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08:45-09:15 Session OC: Opening ceremony

Welcome notes by the Conference Chairs

Fernando Moreira da Silva, President of the Research Centre for Architecture, Urbanism and Design (CIAUD) of the University of Lisbon

Abhilash Panda, Deputy Chief of the UNISDR Regional Office for Europe and Central Asia

Location: Main Auditorium
09:15-10:45 Session KN1: Keynote lectures
“Earthquakes don’t kill, poorly constructed buildings do”
My community-based post-disaster housing reconstruction: architect Hsieh Ying-Chun and Atelier-3
11:00-12:45 Session 1C/3D-I: Track session
Location: Room C202
Exploring sources and receptors of health impacts of drought in the UK: a narrative approach

ABSTRACT. Drought has been found to affect human populations through reduced water quantity, water quality, food security, dust and airborne pathogens, mental health and well-being, among others. Research in this area is still in its infancy with only a handful of studies on the global health impacts of drought. The extent to which a population is vulnerable to the impacts of drought is dependent on underlying development factors including reliable water supply and distribution systems as well as a reliable health sector. As a result, resource-poor developing countries have been found to experience more frequent and severe impacts of droughts compared with developed countries. Nonetheless, developed countries like the UK are expected to be affected by more frequent and intense droughts in the future due to climate change projections thereby highlighting a health impact imperative. In this regard, it is integral that resources for knowledge exchange, capacity building, and decision-making are developed towards more resilient water management.

As such, we employ a narrative approach to bring together expert and lay/local knowledge, which are increasingly being recognized as legitimate and effective tools in decision-making, to provide context-dependent relationships and specific embodied experiences. Participants in six catchments across England, Scotland, and Wales were interviewed using a non-structured format. These interviews were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed in a source-receptor-impact framework. The two main sources of drought health impacts were from reduced water quantity and quality. The most noticeable impacts of drought were found to be related to the diminished physical and mental health and well-being of receptors such as private water supply users, outdoor recreation users, and vulnerable groups such as the elderly and children. Whilst drought might appear to present only negative connotations, it is also expected that drought will likely increase opportunities for accessing or participating in certain outdoor recreation activities such as walking, hiking, water sports, cycling, among others, all of which have been linked with positive health outcomes and positive mental health in previous research arenas.

This work presents the first narrative assessment of drought implications for health in the UK. More detailed assessments are needed to better understand the linkages and pathways through which drought might present health impacts into the future, particularly under climate scenarios. Furthermore, a joined-up narrative-science approach may prove integral to future projections of drought impacts in the health sector as well as other sectors in order to increase capacities for drought resilience.

Climate-related disaster challenges for sustainable development: innovating a science and policy framework towards sustainable and climate-resilient Quezon City, Philippines
SPEAKER: Tabassam Raza

ABSTRACT. The extreme weather event Super Typhoon Haiyan devastated portions of Southeast Asia, particularly the Philippines, on November 8, 2013. It served as a wake-up call for urgent action by the Philippines and other Island-States to mainstream Climate Change Adaptation (CCA) interventions. In addition, cities in Southeast Asian Archipelagos (Philippines, Indonesia, and Malaysia) and Small Island Developing States (SIDS) have distorted the natural environment by haphazardly constructing roads, buildings, and other infrastructures. Such massive changes in the environment are altering the ecology, creating sustainable development challenges such as local flooding that cause physical and psychological illnesses to those affected. To prevent these impacts and make urban areas and Island-States Climate Change (CC) resilient, there is need to mainstream CCA at very early stages of development planning. Thus, to achieve this objective, the Quezon City Local Government (QCLG) took an initiative to craft a Science and Policy Framework (SPF) in order to develop its sectoral-based CC Action Plan that can be mainstreamed in its comprehensive development plan. It was done by operationalizing the 4th of eight Guideposts of an existing Risk-Sensitive Comprehensive Land Use and Development Planning (RSCLUDP) Model, which consists of step-by-step technical procedures on how to develop the outline of the SPF and conduct periodic strategic planning workshops using gender-sensitive participatory process. Thus, the SPF, as an innovative risk assessment approach, was applied in generating primary data about hazards characterization, exposure to elements at risk, and threat levels. Essentially, it allowed to assess impacts of climate-related events/hazards (Extreme Weather Events, Change in Rain Patterns, and Rise in Mean Temperature in context of Quezon City) on five local development sectors: Social, Economic, Environmental, Land Use/Infrastructure, and Institutional; intersecting with seven CC priority areas: Food Security, Water Sufficiency, Ecological Environmental Stability, Human Security, Climate-Smart Industries and Services, Sustainable Energy, and Knowledge and Capacity Development; aligned with the Philippine National Framework Strategy on Climate Change 2010-2022. In addition, Geographic Information System (GIS) was also used to process acquired pertinent data to analyze climate projections and develop spatial strategies for decision making. The results generated revealed the level of personnel and institutional adaptive capacities, threat level of CC related hazards on development sectors and personnel and institutional relative vulnerabilities. Further, projected casualties, economic losses per capita, and gastrointestinal infection rate were also determined considering no intervention scenario. The entire operation eventually allowed QCLG Technical Working Group to prepare its Local Climate Change Action Plan (LCCAP) 2017-2027 comprising of development sectors’ and CC priority areas’ cross-cutting Programs, Projects, and Activities (PPAs) with corresponding budget/agency and timeframe. The appropriate application of the LCCAP will ensure the sustainable development and climate-resilience of Quezon City. The above SPF and Action Plan are flexible and fashioned toward enhancing key development sectors in order to create sustainable and CCA-resilient Cities and SIDS. They can also be considered as globally-effective tools for achieving the Paris Agreement, Sustainable Development Goals, and targets of the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction.

Political barriers to Climate Change Adaptation in indigenous communities: a case study on the Mohawk Community of Kanesatake, Canada

ABSTRACT. After losing faith in the effectiveness of mitigation strategies, “adaptation” emerges as a growing trend in the climate change studies. The switch from climate change mitigation to the adaptation to its impacts or effects - which may be beneficial or adverse – initially appears to be a promising strategy. Academics and practitioners, however, confront limits and barriers to adaptation both in theory and practice. Despite the extensive efforts in understanding limits and barriers, little is known about political and institutional barriers, more specifically political challenges in Indigenous communities that typically nullify the effect of adaptation strategies. This study aims at bridging this knowledge gap by investigating the experience of the Mohawk community of Kanesatake, a First Nations community in Canada, during and after the 2017 floods in southeastern Quebec. This case study draws on data collected by reviewing documents, interviewing relevant stakeholders and experts, as well as a field visit. Results reveal the links between the proximate set of barriers and historical, political pressures in Indigenous communities. Findings explain that unhealed wounds in relationships among nations generate political and institutional hurdles, which eventually orchestrate the co-occurrence of multiple barriers: the lack of land ownership rights, insurance, and social institutions such as police force and firefighters, to name a few. Findings have implications both for theory and practice. In theory, the findings reveal the fact that barriers are not mutually exclusive; in fact, they are often interdependent. In practice, findings also prove the fact that policies fail if they disregard causal interdependencies. Ultimately, the findings express the need for further studies focusing on the interdependency among barriers and exploring contextual conditions in which barriers appear, develop, and persist.

Effective community engagement approaches for Climate Change Adaptation and associated Disaster Risk Reduction in the Philippines

ABSTRACT. This paper presents an ongoing project that addresses the problem of ineffective coastal community climate change adaptation (CCA) approaches in the Philippines, which also relates to disaster risk reduction management (DRRM). More succinctly, the research question was: What might comprise key aspects of effective community engagement for the Philippines to better help reduce climate change vulnerability and achieve disaster resilient coastal communities?

First, community engagement approaches in the environment and CCA fields were investigated in the international literature. This revealed key aspects of strong (active and inclusive, or meaningful) and weak (passive and consultative) community engagement. Second, field research explored CCA and DRRM socio-cultural contexts and policy interactions between local communities and experts in typhoon disaster-ridden Sorsogon City and the Municipality of Lavezares. The investigative focus explored the status and nature of contemporary community engagement in CCA (which also related to DRRM).

Following the literature review, qualitative data was collected in three stages: (i) 28 interviews with local experts – from local government agencies, NGOs, other civil society organisations, and community councils; (ii) 12 focus group discussions with 97 coastal community representatives – from community councils, community volunteer groups, and community CCA and DRRM groups; and (iii) direct observation of community CCA and DRRM-related activities. The literature review results were then compared with the fieldwork results of the respondents’ reflections on the effectiveness of existing local community engagement approaches for CCA and DRRM.

Findings revealed that both strong and weak community engagement approaches exist in the Philippines. Respondents at both provincial and local government levels preferred the development of strong approaches. These involved capacity and capability building, open information dissemination and meaningful (inclusive dialogic) engagement with multi-stakeholders, as also found in the international literature but added to with Filipino community engagement customs and characteristics. Such features also addressed existing evidences of weak approaches reflecting negative community values and attitudes, weak political will and agenda, slow implementation of plans and processes, and insufficient budget.

Hence, respondents also suggested improving government leadership and support, incorporating open information and dialogue mechanisms and positive Filipino community engagement customs and characteristics, and enhancing policy implementation, integration, and mainstreaming. Subsequently, stronger community involvement in policy making and evaluation should also involve integrated and sustained CCA and DRRM activities, capacity and capability building, knowledge, and resources; and, multi-stakeholder and sectoral partnerships.

Overall, the key policy elements suggested were to mainstream CCA and DRRM policies through the integration of top-down and bottom-up approaches, which featured multi-stakeholder and sectoral engagement that emphasised communities, governments, and other sectors working together. In conclusion, prioritising strong (or effective) community engagement for CCA and DRRM appears essential to more effectively help reduce disaster and climate change vulnerabilities to achieve resilient coastal communities in the Philippines.

Moving from response to recovery: what happens to coordination?

ABSTRACT. Disasters of any scale gather different stakeholders. Some of them are involved only during disaster response, some of them during disaster recovery and many of them are involved in the entire process of disaster risk management. This paper aims to explore the differences in coordination during disaster response and recovery. The study uses qualitative semi-structured interviews with stakeholders involved in managing the effects of the tsunami of 2004 in Tamil Nadu, India. Further, a literature review will be conducted of two other major disasters- one from typhoon Haiyan of 2013 and the other of the Nepal Earthquake of 2015. The study illustrates that despite unclear boundaries between coordination during response and recovery, the respondents express substantial differences in (1) the variety of stakeholders; (2) the level of engagement in activities; (3) the changing information need and requirement; and (4) the nature of coordination itself. Although coordination is not a new theme is disaster risk management, it has not been studied much in recovery settings.

Damaging flood risk in the Portuguese municipalities

ABSTRACT. Modeling and understanding the impact of climate change on flooding processes in Mediterranean climate areas, namely in the southern Europe, is a complex endeavor, which must also consider exposure and vulnerability patterns. Assuming that vulnerability plays a relevant role in explaining the degree of loss due to natural hazards, the present research compares a flood susceptibility index with a social vulnerability index and a historical record of flood losses, both aggregated at the municipal level. The purpose of this research is to define municipal flood risk profiles that would rank the 278 municipalities and contribute to the strategic allocation of resources and flood risk management. A simplified method for assessing flood susceptibility for mainland Portugal was applied considering three inputs, highlighting the relevance of flooding past evidences: distribution of alluvial deposits, Floods Directive mapping and a 100-yr flood hazard map provided by LNEC. Further, the percentage of flood susceptible areas per municipalities was computed in order to obtain the municipal flood susceptibility rank. Social vulnerability at the municipal level was assessed combining the dimensions of criticality and support capability. Criticality refers to the individual and household characteristics that define the expected degree of loss and the ability to recover (e.g. age, education and income). Support capability refers to the territorial context in terms of civil protection, health, education and other infrastructure that contributes to reduce the flood impact and facilitate community’s recovery. For each dimension, scores resulting from PCA were multiplied assuming that support capability acts as an attenuating factor of criticality. Historical losses caused by damaging floods were extracted from the DISASTER database, querying only the records related to floods collected for the period 1865-2015 in mainland Portugal that caused fatalities, injured, homeless and evacuated people. This work contributes to the discussion of the spectrum of combinations of flood susceptibility, social vulnerability and past flood disaster events at the municipal level. The highest scores of susceptibility (those above the 90th percentile) are found on the 14 municipalities located along the downstream areas of the Vouga, Mondego and Tagus basins. These municipalities are also those where the highest number of cases and the highest impacts in terms of displaced and evacuated persons were registered in the historical record of flood losses. The municipalities along the Tagus and Sado rivers present high criticality and are among those with large portions of their territory with a high susceptibility index to floods (respectively, 9, 19 and 15%). Regarding support capability, the overlay of low scores with high susceptibility is found along the Tagus and Mondego basins. Considering the final score of social vulnerability, Chamusca and Coruche, in the lower Tagus basin, are the municipalities with simultaneously high scores and high susceptibility. A more thorough cross-analysis is made possible if the principal components of both criticality and support capability are considered. Such outputs, when crossed with flood susceptibility are able to identify the specific drivers of social vulnerability (e.g. mobility), upon which, stakeholders may act in reducing flood impacts.

Assessing contribution of Climate Change Adaptation measures to build resilience in urban areas: application to Lisbon

ABSTRACT. Urban areas are dynamic, complex and vulnerable systems involving multiple strategic urban services such as water supply, wastewater, stormwater and waste management, energy supply, public lighting, transport, public security and stakeholders. Climate stresses and shocks affecting the urban water cycle, such as heavy rains, tide effect or droughts, can produce direct impacts on the above strategic services and cause cascading impacts on them with serious consequences for people, natural and built environment and economy. Potential effects of climate dynamics on the urban areas involve aggravation of existing conditions as well as the occurrence of new hazards or risk factors. Challenges generated by climate change in these areas, expected until 2100, require an integrated and sustainable approach to increase resilience. The project “RESilience to cope with Climate Change in Urban arEas - a multisectorial approach focusing on water” aims to assess current and future resilience, related to climate change scenarios, through a multisectorial approach with focus on water and to support cities to become more resilient, contributing to co-build their resilience action plans. The paper presents a resilience assessment approach applied to the Lisbon Municipality. This approach is objective driven considering four resilience dimensions: organizational, governance relations top/down; spatial, urban space and environment; functional directed to strategic services and physical to assets/infrastructures. It is presented the functional and physical resilience dimensions applied to waste and transport sectors in Lisbon. The waste sector assessment showed that the low exposure and vulnerability, together with resilient measures already in place, contribute to achieve the resilience objectives, namely regarding climate change exposure, preparedness, and recovery and buildback. For mobility sector, particularly regarding identification of infrastructure critical assets, it was identified the need to consider other services infrastructures that highly depend on mobility infrastructures. This is the case of stormwater, since the impact on hydrological processes is significant. It was also identified the need to extend the existing flood and tide hazard maps and data on risk to other hazards. Results of application to Lisbon allowed diagnosing these city sectors, regarding services and infrastructure, and identification of improvement opportunities. This will support the selection of measures and definition of strategies to build resilience. All this approach combined with the priorities of Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction (2015-2030), the Paris Agreement on Climate Change, the Strategic Development Goals and the 2030 Agenda highlight the relevance of the mission of Lisbon to reduce risks and become resilient.

Towards successful adaptation to climate change impact: an alternative approach for adaptation evaluation using cross-scale and time dimension analysis of formal adaptation impact to vulnerability at local level

ABSTRACT. Adaptation is locally specific and diverse across levels and actors. The cross-scale adaptation is commonly showing national or sub-national program to intervene risk and vulnerability reduction at the local level. However, various studies find that adaptation potentially causes unintended consequences. Adaptation strategy of a group can increase risk or vulnerability to other groups. Moreover, from the time-based perspective, current adaptation can cause another risk in the future particularly when it neglects long-term potential risk or when it increases the barrier to adapt to vulnerable communities. The question is how do we evaluate cross-scales and time perspective of adaptation?

This paper proposes an approach to use the assessment of dynamics of vulnerability as the contribution to evaluate adaptation. IPCC highlights that implementation process of adaptation is important to monitor the success of adaptation. This paper assesses the changing of vulnerability components such as livelihood and adaptive and coping capacity at the three different times of observation namely before adaptation implemented followed by first and second condition after adaptation implemented. This paper analyzes the social, institutional, and perception issues that influence the ability to maintain and enhance capacity to adapt which will shape vulnerability at present and in the long term.

This paper is based on three years longitudinal study in coastal Jakarta among the vulnerable groups who experiences extreme floods and currently affected by the implementation of adaptation strategy by the local and national government. There are three formal adaptation strategies that selected in this research namely dike, reservoir, and relocation. Data collection is gathered for the three years (2015-2017) which consists of two times interviews with 451 households in 2015 and 2017 combined with in-depth interviews, focus group discussions and interviews with related stakeholders at national and regional level. The data analysis uses triangulation approach combined all data resources.

This study finds that different process of adaptation strategy leads to the different level of unintended consequences to the affected communities. The first-order adaptation, implemented by government potentially cause another risk and vulnerability among the affected group where they have to do the second-order adaptation. They have to adjust to the new condition caused by the adaptation to climate change impact. It causes loses some capacity to cope another risk to climate change impact in the future. In addition, lack of participation during the process has caused new uncertainty as a new risk among the communities.

This study is highly relevant to the current need to develop a framework to evaluate adaptation, particularly across scale and over-time. The cross-scale approach in this study gives an important contribution to the adaptation planner in order to involve the vulnerable group as the recipient of the impact of the adaptation strategy. Ideally, the adaptation can reduce vulnerability and increase the resilience of all affected people or communities. While it is very challenging to evaluate adaptation based on an outcome of the successful to reduce vulnerability, this study proposes the dynamics of vulnerability as an approach to contribute to the adaptation evaluation.

11:00-12:45 Session 2A-I: Track session
Location: Room B201
Micro-scale study of Climate Change Adaptation and Disaster Risk Reduction for coastal urban strategic planning in Jakarta Metropolitan Area

ABSTRACT. Sustainable economic growth and development are two main important factors for urban agglomerations (metropolitan region) planning. However, several coastal metropolitan regions in Indonesia are exposed to the impacts of climate change and disaster risks. Especially Jakarta Metropolitan coastal region has been exposed to the rapid increase of urban center disaster, a complex, dynamic and critical issue induced by climate change impact and man-made disaster. Fastest urbanization and industry growth in the North of Jakarta has led to the high use of ground water causing severe land subsidence, coupled with climate change impact, increased inundation has been found in the North Jakarta coastal. There is also significant recognition that disaster risk reduction (DRR) should include climate change adaptation (CCA), in order to increase resilience to the potential adverse impacts of climate extremes. This paper aims to present result of the in-depth study on the assessment and development of strategic disaster risk reduction plan which integrate the climate change adaptation countermeasures at one of North Jakarta City sub-districts, i.e. Cilincing sub-districts. This sub-district is a composite model of households, business, manufacture industries and port. The study has covered not only hazard assessment induced by increased susceptibility but also vulnerability as base line study as well projected up to 2045 (the golden century for Indonesia) at the micro level, with sub-sub-districts level as unit analysis. Meanwhile the capacity analysis is used as the baseline data, which is reviewed against the trend of the hazard and vulnerability. Findings at micro level is very important to present more holistic and realistic implementable strategy until 2045, then followed by up scaling into Metropolitan region planning.

