic simulations of the thermal behaviour of the building using specialised software TAS, so that in each model the composition of the façades was changed until reaching the desired thermal performance. In relation to the methodological aspects, the development of the energy efficiency project addresses the quantitative and qualitative aspects of design in the architecture of the building; quantitative, since the project seeks to reach very low levels of energy consumption in heating, cooling, and artificial lighting, and qualitative because the changes made to the envelope in each modelling should reflect the design and semantics proposed in the architecture. Regarding the results, it was possible to reach high performance levels in heating and cooling, equal or less than 37 kWh/m2/yr for heating demands and less than 10 kWh/m2/yr for cooling, with good autonomy in natural lighting. As a conclusion, the paper highlights the importance of generating a resilient architecture, capable of operating in a post-disaster scenario and able to reduce the impact on the environment throughout its life cycle, especially in a building whose main function is to provide social housing to the population, and particularly in reconstruction processes.

Are architects up to the challenge of mitigating risks through design? Some impressions from the field

ABSTRACT. Disaster risk management, in all stages of its cycle, clearly has an interdisciplinary nature; indeed, several disciplines are called upon to contribute to comprehensively appraise, characterize, manage and communicate risks. The same reasoning is valid within disaster management per se, which deals with risks materialized into undesired large-scale damaging situations. Since the 2004 tsunami in the Indian Ocean, architects have increasingly been integrating the sphere of humanitarian practitioners in emergency situations, being involved in the relief and recovery phases in the aftermath of great disasters. It is somehow assumed that the process of rebuilding better the affected territories can be supported by some of the competencies developed within the training of these ‘humanitarian architects’. But what about the opposite pole of the risk cycle? To what extent is the risk-mitigation agenda within DRR – that is, building to face and minimize risks from the start – being internalized by design activities? This paper examines the role of architectural practices in incorporating risk mitigation and adaptation within their day-to-day design activities related to risk-prone sites. It draws on the conclusions of a research focusing on the design of flood-adapted urban projects in Europe, within which we had the opportunity to interview 22 designers involved in this kind of projects. The paper is structured around some key ideas that underlie the interviewees’ statements about dealing with floods through design, explored through content analysis. Having very different experiences with flood-related projects, these stakeholders showed uneven degrees of sensitivity to manage risks through design. While some of them still view flood-risk management as a technical issue to be dealt with mostly by engineers with structural measures (therefore outside the scope of their architectural practices), others take risk mitigation and adaptation as actual threads to formulate their overall design concepts. Our analyses of these testimonies pinpoint that in order for architects to be up to the challenge of mitigating risks through design some crucial ingredients are needed, such as high risk awareness, understanding risk processes, professional openness (to actually perform collaborative works within interdisciplinary design teams) and a positive mindset. These factors may help architects face risks since the beginning of the design process (instead of a mere secondary layer added later on to their projects) and therefore contribute more effectively to disaster-risk-reduction endeavours.

14:00-15:45 Session 4H-II: Track session
Location: Room C202
Simplified strategies for a quantitative seismic vulnerability assessment of healthcare structures

ABSTRACT. Hospitals are highly complex buildings, due to the presence of technological equipment and facilities, and critical scenarios can arise in case of natural events as earthquakes. In fact, these structures are characterized by safety issues that concern both the construction characteristics, the contained equipment as well as the performed activities and functions. Therefore, it is important to carry out integrated evaluations, considering both the aspects of safety and functionality, to identify the key elements that can support decision-makers in the definition of organization and management strategies. The present work is part of the ASSIST project, which is aimed at the development of tools for the assessment and monitoring of building structures for healthcare services, with the goal to reach a framing perspective and an overall strategic vision, useful to correctly define the financial investments over several years. In the complexity of the problem, one of the main elements to be considered for the evaluation and control of building structures is related to the seismic safety of buildings. This information is in fact a priority and it is essential to properly operate the choices of possible interventions to improve the safety level. Moreover, in building structures with economically important plant content, evaluation of seismic safety should always be made by considering the interaction of the response with the functionality of the plants and more generally with the other non-structural elements. In the present paper, two simplified methods for the seismic assessment of reinforced concrete buildings are developed in parallel by two different research units. Both methods evolve from a previous experience on school structures and they have now been modified to take into account the complexity of hospital facilities. The simplified strategies allow to assess the seismic capacity of buildings using very few data and through a quick analysis. This way, it is possible to obtain a ranking of buildings based on their seismic capacity. With this data, the decision-makers can distribute the nowadays often limited available resources to perform specific and more in-depth vulnerability analysis. The developed methods are applied to a few pilot case-studies, comparing the results with more detailed finite-element push-over analyses. Results highlight a good reliability of the methods. In all cases, they are conservative and capable to correctly define a priority order based on the seismic vulnerability of the buildings. The simplified analyses, applied in a homogeneous and coordinated way on all the buildings, allow a correct comparison. Together with data on other aspects of safety and functionality, this information is important to properly address the use of resources.