Critical institutional capacities to strengthen downstream multi-hazard early-warning risk communication in rapid-onset hydro-meteorological and geophysical hazards: the case of the Philippines

ABSTRACT. A country’s institutional architecture significantly influences disaster risk governance. The potential effectiveness of institutions towards mitigating disaster impacts can be evaluated by examining two dimensions of its capacity: (1) the legal and policy environment, and (2) the coordinating mechanism. This study considers these factors by investigating the case of the Philippines, one of the most disaster-prone countries in the world. Specifically, the study analyses institutional capacities in the context of the Philippines’ downstream multi-hazard early warning system (MHEWS) for rapid onset hydro-meteorological and geophysical hazards. The risk communication pathway of the Philippines’ MHEWS is designed to match the country’s decentralized and devolved governance system as risk communication not only entails transmission and feedback of information, but also ultimately compels action and response from authorities to reduce the risk. A combination of literature review on early warning systems and good country practices, document analysis of government publications, and retrospective analysis using authors’ professional engagements in the disaster risk reduction and management (DRRM) sector of the country were conducted. The study found that the MHEWS of the Philippines is a complex system of systems tied to a devolved style of governance. The country’s DRRM legal & policy environment is mature and evolving. There is strong political recognition of the benefits of an MHEWS, manifested in the abundance of policies, frameworks, and plans produced by its DRRM institution in all levels of governance. The completion of the National Disaster Prevention & Mitigation Plan which should elaborate the guidelines for the national and localized MHEWS, among others, should be prioritized. There should be a systematic assessment of the quality of the localized DRRM plans and local governments should seize the opportunity to purchase materials and conduct exercises for disaster preparedness. On the other hand, the country’s elaborate hierarchical coordination mechanism is not entirely efficient, but workable. Expansion of the communication pathway to trigger local response greatly improved the system without reinventing the structure. Meanwhile, it was found that the risk communication tools and practices within the coordination mechanism are critical such that there should be more attention on how risk information is processed, translated, and delivered downstream. Enabling local governments and their DRRM offices to collaborate with academic and research institutions in their localities will facilitate the study of effective risk communication methods tailored to their local conditions and cultures. To address the physical requirements for communication and information exchange, government should invest in sound and durable technologies, ensure that communications protocols reach the far and isolated households, and that a feedback mechanism is activated. Over time, the DRRM institutions will likely need to restructure to the changing needs of such MHEWS; therefore, the goal should not be a perfect MHEWS but one that is adaptive and continuously seek to strengthen its capacities.

Towards the integration of Disaster Risk Reduction and Climate Change Adaptation: good practices in the UK to develop a platform for stakeholder communication and engagement
SPEAKER: Nuwan Dias

ABSTRACT. Both, Climate change adaptation (CCA) and Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) focus on reducing vulnerability and share many similarities. Therefore, a number of researchers, policy makers, and practitioners have suggested integrating CCA and DRR. Though, there are many discussions on integrating CCA and DRR, less is happening on the ground as there are many challenges to integrate CCA and DRR. Some of these challenges are inadequate stakeholder platforms for CCA and DRR, horizontal and vertical coordination issues in CCA and DRR governance, resource limitation and poor implementation strategies, lack of funding and political motivation.

The effective integration of CCA with DRR requires the participation of a wide range of stakeholders: policy makers, private companies, scientists, NGOs, and educators. Multi-stakeholder and multi-sectoral processes are vital in building common understanding, commitment and consensus. Within this context, communication between CCA and DRR stakeholders become an important issue for sustainable, long-term integration of DRR and CCA. However, there are several issues surrounding CCA/DRR stakeholder communication to be overcome in order to effectively integrate CCA and DRR. For example, CCA terminology tends to be more technical or scientific, which cannot, or is more difficult to, translate into simpler language. As a result, it is difficult to communicate at the community level where DRR actions take place. Also, in many contexts, there is no clear notion of whose responsibility it is to coordinate CCA and DRR stakeholders. Generally, as a result of these issues, platforms for effective communication between CCA and DRR stakeholders are not opened.

Therefore, it is extremely important to find out solutions to bridge this gap, in order to effectively integrate CCA and DRR.

Accordingly, based on findings of a national review on the UK, conducted by a project called ESPREssO funded by the EU horizon 2020 programme, this paper reviews the good practices in the UK to develop a platform for stakeholder communication and engagement towards the integration of CCA and DRR. This study is mainly based on a narrative literature review, in addition, semi structured interviews were conducted with the respective experts who have implemented good practices on stakeholder engagement in the UK towards the integration of CCA and DRR.

Findings reveal good practices related to public dissemination of activities, activities related to strengthening government institutions, practices related to engaging vast variety of stakeholders. These findings are useful for policy makers and decision makers in order to try and test these good practices in their national or regional contexts to develop a better platform for stakeholder communication toward the effective integration of CCA and DRR.

A study of the upstream-downstream interface in end-to-end tsunami early-warning and mitigation systems in Indonesia

ABSTRACT. After the Indian Ocean Tsunami in 2004, tsunami preparedness has become a significant aspect in the research and practise of disaster resilience. Also in Indonesia, since this tsunami disaster, Indonesia began to build Ina-TEWS or Indonesia Tsunami Early Warning System. The upstream is the process of observation, monitoring, detection, analysis and dissemination of early warning. While the downstream translate early warning into the evacuation command following the dissemination of evacuation orders. Between these upstream and downstream phase, there is interface where the received warning information is conveyed through the formal authorities and decision to evacuate is taken. Interface mechanism is very complexity because involving various stakeholders / stakeholders from national to local level, diversity of channels / modes for the dissemination of tsunami early warning, complexity of communication patterns of tsunami early warning and will depend on the social, economic, political and cultural context. Considering those complexities, this is an account of a study into the tsunami early warning interface of Ina TEWS with the aim to understand the technical, legal and socio-cultural complexities that occur at the interface mechanisms of the tsunami early warning system in Indonesia. The methodology of the study will involve several processes such as desk study, primary data collection, focus group discussion and analysis. The results highlight a number of problems and gaps in interface mechanism/institution of Ina-TEWS. These include roles and responsibilities, standard operating procedures, human resources, legal frameworks, dissemination equipment and social media.

A study of DRR and CCA integration in Semarang City, Makasar City, and Sidoarjo District, Indonesia

ABSTRACT. Indonesia has both the fastest urbanisation growth rate and the largest share of urban population globally, rising to 67% by 2025. Urban agglomerations also emit significant and growing amounts of greenhouse gases and Short-lived Climate Pollutants, that contribute to global warming, but also impact public health, food, water. Coastal urban agglomerations are especially exposed to the impacts of climate change and disaster risks. In the coming decades, climate- induced extreme events are expected to increase. These changes will continue to affect natural and human systems independently or in combination with other determinants to alter the productivity, diversity and functions of many ecosystems and livelihoods. Climate change impacts and variability threaten to exacerbate existing vulnerabilities and further entrench development disparities. There is increasing recognition that disaster risk reduction should include climate change adaptation. These two perspectives have been developed by different communities, but the aim of both is to reduce vulnerability and hazard exposure in order to increase resilience to the potential adverse impacts of climate extremes. The integration of the two fields provides opportunities to strengthen the common parts and improve the management of present and future hazards and risks. Despite such potential benefits there remains some significant challenges. They remain distinct fields and collaboration has proven difficult. There are separate communities of working in the two areas, with limited overlap in networks, fora and methods. This is an account of a comparative study into methodologies and tools used to enhance the integration of DRR and CCA in development processes in the coastal cities of Semarang City, Makasar City, and Sidoarjo District in Indonesia. The study considers four key elements that underpin DRR and CCA: Legal Frameworks; Budgeting; Institutional Frameworks; and, Implementation Frameworks.

Multiple flood experiences and perceived flood consequences: insights from the 2013 flood in Germany

ABSTRACT. Facing severe and repetitive floods, many European countries are changing their flood management approach from hazard to risk-based management, with the aim of preventing and mitigating harm. This approach has increased the role of households and their responsibility and self-efficacy in terms of reducing flood risk. This study is conducted with the aim of better understanding how the experience of multiple flood events leads to the implementation of private mitigation measures. Furthermore, the study tried to find out how the experience of multiple flood events and the average perceived the severity of the consequences of all the floods experienced interacts with respondents’ sense of responsibility and response-efficacy in flood risk management.

For this purpose, this study is conducted based on the questionnaire surveys distributed among 1,378 households in two states of Saxony and Bavaria, Germany. Two factors of multiple floods experienced and perception of the citizens about the severity of the flood consequences were considered to know how they affect on the citizens’ feel of responsibility and response efficacy to take personal action in future.

The result showed that the percentage of households that have taken actions after the flood events is higher among people who experienced the multiple flood events than among those who did not. However, in the long term the rate of taking action among those with previous flood experience declines in flood risk managements. In addition, the effect of perceived consequences in feel of people towards responsibility showed for those who took action before the last flood, the high-perceived consequences would lead to greater denial responsibility. In addition, the effect of multiple flood experience in feel of people towards response efficacy showed for those who took action, people with the higher perceived consequences have more feel of response efficacy than those with the same perception but fewer experiences of flood.

These findings can contribute to better understand the role of citizens in flood risk management, namely in terms of how and to what extent households should be motivated to take personal mitigation action.

11:00-12:45 Session 3A/4F-I: Track session
Location: Room C201
A global model to protect collections in case of emergency: protecting collections at Reina Sofia National Museum

ABSTRACT. The aim of this paper is to share a comprehensive model able to manage and protect efficiently the collections of the museums in case an emergency might arise which affects the artworks. Museums of different levels - local, regional or national- are crucial for the collective memories and sociability of groups as well as they play a key role in providing a sense of community belonging. Everybody knows the capacity of cultural heritage to generate sustainable economic growth and, the other hand, the irreparable disaster that implies the loss of this cultural heritage. With this purpose in mind, we have created and developed a management system which includes an innovative analysis and planning technology with an ensemble of means and dynamic technological methods able to store, manage, update, manipulate, recover, analyse, show and transfer special data (Geographic Information Systems, GIS) and characterisation of the collections in order to prevent and minimise the scope of vulnerabilities and obtain maximum protection, as well as to manage the whole operating process in case an emergency may arise and a contingency plan for the artworks protection needs to be deployed at Reina Sofía National Museum. This model’s innovation, which includes the whole risk management cycle, lies, therefore, in the creation of an innovative and dynamic analysis methodology which will allow us to implement georeferencing technologies to the protection of artworks in case of emergency. The complexity of the model and its holistic approach required a multidisciplinary research team as the one we have created (conservators, restorers, chemist, architects, security manager), who known not only the collection but also the museum geospatial characteristics, as well as its facilities or the measures deployed by the museum in order to face anti-social acts or natural risks. Thus, we can see that the model is organised in two layers: the creation of an analysis model or methodological superstructure, and a second layer which would be the technological infrastructure. The advantage of the dynamic model proposed is that it analyses the works, spaces and social context as a whole, suggesting a global and dynamic analysis that responds to an equally global (because the building or container and the context affect the potential risk at which works can be put) and dynamic (because reality is variable) situation; that is to say, unlike the more traditional and static models where the analysis of collections and building is made separately, here we propose a holistic view where all the parameters are considered as a whole. Therefore, in the face of a complex and dynamic reality, we must also respond with an approach that takes into account that complexity and dynamism. The outcome of this model is precisely the intersection of this two layers, which will give rise to a model of joint management (methodological and technological), which materializes an application subject which is being implemented at Reina Sofia Museum, and can be able to become a reference pattern where other similar institutions may see themselves reflected.

Responding to change: adaptive re-use in Medina of Fez
SPEAKER: Meltem Vatan

ABSTRACT. Cultural heritage might be considered as a creator of identity for the communities associated with its tangible and intangible values that shape it. Intangible values of cultural heritage give life and spirit to the tangible ones within their existing environment and context. This aspect promotes cultural heritage as a living expression and certifies its irreplaceable role to be a source of identity for communities and individuals to be protected and consigned to the posterity. Indeed, its protection includes public authorities and individual works in terms of existing safeguarding strategies and conservation approaches. Some of the actions undertaken until the present might be examined in terms of their results. Many heritage examples around the globe currently are under the risk of degradation or annihilation. Therefore, conservation and preservation actions are based on development of new strategies to protect cultural heritage, considering both tangible and intangible. In this study, one case is selected to be explored in order to examine adaptive re-use strategies as an investment in tourism sector to enhance the economic, social and cultural resilience of communities which is aligned with Priority 3 of Sendai Framework. Selected case study is Fes, a city of Morocco, inscribed in UNESCO's world heritage list. The aim of this study is to examine the current state of heritage buildings in Medinas (old city) of Fes and to propose a strategy to safeguard their cultural heritage. Adaptive re-use is selected as a main strategy for houses in Medinas because of their existing condition: most of the examples are abandoned and few are restored or converted into restaurants, guest houses, exhibition galleries and the like, intended for foreign visitors located in the city as a symbol of an ancient civilization. Adaptive re-use process positively effects the social and cultural environment by maintaining heritage significance of buildings and ensures their survival. With a special focus on traditional old houses, the process of adaptive re-use is part of a move to adapt the built environment to a contemporary lifestyle. Even though adaptive re-use strategy may be a backbone for preservation of cultural heritage and ensures protection of tangible values it increases tourism industry as a key economic driver and needs to be managed thoroughly. In this sense, the way of collaboration of public and private stakeholders in order to enhance resilience and to control tourism impact is critical. Expected result of this study is to discuss adaptive re-use approach in cultural heritage preservation with its link to Sendai Framework for building resilience.

Capacity of the temples and shrines as evacuation places and shelters against the tsunami hazard: the case study of the coastal area of Muroto, Kochi Prefecture in Japan

ABSTRACT. Built heritage such as temples and shrines were utilized as the evacuation places and shelters when the Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami affected the coastal area of northeast Japan. A capacity of the designated public evacuation shelters such as the gym of primary school were not enough against to the huge number of evacuees. So, many of evacuees had stayed on their community`s temple or shrines for their temporary living for maximum several months after the damages of their town and home. From this lesson, the Japanese central government and local government have tried to designate the temples and shrines as the official evacuation place and shelter, after the Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami. This research focuses the capacity of the temples and shrines for using as evacuation places and shelters. Firstly, we suggested the investigation form by collecting the research data of the cases of the temples and shrines which had utilized as an evacuation places after the Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami. And we conducted the case study on the one of the hugest possible damaged area by the next tsunami (Nankai Trough Earthquake) in Muroto, Kochi prefecture in middle-west Japan. We evaluated 25 temples and shrines by the investigation form which we suggested with the previous research data. All 25 temples and shrines have the outdoor spaces for possible using as the temporary evacuation and emergency staying. There are 12 temples and shrines which were allowed their indoor spaces to be utilized as the evacuation shelter. By the interview research, we investigated the stocks of foods, water, beddings and facilities on the 10 temples and shrines, and the community activities which would help to make cooperation between these built heritage and the local community. We found there is the areal association among the 7 temples, so this would be helpful to associate the emergency response team to support among these temples. And we could evaluate the potentiality of access routes for the safe evacuation to the built heritage and the management system by the result of the investigation for the community activities and indoor space of built heritage.

Building resilience through flood risk reduction: the benefits of amphibious foundation retrofits to heritage structures

ABSTRACT. [3A] - Heritages: Risk Mitigation, Adaptation and Assessment Submission for Oral presentation


Protecting heritage architecture, urban fabric and cultural landscapes from the increasing risk of flooding wrought by climate change is a challenging prospect. Successful risk reduction strategies for heritage structures require a level of cultural sensitivity that is usually lacking in conventional flood mitigation measures. Resilient approaches are needed that are capable of adapting to future flood levels that are difficult to quantify in advance, especially in our current state of climate uncertainty.

The Buoyant Foundation Project (BFP) provides an innovative, sustainable, low-impact and low-cost flood mitigation solution that enhances community and cultural resilience in the face of climate change and flooding, with a focus on retrofits of existing housing for vulnerable populations and communities. The BFP specializes in a specific type of amphibious construction: retrofits to existing pier-and-beam structures that enable them to remain in place until the event of a flood, when they are capable of rising, floating on the surface of the water and returning to their original positions on their original foundations as the floodwaters recede. In environmentally sensitive locations, buoyant foundation retrofits offer a strategy for sitting lightly on the land and living WITH flooding, providing temporary elevation as necessary. This strategy works in synchrony with natural cycles of flooding, allowing water to flow where it will rather than attempting to control it, while simultaneously preventing the need for repetitive repairs or rebuilding and their associated costs.

Today, many older coastal, riverine, and deltaic communities are faced with increasing flood risk, often combined with sea level rise or land erosion. Until now, the options available to owners of heritage and culturally significant properties have been limited. Buoyant foundation retrofits offer hope to under-resourced communities and provide them with a viable, low-cost adaptation alternative to fight buy-outs, tear-downs, and "displacement by climate change". This strategy will not solve all challenges related to the increased impacts of climate change on historic and culturally significant places and properties, but will indeed offer a strong resilience-building alternative to communities with longstanding, deep-rooted relationships to place and home.

Our paper will provide an overview of amphibious retrofit construction and the ways in which it can be applied to the historic preservation of individual buildings or complete neighborhoods, and its benefits in comparison to alternative strategies. It will provide several case study examples, such as retrofit solutions for traditional vernacular south Louisiana "shotgun" houses in New Orleans; for heritage buildings in the town of Princeville, North Carolina, the first town established and chartered by freed slaves in the aftermath of the Civil War; for a low-income neighborhood of modest heritage houses, "Freedman's Cottages", in Charleston, South Carolina; and a creative and ambitious approach for amphibiating the iconic Farnsworth House, designed and constructed by architect Ludwig Mies van der Rohe in the mid-1950s. It will connect to larger themes of developing methods that are both innovative and practical for providing flood protection to heritage structures, using an approach that emphasizes sensitivity and adaptability to the cultural values of existing communities.

Fire risk in the historic city centre of Valparaíso: preliminary assessment and mitigation strategies
SPEAKER: Cybill Muñoz

ABSTRACT. The Historic Centre of city port Valparaíso, inscribed in the Word Heritage List in 2003, is affected by several natural, environmental and anthropogenic threats, which endanger the preservation of its Outstanding Universal Values (OUV). Among these threats, fires have caused great destruction in recent years, causing significant material losses, with social and economic impact on the resident community. Nowadays, the real impact of these fires on the OUV of the Site is not determined, which hinders the articulation of effective measures to reduce vulnerability. The historic area has unique characteristics that are directly related to risk fire. We refer to a complex topography, with a series of hills, densely inhabited, with narrow vehicular traffic routes, areas without vehicular access, a poorly organized community, among others. To this is added the lack of periodic maintenance of the buildings, many of these wooden constructions, and without the appropriate safety standards due to their construction date.

This research evaluated the impact of fires on the architectural and urban heritage of the Historic Centre of Valparaiso, from the record of more than 150 fires occurred between 2000 and 2016. Some reports of such fires identify causes, but refer especially to the building itself. From the proposed methodology, were determined various vulnerability factors associated with the context, the characteristics of the architecture and public spaces, and the community, understood as a broad spectrum of groups linked to the management and operation of the site. This allowed complementing the analysis of the causes, proposing indicators that determine the potential risk fire. They were taken as sample two specific areas of the Historic Centre, with various architectural and urban characteristics such as materiality of buildings, vehicular access, types of uses, proximity of fire fighters, among others.

The results in one of the areas indicated that the buildings with greater risk corresponded to those located in areas of difficult accessibility for fire fighters: narrow streets or pedestrian passages, located on the slopes of the hills. Also the type of continuous grouping between housing facilitates the spread of flames. In the other area, the regular urban plot allows a better vehicular accessibility, however, the precarious state of conservation of the buildings increases its vulnerability. Among the factors assess that most affect vulnerability the lack of firewalls and fire detection or extinction systems is remarkable: these historic buildings were designed without safety standards. Regarding the state of conservation, obsolete electrical installations are the main source of fire ignition in many cases, added factors such as materiality, occupation and interventions. From the analysis of the data, it was estimated which were the aspects that most affected the vulnerability of the buildings and their impact on the OUV. Finally, risk scenarios were simulated, associated with vulnerability reduction proposals that could be implemented.

Analysis of heating related energy performance of traditional timber framed buildings: the case study of Rize, Turkey

ABSTRACT. This study aims to explore heating related skin performance of traditional timber framed buildings in order to discuss disaster resilience of indigenous technologies and Rize, the Northern part of Turkey, is chosen as a case study. Rize includes two particular traditional timber framed building construction techniques with masonry infill which are called in local language as “göz dolma” and “muskalı dolma”. Timber frame of “göz dolma” is organized as squares which are infilled with a single stone while the timber frame of “muskalı dolma” includes diagonals to form rhomboids which are infilled with large pieces of stones. In terms of disaster risk mitigation and resilience practice indigenous knowledge will be examined by modern science approaches in order to increase local capacity and raising awareness of local communities to be involved. The main idea to boost disaster resilience by heritage preservation is to integrate indigenous knowledge into modern social and economic life by use of natural resources in a sustainable manner. The expected result of this study is to discuss skin performance of traditional timber framed buildings by analysing Rize– related domain in order to be used in disaster management planning for resilience.

Can creative placemaking be a tool for building community resilience?

ABSTRACT. a) Track: 4F, The Role of Heritage in Reducing Risks, Building Resilience, Sustaining Culture and Enabling Recovery and Healing b) Oral or Poster

With our work rebuilding communities after natural disasters and strengthening them in preparation for future extreme weather, Enterprise Community Partners (ECP) has learned that for a community to be truly resilient, it must also focus on building human networks. Background: Community-level interventions aimed at building social capital are relevant not only to emergency preparedness but also resilience to persistent stressors and shocks like violence and displacement. Research has found that the presence of strong social capital, both among people and among individuals and organizations, is a prerequisite for and a predictor of recovery and that social capital might be even more important to resilience than both the degree of infrastructure damage and the amount of aid received by an area. Building social cohesion and capital supports health resilience for our most underserved populations facing a myriad of day-to-day challenges in addition to the looming threat of climate change. Objectives: Community development requires holistic investments and interconnections between physical and social systems. The goal of this project is to integrate culture and creativity into places and processes as a key strategy for building communities that are connected to opportunity, are resilient in the face of traumatic events, and that support residents’ long-term health, wellbeing, and success. Approach: In 2017 ECP funded 5 culturally diverse and underrepresented communities from across the United States to participate in the Climate and Cultural Resilience (C&CR) Grant Program. This program leveraged creative placemaking, the integration of community participatory arts and culture in community development processes, as an intervention for improving community resilience by building climate infrastructure while strengthening social cohesion. In communities experiencing persistent challenges around economic insecurity, discrimination, or police brutality, climate is not always at the forefront. Findings: This program is demonstrating that if we connect mechanisms for understanding and uplifting culture to those that also reinforce climate issues, than we have a better opportunity to simultaneously positively impact climate and cultural resilience in communities. Qualitative analysis uncovered the themes associated with participating in the C&CR creative placemaking endeavors. We anticipate the results of the program will demonstrate that creative placemaking can promote more inclusive community development processes that increase equity and improve integration within community to build social cohesion. Conclusion: Incorporating creativity and cultural identity into community participatory planning processes shifts the research lens away from a deficit view of underrepresented communities, and instead focuses on and learns from the array of cultural knowledge possessed by socially marginalized groups that often go unacknowledged. In addressing resilience issues in underrepresented communities, culture and creativity coupled with community participatory processes must be integrated in public health, environmental, urban planning, and development research and programs, to build institutional knowledge and practice.

11:00-12:45 Session DS-I: Doctoral school - Part I

8th ICBR Lisbon PhD School: introduction and clarifications (Prof. A. Nuno Martins)

PhD school at the ICBR: lessons from an 8-year experience (Prof. Kaushal Keraminiyage)

Research methodology: social sciences approach (Prof. José Manuel Mendes)

How, when and where to publish a paper? Notes on a successful academic career path (Prof. José Luís Zêzere)

Location: Room C104
11:00-12:45 Session SS-AH: Special Session: Architectural Heritage
Location: Main Auditorium
Building resilience and cultural heritage buildings: earthquakes, blast and others
Mitigating post-disaster risks to architectural heritage: lessons from Christchurch

ABSTRACT. Track 4C: Risk and resilience issues for architectural heritage: documentation, conservation, restoration and recovery

Oral presentation

Topic: Understanding and preparing for post disaster response and recovery of architectural heritage in large-scale urban disasters.

Research Background: Very little detailed research has been undertaken to date into the effects of emergency response and recovery planning on the architectural heritage of disaster affected cities, particularly those affected by large-scale disasters. Heritage recovery and reconstruction case studies usually consider single buildings or heritage sites rather large urban areas, where the scale, dynamics and focus of the response and recovery is vastly different.

Objectives: The purpose of this study is to better understand the dynamics of disaster response and recovery in large-scale urban disasters and the impacts that these have on the architectural heritage of cities. The lessons learned from this study should be used to improve disaster preparedness for urban cultural heritage, to ensure its survival for future generations.

Methodology: This study, begun in September 2016 (six years after the first of the Canterbury Earthquakes), is based on field observations and interviews with those involved in the emergency response and recovery of Christchurch’s architectural heritage, including local and national heritage officers, architects, engineers, property owners, local community members and other stakeholders.

Findings: Although under normal circumstances, the architectural heritage of New Zealand is protected through local planning legislation, in the wake of the Canterbury earthquakes, emergency legislation removed this protection and the architectural heritage of the city was left vulnerable. Emergency response, post disaster damage assessments and recovery planning failed to recognise the value of the city’s architectural heritage and authorized its destruction, even though it had the potential to be saved, repaired and upgraded to current building codes.

Conclusions: Cultural heritage must be included in emergency and resilience plans for cities. In addition, heritage sites, government heritage officers and heritage practitioners must be better prepared for large-scale disasters if architectural heritage is to survive.

Abstract: Since September 2010, Christchurch has been affected by several large and thousands of minor earthquakes. The impact of these on the built fabric of the city, its modern and historic architecture, has been immense. It must also be noted that the emergency response and recovery planning for the city has added considerably to the losses, including the city’s lost urban character, streetscapes and landmarks, public spaces and cultural landscapes. More than 1200 buildings, including 49% of the heritage listed buildings in the city centre, were demolished with government consent.

Taking into consideration the immense scale of the disaster, this paper will examine many of the pre and post disaster factors that contributed to the losses of architectural heritage in Christchurch, including operational, political, economic, legislative, social and other factors, and the inability of local government and heritage experts to adequately deal with these in the emergency situation. The paper will then present a range of recommendations for improving the protection and disaster preparedness of architectural heritage in cities.

This paper will demonstrate that disaster preparedness should not just include an assessment of risks arising from the vulnerability and exposure of the architectural heritage to particular hazards, but must also include preparedness for the risks that will arise during the emergency response and post disaster recovery phases.

Multi-scale assessment and mitigation of fire risk in urban areas: the old city centers of Guimarães and Quito as case studies

ABSTRACT. a) Preferred Track: 4C b) Oral presentation

Urban risk mitigation is a priority in cities management due to the severe consequences and costs that disasters can carry on. Despite the fact that actions are usually intended on post-disaster situations, several efforts are focused in prevention through the definition of pre-disaster actions, especially in high vulnerable urban areas. In that sense, historical centers represent one of the main challenges for risk mitigation due to two inherent characteristics: their heritage value, related with their historic importance, economic role and social symbolism; and their high vulnerability, due to their condition of old urban areas, usually complex in terms of architectonic, constructive and urbanistic development. Considering the abovementioned, the present investigation is focused on fire risk assessment of two historical centers: Quito, the capital city of Ecuador, and the city of Guimarães, Portugal. Both assessments are based on the application of a simplified index-based approach specifically developed for assessing fire risk in old urban centers. Since Quito case study is at least 20 times bigger than Guimarães, a multi-scale adaptation had to be considered in order to encompass this great difference. Thus, Guimarães case study is analyzed in a neighborhood scale, with a building-by-building assessment, considering the characteristics, conservation state and settlement features of each construction. As for Quito case study, it is analyzed in an urban scale through a neighborhood-by-neighborhood assessment; in this scale, the analysis is carried out through a selection of representative buildings of the neighborhoods. Besides, urban morphology, building characterization, demographic data and fire management capacity are obtained from previous research works carried out in the city of Quito, including risk analysis studies and census data. Both of the assessments include the integration of the results into a geographical information system tool (GIS), through which urban risk is adapted and analyzed in spatial terms. The present investigation intends to set the first step towards the application of real interventions to reduce urban vulnerability. The results presented aim to constitute a practical tool, addressed to city councils and local authorities, that can be used to support the development of more comprehensive and efficient fire risk mitigation actions. Among the main conclusions, the results revealed that only 6% of the buildings evaluated in Guimarães case study present low level of vulnerability against fire, which means that the majority of buildings are currently in an “unsafe” situation. Results also indicate that this vulnerability is mainly related to accessibility and evacuation aspects, both inside and outside the buildings, which, to a large extent, result from the characteristic of the buildings and the old city center itself, not designed to comply with the current safety standards. Regarding Quito case study, neighborhoods San Sebastian, El Placer, El Tejar, La Chilena and San Diego were identified as the most vulnerable, among 14 neighborhoods analyzed. Finally, the key role of documentation in the domain of multi-scale risk assessment is critically discussed taking into account the source of the information and the specific challenges found in each case studies.

The Washington National Cathedral: post-earthquake recovery of a neo-gothic cathedral

ABSTRACT. The Mineral, Virginia earthquake on August 23, 2011 damaged a number of historic masonry structures throughout the District of Columbia to varying degrees. Of these, the Washington National Cathedral, a heavily-visited tourist destination and functioning house of worship, sustained some of the most significant, visually striking, and potentially dangerous damage. The Cathedral, whose construction began in 1907, is an unreinforced stone masonry structure in the Gothic Revival style characterized by an abundance of flying buttresses and carved stone pinnacles and turrets at various elevations over its 330 foot height. Many of these elements partially collapsed or became unstable during the earthquake. Once imminent falling hazards were removed or stabilized, the process of assessing the extent of damage via rope-access and developing conceptual schemes for mitigating the damage began. Due to insufficient available funding to repair the damage in the near-term, a long-term strategy was needed to allow for continued occupancy of the Cathedral in light of the presence of displaced heavy stone masonry at great elevation and for phasing the repair and restoration of the fragile gothic elements. In developing the strategy, questions were raised regarding whether and when the damaged elements should be strengthened --- so as to not increase the hazard by integrating multiple masonry courses and creating heavier potential falling hazards --- and how best to develop practical criteria for strengthening. Simple and direct seismic assessment approaches were developed and utilized. The earthquake had already provided full-scale evidence of the behavior of the Cathedral under design level ground shaking; the most vulnerable elements and types of elements were the most damaged, and the elements needing less attention were undamaged. At the same time, the observed behavior provided direct physical evidence of the transfer functions through the structure. Quantification of these transfer functions proceeded without development of a complex global model that would have itself introduced many uncertainties, and these enabled the development of targeted repairs to vulnerable ornamental elements that were “tuned” to their risk of future instability, as well as to the magnitude of the falling hazard associated with instability. Over the last several years since the earthquake, the Cathedral response team is following through with an approach to the exterior restoration process that balances repair of seismic damage with deferred repairs and long-term maintenance needs, as well as opportunities for fund raising. By appropriately prioritizing the exterior repair requirements, the overall restoration is on its way to successfully integrating non-seismic improvements and leveraging needed access to the exterior and interior, while attempting to consolidate disruption to Cathedral operations, and safely phasing the work schedule to better match the anticipated funding stream. This paper will describe the philosophy and methodology of the assessment and interventions, as well as layout the passage from the initial catastrophic damage state toward restoration. It will also highlight particularly remarkable examples of damage and the resulting retrofits for various cathedral elements that demonstrate how the damage observed has informed the development of the retrofit designs.

The 8th ICBR Lisbon 2018 publication outputs and the contributions of the Special Session and the thematic track on Architectural Heritage: Special Issues and Elsevier books
14:00-15:45 Session 2A-II: Track session
Location: Main Auditorium
Mapping the path to more resilient food supply chains: a novel approach to bespoke vulnerability identification
SPEAKER: Jamie Stone

ABSTRACT. Topic and Research Background It is increasingly accepted that supply chains in all forms face increasing volatility across a range of business parameters from energy cost, to competition for raw materials. Food Supply Chains not only share these general risks, but also face their own unique vulnerabilities due to the limited shelf life of food and the myriad factors that can influence the quality and quantity of agricultural yields. Clearly there is a need for food supply chains to become more resilient, something which goes beyond merely the ability to resist disruptions and includes the ability to detect and adapt to changing operating environments. This requires the accurate identification of specific vulnerabilities that make a given actor in a supply chain (i.e. a company) susceptible to disruption. Only then can mitigating capabilities be assigned in a way that is both adequate to deal with the threat faced and proportional in terms of any negative side effects associated with the resilience capability chosen. However, traditional risk management approaches typically rely upon historical likelihoods of occurrence and consequences of impact rather than real time mapping. This presents a challenge in contemporary volatile food supply chains where vulnerabilities are less likely to have been encountered previously.

Objectives In response, the aim of this paper is to present a novel, real-time mapping procedure that different actors within a food supply chain can use to identify their bespoke vulnerabilities. This aim is facilitated by three objectives: 1. To identify the indicators that a company would use in a mapping process to evaluate their supply chain. 2. To identify under what circumstances the aforementioned indicators would suggest risk of a failure mode and to categorize what these failure modes are. 3. To identify what causal underlying vulnerabilities may lead to each failure mode.

Methods This research is abductive in nature. It is based on a thorough review of the existing, multi-disciplinary literature and utilizes empirical validation in the form of two case studies in the chilled convenience food sector to validate and develop the mapping procedure.

Findings Empirical validation has demonstrated the ability of the mapping process to identify high priority exposure points for two companies which are comparable in terms of sector but which have very different supply chains. Both companies indicated a reliance on road networks and single suppliers as high priority exposure points. However, validation also revealed that even though on paper two companies might identify similar vulnerabilities, company specific factors such as available resources and even attitudes can determine whether exposure manifests as an actual disruption.

Conclusions This framework offers a method by which different actors can supplement their traditional risk management opportunities by investigating the real time state of their supply chain and allocating responses proportionately. This encourages a shift in stance away from simply trying to resist and outlast disruptive events, towards a more adaptive approach which is important in increasingly volatile food supply chains. A limitation is the small number of case studies and further empirical validation would be useful to test the applicability of the procedure in different food manufacturing sectors.

New multi-scale risk governance and management approach of natural, cultural and artistic preserved areas: the case studies of the Amalfi Coast and the Cilento National Park IT sites
SPEAKER: Luigi Petti

ABSTRACT. The paper describes an innovative methodology for the governance and risk management of areas characterized by a high natural, cultural and landscape value. The proposed methodology is considered in a significant way from the natural, landscape, historical, artistic and cultural aspects: the Amalfi coast and the Cilento National Park, both registered in the World Heritage List. The paper, according with the strategies for the Reinforcement of the UNESCO's action for the Protection of Culture and the Promotion of Cultural Pluralism in case of disasters, it looks at the role of culture - in its broader definition - in strengthening resilience and fostering social cohesion for a more sustainable recovery, aligned with the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction (SFDRR). The starting point for any management activity is the knowledge of the territories, understood as a descriptive element of the tangible and intangible aspects, which mutually act as support for the preservation of a single good. The complexity of analysing the territory with a trans-disciplinary approach, finds in the available informatics tools (GIS) valid support, thanks to which it has been possible to obtain a complex multidisciplinary and multilevel reading. The knowledge of the territory is completed, therefore, with the recognition and evaluation of the hazards, natural and human-induced, including also the socio-economic aspects which can cause hazards and therefore cause damage to the territory and the exposed goods, and/or be affected by the consequences caused by them. The multilevel reading of this information allows the identification of the socio-economic main issues of the territory and declines them according to the objectives described by the 17 SGDs (Sustainable Development Goals) that make up the 2030 Agenda and refer to different areas of social, economic and environmental development, which must be considered in an integrated manner, as well as to the processes that can accompany and sustain them in a sustainable way, including international cooperation and the political and institutional context in order to mitigate the risks with respect to the specific objectives that a territory places. In this way, it is possible to analyse the territories highlighting the positive and the critical aspects to define a Risk Governance program. This information is necessary to implement a participatory risk management program, considering the different priorities of the local communities and the various stakeholders present on the territories such as university centers, institutional and governmental bodies, using an apprised approach regarding the studied issues and in the context of the development of the circular economy policy. The paper shows some of the results of the obtained research on the territories of the Amalfi coast and Cilento National Park highlighting the importance of representing the cognitive information in a matrix form, comparing the criticalities found and the principles underlying the SDGs in order to reach the definition of essential guidelines for the management and governance of the territories.

Livelihoods of the last mile: a case study of how rural households in development contexts manage evolving disaster risk and the challenges for early warning of rural-urban migration
SPEAKER: Jacob Thomson

ABSTRACT. The means of improving disaster early warning have largely been considered through the greater incorporation of information at all timescales and of multiple hazard typologies. This carries with it its own challenges, not least the significant forecast uncertainty over longer lead times, and the ability to incorporate risk knowledge from, and disseminate warning to, the local level – the ‘last mile’. The challenge is acute in rural development contexts, where the persistent limitations of Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) governance mean that livelihoods have been the principal means by which households have pursued self-reliance and attempted to maintain resilience. Under such drivers as climate change, local populations are predicted to be both increasingly susceptible and increasingly mobile in response to evolving disaster risk, but rural livelihoods are complex and location specific, and incorporate diverse farm and non-farm resources that pose challenges to operational assessment. The research applied a livelihood systems framework adapted from the Disaster Resilience of Place (DROP) conceptual model to structure enquiry into this complex dynamic. Specifically; a baseline to define a boundary and the key antecedent components of exposure, vulnerability, and organisation; disaster dynamics as represented by hazards, warning, and short-term responses; and household capacities as demonstrated by longer-term adjustment to livelihood portfolios. This enquiry was implemented by an ethnographic, iterative methodology using established Community Risk Assessment (CRA) indicators from DRR praxis to build a case study of three villages in Lao PDR, situated approximately halfway between the Thai and Vietnam borders. The results of the study revealed that in the preceding two to five years alone, cross-border trade, land encroachment, foreign-direct investment, mechanisation, and off-farm migration had resulted in higher incomes for some, but in many instances had combined with new disaster dynamics to place greater stress on the local livelihood system. Respondents themselves believed that a threshold may have been reached whereby in the event of a range of potential crises, in situ capacity and traditional DRR strategies may no longer be viable and that the best option may lie in outmigration. The livelihood system was in a state of flux; this state was reached through a complex feedback mechanism within and between livelihood categories, within and across national borders, and carried with it the potential for emergence or future systemic collapse that may lead to large-scale displacement. This has at least two implications for DRR programming. First, it questions, but does not necessarily invalidate, established programming based on incremental adaptation in situ. Second, it underscores the importance of further research aimed at improving the predictive capacity of multi-hazard early warning systems. Combined, both approaches remain the best means of no-regrets DRR, but may not be enough to hedge against future disaster risk that is stochastic, potentially emergent, and increasingly transboundary in both cause and effect. Framing the last mile through livelihood system enquiry may offer a way forward, but the means of structuring assessment and warning of evolving disaster risk in such complex and dynamic systems, remain an unresolved operational challenge for DRR praxis.

The downstream mechanism of the end-to-end tsunami warning and mitigation system in Sri Lanka

ABSTRACT. An end-to-end tsunami early warning and mitigation system (TEWMS) is a risk reduction mechanism widely used to predict the risk of a tsunami inundation and thereby warn the people to evacuate to a safer area. This process typically involves an upstream involving detection of earthquake and prediction of a tsunami, and a downstream in which the warning is disseminated to public for evacuation. Between these two, there occurs an interface where the impact of tsunami inundation is analysed in each country, the warning decision is taken and issued to the public. In case of Sri Lanka, the warning and evacuation decision is taken centrally by the government. However, after the warning is issued by the national disaster management centre, the order for evacuation is disseminated to the public through several channels using different techniques. This process involves a number of stakeholders, uses technical and human resources, and influenced by various social, cultural and political factors. This presentation is an analysis of the downstream process of tsunami early warning system in Sri Lanka, with particular focus on decision making and warning dissemination below the national level. Using a literature based conceptual framework, data was collected through key informant interviews, focus group discussions and observations. In the findings, a number gaps in the downstream process that affects the effective information delivery and safety of the public are highlighted, and the authors provide recommendations to overcome the shortcomings.