Portuguese literacy about climate change: an online media coverage study

ABSTRACT. Climate change is an increasing concern across the globe and Portugal accompanies this trend. However, levels of public knowledge on these issues are low, with the Portuguese showing a tendency to focus mostly on the impacts of the climate change. This study aims to address this gap in Portuguese scientific literature. Specifically, this study aims to analyse the Portuguese online media coverage on climate change. A research equation was computed in Google News motor search. Additionally, the time frame and the origin country of the news articles were defined. A total of 217 news were selected and analysed. Diário de Notícias was the online newspaper that more frequently covered topics on climate change. It was verified that half of the news had a national scope, focused on the present impacts, mostly involving planners/managers or politicians, with a major focus on drought and forest fires. Regarding risk management, most of the news focused on impact reduction and mitigation. The main adaptation measures tend to focus in the prevention of environmental degradation. Portuguese newspapers tend to construct climate impacts as a passive process, the actors involved not being active in the resolution of the problem and still showing a significant scientific illiteracy.

Exploring the influence of social networks in the adoption of safer construction practices in Nepal

ABSTRACT. Research has shown that technical assistance does not always result in safer building practices. The lack of adoption might be partly caused by suboptimal communication strategies. Sometimes, the lack of trust in key actors seem to hamper adoption. This research aims to find alternative pathways for adoption through an exploration of social networks in post-earthquake reconstruction in Nepal, via semi-structured key stakeholder interviews, household surveys and social network analysis. Trusted actors are identified at community level in two disaster affected districts, in which one received extensive and one limited technical assistance. Results show that with limited technical assistance, local actors are actually able to gain knowledge about earthquake resistant construction techniques and apply them independently. The data shows potential to reduce humanitarian assistance by enlarging the role of the engineers as knowledge source. However, dependency on non-community based engineers is not beneficial for community resilience. Findings also show that other key actors, such as community based construction professionals are eager to receive more training and assistance and strengthen their role. Almost all key actors have found to have limited understanding to apply earthquake resistant construction principles for other designs, hence knowledge exchange is needed to facilitate learning and adoption in the future.

Enabling earthquake resilience: a multicriteria decision-making adaptive reuse framework

ABSTRACT. The increasing awareness of risks posed by earthquake-prone buildings in New Zealand is likely to cause inflationary economic factors and town centre decay in many provincial towns because of the disproportionate amount of the building stock that are earthquake-prone. These towns are currently showing early signs of urban decay, and are likely to experience changes in the pattern of land occupation and gradual devaluation of existing building stock. A number of heritage buildings have been abandoned to decay due to the lack of a decision support tool to assess their adaptive reuse potential to meet new market demand, and their relative importance to the overall community regeneration and resilience objectives. This paper sought to develop a multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) framework to prioritise and rank heritage buildings for adaptive reuse interventions. The framework developed in this study will have an immediate impact that enables local councils to quickly ‘sift’ through the existing building stock that are earthquake-prone, and have significant useful life and adaptive reuse potentials to be identified, and where the timing is appropriate, to flag these properties for possible seismic strengthening and reuse. This framework will helps building owners and local councils to target their resources better, and make contributions that are more substantial to the district net worth.

ResilOrgSim: simulating organizational resilience

ABSTRACT. Organizations shape societies’ economic, administrative, regulatory, and political activities. Their resilience contributes to the overall community resilience. Understanding and measuring the factors that contribute to organizational resilience has been subject of different studies. Moreover, standard organizations including the International Standards Organization (ISO) have developed principles and standard attributes of resilient organizations in order to promote organizational resilience at an international level. Various tools have been developed that can be used to measure organizational resilience. This paper presents a new simulation tool (application) called ResilOrgSim that has been developed based on the ISO_22316 (Organizational resilience — Principles and attributes). ResilOrgSim helps organizations to 1) self-assess their resilience status based on the standard criteria; 2) simulate potential impacts of various disruptions on organizational recovery prospects taking into account the resiliency status at the time of disruptions, and the nature of disruptions; 3) to measure the impacts that improvements in resilience factors can have on post-disaster or post-disruption recovery of the organization.

14:00-15:45 Session DRR-ChildPlay: Workshop

Workshop "Disaster risk reduction is child's play".

This fully interactive event will take the form of a game session facilitated by a range of academics and practitioners who use DRR games in their research, community engagement, outreach and other activities. This will be followed by a debrief through an interactive activity allowing participants to reflect on their experiences with alternative approaches to appreciating the role of disaster risk reduction through inquiry-based, active and experiential learning adopting the use of modular construction toys, board and card games, and video games, and discuss how creative use of well-known toys and games helps exploring a real-world problem and test the solution.

Location: Room C104
15:50-16:35 Yoga session

Margarida Lima

Please bring comfortable shoes and clothing.

16:00-16:45 Session 1C/3D-II: Track session
Location: Main Auditorium
Building urban critical infrastructure resilience to climate change

ABSTRACT. In the past decade, natural risks related to climate were the cause of the 90% of the natural disasters. Indeed, in the last years, urban areas have been seriously affected due to the high impacts caused by the extreme weather events. This fact highlights the need to adopt actions that contribute to reducing and effectively tackling the negative effects of Climate Change. The proper functioning of our cities and the welfare of society is based on the good performance of critical infrastructures (CIs) and, in turn, these CIs are vulnerable to the effects of Climate Change. Climate Change affects CIs in the short and in the long-term, as it modifies the weather patterns increasing the frequency and the intensity of extreme weather-related events. This fact makes the crises affecting CIs more difficult to predict and, thus, to be prepared to face them. In this context, resilience is becoming a potential strategy to deal with Climate Change effects, because of its adaptive approach taking into account uncertainty and low probability of high impact events, as well as the long-term effects. The resilience building process applies to many and very diverse sectors, and requires the active involvement of all the stakeholders from the earliest stages of the process. Collaboration is crucial in the context of CIs since, in addition to external factors such as legislation or technology, the resilience level of a CI not only depends on the CI itself but also on other CIs. A common vision from all the individual points of view needs to be reached in order to plan and develop a collective action involving all the city stakeholders and also the society. Moreover, working together on topics like CIs, Resilience and Climate Change helps to identify transversal action lines, which should lead to a more efficient development of the strategic plans. This paper describes, by means of two empirical case studies in the Basque Country (Spain), the suitability of using collaborative methodologies for developing a guideline that let the urban CIs improve their resilience capacity to Climate Change. We carried out several workshops to analyze the crises, especially the ones derived from Climate Change. Relevant stakeholder from the public and private sectors participated in the workshops: first responders and different departments of the City Council such as strategy, environment, mobility, urbanism or social issues. Also participated stakeholders from the private sector, in particular CI operators, such as energy, communications, water or health. With the information of the workshops we identify the indicators that can characterize any crisis and how these indicators evolve depending on the magnitude of a crisis and on the resilience level of the CIs. Furthermore, we analyze the interdependencies among the CIs. Finally, we can propose a set of policies to improve the resilience level of the urban CIs to Climate change. This way of working constitute an opportunity for encouraging the dialogue and cooperation among all the stakeholders working on resilience to climate change.

Awareness relevance in cities’ climate change resilience building process, a literature review

ABSTRACT. Climate change is considered one of the 21st century’s challenge. In the last decade, the effects of climate change have increased leading to higher frequency of heat waves, an increase of the sea level, more intense rainstorms and more frequent droughts. However, even if the effects of climate change has got more notorious, there is still a considerable social denial. The existing social rejection toward climate change is mainly due to cultural believes, received education, personal experience and political ideology. This social denial leads to a passive behavior when dealing with the challenge of climate change that consequently hampers the resilience building process. Therefore, there is not only a need to get prepared to face climate change but also to generate a behavior transformation. In fact, transforming behavior will conclude with a higher preparedness level to face climate change. At present, mitigation and adaptation are considered the two main approaches to respond to climate change. As a consequence, local mitigation and adaptation plans have been elaborated recently to ensure the needed engagement and participation of all the relevant stakeholders. In fact, private, public and people’s involvement is needed during the whole process of mitigation and adaptation. However, how to end with the existing barriers, integrate these plans into the general urban planning and move from theory to action has not been determined yet. Little research has been carried out concerning how to effectively implement the elaborated plans. Evidences from literature conclude that awareness, knowledge and experience are the key elements to end with the existing barriers and successfully implement the climate change mitigation and adaptation plans. From these three key elements, awareness has been stated to be of high importance not only due to its capability to enhance communities’ proactivity and engagement, but also because being aware increases the mitigation and adaptation capacities and consequently minimizes the impacts of climate change. Based on this hypothesis, the aim of this paper is to develop a literature review in order to analyze the role of awareness in the mitigation and adaptation plans as well as the process to build awareness. The papers resulting from the literature review can be classified into the following three groups: the papers that study the already existing mitigation and adaptation plans, the papers evaluating the characteristics that the mitigation and adaptation plans should fulfil and finally the papers that focus on how to achieve higher awareness levels. The result of this literature review is that awareness facilitates social learning and communities’ adaptation through a behavior transformation. As a consequence, the increase of awareness concludes with higher social acceptance and higher climate change resilience.