Flood flow rates in the Mondego River in the region of Coimbra: a complex problem for risk management

ABSTRACT. The floods of the Mondego river, in Coimbra, are part of its hydrological history. The semi-torrential nature of its regime and the contribution of tributaries such as the Ceira river determine the magnitude of the floods, with negative social, economic and environmental impacts. Currently, flood control and flood protection are based on the system comprising the Aguieira, Raiva and Ponte de Açude de Coimbra in the Mondego river and the dam in the Alva river, most of which came into operation in the 80´s.Downstream of Coimbra, the defense system consists of: 2 peripheral beds; marginal dikes, including 3 siphon dikes and a fuse dam. The Ponte de Açude Coimbra has a discharger with a maximum capacity of 1200m3 / s, with a flow rate of 1200m3/s for T-100 and 2000m3/s for T-1000. The recent history of the floods in Coimbra has revealed that the Lower Mondego flood control system has not been efficient. On January 26th and 27th, 2001, the level of the free surface in the regularized riverbed on several sections reached and broke the levees and on February 13th, 2016,it approached the crowning point of the dikes and forced the opening of the dike near the National Forest of Choupal. An integrated evaluation of the flow rates has been carried out since 1981 in order to look for an integrated evaluation of the flow rates with instantaneous maximum flows in the Ponte de Coimbra Dam being greater than 1200m3/s. For each one of the events, the tributaries and effluents for the Aguieira-Raiva-Fronhas-Açude Ponte and the tributaries of the Cabouco Bridge and the Conraria Bridge system both in the Ceira river, were analyzed, and it was also determined the value corresponding to the flow of the intermediate basin, located between the mouth of the Alva river and the mouth of the Ceira river in the Mondego. During the floods of January 26th and 27th, 2001, the maximum instantaneous inflow to the Açude Ponte was 1990 m3/s, with the Ceira river making a significant contribution to the magnitude of the floods in Coimbra, with a flow rate of 660 m3/s. In the event of flood of January 11th, 2016, the tributary flow to the Açude Ponte was of 1498 m3/s and the one of the intermediate basin and the Ceira river of 336m3/s.In the flood of February 13th, 2016, the effluent flow of the Aguieira-Raiva-Pilhas system corresponded to 1060,5 m3/s and to the Açude Ponte was 1960,50 m3/s, so the flow of the Ceira river and the basin was 900 m3/s. It turns out that the return flow rates calculated for the Ponte do Açude de Coimbra are undersized. The Ceira river and the intermediate basin make a considerable contribution to the magnitude of the floods that occur in Coimbra. Therefore, for a better prediction of the full risk and proper management before and during the event, flow logging cannot be summarized at fixed points (e.g. Aguieira-Raiva-Fronhas-Ponte Açude). It is fundamental to know the flows of the river basin in all its fullness, through the expansion of the Water Resources Monitoring and Alert System.

Factors affecting the empowerment of women in disaster risk governance in Sri Lanka

ABSTRACT. Increasing trend of natural hazards demands effective and efficient disaster risk reduction and resilience mechanisms to minimize its effects: loss of lives, property damages and destruction to the social systems. Hence, leading international frameworks, academics, policy makers and practitioners have emphasised the necessity of introducing innovative and effective disaster risk reduction measures to avoid and minimise the effects of disasters. Disaster risk governance has been identified as a key strategy as well as a key priority by many global frameworks. One of the salient feature of disasters is its gendered nature. Women have been disproportionately affected in disasters due to physical, social and cultural and economic vulnerabilities. This if furthermore complicated due to inability to incorporate women’s perspectives at the disaster risk reduction decision making level. Despite their vulnerabilities, contribution of women in decision making has shown remarkable results in many areas. Consequently, the necessity of empowering women in disaster risk reduction has been highlighted in the literature. However, present level of empowerment of women in disaster risk governance has not achieved its desired level. Hence, this paper aims to identify the factors that affect the empowerment of women in disaster risk governance within Sri Lankan context. Sri Lanka is selected due to its frequent threats of natural hazards as well as status of women when compared to the regional level. Sri Lanka also represents the developing country context as well as Asia where the highest amount of deaths has been reported from natural hazards. The study conducted a detailed literature review to identify the factors that affect empowerment of women in decision making. Based on the identified factors, an interview guideline was developed to conduct experts’ interviews. Nine expert interviews were conducted during November 2017 with the officials at the Disaster Management Centre, Asia Disaster Preparedness Centre, District Secretariat Offices, Divisional Secretariat Offices and District Disaster Management Coordination Units. The data were analysed qualitatively and presented using content analysis. The study found that legal and institutional factors; individual characteristics; socio-cultural factors and socio-economic factors as the factors that affect women empowerment in disaster risk governance. Political environment, existing policies and legislations and organization culture represent legal and institutional factors whereas level of education and self-interest represent individual characteristics. Patriarchal culture, religious believes, structure of the family and household workload are the socio-cultural factors that limit women empowerment in planning and decision making. Household income was found to be the socio-economics factor limiting women empowerment. Accordingly, the study recommends enhancing the process of empowerment of women in disaster risk governance in Sri Lanka by provisioning more family support systems, necessary skills and other infrastructure facilities.

14:00-15:45 Session 2B/2C-I: Track session
Location: Room C202
Disentangling governance in resilience projects: lessons in process-based planning from the Philippines
SPEAKER: Travis Bunt

ABSTRACT. Following Typhoon Haiyan in 2013–one of the strongest tropical typhoons ever recorded–the city of Tacloban in the Philippines was left decimated. Donated funds streamed in from around the globe, yet governmental agencies with overlapping responsibilities experienced overwhelming difficulty implementing longer-term recovery strategies. In 2016, One Architecture and Urbanism, in partnership with the Philippines Reclamation Authority (PRA) and Wetlands International, was awarded a Water Window Seed Grant from the Global Resilience Partnership (GRP) to implement a series of pilot projects for mangrove and beach forest restoration throughout the coastal area. Mangroves are touted for their multiple-level ecosystem services, boosting biodiversity, encouraging sediment accumulation for coastline stabilization, acting as a strong wave attenuator to mitigate storm impact, and fostering economic opportunity. However, while reforestation has been a common goal throughout the Philippines, in practice, our project team encountered municipal and governmental obstacles that led us to reconsider strategies for implementing nature-based projects at a much larger scale. Recognizing the importance and applicability of disentangling these processes to pave the way for similar efforts in the Philippines and beyond, we refocused our scope to document the intricacies of local governance, leverage science-based methodology to build from existing efforts, and test public-private partnerships similar to those we developed to smooth and drive forward resilience projects nationwide. To date, two rehabilitation pilot projects have been established near Tacloban City under the grant: a beach forest planting of nearly 25,000 seedlings, and a mangrove planting of nearly 10,000 seedlings. Many of the obstacles our international and local team encountered throughout the year-long grant were the result of external factors including political and policy-based developments ushered in with a new federal administration, redundant and needlessly complex bureaucratic and administrative procedures, a near-impossible site selection and verification process given the complexities of land ownership and tenurial status after the devastation of Yolanda, and unforeseen environmental challenges, such as the success of agency-led planting practices doomed to failure because the wrong species was selected for a given coastal ecosystem. Throughout this process, trust-building with local units of governance and tapping into vernacular best practices has played a major role in the team’s work in Tacloban, influencing our decision-making process at every step, from triaging sites to widening our scope. With a resolute focus on creating local benefit alongside a framework for the long-term maintenance and viability of projects, we have understood that a re-ordering of intergovernmental relationships (and communications) is key in lending structure, clarity, and accountability to resilience projects.

Regulatory mechanisms in intergovernmental relations and citizenship in risk governance in Portugal

ABSTRACT. Characterized by a type of intrinsically hierarchical risk governance model (Ribeiro, 2018), the Portuguese civil protection system presents, in the political domain, a vertical verdict, of a prescriptive nature, in intergovernmental relations between the central administration and the local levels. This hierarchical model is also reflected in the respective dimensions of citizenship, where, according to narratives and institutional discursive logics, de jure rights predominate, not always accompanied by de facto rights. However, the involvement of populations in the system continues to be subordinated, with individuals and communities appearing more as receptors and object of a system than as protagonists and subjects of actions. This is an area considered as a field of action for experts, only rarely open to effective participation of populations. This article seeks to discuss the causes and consequences of two specific types of risks and catastrophes, forest fires and earthquakes, highlighting not only their similarities, but also their differences, regarding risk governance processes. With regard to forest fires, it should be noted that the events of June and October 2017 have become a significant moment in the history of catastrophes in Portugal. Apart from the disastrous consequences of the high number of human victims, destroyed assets and burnt-out hectares, their effects have subsequently spread in the political, social and economic dimensions that seem to reconfigure the existing risk governance processes, particularly as regards the exercise of an inclusive citizenship. In the same way, and also assuming a significant weight around the mechanisms of risk governance, has been the debate centered around the seismic risk, due to the recovery and rehabilitation processes of part of the buildings in Lisbon, resulting, among other factors, from the tourism development processes that the country, and the city, have been registering. Highlighting also intergovernmental relationship processes, namely in terms of production and legislative application, this situation has amassed a wide discussion on the part of professional groups and the population in general, in a communication process mainly centered in the domain of specialized protagonists, not always decoded for lay populations. On the one hand, the dichotomy between agents and regulators will be highlighted in the presentation and at the level of intergovernmental relations, discussing the main analytical and explanatory domains that make it possible to identify the differences, similarities and even antagonisms between these two levels of State administration. On the other hand, and in relation to the areas of citizenship and public participation, the two processes will be discussed, in a double assertion, and based on the reference of the right to have rights, the configurative processes of contractual mechanisms, as a matrix for the inclusion or exclusion of citizens in risk governance processes.

Harmonizing policies to enhance the cross-border regional resilience of the Guangdong - Hong Kong - Macau Greater Bay Area
SPEAKER: Qingqing Feng

ABSTRACT. Improving infrastructure and community resilience has become the main focus of many metropolis and regions to pursue sustainable development and tackle multi-hazards including natural disasters, climate change, man-made shocks, and infrastructure and environmental challenges. The international society has made a concerted effort by setting the post-2015 development agenda which is founded on the basis of the Paris Agreement, the Sendai Framework, the Sustainable Development Goals and the New Urban Agenda. Being a crucial part and motive force of China’s on-going regional development strategy, it is paramount important to build a livable world-class city cluster in the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macau Greater Bay Area with due consideration of regional resilience. However, it is a greater challenge for cities within the bay area to make and implement synergized policies to improve cross-border regional resilience due to the complexity and heterogeneity of urban management arising from the different political and legal systems of the three places. The aim of this paper is to provide a theoretical basis for policy makers to formulate a blueprint for long-term resilient city cluster planning and development in the Greater Bay Area. The policy instruments of the three regions pertinent to traditional disaster and emergency management, climate change and sustainable development are identified and further classified into matrixes according to the widely recognized ‘NATO’ (Nodality, Authority, Treasure and Organization) scheme for public policy analysis and community capitals. A framework developed in this paper is extended and made reference to in order to compare the policies, strategies and plans of the three regions, as well as to investigate the gaps and solutions to align their urban and regional resilience improvement practices. This paper also analyzes the status quo of the cooperation and collaboration initiatives among the three regions regarding to improving the regional resilience. The preliminary findings of this research reveal that regional resilience can only be achieved through concerted policies, seamless communication and information sharing, close governmental cooperation and active citizens’ engagement. Standalone institutions should also be established to govern and orchestrate the policy making and execution processes to improve the resilience of the Greater Bay Area.

Defining risk across borders: engaging information technology for cross-border disaster collaboration

ABSTRACT. Disaster planning and mitigation are increasingly becoming projects based in managing diversity, from cross-organisational collaboration to inclusivity of voices. These issues are particularly prevalent when dealing with transnational risks. The challenge, however, is not just that more natural, technological, or social hazards are increasingly crossing borders thus more sharing between diverse actors is needed for proper disaster governance or that there is an increased risk to citizens if data is not shared over borders. It is also that borders – national, jurisdictional, or institutional – are increasingly playing a role in how we organize information and understand risk. Moreover, these understandings of risk are being built into the tools used by disaster responders, which can have a range of implications from how accuracy and relevancy of information is defined to increasing the exclusion of already marginalised understandings of risk. Building on research from a European project to design technologies for cross-border interoperability in disaster training and preparedness (IN-PREP.eu) this paper explores what it means to define risk management by using borders as a frame. It draws upon the qualitative results of the project’s ethical impact assessment based on stakeholder consultations that describe and map information flows within the design ideas, identify key stakeholder interrelationships, and assess social norms, legal frameworks, and ethical considerations. Specifically, this paper examines the assumptions that emerge in designing information technology and their infrastructures to support cross-border decision-making, preparedness, and disaster management. The paper explains how different understandings of risk become codified into the algorithms and software frameworks and identifies the emergent social and political tensions that can form as a result of these new analytical tools intended to support cross-border interactions. Finally, it discusses how the tension between borders and designed collaboration reveals nuanced challenges around the ethics of responsibility, care, and contestation around risk.

Development of ASEAN Urban Resilience Checklist
SPEAKER: Masashi Inoue

ABSTRACT. After the Sendai Framework adopted in 2015, more and more attentions are paid to Urban Resilience and disaster risk reduction (hereinafter referred as “DRR”) activities. However, most of the persons in charge of DRR-related measure planning in the local governments and communities do not have enough experience and expertise to implement proper DRR-related activity from the comprehensive viewpoint, which leads to have tendency to work with the easy and noticeable activities. Under this situation, the tool for logical and comprehensive DRR-related measure planning is strongly required. Based on this background, ASEAN Urban Resilience Checklist is developed as a part of outputs of the project components for Concept Note 18 (CN18): Building Disaster and Climate Resilient Cities in ASEAN. CN18 was under the strategy and priorities for AADMER Work Programme Phase 2 (2013-2015) formulated by ASEAN Committee on Disaster Management (ACDM). This checklist was developed and proposed in participatory planning manner through trial implementation of the draft checklist on three cities in ASEAN Member of States (AMS) and several workshops with AMS participants in order to gather opinions and comments for improvement of it. The checklist is proposed to compose of two parts of “Checklist A for Disaster Risk Management” and “Checklist B for Resilient Urban Development”, which two checklists requires automatically their assessments to be promoted by interactive and cooperative activities such as data sharing, common analyses and planning coordination with decision making between two sectors. This is because one of the issues on mainstreaming DRR into land use and urban development planning is observed by inefficient coordination and interaction of two key sectors of disaster risk management and urban sector including infrastructure in ASEAN. The checklists aim to provide users with a simple tool to assess the existing capacities of a target DRR and urban resilience, keeping in mind the capacities that local governments actually need in order to achieve effective DRR and urban resilience. The following three aspects are considered for formulating the checklists: ・Quantitative assessment: Checklist plays a key role in enabling users to assess their DRR and urban resilience activities quantitatively and visually for prioritizing improvements effectively and efficiently. ・Promoting actions: Checklist plays an important role in promoting required actions through association of weak items with prioritized actions for enhancement of DRR and urban resilience. ・Compact form: Checklist aims to be compact with essence taking account of frequent use for daily activities of DRR and urban resilience. This paper illustrates the detail of this checklist and reports the actual result of Denpasar, Indonesia and share the lesson learnt.

Natural risk analysis of the built environment: understanding strengths and weaknesses of both quantitative and qualitative methodologies

ABSTRACT. Natural disasters hit the environment where human communities live. The consequent losses include damages to physical elements and resources of that environment, injuries and fatalities. In order to prevent and reduce these losses, worldwide risk analyses are carried out on each region or territory prone to natural disasters. These analyses are classified either as quantitative or qualitative. Both kinds have strengths and weaknesses, which are strongly related to the geographical distribution of the hazard. Firstly, this study aims to investigate the correlation between the geographical distribution of the natural hazard and the results of the risk analyses carried out with different methods. For this purpose, a compared study of the results obtained through quantitative and qualitative risk assessments of a region to earthquake-induced soil liquefaction events is proposed. In particular, the quantitative risk assessment method applied in this study is based on the geographical distribution of hazard, vulnerability and exposure, while the qualitative method proposes the active involvement of the social components related to the analyzed region. The comparison shows that hazards localized in small regions, such as soil liquefaction, highlight the strengths and weaknesses of the applied risk assessment methods, which is the second objective of this contribution. The study leads to few results, listed below, which show the complementarity of such risk analyses in case of extremely hazards. Firstly, the risk analyses based on the quantitative method takes into account the geographic distribution of hazard intensity and vulnerability degree clearly identifying the elements, to which a mitigation action should be applied. However, the comparison shows that the results obtained through this method can underestimate the effects of localized disasters on the community: the relations among its different actors cannot be easily taken into account in models centered on geographical distribution of the risk ingredients. Secondly, the results of risk analysis conducted with a qualitative method cannot be easily related to the hazard intensity and vulnerability degree because homogeneous values of it has to be defined for the whole analyzed area. Still these results clearly show the damages sustained by the community and the progress of its recovery. The results presented and compared in this contribution were obtained through analyses carried out on a post-disaster data collected in a small European municipality recently affected by soil liquefaction events. These risk analyses and data collection have been carried out within the activities of the European H2020 research and innovation project “LiquefACT” (grant agreement number 700748).

14:00-15:45 Session 2D/3B-I: Track session
Location: Room B201
Can social-security measures build resilience against natural disasters? A case study of flood-affected district in Uttarakhand, India

ABSTRACT. Social security and disaster resilience are closely interlinked particularly in regions that are highly prone of natural disasters. The existing literature suggests that appropriately designed social security programmes can help households living in disaster prone areas to adapt their livelihoods to natural disasters and cope with the negative impacts through strategies such as livelihood diversification and local adaptation measures for disaster risk reduction. However, development and disasters are also closely related as both significantly affect each other. Development can increase or reduce vulnerabilities, and catastrophic events can set back development as well as also open window of opportunity. In view of this, the paper aims to examine the role of social security measures of livelihood, food security and social assistance in contributing as tools to build household resilience against natural disasters. Further, the paper also focuses on how unplanned development in Uttarakhand has multiplied the existing vulnerabilities in the already fragile region. The rural poor households are even worse affected as they have been deprived of mainstream development and are exposed to multiple hazards. The devastating floods of 2013 which affected many districts in Uttarakhand, is taken as a case study. It is a qualitative research and has opted for case study as an approach to inquiry. The purposive sampling method targets households which suffered from the flooding disaster and are entitled to social security measures. In context of inclusion of disaster resilience in India’s development strategies, the paper aims to produce policy recommendations and bridge the literature gap in disasters and development discourse.

An investigation of disaster preparedness of micro, small and medium size enterprises of Sri Lanka

ABSTRACT. Natural disasters have created a significant adverse impact on Micro, Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (MSMEs) in Sri Lanka during last decade. MSME sector can be considered as the highly vulnerable section of Sri Lankan economy which affected drastically by the natural disasters as they are relatively resource constrained and less resilient. With the awareness of the potential dangers from natural disasters, the government has been taken many initiatives to help the industrial sector prepare, adapt and respond. Unfortunately, MSMEs are excluded from most of these initiatives. Therefore, MSMEs do not have adequate information or contingency plans for risk associated with natural disasters. Given that community resilience depends greatly on the ability of the MSMEs to bounce back, re-establish production and continue to provide employment to local workers in the aftermath of disasters, disaster preparedness of MSMEs is critical. This study sought to investigate the level of disaster preparedness of MSMEs located in Western province of Sri Lanka. Two hundred randomly selected MSMEs from Western province were surveyed for this study. Semi structured interviews were carried out in person with the business owners in order to identify their experiences on various types of natural disasters faced by them, and their status of preparedness for such natural disasters. It was found that during the past ten years (2007-2017) 52.2 percent business enterprises had averagely been struck by natural disasters. The most common natural disaster in this province was flooding and Colombo district had been the worst adversely impacted following Kalutara and Gampaha districts. Loss of earnings was the most massive damage of the enterprises following damages to buildings and equipment. One of the major finding was the assessment of preparedness of MSMEs to natural disasters can be categorized into four elements: preparedness assessment, natural disaster prevention planning, staff training, and asset prevention and risk insurance. The study revealed that preparedness of MSMEs for the aspect of preparedness assessment was very low with the average of 2.752 of 6-point score. Natural disaster prevention planning was evaluated with 12 manoeuvres resulting low overall scores. The study found that there was no regular personnel training on what to do during disaster breakout and staff knowledge on mitigation of damages during disasters was around 20 percent. Asset prevention and risk insurance was also showed low scores similar to other 3 elements. From this study it could be concluded that of all the 4 elements of disaster preparedness of Sri Lankan MSMEs were low and among these 4 elements, natural disaster prevention planning showed the highest score. The study concludes that the Sri Lankan MSMEs were having little preparation on natural disasters. Enhancing the level of disaster preparedness can better mitigate, prepare for, respond to, and recover from natural disasters more effectively. Therefore, this study concludes with providing some recommendations on enhancing disaster preparedness in the MSME sector in Sri Lanka.

A modified needs assessment method in post-disaster recovery processes
SPEAKER: Anshul Puriya

ABSTRACT. The current needs assessment strategy in the aftermath of a disaster has started to emphasize on the social and human development impacts of the disaster. The use of this methodology was accentuated only after the mid of the twentieth century. Before this, the emphasis was on measuring destruction to assets to initiate the reconstruction activities. The inclination in the assessment process has shifted from damage to loss estimation and now to the needs estimation of the victims. The need assessment covers the entire area affected by the disaster and also the sectors of economic activities that may have sustained negative or positive disaster effects. On the basis of this needs assessment, the estimation of future needs of the population is done. This practice does not involve assessment of any skills or competencies of the victims which may be further useful for their development. The post-disaster needs assessment uses the pre-disaster baseline information to compare with post-disaster conditions in order to evaluate the magnitude and scale of the disaster. Then it determines the damage to each sector by evaluating the disaster effects and impacts in the respective sector to decide the overall recovery needs. It then prioritizes the recovery needs by using a recovery strategy. A recovery strategy has clear objectives, appropriate interventions to meet priority recovery needs and also the expected outputs and overall intended outcome, and it outlines the implementation arrangements. The short-term assessment in the early and critical stage of a disaster is done to provide immediate relief whereas the detailed assessment is long term and for the recovery and development. This paper argues that another detailed baseline survey should be conducted within a year of the disaster to examine the new development pattern the community is following. The recovery and reconstruction programs try to bring back the community to the normal stage which was before the disaster. But this normal attained is a new normal which is different from the development normal had there not been any disaster. The baseline survey should be compared with the pre-disaster survey and then any further development program should be planned. This survey will also bring the number displaced population in the relocation process and population movement since the disaster. The paper proposes a new method of needs assessment in which the skills and abilities of the affected individuals are used in the recovery process thereby enhancing community resilience. The method involved studying the current assessment strategies and suggest inputs in the assessment process based on the literature study. The literature review advocates the use of skills of the affected community in the recovery process. It argues that the attention should be on full social recovery rather than only economic growth and development. The findings from the study would be useful for governments, NGO’s and related organizations working in the field of disaster recovery to create the recovery plan as per the specific skills and competencies of the affected community.

A case study for resilient urban waterfront regeneration

ABSTRACT. This paper examines The Eddy, completed in 2017, which is a new mixed-use multifamily housing scheme in Boston, Massachusetts (USA) that exemplifies the nexus of public and private partnerships, resulting in enhanced resiliency for the individual property and its surrounding neighbourhood. It is situated in the historic neighbourhood of East Boston on low-lying, former industrial land, which has for centuries been an entryway for flood waters into the neighbourhood. During its redevelopment from an industrial storage facility into luxury rental housing, this project was seen as a lynchpin to a larger plan by the city to help mitigate climate change factors – rising sea levels, increased heat, and increased precipitation – for the entire neighbourhood by weaving it into existing and planned “hard” and “soft” infrastructure projects. This paper explores the drivers for these measures on the project and the strategies employed by the designers and the municipality, which resulted in greater sustainability, increased resiliency, social benefits for the community, and benefits to the owner. It will explore in detail how site, landscape, architecture, mechanical systems, and interior design each play a crucial role in the purported outcomes, and it will conclude through the sharing of economic metrics derived from the client relative to the performance of the building during its first year of operations, specifically regarding marketability, operational cost savings, and a return on investment for utilizing a design approach championing both resiliency and sustainability in tandem. The main goal of this paper is to illustrate how successful public and private partnerships can be leveraged to promote cooperation, applicable within any waterfront city, whereby cities can continue to grow, densify, and celebrate their places on the waterfront while promoting increased resiliency, sustainability, and public space.

Social capital in disaster recovery: a case study after the 2016 earthquake in Ecuador
SPEAKER: Jonas Jörin

ABSTRACT. Track: 2D Understanding disaster recovery processes Presentation style: ORAL PRESENTATION

Research about social capital in disaster recovery has gained importance in recent years. This is due to the increase in adverse disaster impacts on human society and a simultaneous shift in Disaster Risk Management (DRM) from a strong focus on physical aspects towards a more integrated approach that also considers social aspects. Social capital, which is defined through the functions networks, trust and norms, has been found to play an important role in DRM, especially during the recovery phase. This accounts for strong community networks and norms as well as strong leadership. This paper examines the role of social capital in the recovery process of two affected cantons in Ecuador after the 2016 Ecuador earthquake. We collected data on social capital among survivors of the earthquake in Jama and Pedernales cantons through a household survey and expert interviews ten months after the disaster. We then analysed through quantitative analysis different functions of social capital, such as trust and networks and looked for correlations with the state of recovery and recovery satisfaction. Additionally, we used qualitative methods to complement our quantitative results. The results show that overall social capital in the surveyed cantons was rather low. This accounts especially for trust within communities (community trust) and trust between people and authority figures (vertical trust). However, trust among family members (individual trust) was perceived very high. Low levels of trust within communities may be traced back to a lack of community organisations and the strong ties people have among their families. The latter leads to closure of networks beyond the family level. Low levels of trust of people to authorities can be attributed to the government’s top-down approach and its reconstruction plan, which focused mainly on physical measures. Thereby, inclusion of local actors, i.e. affected communities and the local council, was minimal. This factor reinforced the low levels of trust within communities and led to reduced collective action and mutual support among community members. Many of the affected people were therefore waiting for help from the government, without initiating any further activities themselves. This was reflected in a very slow recovery process and low recovery satisfaction, as ten months after the earthquake more than half of them were still staying in temporary shelters. Drawing on these results, our findings are that the social capital of people in Jama and Pedernales was ineffective in contributing to the recovery process due to a lack of trust within communities and between people and authority figures. The absence of involving people in the recovery process reinforced the distrust between people and authorities and made it impossible to use collective action in the affected communities. Thus, we suggest that involving people and making use of community-based organisations may lead to the building of trust, greater acceptance of recovery policies and quicker and more sustainable long-term recovery.

The economic argument for amphibious retrofit construction

ABSTRACT. [3B] - Investing in resilience: the economics of disaster risk reduction Submission for Oral presentation


Smart economic frameworks and policies to inform investments in resilience and disaster risk reduction are receiving increasing attention. In an era of accelerating risk, cities need expanded sets of economically viable options to reduce risk and promote adaptation. Amphibious architecture utilizes low-cost buoyant foundations to provide existing structures with the capacity to “float when it floods”, rather than suffer repetitive loss or be required to implement an approach such as permanent static elevation that may be both culturally and economically objectionable. There is a growing need for alternative approaches that can simultaneously address technical, socio-cultural, and economic issues through disaster risk reduction policies.

Amphibious retrofit construction is a non-structural flood mitigation and climate change adaptation strategy that works in synchrony with a flood-prone region’s natural cycles of flooding. An amphibious foundation retains a home’s connection to the ground by resting firmly on the earth under usual circumstances, yet it allows a building to float as high as necessary when flooding occurs, with a vertical guidance system to prevent any lateral movement. Unlike houses elevated to a fixed level, amphibious houses can easily accommodate varying levels of floodwater.

Amphibious construction also offers significant economic benefits when compared to permanent static elevation (PSE). Detailed cost comparisons show that amphibious retrofits on average range from 30% to 50% of the cost of PSE. Loss Avoidance Studies performed for amphibious retrofits in two North American locations (Louisiana and Manitoba) provided average Loss Avoidance Ratios of 2.1 and 5.7, respectively, demonstrating the potential for high cost savings by implementing amphibious retrofits in these locations.

Furthermore, whereas PSE increases a building’s vulnerability to wind forces, amphibiation does not. A collaborative study determined that elevating the mean roof height of a home from 4m to 10m by implementing PSE creates a 75% increase in Expected Annual Loss due to increased wind damage. Amphibious buildings, as they remain close to the earth’s surface during windstorms, do not experience this increased exposure to wind and resulting losses.

This paper will discuss the potential for measurable cost savings that accompanies the implementation of amphibious retrofit construction, by describing 1) the installation process and why it can be so inexpensive, 2) two Loss Avoidance Studies (LAS) that were performed for amphibious retrofit installations and the range of high Loss Avoidance Ratios that resulted, and 3) analysis of the wind vulnerability of PSE and consequent increased Expected Annual Loss, compared to that of amphibious retrofit construction.

The need to develop integrated and well-designed policies to incentivize buoyant foundation retrofit projects is timely. Amphibious retrofits have great potential to build the resilience these vulnerable communities desperately need.

Building disaster resilience within the hotel sector: a mixed methods study
SPEAKER: Nancy Brown

ABSTRACT. 01. Understanding disaster risk 1B- Resilience, vulnerability, exposure, and hazards: discussing and operationalizing concepts Oral presentation

Building disaster resilience before a disaster can aid all types of organisations in speeding recovery post-disaster, returning to full operation sooner rather than later. For many communities the tourism sector is integral to their economic stability, therefore the ability of the hotel industry to maintain, or regain, operations is important to the economy of the local area. Furthermore, hotels play an integral role in disaster response and recovery, providing accommodations for people responding to disaster as well as local jobs.

Disaster resilience is best understood through a narrow lens. Understanding what disaster resilience is for hotels and what gaps organisations may have is crucial to planning disaster resilience building strategies. The objective of this research was to define the characteristics of disaster resilience within the hotel sector and develop measures to explore strengths and gaps in resilience. Utilising a systematic literature review approach, this research developed a framework outlining capital-based predictors customized for the hotel sector. The framework considers economic, social, human, physical, natural, and cultural capital as components of disaster resilience. Within each capital, a set of predictors and measures was developed from the literature. This view of capitals combines both potential and actual resources to contribute to adaptive capacity; the ability of an organisation to withstand and recover from shocks.

The framework has been explored through a mixed methods study of hotels in two areas in New Zealand (Greater Wellington and Hawke’s Bay). A triangulation of exploratory qualitative survey data, quantitative interviews, and published secondary data provided insight into the status of disaster resilience for these hotels and allowed for gap analysis and recommendations for increased disaster resilience. The data includes surveys and interviews with managers and staff. The inclusion of staff input provides a new, novel, innovative look at the connections between organisational policies and procedures and staff understandings and integration of those policies.

Hotels in New Zealand were found to have many resources that contribute to their overall disaster resilience. A safety culture combined with social capital stocks and human capital skills and knowledge make for a solid foundation. Gaps included a lack of all-hazard planning, need to integrate staff in the planning process, and a need to better connect with other organisations that may be assets during disasters. With a positive growth trend in New Zealand’s tourism sector and a recent history of devastating earthquakes, New Zealand provides a useful test case and may show greater attention to disaster resilience building activities than other parts of the world.

14:00-15:45 Session 3J/4A-I: Track session
Location: Room C201
Emergency healthcare network in Santiago, Chile: a model of seismic vulnerability and functional interdependencies for assessment of earthquake risk and resilience
SPEAKER: Paula Aguirre

ABSTRACT. In large earthquake scenarios, the urban population is directly affected by physical damages to buildings and structures, which may induce casualties and result in the loss of homes and income sources, but also by the reduced access to key services like health care, transportation, water and power supply. Hence, the overall resilience of urban regions is significantly determined by the capability of critical networks to sustain functionality, cope and recover from losses generated by extreme events, including structural and non-structural damage to facilities, discontinuity of different supply chains, and absence of essential personnel. This work is part of the project “SIBER-RISK: SImulation Based Earthquake Risk and Resilience of Interdependent Systems and NetworKs”, which will develop in a coherent and integrated way, a framework for the study of seismic risk and resilience of three geographically distributed and complex network systems deployed in Central Chile including their physical earthquake and functional performance and their various interdependencies. Here, we focus on the modeling of the seismic vulnerability, risk and resilience of the emergency healthcare network in metropolitan Santiago de Chile, a city of roughly seven million inhabitants located in a region potentially affected by megathrust earthquakes in the Nazca-South America subduction zone, or by events generated in the San Ramón fault. The metropolitan Santiago emergency healthcare network is a mixed system, composed of 75 private clinics and 152 public facilities, of which 45 are hospitals of varying complexity levels, and 107 are primary healthcare attention centers (PHACs). Administration of public facilities is split among six different Health Services, sub-agencies of the Ministry of Health (MINSAL) that are responsible for health services delivery in specific geographical areas and for actions related to health promotion, protection, and recovery in their territories. To model the composite vulnerability of this complex network to seismic hazards, we have compiled a large body of public information and databases, carried out remote visual surveys and field observation campaigns of different elements of the networks, and conducted several interviews to relevant actors of MINSAL and its operational units. In this way, we have constructed a physical network model including structural non-structural parameters of individual facilities, so as to characterize their seismic fragility and estimate the expected degree of damage and downtime as a function of earthquake intensity measures. Additionally, we have mapped the operational relations between emergency healthcare facilities, which are connected through patient referrals and cross-referrals, depending on the specialty and the demand for services. The resulting physical and functional models are then integrated into a discrete event simulation, thus codifying the behavior of the Santiago healthcare network as an ordered sequence of well-defined events with calibrated durations and demand. In the event of a large earthquake, the demand, duration and sequence of such events will be disrupted, as predicted by physical and social loss estimation platforms like for example HAZUS or OpenQuake. The discrete event simulation can then be altered accordingly to estimate the overall increase of patient waiting times, and thus analyze the effects of given earthquake scenarios on the performance of the health care network within the probabilistic risk and resilience framework.

A perception and spatial study on the effects of facilities in evacuation sites in a tsunami-prone environment

ABSTRACT. Nowadays, the characteristic of evacuation sites - urban design and spatial location - are defined without considering local needs. This is the case in Chile, where evacuation sites in case of tsunami lack of emergency facilities, causing problems for the community at the moment of an evacuation. The purpose here is to evaluate if the presence of emergency facilities and the spatial distribution of evacuation sites makes a difference on how people perceive them and in turn, in the process of evacuation from tsunami hazard. Participants (N=78) of four villages along the Chilean coast evaluated a set of natural and built images of evacuation sites. Images of natural sites were manipulated in Photoshop to include emergency infrastructure (e.g. shelter and water); hence, three types of site categories were evaluated; natural sites, built sites, and intervened sites. A 1 to 5 Likert scale was used for the evaluation of images in terms of perceived security (SE), place attachment (ATT) and restoration (RES). By using descriptive statistics, we explored if the presence of emergency facilities affects perception, finding a predisposition to perceive greater security (SE), attachment (ATT) and restoration (RES) in natural (SE=2.1, ATT=1.9, RES=2.0) and intervened sites (SE=2.4, ATT=2,1; RES=2.3), over built sites (SE=1.9, ATT=1.6, RES=1.6). To further explore the effect of the spatial distribution of sites in perception, a spatial regression analysis was performed in GIS using two geographic regression models: One with images of the natural and built sites (NB) which represents the villages as they are today; and another model with images of the intervened and built sites (IB) which represents the villages with emergency infrastructure. In the NB model, perceived security was explained by the height (to sea level) and the average distance to natural places (R2=0.51), while in the IB model only the height (R2=0.53) explains the greater perceived security. It is possible that the presence of emergency infrastructure in the IB model satisfies people’s needs after disaster (e.g. water), which otherwise, people look for in natural areas as in the NB model. With respect to perceived attachment, only the height explains the results in the NB model (R2=0.43), while in the IB model the height, the distance to coastline and average distance between natural sites explain greater attachment (R2=0.71). Place attachment refers to the bonds that arise between people and sites; according to these results, the incorporation of emergency infrastructure in the evacuation sites should be facilitated in places near the coast and natural places to favor attachment. In relation to restoration, the distance to the coastline and the average distance between natural sites explain the highest restoration perceived in both models (NB R2=0.51; IB R2=0.63). Restoration, or the capacity of sites to recover physiological and psychological needs lost due to external pressures, is not conditioned by emergency infrastructure. Planners should take into consideration that the incorporation of emergency facilities in evacuation sites can improve evacuation processes in case of tsunami; however, these findings are mediated by the spatial location of sites. Acknowledgments: We thank CONICYT-FONDECYT N. 1150137 for funding this study.

Factors contributing to flood resilience among rural community: case study of the East Coast Malaysia

ABSTRACT. Research Background: Based on government records of than 89 years, flood remains as the highest contributor to damage (both physical and non-physical) and economic losses in comparison to other disaster. The total economic losses caused by flood is estimated at a tally amount of RM636.67 million from the overall RM934.67 million of total economic losses of all disasters combined by 68%. In addition, 205,033 out of 214,747 number of disaster victims (95%) are those who are effected by flood. From the spatial planning context, the National Rural Physical Policy (NRPP) 2030 that was established by the Department of Town and Country Planning Malaysia in 2016 indicated that almost 31% village nationwide (or 7,983 of total 25,497 village in rural area of Malaysia) are identified as disaster risk village. Majority of the identified disaster risk villages (or nearly 53%) are located in the East Coast region of Peninsular Malaysia. Considering the threat from flood could be devastated to the livelihood of rural community, the NRPP 2030 has established specific policy called "Effective Disaster Risk Management". The implementation of this policy shall be guided by two main strategies namely; (1) To develop an effective disaster risk management system and; (2) To enhance the disaster preparedness level among government agency and rural community. The NRPP policies and strategies are formulated with close reference to the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction (SFDRR) 2030 hence indicated government’s acknowledgement of the ability of rural community to be the first responders in the event of disaster. Therefore, it is vital for the community themselves to be more prepared and occupied by ability to some extent, to conduct the built back better projects after disaster strike. Objectives: This paper is intended to assess internal and external factors that contribute to rural community resilience towards disaster particularly flood from the context of social, economic and environmental components. Method: Three case study areas that located in the East Coast of Malaysia have been selected for detail investigation namely (1) Lubok Setol village in Kelantan state; (2) Teladas village in Terengganu state and; (3) Gajah Mati village in Pahang state. Interestingly, all three villages are located adjacent to the river which caused flood particularly during each monsoon season. The questionnaire guided interview sessions have been carried out for all villages starting from January 2018 (i.e. right after the major flood occurred in December 2017) until mid-February 2018. A total of 77 respondents were participated in the survey. Findings (1) Community resilience to flood in all three villages are strongly contributed by adoption of local knowledge together with interventions by related government agencies as well as disaster aid and assistance provided by few non-governmental organisations and; (2) Respondents which also the disaster victims did mention they are currently able 'bounce back' after the disaster, indicated a positive act of resilient. Conclusion is drawn to proof that the resilience of rural community towards disaster particularly flood as shown in three villages are contributed both by the internal and external factors. Having said that, the findings from this study might has value particularly in strengthening recent policies and strategies underlined by NRPP 2030 and SFDRR 2030 to better cope with disaster impact and built back better after disaster including adopting measures and local initiatives.

First processing and remarks on the observed damage to the churches of the Marche Region after the Centre Italy Earthquake 2016

ABSTRACT. The seismic sequence that struck the Central Italy since August 24, 2016 caused serious damage to many buildings of historical and artistic importance. In particular, churches were widely damaged due to their intrinsic peculiarities concerning the structural system, not able to develop an efficient box-like resisting mechanism. Their architecture is characterised by recurrent structural subsystems, e.g. façade, side walls, transept, apse, nave and side aisles, which tend to exhibit often independent seismic responses and commonly indicated as macro-elements. Studies carried out on damages occurred to churches following the Italian earthquakes demonstrated that the damage mechanisms have recurrent characteristics, despite the uniqueness of each building. During seismic emergency, teams of experts carried out inspections on the churches in the areas interested by the seismic event with the aim of assessing both the significance of the occurred damage and the current safety. The team have been coordinated by the Department of Civil Protection (DPC) and the Ministry of Cultural Heritage and Tourism (MiBACT) through the executive department operating within the Command and Control (Dicomac) and the regional offices of MiBACT. In this paper, data recorded on the A-DC forms during the inspections are processed for a sample of churches of the Marche region. The A-DC damage survey form, collecting general data of the building (name, geographical position, historical dating, contained mobile goods, etc.), data of the planar-volumetric organization of the main elements of the building (e.g. central nave, apse, transept, façade) and its state of conservation and in a specific section of the survey form, the macro-elements that can be potentially activated, their relevant level of occurred damage and the nature of the damage (seismic or non-seismic) are addressed. Starting from the analysis of the sample, a methodology for processing data is presented; this can be applied in the future to the whole set of data. Starting from the subdivision of the sample into homogeneous typologies, the most recurring damage mechanisms are determined. In addition, the global damage indexes of each church are correlated with the relevant highest spectral pseudo acceleration at 0.30s registered at the site as a consequence of the main shocks; this allow obtaining relationships between the seismic intensity and the expected damage. Finally, the overall damage occurred to churches of the sample is compared to that estimated through empirical models available in the literature, which are developed on the basis of data recorded after the 1997 Umbria-Marche earthquake.