Integrating local knowledge and scientifically generated climate information for resilience building
SPEAKER: Camilla Audia

ABSTRACT. Climate change is having devastating effects on our planet, at a scale exceeding representation and eluding popular imagination (Demos, 2017, p.57). It has been defined as one of the greatest challenges affecting Africa today (Descheemaeker et al. 2018) and is having significant impact on climate extremes. In fact, rural households in Burkina Faso, West Africa, are subject to the most immediate and dramatic effects of climate extremes, being affected by intense droughts and disastrous flooding (Naab et al., 2012). Moreover, climate change is affecting local knowledge on weather and climate that farmers have used to predict seasonal tendencies. Conversely, scientific data, generated by Meteorological Offices worldwide, is becoming increasingly able to forecast weather and climate which could increase people’s resilience to climate shocks. However, many barriers exist in making this information accessible, relevant and useable for people at risk including illiteracy and lack of access to radio or smartphones as well as impacts of socio-economic background and gender differentiated access.

This research, funded by NERC Innovation Placement grant aims to identify conditions necessary for co-producing consensus forecasts which focus on equally valuing different sources of knowledge, such as local indicators and scientific knowledge. An additional facet of the project, funded by King’s College London Arts in Society Innovation scheme, also aims at gathering personal testimonies and first-hand evidence of climate change from rural communities and scientists to increase public understanding of climate change in the 'Anthropocene'. These personal documents from the frontline of climate change will provide a tangible entry point into a global problem that must be comprehended in order to be tackled.

What spaces, processes and mechanisms enable farming households, researchers, traditional forecasters, agricultural extension workers and meteorologists to change the way they perceive and value each other’s knowledge on seasonal forecasts? This paper takes on a novel and multi-disciplinary approach combining climate and social sciences with visual art in a process of co-production of knowledge between people at risk, researchers and artists to create a disruption in how stakeholders acknowledge and analyse forecasts and in how a wider audience understands the consequences of climate change. Data will be collected in two provinces of Burkina Faso; first, researchers will observe and take part in participatory scenario planning training of trainers and community – level workshops focusing on explaining and discussing the seasonal forecast to enable planning which is crucial to strengthen resilience. In addition, researchers will explore how local knowledge on weather has been affected by climate change, collect testimonies and use documentary approaches and participatory techniques to address the current lack of trust in scientific data from people at risk as well as prejudice regarding usefulness of local knowledge. Co-produced consensus forecasts, equally valuing all sources of knowledge, would lead to greater uptake of scientific climate information which, in turn, would improve people’s resilience to climate extremes.

References: T.J. Demos, Against the Anthropocene, Sternberg, Berlin, 2017, p.57. Descheemaeker, K., Zijlstra, M., Masikati, P., Crespo, O., Homann-Kee Tui, S., 2018. Effects of climate change and adaptation on the livestock component of mixed farming systems: A modelling study from semi-arid Zimbabwe. Agric. Syst. 159, 282–295. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agsy.2017.05.004 Naab, J., Bationo, A., Wafula, B.M., Traore, P.S., Zougmore, R., Ouattara, M., Tabo, R., Vlek, P.L.G., 2012. African Perspectives on Climate Change and Agriculture: Impacts, Adaptation and Mitigation Potential, in: ICP Series on Climate Change Impacts, Adaptation, and Mitigation. IMPERIAL COLLEGE PRESS, pp. 85–106. https://doi.org/10.1142/9781848169845_0006

16:00-16:45 Session 3E-II: Track session
Location: Room B201
Autonomous action on urban flood risk by school stakeholders in Dong Hoi, Vietnam

ABSTRACT. Coastal communities in Central Vietnam face significant disaster risk due to the occurrence of natural hazards combined with the social vulnerability of societies and risk multipliers like rapid urbanisation and climate change. Floods hazards are the most serious and destructive threat to the education sector in this disaster-prone area. School must find a way to continue in the provision of education despite the disadvantages faced and with or without appropriate levels of government support. A regional research project on educational continuity in urban flooding events was commissioned by Save the Children, gathering data from school stakeholders in Bangladesh, Thailand and Vietnam. The primary objective was to provide practical recommendations for school educational continuity in South and South-east Asia. This paper will analyse the critical aspects of the autonomous participation of local school stakeholders in response to urban flood risk, utilising the data gathered in Dong Hoi, Vietnam. Qualitative research methods were employed in conjunction with multi-stakeholder involvement. The data represents one primary school, one lower secondary and one upper secondary. Semi-structured interviews and focus group discussions were used to capture a range of rich, descriptive and detailed data required for thematic analysis of collected data. Findings show that a top-down national disaster risk management system has not mitigated the community’s (or school’s) vulnerability or its ability to respond to serious flooding events. Policy frameworks and disaster risk management strategies developed at the national level have not carried into local practices, putting pressure on local community initiatives that suffer from a lack of resources and limited mechanisms of governance. Community stakeholders are often marginalised due to their lack of resources to protect themselves. However, they respond with autonomous action to protect themselves. The study has shown that high-level planning remains vague and indeterminate for most of the school communities - limited training is provided to teachers, students and other stakeholders about their roles and duty in flood response action plans. Participants in the study possess significant capacities that can be mobilised for disaster preparedness, response and recovery; but these capacities must be recognised and valued. The evidence from Dong Hoi indicates that a community-based approach would reduce disaster risk in the education sector and we make recommendations to frame a meaningful debate on the policy and practice implications that emerge.