Documentation of physical and social consequences of extreme events: the EXTEND Project

ABSTRACT. Climate change is expected to affect the frequency and the intensity of heavy precipitation events in Europe affecting at the same time the frequency and intensity of natural disasters. This change in combination with socio-economic changes in mountain areas poses new challenges to decision makers and stakeholders related to disaster management (e.g. government, authorities, scientists and affected communities). Each event bearing negative consequences for the community is a source of valuable information regarding the interaction between the physical process and the built and human environment. Capturing an analysing this information is very important for the design of risk reduction strategies. A systematic documentation of events supports compensation and recovery efforts but also reveals vulnerability patterns and resilience deficits which is the basis for “Building Back Better” (BBB) in the recovery and reconstruction phase. Several institutions are responsible for damage assessments after extreme events in each country. These may include, local authorities, emergency services (fire brigade, red cross etc.), insurance companies, research institutes etc. The data gathered during these assessments include mainly information on the natural process (intensity, extent, timeline) and some information on damages on buildings and infrastructure. The detail and nature of the data varies according to the responsible agency for the documentation and the aim of the survey. However, although, recent scientific research shows that social aspects (e.g. gender, age, ethnicity) influence the consequences of natural hazards significantly, they are often ignored by post-event documentation. Studies and post-disaster data analysis regarding social aspects (income, gender, age) mainly focus on developing countries where more distinct socio-economic differences are evident within the affected communities. The EXTEND project focuses on existing standardised methods of documentation of events related to extreme precipitation in the Alpine region (Austria, Swistzerland, Germany, Italy). Emphasis is given to special applications and technologies (mobile apps) as well as alternative forms of data collection (citizen science) that enable this documentation. Following a thorough literature review, complemented with interviews and a workshop with experts in the field, good practice examples are identified and existing gaps in the documentation of events may be outlined. The final objective of the study is a guideline for the improvement of event documentation in Austria which includes both physical and social aspects and may be used to improve post event documentation in European mountain areas. The guideline aims at improving the quality and quantity of damage related data contributing to a better understanding of the interaction between natural processes and communities. An improved post-event documentation will enhance community resilience to natural hazards and ensure the long term reliability of BBB.

Disaster Risk Reduction improvement suggestions for a renewal area in Istanbul

ABSTRACT. Cities need transformation, improvement and renewal over time due to economic and social reasons as well as natural disasters. Urban regeneration is applied all over the world to meet different needs of cities. Like many, Istanbul also faces urban regeneration practices since 1980s on illegal or unhealthy areas. After the Marmara Earthquake in 1999, the Turkish government has intended to take precautions against disaster risk in the built environment. One way to implement the new strategy is to renew old buildings in order to provide earthquake safety. Renewal became the main type of urban regeneration implemented in the country. After the Law of Transformation of Areas Under Disaster Risks No. 6306 in 2012, renewal gained speed on urban and also on building scale. Renewal on building scale is very common, so much so that even though they are single practices, they have urban-scale effects due to their high numbers. On the other hand, three major causes for losses from natural disasters in Turkey are earthquakes, landslides and flood events. 66 percent of country’s lands are located in the 1st and 2nd degree earthquake zones. A major earthquake is highly anticipated in 11 large cities with populations over one million, in regions where 70 percent of the whole country’s population reside and in industrial areas where 75 percent of large industrial plants have been established. Despite these possible disasters, disaster management is still premature in Turkey. There are many deficiencies in existing disaster management plans. There are gaps in legislations related to the subject, lack of correct organization plans for management and lack of consideration of different approaches. The lack of adequate scientific work has created problems in the creation and development of disaster culture in the community. Urban renewal in Istanbul is an opportunity to implement all the missing aspects of disaster management plans since many buildings are being rebuild. It is important to take the steps to identify the deficiencies and to fill the gaps in management in order to reduce disaster risks in the new built environment. Disaster risk reduction practice reduces disaster risks by analyzing impacts of disasters. In order to successfully carry out the risk mitigation under the disaster management, the current situation needs to be analyzed in detail. In this study, it is aimed to establish Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, Threats (SWOT) analysis in the selected field and to develop disaster risk reduction recommendations according to the conducted analysis. A neighborhood of Kadıköy district in Istanbul is analyzed as fieldwork due to its central location and numerous practices of building renewals in the area. The findings of the research highlight the importance of local analyses for identifying disaster risks and verify the need for disaster risk reduction improvement at local levels.

Measuring the impact of Build Back Safer messages on the physical vulnerability to typhoons of vernacular housing in the Philippines

ABSTRACT. The Philippines is one of the most typhoon exposed countries in the world, receiving on average 20 typhoons a year. These events can cause significant damage to land and buildings, leaving many householders needing to repair and reconstruct following a typhoon. In this context Build Back Safer (BBS) messaging has been developed and deployed in the Philippines by the international NGO shelter community, with the aim of assisting those undertaking reconstruction to rebuild more robust and resilient structures. Despite considerable efforts by the shelter community to promote these messages, studies have shown that their uptake can be limited, and that communities and homeowners typically continue to use traditional and pre-existing building practices.

Building on this, the study undertaken here presents quantitative evidence for the impact of implementing Build Back Safer interventions on the resilience of traditional timber structures in the Philippines to typhoon loading. Case study assessment of shelters in rural communities in Leyte and Luzon is used to profile the typology of buildings reconstructed following two typhoons, Haiyan (2013) and Haima (2016). These structures incorporate some BBS message uptake into the traditional practices present at each location. Drawing on the findings of these site surveys a representative structure is derived and used to assess the relative impact of different building designs (both traditional features and BBS messages) on increasing the resilience of the structure to typhoon wind loading. Indicators for resilience include reducing superficial damage to cladding, through to increasing lateral capacity of the core structure and reducing wind pressure accumulation through manipulation of building form.

Initial results from the study suggest that BBS messages can lead to direct and significant increase in structural performance, for example through the incorporation of bracing. The study also shows that traditional architectural features, such as porous cladding, can also reduce vulnerability to wind loading, offering complimentary means of achieving resilience. It is clear from the study that understanding the strengths of the vernacular architecture is important to achieving resilience in these types of structures, especially considering traditional building techniques remain a feature of post-disaster reconstruction in the Philippines.

In light of this, discussion of the findings of this work explores the role that increased structural safety should play in defining Build Back Better aspirations. This includes consideration of other building performance features, for example protection from excessive heat, and the feasibility for householders to invest in enhanced structural design when they have wider economic concerns. The objective of the discussion is to assist the humanitarian sector in advising communities following a typhoon disaster, by presenting an approach to promoting reconstruction that aspires to appropriate and locally relevant levels of risk reduction, thus helping assisted peoples and communities to apply Build Back Better to their own reconstruction and recovery process.

14:00-15:45 Session DS-II: Doctoral school - Part II

Industry Speaker 1 (lecture and Q&A)
Travis Bunt, One Architecture (USA)

Industry Speakers 2 (lecture and Q&A)
Dave Hampton and Anya Brickman, RE:GROUND LLC (USA)

Location: Room C104
16:00-17:45 Session 1E-I: Track session
Location: Room B201
Community resilience and collaborative research: some research notes on a case study in the Lisbon Metropolitan Area

ABSTRACT. Against the background of a collaborative research that a FAUL research group began in 2014 through an action research project, which aims to know the needs and characteristics of the population, their living conditions, as well as the identification of the problems and priorities of urban intervention, the identification of the pathologies of the dwellings and the search for a sustainable housing solution that is adequate from the urbanistic point of view and the local experiences. It is a precarious and impoverished neighborhood, of illegal occupation, built largely by the residents themselves for more than 50 years. Currently residing in the neighborhood is a population of about 220 people and 53 families, mostly of Portuguese nationality, of African origin and Roma living in a situation of serious precariousness, in poor housing conditions, with low levels of schooling, labor market and low incomes. We are faced with a resilient population and neighborhood; in fact, the interviews with the residents reveal that this place is very exposed to socio-environmental vulnerabilities, people deal daily with adverse circumstances, however, people demonstrate strategies to deal with and mitigate the difficulties, revealing ability to adjust and adapt. Community resilience understood as a dynamic process and applied to a collective, from the perspective of Ojeda, La Jara and Marques (2007) the keys to explaining resilience are not found in individual characteristics, but in social conditions, in group relations, in cultural and values of each society. Fieldwork based on observation and interviews has revealed that the empowerment of the association of residents and their representatives, especially women, is correlated with the collaborative dynamic that has been established among the association, residents, University, city council and NGOs. The empowerment and autonomy of the residents has been made in the struggle for recognition of this neighborhood, its residents, also in access to electric light that was cut in 2016, and access to bathrooms and accommodation. We believe that empowerment and collaborative research can enhance these resilient behaviors and attitudes. But also the use of participatory action research and the adoption of strategies of co-production in research aims at the empowerment; working "with" communities tends to provide the communities with greater control over the research process and is a mutual process of learning.

Community resilience to natural hazards: a theoretical foundation for developing measurement tool and variable indicators

ABSTRACT. The concept of resilience has become a cornerstone for individuals, communities and systems reorganisation to potential damage from natural hazards. One of the consequences of the theoretical development of resilience is the multiple conceptualisation and interpretation of the concept by different scholars. As a result, the progression from conceptual development to a commonly accepted standard for operationalising resilience across different time scales and environment has been a challenge. This paper provides a theoretical foundation for developing measurement tools and indicators selection. Data for this study was from the secondary source. To achieve the aim of this study, an integrated framework of disaster management principle, resilience and community resource was developed to guide indicators’ selection; and also, an investigation of studies based on community resilience index (CRI) tool was carried out by this study to ascertain compliance and practical implementation of criteria relating to tool development. Findings indicate that social, economic and physical capacities of an individual are predictive of resilience and limited compliance regarding tool criteria and implementation. The result also shows the difficulty in complying with tool criteria as most assessments are interested in benchmarking and baseline condition of the community under assessment. The finding suggests a more participatory approach and the need for assessment to account for the ecological and scalar relationship if the assessment outcome is to reflect the resilience status of a community genuinely.

Memory and identity as factors of urban resilience
SPEAKER: Jorge Nicolau

ABSTRACT. The concept of resilience arises for the first time in the 70s of the last century associated with the work of Holling (1973), on the balance of ecological systems. This concept deriving from ecology has been used in this early century in different areas of knowledge, such as psychology, sociology, biology, and urbanism, among others. The capacity of human beings to resist adversities or, from them, to create a new point of equilibrium, has been the object of study of all these disciplines (GALENDE, 2004) In the urbanism, the concept of resilience has been applied with greater incidence to urban areas where they occurred, or that are subject to natural catastrophes. In this sense, studies have been developed that aim to create measures to mitigate the impacts that occurrences may have on the built environment, and the ecological structure of the city. It happened in the city of Lisbon with the earthquake of 1755, and it is in the present with the implementation of policies that intend to make the city more sustainable. The urban transformations that have been implemented, both at the level of infrastructures and at the buildings level, have social implications, with an impact on the citizens lives. This are relegated to the second plan, not even the fact that there is a political discourse that aims the implementation of participatory urban policies - Participatory urbanism. Hence, we are facing a city at two speeds, that of the "center" and that of the "periphery", that of the learned citizens who dominate information technologies and the others. This situation is worrying when we are in social housing promoted by Lisbon municipality with a population of low economic resources and illiterate, however we are facing a visible process of gentrification in this neighborhood’s and also in overall city of Lisbon. We intend with this article, from a case study in the city of Lisbon, alert to this problem. What implications are the urban transformations taking place in the life of the resident population and what measures can be taken to mitigate this situation. In the methodological approach will be used the Case Study (Bairro Padre Cruz) or qualitative analysis — interviews, documental analysis and direct observation.

Multidimensional approach for assessing urban resilience against flooding: a case study of Pakistan
SPEAKER: Ali Jamshed

ABSTRACT. Urban flooding has become a regular phenomenon in cities worldwide. To reduce flood risks, resilience and its components must be understood. Resilience is used in various contexts and disciplines, and thus diverse methods are used for assessing it. In disaster risk science and climate change literature, resilience is defined in multitude definitions and interpretations, and is known to be overlapped with other related concepts like vulnerabilities, risks, and capacities. This has complicated the process of clear and comprehensive resilience assessment. For successful disaster risk reduction, it is crucial to understand ‘resilience’ and quantify it. The main purpose of this paper is to quantify the resilience indicators and develop a multi-dimensional approach for assessing resilience. Resilience is explored through the lens of five dimensions: social, economic, physical infrastructure, institutional and psychological. This methodology is applied on urban flooding in Pakistan, to operationalize the proposed model. Three cities with different population size situated in high risk flood zones of Pakistan were selected through multistage sampling for empirical investigation. Firstly, Punjab was selected for being the most populous province and frequently prone to flooding. In the last stage, three communities (neighbourhoods) from cities were selected based on frequent flooding, past damages and proximity to flood hazard sources. Rawalpindi (metropolitan) had an urban population more than 1 million characterized by mixed functions. Sialkot (city), with a population between 0.5 to 1 million, and Muzaffargarh (medium town), with an urban population below 0.5 million was selected. Using household survey, a total of 210 samples were collected using random sampling with the share of 70 from each urban community for comparative analysis. An index based approach was developed for assessing dimensions of resilience based on well-defined indicators. Indicators were chosen through extensive literature review for each dimension. An average of these dimensions devised the multi-dimensional resilience index. Households were categorized into very low, low, medium, and high categories of resilience. Statistical tests were performed to identify differences in three communities. Significant differences was observed in almost all dimensions, including overall multi-dimensional resilience index. The proposed methodology for assessing urban resilience against floods was tested, and was found operational. This method can be replicated irrespective of spatial scales, and can be modified for other disasters by streamlining hazard specific indicators. The suggested model can be further enhanced by introducing more relevant indicators at local level for effective assessment of risks. This methodology can highlight relevant course of action for disaster managers and local administrations to assess risk assessment of hazard-prone communities.

Building resilience in the agriculture sector: minimizing the impact of nitrogen fertilizer on water bodies through Grey Water Footprint approach on paddy cultivation in intermediate zone, Sri Lanka


TITLE: Building up resilience in agriculture sector: Minimizing the impact of nitrogen fertilizer on water bodies through Grey Water Footprint approach on Paddy cultivation in Intermediate zone, Sri Lanka

ABSTRACT The fresh water resources are threatened due to excessive usage of fertilizer and agrochemicals by agriculture. Paddy is the major crop that uses a large amount of fresh water and high amount of fertilizer resulting elevated levels of nutrients as a non-point source of pollution in fresh water resources which lead to increase possible health risks and negatively affect to the biodiversity, commercial fisheries, tourism and aesthetic value of whole aquatic ecosystems. In this regard, Grey Water Footprint (GWF) is beneficial in understanding the ecological impact and disastrous way the freshwater gets polluted. This study was designed to quantify the grey water footprint: the volume of fresh water that needs to assimilate polluted water of rice fields due to the application of chemical fertilizer in irrigated agriculture. A field experiment was carried out in selected locations at the Rice Research and Development Institute (RRDI) in Kurunegala District, which is located in one of major paddy cultivation areas in the Low Country Intermediate Zone,Sri Lanka. Lysimeters were used to collect leached water to investigate nitrogen (as NO3-N) content which is the most significant and common pollutant in paddy cultivation. Lysimeters were arranged in a randomized block design with three replicates at the upper and lower ends of the site in 2015 Yala season. Fourteen days old rice seedlings of variety BG 358 were transplanted in plots having dimensions of 10 m x10 m and normal agronomic practices were followed. Drained water was collected from each lysimeter at 7 to 14 day intervals. At the same time the water samples were collected from irrigated flow and from runoff flow and analyzed for NO3-N content. The experiment was repeated in the same plot with same treatments in 2015 and 2016, for four consecutive seasons. The loss of NO3-N through leaching accounted for 8.71 ± 1.74 kg/ha (8.4%) for four seasons. The experimental site was well managed with controlled run-off losses. Hence it was assumed that leaching is the only way of NO3-N reaching the fresh water bodies. The GWF of one tonne of rice produced at the research site created on actual values of leached NO3-N amount on experimental data was 184 ± 14 m3/t. The estimated leaching run-off fraction (α value) for N was 0.12208 to the site and GWF was 187 ± 33 m3/t. GWF for average leaching run-off fraction (0.1) and constant leaching run-off fraction approach (10% of applied fertilizer N) were 153 ± 27 m3/t and 219 ± 39m3/t, respectively. According to the two sample t-test, it was revealed that there were no significant differences (P>0.05) of GWF calculated using different methods except GWF for (average α) against GWF (constant leaching) (P=0.037). It was discovered that the season, the year cultivated or calculation method have not shown a significant impact (P>0.05) on Grey water footprint for growing paddy in the selected site. The loss of nitrogen from paddy cultivation negatively impacted on water bodies indicating considerable amount of GWF thereby causing surface and groundwater pollution. It could be reduced by applying careful fertilization technologies. KEYWORDS: Grey water footprint, Paddy, Nitrate leaching Rice Research and Development Institute is gratefully acknowledged.

16:00-17:45 Session 3A/4F-II: Track session
Location: Room C201
Evaluation of the fire spreading risk triggered by earthquake and proposal for risk mitigation measures using existing water environment for wooden buildings in historic area of Kyoto, Japan

ABSTRACT. 1. Topic and research background In the case of Japanese historic city such as Kyoto which has 14 of World Cultural Heritage buildings, more than 20% of buildings were built before WWII and most of designated cultural heritage buildings are made by wood. Therefore, development of water environment for emergency fire control is indispensable to keep the safety of cultural value from the risk of spread fire, especially after earthquake which will make serious damage in firefighting hydrants directly connected with city water network. 2. Objectives The aim of this paper is to evaluate the possibility of fire water delivery by fire engines from existing large amount of water resources such as natural rivers, open channels, ponds, swimming pools and so on. And the location of risky areas was identified from the view point of fire spreading risk and water distribution possibility using GIS in case of Kamigyo ward. 3. Methods For evaluation of fire spreading risk, physical fire simulation system are used with detailed data of every buildings’ structure and material. For evaluating the possibility of water distribution by fire engines, detailed field investigation was conducted to check the width of roads and performance of each water environment whether water usage from each existing water resource is possible or not. 4. Results After identification of risky area with spreading risk and without possibility of water delivery, the fact was shown that southern part of Nishi-jin area which is a part of old famous district for production of Kimono clothes is relatively dangerous because of narrow streets and long distance from water resources such as Horikawa river etc. The Nijyo-jo castle as World Cultural Heritage site and Goshyo as Imperial palace also were evaluated as risky areas. In these cases, the limited number of entrance for fire engines was major reason of risk increasing, because these sites were surrounded by moat and wall. On the other hand, the southern part of Kamigyo ward was evaluated as a relatively safer area. In this case, most effective reason of safety might be more than 6m width of road in which regular fire engines can go inside in spite of road blockage after major earthquake. Lastly, possible solutions were proposed for each case of challenged area. 5. Conclusions. Keeping the safety of cultural value and human life in historic flammable cities using existing water resources should be important for continuity of culture, history and water environment for future generation.

Social place of heritage: disaster risk mitigation plan in Asia
SPEAKER: Tomoko Kano

ABSTRACT. Background: Heritage sites and artifacts have survived various natural and man-made disasters. The destruction of local properties and places caused by the Great East Japan Earthquake, which occurred in 2011, is still fresh in our memories. However, several social places, such as temples, shrines and other heritage sites, survived this massive destruction and supported many earthquake and tsunami victims including tourists. Locals and tourists could stay together inside the shrines for a couple of days, since the latter provided safe environments. In this manner, heritage not only survives disasters but also ensures people’s safety. According to the Sendai Framework, disasters have demonstrated that the recovery, rehabilitation, and reconstruction phase, which needs to be planned before the occurrence of a disaster, is a critical opportunity to “Build Back Better” by integrating disaster risk reduction into development measures and, thereby, making nations and communities resilient.

Objectives and Methods: Based on a collaboration between architects and anthropologists, we have carried out a comparative study of two earthquakes, the Wenchuan (China) and Gorkha (Nepal) earthquakes, and collected data on disaster experiences and disaster recovery processes. Subsequently, we discuss the potential of social places of living heritage that facilitate disaster preparedness in the Old Town of Lijiang (China) according to the following questions: which heritage sites are cultivated as social places? How can social places and activities be used in emergency situations? How can the function of social places be adapted to other World heritage sites? Through these analyses, this study proposes a disaster risk mitigation plan that involves social places and activities and integrates community-based disaster risk reduction measures for the world cultural heritage town in Bergama (Turkey). This paper aims to share the role of social places of living heritage in reducing risks, community resilience, and sustaining culture.

Results: It's shown a sharp contrast between the two earthquakes in terms of social places and social activities. Through these disaster experiences and disaster recovery process, this study revealed the potential of social places and activities for disaster risk reduction in the Old Town of Lijiang. It pointed out that social places such as small open spaces and pools are useful at the time of disasters. These places not only can cultivate their daily lives but also keep the town safe. Residents, commercial workers, and tourists should be integrated into and allowed to contribute to disaster risk reduction efforts. Finally, we propose to involve the social places in the proposed disaster risk mitigation plan for World heritage sites in Bergama.

Conclusions: This will contribute to the enhancement of community resilience and promotion of sustainable heritage tourism by enabling the development of a disaster risk mitigation plan through collaborations with local communities. Even though the method of solutions are not identical, the role of heritage is expected to grow and reach the ultimate aim – sustainable life and heritage tourism development. This study is a part of the outcomes of our research project titled “World Heritage and Disaster Risk Mitigation: For Sustainable Heritage Tourism in Asia.”

Protection of cultural heritage in case of forced mass migrations and its contribution to community rehabilitation during return processes

ABSTRACT. This study aims to examine the issue of protecting tangible and intangible cultural heritage whose existence is threatened by man-induced disasters such as war and armed conflicts, as well as the resulting forced migrations; and to discuss the role that cultural heritage as a driving power might play in returning home.

Global Trends 2016 report published by United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) indicates that the number of forced displacement due to security concerns reached 65.6 million people by the end of 2016. Particularly the dramatic rise between the years 2000-2013 is striking; number of migrants has grown from 150 million to 214 million in 13 years.

Studies conducted on forced migration in terms of different parameters since the last quarter of 20th century by international organizations specialized in the subject show that the relationship between the migration and the cultural heritage as a constituent of migrant communities’ collective memory is becoming an issue of bigger concern as the number of migrant increases.

When looked at the treaties ratified by several countries, relationship between mass migration and cultural heritage is not defined; The Hyogo Framework for Action 2005-2015: Building the Resilience of Nations and Communities to Disasters (HFA), Paris Declaration, On Heritage as a Driver of Development 2011, Sustainable Development Role of Local Communities Regulation 2012, and Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction (SFDRR) 2015 underlined that culture and heritage could be positive drivers for recovery of cities; and grounds should be laid for promoting the main role that the two play in human development.

UNESCO’s “Strategy for The Reinforcement of UNESCO’s Action for the Protection of Culture and the Promotion of Cultural Pluralism in the Event of Armed Conflict” No 39/C, dated October 2017, approaches the issue of raising global awareness about the fact that cultural protection during armed conflicts would be devised in strengthening fast recovery; and emphasizes the solution under the title “The Key to Lasting Peace.”

At this point, it seems that emergency actions are required as a step forward from treaties concluded and recommendations issued on protection of tangible and intangible cultural heritage whose existence is threatened in consequence of forced mass migrations.

Forced mass migration led by man-induced wars, armed conflicts, terrorist actions etc. increases the risk of tangible and intangible cultural heritage destruction; and prolonged conflict period postpones the returning of emigrated local communities to their homeland and consequently poses other risks.

The fact that displaced communities by migration constitute the key point of issue; significance of sustainable returns in case of displacements by mass migrations; role of cultural heritage as a driving force in social and physical rehabilitation should be carefully considered when taking actions. That the sustainable development in the long run is made possible by the resources of country exposed to disaster; local structure production knowledge; specific user participation evidences the necessity of specific users’ returning home.

In PhD study dating back to 2013, taking case of Bosnia-Herzegovina, Kosovo, Lebanon, armed conflict-migration-return-cultural heritage protection relations, as well as similar destruction process started in Syria in March 2011 were investigated in respect thereof.

A questionnaire was also made by directing questions related with topics such as cultural heritage at homeland of Syrian citizens, whose majority migrated to Turkey due to armed conflict; as well as pre-conflict historical/social texture, architectural setting –environment relationship, space and function-action relationship, alterations in physical space were questioned with the aim of revealing perception about cultural heritage protection. Data obtained from sample cases, research, questionnaire etc. were major reference points to develop solution recommendations.

In this study, a model recommendation on “back/ return home and protection planning” was also developed as guidance for setting strategies to enable taking of appropriate actions throughout, during, and particularly after the armed conflicts with the aim of reducing risks that the cultural heritage is put under as a result of forced migrations.

Fighting urbamnesia

ABSTRACT. Loss of identity and culture in demolished urban settings is often disregarded. I have defined this effect, urbamnesia, as “a city's cultural oblivion and identity loss in a post-traumatic situation”. It results in the absence of human habits and singularity within a space; the loss of any notion of “place” (lieu) or “belonging”. I have developed the notion of urbamnesia over the past five years during my studies and personal work. I have documented urban environments related to disasters as well as met with various actors involved in the recovery process and anthropological approach to it. It is critical to have a reflection on the integration of cultural heritage and urban identity within the framework of disaster resiliency, which is in accordance with the Sendaï Frameworks - Priory 4 - “Build Back Better”. Indeed, through a unique system of conditions, the integration of cultural and urban elements helps shape micro-urbanization, at a macro-scale. The objective is to understand how cultural roots weave together frameworks of resilience in specific geographies while identifying strategies to help re-develop their own identity and uniqueness through alternative designs, shared-memories, heritage and savoir-faire. Variables such as smell, sounds, colors, lights, interactions, informal business and vernacular architecture, cannot be standardized. It is these attributes that are threatened by the urbamnesia. To ensure cultural resilience, their survival should be secured. Because of urbamnesia, the new urban identity is often associated to the destructive event that occurred; it is the case in Hiroshima, Chernobyl or Fukushima. A framework of methodology can be drawn to prevent and understand these symptoms. First, recovered and recovering areas should be documented in-situ. Second, populations need to be included in the preparedness process and discussions. Third, spatial, economical and social parameters of the afflicted areas need to be surfaced, to help revitalize the pre-existing urban identity. Findings show that to avoid this syndrome, architects should work collaboratively with concerned communities and should start rebuilding within a permanent logic. By being sensitive to how a collection of singular, local behaviors shape the physical space, new settlements will be better adapted to receive displaced populations. In addition, these new “towns” should be as connected as possible to the demolished urban spaces. This way, affected communities can maintain their habits, the neighborhood's relationships, commutes and feelings of belonging to comply with the United Nation's Sustainable Development Goals of making “cities and human settlements inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable”. Today’s context expresses a need for culturally tailored architecture in response to devastated urban areas. Destruction reveals how much the mixture of individuals shapes the cultural identity of a physical space. In an emergency, kilometers of refugee camps are built in a hurry, without thinking about human behavior. This in-between period, between disaster and reconstruction is crucial to prevent urbamnesia. Designers should avoid repetitive geometries to leave some freedom for appropriation, overlaps, proximity and mix, where populations spontaneously gather. Communities need to be able to project themselves to quickly rebuild social interactions and urban attributes. This way, we will create better responsive urban spaces and architecture.

Back to the future: potentials of cultural heritage for urban resilience

ABSTRACT. Many cities around the globe (still) comprise of historic fabric, particularly in the urban core areas. Very often intangible values, such as beliefs, events, habits or rituals are intrinsically linked with it. Such heritage constitutes a crucial source of identity for present urban inhabitants, which is not always reflected in urban planning or conservation realities although tangible and intangible heritage forms part of people’s imaginings and has a high potential to contribute to more resilient urban futures. The presentation is based on own empirical studies in Kathmandu in Nepal, a cities that still comprises of historic fabric and distinct cultural expressions. Urban heritage, habits and beliefs are still of importance to the population. However the city is prone to rapid change, among others induced by natural hazards, rapid urbanization and densification as well as improvable planning. The high level of mainly informal urbanization in the almost built-up Kathmandu Valley has led to severe environmental problems and unplanned urban development including ongoing losses of traditional urban patterns. Such patterns included traditional water spouts maintained by local communities during religious ceremonies that served as main source of water supply for centuries and open spaces that can potentially serve as shelter places during and after disasters. Due to political instability during the past decades, existing plans and policies are poorly executed, the enactment of new ones remains challenging, without real signs for improvement. In addition, much of the traditional community activities got lost, urban heritage beyond state-owned properties is hardly protected, resulting in ongoing losses and alteration of historic buildings and ensembles. As a consequence, the livelihoods of the 2.5 million inhabitants in the almost entirely built-up Kathmandu Valley are increasingly at risk, as seen in the aftermath of the 2015 earthquakes that caused widespread damage in the urban area. Among others a large share of the urban heritage got lost or was severely damaged. The presentation is based on a combination of an extensive literature research, interviews and own surveys as well as mappings as primary data sources. Rooted in concepts of collective memory and genius loci, this presentations strives at highlighting the role that place attachment and traditional community-based practices can play for urban risk reduction. It gains additional significance given the devastating earthquakes and resulting debates on urban reconstruction Although the Post Disaster Needs Assessment stated that local “communities have a strong and unique cultural heritage, which is an important part of their identity” and that “recovery interventions, particularly to do with housing and relocation should preserve rather than undermine these aspects of Nepal’s proud cultural heritage” action on national scale mostly addressed single landmark buildings like palaces and temples, leaving ensembles or community heritage aside. Interestingly community and particularly youth-based initiatives now take the lead in lobbying for more sensitive reconstruction of heritage sites as important pieces of the urban past but at the same time as promises for the urban future.

Disaster risk mitigation for a World Heritage city: case of Walled City of Ahmedabad in India

ABSTRACT. In many cities across the globe and even in India, the oldest parts are those that house not only the heritage of the city but also are amongst the most densely populated parts of the city. Such parts are also frequented by visitors, sellers and purchasers of goods while housing bustling formal and informal markets. In general, these parts of the city do not witness the local authroities exercising urban planning tools for land development and thus remain with the same spatial design temporally sans major interventions required for Disaster Risk Mitigation. The city of Ahmedabad, one of the fastest growing cities in India is inhabitated by over 6 million people. The city has recently been declared as a UNESCO World Heritage City. The city limits are expanding by leaps and bounds with land being allocated for various land uses in the decadal development plans prepared by the local urban development authority. In each of the development plans the walled (old) city of Ahmedabad which is the area considered for acheivement of World Heritage city status, has not been included (in terms of land use planning) due to the presence of heritage monuments as well as ‘living heritage’ in this part of the city. The oldest part of the city has landuses comprising of residential (traditional ‘pol’ housing), commercial, light manufacturing, institutional, religious, recreational as well as open spaces spread over an area of about 2 sq.kms. Infact, this is the busiest part of the city diurinally. This part of the city is the commercial hub of the city with the major grain, fruit, meat and poultry, fabric markets; city’s main railway and bus terminus; etc. located here. With the passage of time, Ahmedabad’s walled city needs to be prepared to also welcome and safeguard the interests of toursim which will witness a rise due to the recent acheivement of the World Heritage City tag. In terms of disasters both natural and human induced have been experienced. For example, the city had experienced a 6.9 on the Richter Scale earthquake in 2001 which caused damage and loss to lives and property in the city. Hence Disaster Risk mitigation is an important agenda to be looked at in depth so as to safe guard not only the interests of the tourists and visitors, but also that of the local population as well as floating population arriving from nearby urban and rural areas. A study conducted with the primary objective to determine risk of population in the walled city of Ahmedabad revealed through primary surveys, secondary data and utilisation of GIS and Remote Sensing techniques that there is an imperative need to have comprehensive urban planning and design interventions for disaster risk reduction so as to safeguard the interests of the local community as well and that of people frequenting this part of the city for trade and commerce, tourism, religious and social purposes.

Heritage conservation and tourism: an integrated approach to post-disaster healing and resilience building

ABSTRACT. Shifting interest from vulnerability to resilience, specifically, community resilience, in Disaster Management is opening new perspectives: it recognizes the value of societal constructs such as the relationship between people and places, sense of community and identity, and how these collectively might aid in post-disaster recovery, emotional healing and building further resilience to future disaster events. Heritage conservation and tourism, two fields of study, have also made the connection with the concept of resilience and each have used it in relation to climate change and environmental hazards (Spennemann & Graham 2007; Ritchie 2009). Much needs to be done to address resilience jointly at sites where both heritage conservation and tourism visitation needs to be considered, not simply in the ecological context but also in terms of social and cultural resilience. Culture here includes tangible dimensions (physical, material) as well as intangible relationships to the site, symbolism, values and meanings the site holds for various stakeholders.

This paper aims to advance understanding of the role of heritage conservation and tourism in community disaster resilience, specifically, their joint role in “cultural resilience” in community-based destinations that contain heritage sites. What is the role of heritage conservation and tourism at such sites in facilitating the capacity of a community to recover from disasters? To begin exploring this question, a two-stage study was undertaking: (1) A cross-disciplinary review of the use of resilience in disaster management, heritage conservation and tourism literature was conducted, and a preliminary framework of analytical terms and concepts was developed; (2) The framework was used to guide an exploratory study in Japan. Preliminary fieldwork was undertaken in 2013 at cultural heritage sites in 12 Japanese cities affected by natural and anthropogenic disasters throughout history. These are used as case examples and offer corroborating insights related to the literature review undertaken.

The study demonstrates the need to go far and deep into culture and socio-ecological landscapes, addressing tangible and intangible relationships between the site, its history and cultural heritage, with visitation and processes by which society comes to terms with violence and tragedy. The study reveals that an integrated approach between heritage conservation and tourism is needed to understand the complex interactions between tangible and intangible aspects of the visited heritage sites, and its relationship to diverse groups including women. Based on the case examples examined, a preliminary framework for an integrated approach to heritage conservation and tourism is proposed. It is based on emergent study insights related to: (i) a community’s emotional links with place that occur in culturally related ways within socio-ecological systems, (ii) connecting people to the past in a way that facilitates social well-being, (iii) healing and gathering people in solidarity and peace through multi-layered approaches to heritage conservation and design for visitation.

16:00-17:45 Session 3G-I: Track session
Location: Main Auditorium
A strategic planning of resilient waterfront campus design
SPEAKER: Kumjin Lee

ABSTRACT. This study was initiated by the understanding that building and operating a campus requires a campus masterplan reflecting locational characteristics and utilizing their merits and that especially a waterfront campus must reflect its geographical situation to create a sustainable and flexible campus. The purpose of this study is to propose a plan which can create a campus maximizing the locational merits of a waterfront campus and which bring a positive change in the shortest period, by exercising a campus’s potential ability to respond actively, prospectively and synthetically to climate change. First, in geospatial terms, to upgrade waterfront campus masterplan in order to create a campus-town culture in the keywords of human, nature and water as a waterfront campus and prepare a place, space and natural environment for the members’ community and exchange by getting out of the existing rigid frame of masterplan simply focused on constructing a building itself. Second, in physical and environmental terms, to create an resilient campus as a waterfront campus by demonstrating process technology to answer climate change in water, electricity, food, material, waste, spatial use, landscape, and smart. This assumes understanding integrative disciplines of architecture, environment, water resources, energy, infrastructure, transportation, biology, business administration and IT and building a flexible interdisciplinary relationship through a resilient mutual cooperation system. Future direction of implementing the resilient waterfront campus as follows: First, as one of the basic principles most differentiated from the existing campus, safety against water which implies waterfront and resilience, to build a masterplan for waterfront campus in the keywords of waterfront, water, safety and landscape, Second, spatial, environmental features – a human and smart to contain sustainability of a campus and intelligence of all management, to build a resilient campus in the keywords of climate, energy, carbon zero, green growth and wastes. Third, fund operation for architectural, spatial use and socioeconomic sustainability, to construct integrated and creative system of mutual cooperation in the keywords of human, health, investment and social sustainability.

Strategic urban interventions to align humanitarian response and sustainable urban development: the case of the Bungamati Action Plan, 2015 Gorkha Earthquake, Kathmandu Valley, Nepal

ABSTRACT. Recent international policies stress the need to (re-)build more sustainable and resilient in order to decrease urban disasters that follow natural hazards and to transcend the humanitarian-development divide. Urbanism, as a dynamic process of adaptation over time, is a key discipline in DRR and humanitarianism, that can operate simultaneously within timeframes of longer-term development and shorter-term (con)temporary interventions. The proposed paper illustrates and evaluates the methodology of the action plan made for Bungamati, a town situated South of Kathmandu, made after the 2015 earthquake. The action plan mainly proposes an urban strategy, inscribing itself in the existing settlement structure, sensitive to the seismic building culture and its livelihoods. The plan doesn’t aim at an over-all comprehensiveness, but stems from an acupunctural approach. Strategic urban interventions, carefully set out in time, operate as urban projects with a dual scope: whilst partially (re-)constructing the urban tissue, they simultaneously transform the larger context. These strategic urban interventions were co-produced by the community, local and international experts, and policy makers, and mapped, documented and visualised to seek for specific donor- and stakeholder-engagement. They gathered and directed initiatives towards a joint effort aiming at once for a sustainable (re-)construction. On the 14th of September 2015, a plenary Action Plan presentation with all involved stakeholders (Ministry of Urban Development, Kathmandu Development Authority, Karyabinayak Municipality, the Bungamati Relief Committee, UNESCO, several Academia, representatives of the village, …) was facilitated by UN-Habitat. On the 16th of January 2016, Prime Minister Khadga Prasad Oli inaugurated the Action Plan.

The objective of this research is to evaluate the methodology of the action plan, through strategic urban interventions, conceived as mediating between both (early and later) recovery initiatives, and long-term sustainable (re-)development, rooted in the genius loci of the site, while answering to the current and contemporary expectations of inhabitants and the current urban challenges.

This paper draws upon fieldwork maps and interviews in the making of the Action Plan in 2015, and is complemented with drawings, maps and interviews monitoring the Bungamati recovery process from 2015 onwards. This graphical dissection of the urban tissue is theoretically framed back through literature study.

The Action Plan has worked as a catalyst. The coproduction and its nature stimulated its appropriation, with a largely self-governed (re-)construction process as a result. The urbanisms projective capacity of visualising possible outcomes drew a common ground for both short-term recovery and longer term (re-)construction projects and thus concrete collaborations between divers stakeholders. It has moreover inverted the humanitarian supply-chain: the strategic urban interventions facilitated a demanding position rather than a receiving one.

The case of the Bungamati Action Plan shows that strategic urban interventionism can mediate between the timeframes of emergency and development. It empowers (local) humanitarian and grassroots initiatives that emerge right after the disaster and works mobilising for a complex and wide range of donors, ministries and stakeholders, as their initiatives and donations plug into a longer-term urban framework. This projective methodology can thus facilitate a context-specific humanitarian response fitting urban development goals.