Towards sustainable fishery: building back better fishing communities after the Great East Japan Earthquake 2011

ABSTRACT. a) 4H b) ORAL preferred, but would also be happy to do POSTER

The Great East Japan Earthquake in 2011 caused severe damage to one third of the fishing communities in Japan located along the Pacific ocean of the Tohoku coastal area. The Tohoku Eco-system Associated Marine Science (TEAMS) project was launched in 2012 to track and monitor the changes of coastal marine ecosystems, and deliver science-based information relating to fishing grounds and coastal marine environment to local fishing co-operatives and its member fishermen. The objective of this project is to disseminate scientific findings pertaining to marine ecosystems so that fishermen and fishing communities are informed of the impacts and recovery of marine ecosystem. For example, one sample site observed damage and disappearance of seaweeds right after the earthquake, but after a certain period of time showed signs of recovery. Fishing industry is entirely dependent on the marine ecosystem and coastal marine environment and thus dissemination of science-based information during the recovery phase has -and still remains - as a challenge. To find what kind of science-based information are 'needed' and 'wanted' from the fishermen and fishing communities, interviews were conducted in multiple sample bays located along the coastal area of Tohoku. Findings from fieldwork involving interviews and participant observation are summarized as follows, a) while some fishermen were capable of understanding science-based information on marine science, majority were left unaware of how marine ecosystem recover over time, b) majority of the fishermen recognizes the negative impacts in which overfishing imposes in the long-run on the fishing business and local livelihoods, c) majority of the fishermen opt for sustainable fishing however, fishing cooperatives and local governments lacked the capacity in designing sustainable fishing future plans, d) local knowledge on tsunamis and evacuation in fishing communities are difficult to transfer to the next generation due to lack of young locals. The results from the fieldwork suggest the need for a comprehensive marine ecosystem habitat map so the fishermen are informed not only about the environment in which they live in, but to understand the cycle of marine ecosystem that serve as a basis of their livelihood. Another implication from the findings suggests the necessity to design, develop, and implement sustainable fishing plan by the local government. The establishment of sustainable fishing plan enables fishermen to make decision based on scientific evidence, and enhances marine resource management that could be passed on to future generations. The main conclusion reached from the findings was the importance of disaster risk management and sustainable development of coastal marine ecosystems in building the fishing communities back better, by integrating fishermen's local knowledge, and science-based knowledge obtained by conducting monitoring the changes in marine ecosystem.

Linking physical vulnerability to the resilience of the built environment

ABSTRACT. The magnitude and frequency of torrential processes (flash floods, hyper concentrated flow, debris flows etc.) as well as the spatial extend of their consequences in mountain areas are expected to change in the future due to climate change. However, the consequences of future events are also related to the characteristics of the built environment and the vulnerability of the elements at risk. Focusing on vulnerability and resilience could be the key to disaster risk reduction. Vulnerability and resilience are two complementary concepts, however, the resilience of the built environment has not been adequately investigated until now. Resilience of the built environment is related to the robustness of a system and its capability to respond to a shock, however, it is also relevant to its capability to return to its initial condition. Vulnerability of the built environment, on the other hand, is often defined as the degree of loss and is assessed by so-called vulnerability curves that express the relationship between the intensity of a process and the correspondent loss. We present here a physical vulnerability index for buildings susceptible to torrential processes. The index is based on a selection of indicators related to those characteristics of the buildings and their surroundings that contribute to their vulnerability and lead to negative consequences for the local community. The study makes a step further and investigates the interaction between vulnerability and resilience of the built environment in two ways: (a) by using the index to evaluate resilience related to the reconstruction phase (build back better) and (b) by proposing indicators related to the resilience of the built environment to be included within the original physical vulnerability index. The concept of the resilience of the built environment is revisited and the interactions between resilience and vulnerability are investigated in depth and highlighted by examples from the Austrian Alps.

16:00-16:45 Session 3G-II: Track session
Location: Room C202
Enabling adaptive capacity of urban neighbourhoods through architecture and urban design in the face of human-induced hazards: the case of urban decline

ABSTRACT. The aim of this study is to form a conceptual framework by drawing on qualities of neighborhood and adaptive capacity in order to strengthen resilience and adaptive capabilities of neighborhood that will face with stresses or consequences of urban decline. The central arguments of the study are that neighborhood is a dynamic system (a) which could adapt itself in order to mitigate shocks in the occurrence of urban decline, and (b) which establishes critical connections within the city and is a key for the resilient city. The emphasis is on triggers of urban decline, dynamic and non-linear relations in a neighborhood, variability in scales (time, space, and context) of adaptive capacity as well as physical and social construct of the neighborhood that should be considered in an integrative approach. The study concludes that focusing merely on the hazard will present limitations to enable necessary adaptive measures to the system. In this regard, triggering conditions and dynamics should be defined in detail. Also, adaptive capacity of neighborhoods could be enabled through structural and non-structural measures in advance to urban decline provided that space, size, context, time, and drivers of the dynamics are established.