Teaching resilience for urban planners and architects

ABSTRACT. Resilience has been widely discussed about in the last decade, and one of its definitional characteristics is its fuzziness. Different approaches have been adopted in academic and policy literature, with different applications of the term in every aspect of our lives. Urban resilience, in particular, has been defined by Arup and Rockefeller foundation as “the capacity of individuals, communities, institutions, businesses, and systems within a city to survive, adapt, and grow no matter what kinds of chronic stresses and acute shocks they experience”. Furthermore, several researches consider urban environment as a complex, able to self-organized and learning system in constant change, moving forward from a disturbance and they argue that urban adaptation/transformation is the key feature of urban resilience. In general, the approach of resilience used in urban planning, and the means and practices of its implementation in cities, has always its challenges. One of the biggest challenges of the concept is that, it is local and diverse, and not standardized which deals with countless interactions. Moreover, cities are very dynamic and their ever-changing circumstances can cause challenges in adaptation, but is also a concept that greatly benefits the cities to come to the terms with their vulnerabilities, whether it be infrastructure, natural disasters or human caused stresses. However, there is also the challenge of how to connect theory to practice with concept of resilience and over the years the authors of this article have found this to be a challenge in their research and teaching. With this in mind, collaborative lecture series were designed to teach a graduate course called ‘Resilience’, where two different student groups from two different countries (and cities) explored the concept of city resilience as their project in their course and explored the concept of city resilience in their local cities. One of the groups was based in Greece and were Regional and Urban Planning graduate students. The other group was based in Cyprus and were graduate students in Architecture. The two programs were shaped in such a way, as to have a common theoretical origin, based on the framework for resilience researched about globally, and were further specialized, being adapted in the equivalent local specificities. Parts of the programs were common lectures, presentations, and progress reports. This paper, not only discusses the approach used by the authors to teach the concept, but also focuses on how the students used the existing resilience concepts in their project and discusses the challenges and the learning outcomes from the course.

Climate Action Zones: a clustering methodology for resilient spatial planning and design in the face of climate uncertainty

ABSTRACT. Southeast Florida faces both risk and uncertainty associated with climate change. Chronic “sunny day flooding” at high tide, as well as increased frequency of tropical storms and hurricanes, require an innovative approach to protecting assets and allowing future development. To respond, it is imperative to consider underlying environmental conditions as a foundation for adaptation. While strategies exist for area with known hazards, less attention has been given to areas that include high elements of uncertainty. Using data provided by Broward County, Florida, our joint team is developing an innovative approach that focuses on delineating Climate Action Zones based on unique environmental risk profiles. This approach can support multi-scalar decision-making towards adaptation to environmental hazards while increasing socio-ecological resilience. Within these categories, architects, planners, policy makers, and communities can work together to set priorities and define short, medium, and long-term objectives: to minimize exposure to risk in vulnerable areas; to encourage development in safer areas; and to promote innovation in areas where risks are uncertain. Such innovation includes rethinking traditional land use planning and urban design principles and developing new strategies informed by ecological resilience characteristics.

Resilience, livability, and sustainability in the built environment after the Great East Japan Earthquake

ABSTRACT. How could we enhance systems resilience to achieve sustainability and livability in the built environment following mega disasters, by what kind of intervention, and by whom? The author defines post-disaster recovery as a process to regain and achieve livability, sustainability, and resilience; three abilities expected to be rebuilt in the built environment. The research question in this article explores the relationship among these three abilities after the Great East Japan Earthquake. This study uses Geographic Information System (GIS) analysis of census data to identify the transformation of the built environment and a questionnaire survey for homeowners. There are two driving forces of the built environment transformation. These are government-driven recovery projects and individual housing relocation without planning, both of which trigger polarization between people and places that make the built environment unsustainable. Government-driven projects improve robustness but disturb sustainability. Individuals’ voluntary relocation represents resilient action, including robustness, rapidity, resourcefulness, and redundancy; however, this negatively impacts sustainability which means a trade-off relationship between with resilience. These results imply that government-driven projects need downsizing, and we have to rethink how to intervene to mobilize peoples’ resilience to pursue sustainability and to redefine livability in the process of recovery to minimize trade-offs.

Designing redundancy in urban landscapes: how, in times of emergencies, temporary uses transform normality

ABSTRACT. Track: 3G Urban planning, urban design & resilience


Track: 3G Urban planning, urban design & resilience

Topic and research background Urban landscapes are deemed to build in a response to emergencies (sudden disasters, climate impacts). These urban landscapes need, however, to be prevented from becoming emergency landscapes, which are designed/planned for the purpose of dealing with disasters only. This would be a sad perspective for any urban landscape. Therefore, urban landscapes need to be able to build in redundant space in normal situation. In times of emergencies these spaces need to have the ability to transform, which implies multiple uses in urban landscapes, such as illustrated in the water square projects in Rotterdam and the Floodable Landscape, both in the Netherlands. These examples are used to derive criteria for increasing the resilience through creating redundant spaces and multiple uses in urban landscapes.

Objectives Investigating redundancy in urban landscapes as a factor to increase resilience. Test multiple uses in these landscapes as a factor directing the design interventions, leading to greater redundancy, increased adaptability and greater resilience in urban landscapes.

Methods or approach Design-led research testing design propositions against the criteria that have been derived from the former examples. Reworking the designs accordingly towards preferential urbanization models.

Findings or results The analysis has been used to implement in the development of an entire new urban precinct in Western Sydney for approximately 1 million people. In this to-be-developed area redundancy is incorporated as the guiding principle to create landscape-based urbanism, in which dense urban precincts are peppered in the sensitive parkland area, using the urban and rural water system as the main driver for urbanization patterns, determining the mobility, densities and urban centers fitting within those structures and linking in ecological systems and the supply of renewable energy and urban food supply in the urban landscape.

Conclusions If the landscape is taken as the first driving force for determining the structure and system of urban landscapes, the redundancy of urban spaces can be increased. Then, in normal situations normal uses are put in place which allow, in times of emergencies, alternative uses in these spaces, transforming the urban landscape temporarily.

Reducing disaster risk through fire-resilient cities

ABSTRACT. For more than twenty years, the world has been working on disaster risk reduction. Through organisations such as the UN, the EU, NGO’s and many others; some steps have been made, but the work itself is never ending. Disasters will always represent a risk to our societies and we must learn to live with. Therefore, research on disaster risk reduction is crucial and finding ways to increase the resilience of our cities is one of the topic we should address. There are many areas where resilience should be increased. However, this paper will focus primarily on structural and non-structural measures when looking at fire as a hazard. Earthquakes and floods are the most common disasters and well researched. Though fire as a hazard has not been discussed as much, it is still a relevant topic. The events of Grenfell in the UK or the Kemerovo shopping center in Russia show that there is an urgent need to reconsider how we assure that we can guarantee fire safe buildings to our citizens. As cities are getting more crowded, the need for developing sustainable cities is growing. We are looking at how we should build new buildings and how to energy renovate the existing ones, all at a fast pace. However, must not forget that the fire resilience of our buildings will assure the safety of our populations. Therefore, the objectives of this paper are to discuss the state of fire safety regulations in Europe, as well as how building products can contribute to fire resilient cities. Our method is based on a literature study of the fire safety regulations, first at the European level and then at a national level. At the national level, our efforts are concentrated on Sweden, UK and France, to represent the different systems. We are then discussing the role of building products in assuring fire resilient cities. Our findings demonstrate that there is a conflict between the need for a fire strategy at the European level and the different fire safety regimes across Europe. As fire is a national competence, the EU is not able to regulate. However, the EU can make recommendations and support the collaboration between member states in fire safety matters. Another finding is that the national regimes must be updated regularly to fit changes in cities. For example, energy renovation programs propose the use of different materials or different ways to build which should be evaluated, not only in terms of energy efficiency but also of fire safety. Finally, building products can increase fire resilience and therefore must be chosen carefully. To contribute to disaster risk reduction and resilient cities, we must work on better understanding the impact of the hazards we are facing. Fire is just one of them, but with this paper, we have demonstrated that we still can get better at increasing resilience if we get our focus where we can make a difference.

16:00-17:45 Session 4G-I: Track session
Location: Room C202
What role(s) architects play in building resilience in post-disaster situations? Uncovering the heterogeneity of the post-disaster resilience architect

ABSTRACT. The dilemma between in situ rebuilding and resettlement in reconstruction strategies has long been discussed in the disaster scholarship and practice (Badri et al. 2006, Cernea 1997, Lizarralde et al. 2009, Partridge 1989). This dilemma has centered on the social repercussions of the two reconstruction strategies (impoverishment, marginalization, disruption of social networks), yet the various roles architects (should) play in addressing these repercussions has been limitedly discussed. The reality is that building professionals not only contribute to the construction of safer and more ‘resilient’ buildings in their role as designers of material artefacts, but also engage with various reconstruction agents (governmental authorities, NGOs, fund providers, community leaders, civic groups) to co-guide socially complex, multi-level, and highly intra-disciplinary rebuilding processes that address or reinforce socio-spatial ills. To fill the lacunae in the scientific discourse, this paper investigates the multifaceted role of architects in fostering (or hindering) the resilience of disaster-affected houses and communities in and through post-disaster rebuilding and resettlement processes. The paper sets out to uncover the recovery-resilience-architect nexus by bringing theories of disaster recovery and resilience (Bosher 2008, Oliver-Smith 1991, Paidakaki and Moulaert 2017), multi-level governance (Eizaguirre et al. 2012, Swyngedouw and Moulaert 2015, Moulaert 2013) and political architecture (Boano and Hunter 2012, Coulombel 2011, Lyons 2009, Zetter and Boano 2009) in dialogue with each other. The heterogeneity of roles acquired by architects in post-disaster multi-governed recovery processes (social, political, physical) is empirically covered during fieldwork conducted by the first author in the Merapi area (Indonesia) between February and March 2018. During this two-month visit, a short study of three post-2010 volcano eruption recovery programs was conducted for primary data collection. The three programs were purposively selected to dig into the multifacetedness of architects in different rebuilding strategies (varied levels of engagement, authority, impact of the profession on the beneficiaries) in order to dig out the potential and limitations of the profession in ‘building’ post-disaster resilient houses and communities. During the study, the following research methods were mobilized: document survey, semi-structured interviews with key actors (governmental officials, local architects, urban planners, local professors) and questionnaires distributed throughout the villages in which the three recovery programs intervened.

Post-disaster architecture: the role of temporary housing
SPEAKER: Daniel Félix

ABSTRACT. Post-disaster scenarios has frequently caused considerable numbers of homeless due to the damaged and destroyed houses. During the housing reconstruction process, temporary housing solutions play a crucial role to restore some sense of normalcy in the life of the affected people. However, these solutions has been highly criticized for being inadequate, unsustainable and for drawing away important resources for the overall reconstruction program.
Through literature review, case-studies and best-practices analyses, the paper firstly discusses the importance of temporary housing and then presents principles, concepts and architectural/project recommendations to support the development of temporary housing solutions. The aim of the paper is to provide for the improvement of such solutions discussing concepts as community participation and designing for people, use of local resources, flexibility, simple construction systems, exterior and neighborhood spaces planning, future use of units/resources, among others.
While discussing these concepts, the paper also suggests how they can be considered beforehand during pre-disaster planning for temporary housing processes. These way, the paper contributes to built resilient communities supporting them to be better prepared to deal with the homeless problem in an emergency situation, also contributing for a sustainable and more efficient reconstruction period, particularly in the case of the re-housing process.

Resilient communities, incremental builders: housing recovery from the 2010 earthquake in Villa Verde, Constitucion, Chile

ABSTRACT. In the morning of February 27th, 2010 an earthquake hit the southern regions of Chile followed by a tsunami causing 524 fatalities and around 500,000 homes either severely damaged or destroyed. This was the worst national tragedy in the last 50 years. The city of Constitucion, housing 41,000 people, was severely affected resulting in the need to rebuild much of the urban area. The process of reconstruction in Constitucion has been critically acclaimed following the involvement of the internationally recognized architecture firm Elemental and their decision to base their approach on an incremental housing model. This housing model challenges the traditional top-down approach for housing supply and proposed a ‘half-built’ house that required the direct involvement of the residents to themselves construct the ‘other-half’ of their house. Elemental’s program resulted in the construction of 484 houses at Villa Verde organized in rows and around common spaces or courtyards. The settlement is located in a hilly area approximately 2.5km from the city centre with access roads that connect the neighborhood with the city. Residents initially received one half of the two-story house built in a structural frame which allows horizontal expansion to the limits of the frame. This research explores the pathways taken by residents to respond to the challenges driving an incremental building process. The aim of this study is to understand the reasons behind housing adaptations and how they evidence a resilient attitude from its residents. This research demonstrates that the heterogeneous community organized in two main committees which promotes collective involvement in local initiatives for communal facilities and regulates the fulfillment of habitability conditions set as part of the settlement design. Individually, residents have shown their commitment to actively improve their living conditions through the adaptation of their homes based on their specific needs and resources. It was observed that the majority of residents have performed housing modifications although there are differences in the level of adaptations based on their various motivations.

Building strong foundations: a shelter terminology framework for humanitarian architecture
SPEAKER: Liz Brogden

ABSTRACT. The proliferation of and inconsistent use of shelter terminology in the shelter sector is a cause for significant conceptual confusion and has been identified as an obstacle to sector development. Experts have discussed this problem for decades, observing that accurate interpretation of shelter terms is only possible within a particular context or organisation. Shelter descriptors such as ‘emergency’, ‘temporary’, ‘transitional’, and ‘transportable’ are used interchangeably within shelter sector publications, with meanings intended to be implicitly assumed. As a result, there are a vast number of ways in which humanitarian shelter is described, with much contradiction, overlap, and duplication of meaning. Significantly, unclear terminology and lack of shared meanings contribute to the widely documented problem of inappropriate design and conceptualisation of shelter strategies. Given the growing interest in ‘humanitarian architecture’ as an emerging specialist area of architectural professional practice and architectural design education, ambiguous shelter terminology represents an obstacle for meaningful engagement from the architectural discipline with post-disaster recovery in communities, whether through practice, research, or education. Currently, the knowledge required to design appropriate shelter, or to conduct research into humanitarian architecture is hindered by the absence of a common systematic and comprehensive understanding of shelter-specific terms and activities. The goal of this research was to provide an overview of the array of terminology applied to humanitarian shelter in use in the sector and develop a Shelter Terminology Framework to facilitate the understanding and interpretation of shelter terms in context. Key documents from each Global Shelter Cluster (GSC) partner, including the three most recent GSC ‘Shelter Projects’ publications, and the ‘Sphere Humanitarian Charter’ were systematically reviewed using NVivo software to identify shelter terms. 347 shelter terms were identified and coded using a qualitative content analysis method. Terminology describing shelter strategies, stages, types and shelter artefacts encountered in the data accounted for eight main categories of shelter: Immediate, Intermediate, Permanent, Pre-Emptive, Non-Specific Shelter Terms, Shelter Items, Alternative Strategies, and Multi-Phase Shelter. Two to four sub-categories were identified within each of the eight categories, totalling 25 ways to define shelter strategies. The term or concept ‘Transitional Shelter’ was identified as a source of significant ambiguity and controversy, stemming from conflicting notions of the term referring to shelter as either a product or process. The research has illuminated a currently obscured area of knowledge. The value of the framework lies in its potential to reduce confusion surrounding shelter terminology. Significantly the Shelter Terminology Framework has the potential to equip architects and other specialist fields in the private sector, including professional practice, with a comprehensive overview of humanitarian shelter stages, types and approaches used in the shelter sector. Additionally, it can inform research, and educational courses emerging from academic institutions. It is anticipated that enabling a clear and consistent interpretation of usage of shelter terminology will have positive implications for partnering and collaboration to build humanitarian capacity, develop new approaches and foster innovation.

Exploring system thinking as a pathway to improve the use of knowledge in building resilience to climate-related hazards

ABSTRACT. Building resilience to climate-related hazards demands the bringing together of various sources of knowledge and the institutional aspects associated with these sources. Apart from researchers and decision makers, local communities have come to be accepted as having valuable knowledge as well. As such, approaches that advocate building resilience and neglect the learning process through which all key stakeholders interact and contribute at every stage of the process may fail. In Nigeria, there is little understanding of how stakeholders engage in building resilience to climate related hazards. In order to promote an approach that embracing stakeholder engagement in climate hazard resilience building, we explore current practices in two Nigerian cities – Makurdi and Calabar. Data was collected using a combination of approaches that include questionnaire survey, focus group discussions and stakeholders’ workshops. Workshop participants were selected from relevant stakeholder groups representing government, academia, local community, NGO/CSO/CBO, and professional organisations. A total of 330 business questionnaires and 3300 household questionnaires were collected. Alongside the survey, two focus group discussions were conducted to interface with community and business leaders. We found that communication and exchange of knowledge between stakeholders is far from optimal and knowledge tends to be utilised ineffectively. This was evident in dichotomy between problem identification and solution favoured by key stakeholders. Differences in stakeholders’ interest, perceptions, and knowledge differ not only in problem and solution identification, but also the scale of the system to be considered and how best to communicate resilience information. This underscores the fact that building resilience can sometimes be a complex task. Thus, merely bringing together stakeholders to share knowledge on problem definition and solution may in itself be inadequate. Therefore, we propose a system thinking based stakeholder learning to enhance resilience building for climate related hazard. Knowledge exchange should be targeted in a six step approach including 1) problem definition, 2) system definition, 3) system synthesis, 4) system analysis, 5) identifying plausible future and 6) communication. Such structuring of knowledge exchange among stakeholders has potential to enhance stakeholders’ knowledge, facilitate dialogue and communication, and helps ensure that resilience building is future oriented. However, to formalise this system thinking based resilience building will require its applicability to be tested based on further empirical research in diverse context.

Elderly residents risk perceptions: in-house sheltering preparation for Northern Thailand earthquakes

ABSTRACT. 4G - Humanitarian Architecture in practice: Reducing Risk and Building Resilience in incremental housing and post-disaster reconstruction.

According to the “Chiang-Rai earthquake (Mea-lao earthquake)” on 5 May 2014 or “Northern Thailand earthquake” It was the strongest earthquake ever recorded occur in-land of Thailand, according to report of National Disaster Warning Center, Earthquake caused damage to housing, Infrastructure, schools and historical building, The rural area where it’s impact have more than 20% percent of senior-residents who possible find difficult in earthquake evacuation. This research has 2 methods on 1. To analyzes housing typologies and damage also report on capacity of residents to recover their house back after earthquake by observing on site study at Tahor community in Chiangrai province nearby center Earthquake And 2.To analyzes elderly-residents evacuation and sheltering’s behavior after earthquake; risk perception toward building typologies can help in decision made to evacuate. This part of research provided the questionnaire to 77 households; focus in elderly group. This research aim to analyze the damage by housing types and evaluate perception in disaster’s risk, the result shown residents also realize they live in the area where having probability for earthquake disaster. But when experience earthquake event they still very panic and confused for what had happened. Residents hardly be able to define the scale of earthquake, also they have lack knowledge in the age of their own building, building regulation or evacuation process for earthquake safety. The House types that have high-risk to damage was “wooden house with brick” which is the wooden structure the upper floor and self-made brick wall add at the lower floor and residents in Tahor Community don’t have enough money for repair the house to be stronger 64 % of elderly residents decide not to evacuated to the community shelter that have been prepare by local government and 30% want to have in-house-shelter and during the last earthquake in 2014 They experience difficult time living on the road-side self-made shelter for a week. This study conclude that it’s hard for elderly residents to evacuate from their place to local-shelter and especially during earthquake and after shock time. So most of the participant decide to sleep on shelf-made shelter on the road-side, this study conclude that the in-house shelter design might be able to support the need of this venerable group of residents.

16:00-17:45 Session DS-III: Doctoral school - Part III

A “Pecha Kucha (PK) 15 x 15” session is a presentation by a group of 10 presenters in which each presentation is composed of 15 slides automatically animated to move forward after 15 seconds. The total presentation time of each participant is thus 225 sec (or 3’45’’). Each session is composed of 10 presentations. A panel of experts will give short feedback to the PhD candidates presenting their thesis under preparation and research ideas; a previously selected expert addresses one single presenter with a 2 min comment.

Location: Room C104
18:00-18:45 Yoga session

Margarida Lima

Please bring comfortable shoes and clothing.