Designing safety: an approach to ways of living and coexisting with socio-natural hazards in the Metropolitan Area of Concepción, Chile

ABSTRACT. Concerns about the effects that natural disasters have on people, economy and environmental deterioration, continue to increase globally. The objectives of UN-Habitat (e.g. to achieve a more sustainable development in the world) and the Sendai framework 2015-2030 for disaster risk reduction, indicate the relevance of people and their social, political, cultural and environmental context, in the processes of adaptation and to build a more sustainable and safe society. In the meantime, the process of industrialization that Chile has experienced since 1939, especially in the Metropolitan area of Conception, fostered by the Poles Development Approach implemented ever since, has promoted a progressive change in land use and an ever-increasing urban population, especially in areas exposed to different socio-natural hazards (e.g. flood, tsunami, landslide, wildfire, earthquake and industrial risk), where urban and architectural design have not considered Risk as a relevant variable in city design projects.

In this context, the main goal this research seeks is to identify the aspects of urban and architectural design, which have increased the socio-territorial vulnerability to the tsunami risk, in the built environment of the San Pedro de la costa settlement, in the Metropolitan area of Concepcion. In order to promote redevelop measures, based on the greenfield and brownfield approach as key, to reduce socio-territorial vulnerabilities and to build resilient communities.

Regarding the main methodological aspects, this project develops a descriptive and applied research, focused on the interpretation of the topic of disaster risk reduction, from different angles, to reach conclusive and significant findings. For the methodological design, we applied a morphological analysis and transect analysis, complement with observation and radatam specialization data, for determined networks and space occupation. In addition, a documentary analysis is carried out to understand the relationship between the development approaches implemented in the last 70 years and their relationship with the processes of land use change in the study area.

Main results indicate a strong land change uses happened between last 40 years, increasing the forestry industry and urban expansion processes. On the other hand the actual criteria of space occupation respond to the past approach of inhabit the territory, and the present occupation and land use plans regulate acts where the architecture and urban design do not necessarily coexist with the environment and natural hazards existing, promoting territories at risk, that require the implementation of structural measures, friendly to the environment, to reduce levels of vulnerability and design a safe, sustainable and resilience city.

Multiplying spaces of community empowerment and resilience

ABSTRACT. This paper focuses on the challenges that contemporary informal Mexican communities are experiencing in the face of new trends and processes linked to neoliberal policies and its associated social conflicts and risks. The current battles for territorial governability, multicultural diversity, rapid growth and change, are part of every day challenges along to filling basic infrastructure demands. In these conditions the meaning of concepts such as sustainability and resilience require reconceptualising, in ways that not reliant on conventional western approaches. In particular the concept of resilience, understood to mean constructive adaptation to risk (Folke et all 2002), is often merely an ideological concept meant to transfer responsibility for confronting serious problems generated by the effect of neoliberal policies onto communities and individuals, despite the fact that the responsibility lies with larger macro-economic institutions and corporations (Puyana and Romero 2006; Stiglitz 2002, 2006). This paper examines the tensions produced when such concepts come to conflict with local urban communities, values, capacities, and the priorities of actors and institutions’ territories of the Global South. In specific, informal and marginal territories (where the majority of working force of the population lives) are challenged to fight everyday struggle. It argues that different conditions in the Global South demand an alternative understanding of sustainability and resilience, which are otherwise Western concepts, that can and should be redefined by local concerns. The central argument here is that adaption to the ‘invisible’ and transformative forces of neoliberal stage in Mexico, is more likely to take the form of resistance through collective action, which in fact may help to generate resilience. To explore this claim, this paper focuses on conditions of Altos de San Pablo case study on the Epigmenio Gonzalez county of the Mexican State of Queretaro and the ways that Taller Activo, a locally based NGO promoting alternative architectural practice, based in traditional social cohesion of this community has been developing an acupunctural approach alongside a traditional formal legal framework for dealing with struggle. “La Esperanza” community was identified by Taller Activo, as a place where a group between 150 and 200 people, gathered every wedges day for community purposes. In the face of state failures to accommodate their demands, namely to reduce marginalization, Taller Activo visualized this as opportunity to empower citizen around its demands. This paper thus provides one example of how collective action can be replicated in a local community and tries to make sense of how it can be expanded as a wider range of communities with multiple operations. In this sense, the research question is: if alternative architectural practices such as Taller Activo, could generate projects that are not only filling the infrastructure and facilities gaps, but to support and multiply inherent communities capacity of self-organization, and self-determination and self-empowerment as a resilience concept redefined by local concerns.

The role of urban form in supporting rapid tsunami evacuations: using computer-based models and real-world data as examination tools
SPEAKER: Jorge León

ABSTRACT. Large populated coastal areas in Asia, Latin America and the Caribbean are exposed to destructive near-field tsunamis, fostering the need for a built environment’s physical urban form capable of supporting populations’ rapid response actions to tsunamis with short arrival times (e.g. evacuation and sheltering). In recent years, computer-based models have become powerful tools to examine both the role of the urban form and the emergent evacuation processes during tsunami emergencies. Challenges still exist, however, in validating these models and in examining real-world human behaviour. This paper addresses this shortfall through (1) developing a GIS-based urban form analysis of the tsunami-prone city of Viña del Mar, Chile; (2) carrying out an agent-based computer simulation of a tsunami evacuation in this city; (3) undertaking a “big data” analysis of the mobile phone call records (i.e. time and location of each call made by around 6,000 users in the study area) during an actual tsunami warning occurred in Viña del Mar on the 16th of September 2015, triggered by a M8.4 earthquake near Coquimbo, Chile; and (4) comparing the results from items (1), (2) and (3) above. The comparison shows that at the macro-scale of urban configuration Viña del Mar’s urban form is well suited for rapid tsunami evacuation (as the result of its orthogonal, dense and well-connected grid of streets, which provides short routes to high ground, increases redundancy for evacuation, enhances orientation and promotes a better distribution of evacuees). Nevertheless, significant differences were found not only between real-world collected data and the computer-based evacuation model’s outcomes, but also between that data and the population behaviour assumptions included in the official emergency management protocols. Three major themes were identified among these differences: partial compliance of the evacuation warning (around 60% of the study population), delayed departure times, and evacuees’ counter-intuitive behaviour (e.g. crossing water streams during evacuation). These findings pose significant implications for authorities, urban planners/designers and emergency managers, and they provide valuable real-world data to improve the city’s urban form and emergency management protocols for future tsunami crises.

16:00-16:45 Session 4E/4I-II: Track session
Location: Room C201
Poverty-reduction strategies in slums and ghettos: Bucharest as case study

ABSTRACT. In the actual social context of Europe, which evolved, statistically, over the last 20 years and reached a point where the lack of food or shelter, which are basic needs, seems inconceivable, there are areas, in the urban environment, where poverty prevails at the level of the resident communities and it is not a standard poverty, which is represented by a slightly inconvenient life, but it is what specialty literature calls extreme poverty. It can be exposed as the lowest socio-economic state a person can achieve, a state that is generated by lack of food, living under conditions well below current hygiene standards, and the complete deprivation of services that the current society benefits. These urban areas are generally represented by slums and ghettos, which are, in fact, enclaves that focus this extreme poverty. In the case of Romania and especially of Bucharest, statistics on these poor urban areas show that these communities are predominantly made up of children and young people able to work but unprepaired, who, in the absence of effective interventions, form together with the current adults an intergenerational cycle of poverty. In my current research regarding this topic, I support the fact that youngsters in this situation represent a very important human resource because, if properly prepared, they can activate in a variety of fields, having the advantage of knowing a less pleasant environment, the one they will have raised from. I will try to prove that an efficient strategy to reduce the poverty is one thought in the long-term, that focus on education in all its forms, and the reason I consider education to be the key to success in fighting against poverty is that it can reach more poverty levels through the fact that it can change the way people think and see the world. But the education won’t succed all by itself, it should come in addition with other social programs that will provide acces to facilities that are hard to find in those areas, like warm meals, spaces where the hygyen can be achieved, gyms where education through sports can be made, and so on. Furthermore, I belive that through architectural-urban interventions, there can be created effective social and cultural centers that can provide many ways of educating the residents who live in slums and ghettos, helping them to overcome the actual destructive thoughts and to embrace a new way of life. In conclusion, by using an architectural-urban approach, that is focused on education, informal one in general, it is possible, on one hand, to solve the social problem on an individual human scale, and on the other hand, to conceive the dispersal of the slums and ghettos, that are the main focal points of urban poverty.

How to design incremental housing: in search for a building typology of evolutive architecture

ABSTRACT. Unplanned and uncontrolled, the so-called informal city is the visible result of a sum of several individual actions, escaping the control of public authorities. Often poetically defined as spontaneous, this urban phenomenon reveals, however, a lack of public infrastructures. Despite the strong self-organization among families and communities, informal housing can't be considered a complete answer for building sustainable cities. The absence of planning can have serious long-term consequences, in terms of sanitation and structure mostly.

Considering this phenomenon as a vector by looking at it not as a problem, but as an incomplete solution for city making, architects can design accurate solutions within those complex contemporary contexts. In order to anticipate the urban growth, we, architects and city planners, have to anticipate the future housing densification and incremental housing might be one of the solutions for doing so. Our role is no longer to build the façade but the core, the parts that require technical knowledge (structure, sewer system, potable water…).

An incremental habitat is regarded as a process modified over time and extended in accordance with the occupiers’ requirements and means. The accommodation develops as an open space, one in which the unexpected is incorporated into or even encouraged in the initial design. The house is built gradually, as needs and money arise, and represents a real family investment. As time passes, the house can host several families within the same household and, by sharing structures and spaces, the owners can easily achieve higher living standards.

To ensure at the very least that residential units function correctly in structural and sanitary terms, it is essential to tackle the problem globally. Hence, within the framework of an incremental housing project, different roles are allotted to the inhabitants and to the architects, the professionals focusing on planning for an adequate urban fabric, as well as the technical architectural core (structures and networks) designed to facilitate and incorporate the extensions later carried out by the inhabitants.

This research is about getting a deeper knowledge about incremental housing. By crossing all times and locations, the corpus of architectural projects on which this study is based, intends to be as large as possible. Every single project is then analyzed through a grid of parameters to get a better understanding on the different ways to produce incremental housing. The results show us that we can define several categories revealing different architectural approaches on the topic. By providing a strong analysis of several architectural projects and their evolution through time, we can hope that incremental housing will turn into a widespread idea and become a common tool for tomorrow’s city planning.

Shouldn’t all architecture be designed with empathy? A case of Design Probes for affordable housing design in Zanzibar

ABSTRACT. Rapid urbanization and, as a result, fast growing slum areas in developing countries challenge the built environment to meet the needs of the inhabitants in a sustainable way. To build resilient sustainable communities the inhabitants need to be heard and be a part of the development process. This paper argues that affordable housing design, slum upgrading, and reconstruction require new forms of input from architects as well as contextually suitable and effective design methods for engaging inhabitants in the architectural design process. We suggest that architects can find support from human-centred design and specifically through Empathic Design methods. The study is done as participatory action research of an affordable housing design project in Zanzibar town, in Tanzania. The main contribution of this paper is to present the early stages of the design process with focus on one part of the human-centred design process where we used Design Probing, an Empathic Design method. Human-centred design of different kinds and levels is widely known and utilized in the design discipline to create products and services that match the needs and preferences of the users. Empathic Design is defined as a set of design techniques based on observation of the users in their normal, everyday routines that develops empathic understanding of users’ unarticulated needs. Design Probing is a qualitative method of gathering inspirational data in interaction with users. A deep dive into the Zanzibar case introduces Design Probing to the architectural design process and clarifies the importance of empathy while designing in settings with contextual constrains. Design Probing can be a means to find the factors that leads a community towards resilience. Based on the analyses of the results of the design probing exercises we suggest that Design Probing as a method is useful for projects of this kind and that an empathic approach is a must.

Post-disaster recovery as socio-ecological and socio-political construction: responses to the 2010 Merapi eruption as a case study

ABSTRACT. The Merapi 2010 eruption was indeed the extraordinary event since more than a century, leading to multiple scientific, political, and social responses and debates to deal with the event and its consequences for the local communities. To understand the complex and dynamic situation of the post-eruption rehabilitation and reconstruction process after the Merapi 2010 eruption, this paper examines the concept of disaster as a socio-ecological and socio-political construct, produced in the sometimes contradictory and even conflicted interactions between different stakeholders and the ecological systems involved. The paper re-embraces the idea that the concept of disaster is relying on who interprets it. It combines a socio-ecological approach seeing man and nature as mutually constitutive and mediated, a socio-political perspective to resilience going beyond a bounce-forward approach and a social constructivist understanding of disaster and risk showing how there is no such thing as a natural disaster. The Cangkringan sub-district in Sleman region, the most severely impacted area in 2010, is taken as a case study area, for which data were collected through literature review, observation and semi-structured in-depth interviews with government officials, local activists, local NGOs, academics, political-cultural-religious leaders and members of the local community. The research shows how the Merapi eruption is defined in various ways by various groups, shifting through time and according to various driving factors, and constructed in the dynamics of socio-political and socio-ecological barriers. Local communities are strongly embedded in the Javanese culture and religious-cultural beliefs. Additionally, losing properties such as house, land or cattle were not necessarily nor always considered as a calamity by some of the local communities. Some believe that the Merapi eruption is God's will, arranging the cycle of life, which will bring about good things, especially since eruptions produce massive amounts of sand for the construction sector and newly (re)-emerging economic activities beyond the eruption like tourism. In a way, the government sees this differently and narrowly that produces contradictive and biased argumentations.

17:00-18:00 Closing ceremony

Announcement of 8th ICBR awards:
- Best Paper (Disasters and Built Environment)
- Best Paper written by a postgraduate researcher
- Best Poster
- Winners of the Building 4Humanity Design Competition
- Winner of the Marielle Franco Community-Design Award

Location: Main Auditorium