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09:00-10:30 Session 60C: Lambda Calculus
On repetitive right application of B-terms

ABSTRACT. B-terms are built from the B combinator alone defined by B f g x ≡ f (g x), which is well-known as a function composition operator. This paper investigates an interesting property of B-terms, that is, whether repetitive right applications of a B-term circulates or not. We discuss conditions for B-terms to and not to have the property through a sound and complete equational axiomatization. Specifically, we give examples of B-terms which have the property and show that there are infinitely many B-terms which does not have the property. Also, we introduce a canonical representation of B-terms that is useful to detect cycles, or equivalently, to prove the property, with an efficient algorithm.

Homogeneity without Loss of Generality

ABSTRACT. We consider higher-order recursion schemes as generators of infinite trees. A sort (simple type) is called homogeneous when all arguments of higher order are taken before any arguments of lower order. We prove that every scheme can be converted into an equivalent one (i.e, generating the same tree) that is homogeneous, that is, uses only homogeneous sorts. Then, we prove the same for safe schemes: every safe scheme can be converted into an equivalent safe homogeneous scheme. Furthermore, we compare two definition of safe schemes: the original definition of Damm, and the modern one. Finally, we prove a lemma which illustrates usefulness of the homogeneity assumption. The results are known, but we prove them in a novel way: by directly manipulating considered schemes.

Strict Ideal Completions of the Lambda Calculus

ABSTRACT. The infinitary lambda calculi pioneered by Kennaway et al. extend the basic lambda calculus by metric completion to infinite terms and reductions. Depending on the chosen metric, the resulting infinitary calculi exhibit different notions of strictness. To obtain infinitary normalisation and infinitary confluence properties for these calculi, Kennaway et al. extend β-reduction with infinitely many ‘⊥-rules’, which contract meaningless terms directly to ⊥. Three of the resulting Böhm reduction calculi have unique infinitary normal forms corresponding to Böhm-like trees.

In this paper we develop a corresponding theory of infinitary lambda calculi based on ideal completion instead of metric completion. We show that each of our calculi conservatively extends the corresponding metric-based calculus. Three of our calculi are infinitary normalising and confluent; their unique infinitary normal forms are exactly the Böhm-like trees of the corresponding metric-based calculi. Our calculi dispense with the infinitely many ⊥-rules of the metric-based calculi. The fully non-strict calculus (111) consists of only β-reduction, while the other two calculi (001 and 101) require two additional rules that precisely state their strictness properties: λx.⊥ → ⊥ and ⊥ M → ⊥.

10:30-11:00Coffee Break
11:00-12:30 Session 64B: Rewriting
Narrowing Trees for Syntactically Deterministic Conditional Term Rewriting Systems
SPEAKER: Naoki Nishida

ABSTRACT. A narrowing tree for a constructor term rewriting system and a pair of terms is a finite representation for the space of all possible innermost-narrowing derivations that start with the pair and end with non-narrowable terms. Narrowing trees have grammar representations that can be considered regular tree grammars. Innermost narrowing is a counterpart of constructor-based rewriting, and thus, narrowing trees can be used in analyzing constructor-based rewriting to normal forms. In this paper, using grammar representations, we extend narrowing trees to syntactically deterministic conditional term rewriting systems that are constructor systems. We show that narrowing trees are useful to prove two properties of a normal conditional term rewriting system: one is infeasibility of conditional critical pairs and the other is quasi-reducibility.

Completion for Logically Constrained Rewriting
SPEAKER: Sarah Winkler

ABSTRACT. We propose an abstract completion procedure for logically constrained term rewrite systems (LCTRSs). This procedure can be instantiated to both standard Knuth-Bendix completion and ordered completion for LCTRSs, and we present a succinct and uniform correctness proof. A prototype implementation illustrates the viability of the new completion procedure.

Completeness of Tree Automata Completion

ABSTRACT. We consider rewriting of a regular language with a left-linear term rewriting system. We show two completeness theorems on equational tree automata completion. The first one shows that, if the set of reachable terms is regular, then completion can compute it. This was known to be true for some term rewriting system classes preserving regularity, but was still an open question in the general case. The proof is not constructive because it depends on the regularity of the set of reachable terms, which is undecidable. The second theorem states that, if there exists a regular over-approximation of the set of reachable terms then completion can compute it (or safely under-approximate it). To carry out those proofs we generalize and improve two results of completion: the Termination and the Upper-Bound theorems. Those theoretical results provide an algorithmic way to safely explore regular approximations with completion. This has been implemented in Timbuk and used to verify safety properties, automatically and efficiently, on first-order and higher-order functional programs.

12:30-14:00Lunch Break
14:00-15:30 Session 66A: FLoC Keynote Lecture: Shafi Goldwasser
Location: Maths LT1
Pseudo deterministic algorithms and proofs

ABSTRACT. Probabilistic algorithms for both decision and search problems can offer significant complexity improvements over deterministic algorithms. One major difference, however, is that they may output different solutions for different choices of randomness. This makes correctness amplification impossible for search algorithms and is less than desirable in setting where uniqueness of output is important such as generation of system wide cryptographic parameters or distributed setting where different sources of randomness are used. Pseudo-deterministic algorithms are a class of randomized search algorithms, which output a unique answer with high

probability. Intuitively, they are indistinguishable from deterministic algorithms by a polynomial time observer of their input/output behavior. In this talk I will describe what is known about pseudo-deterministic algorithms in the sequential, sub-linear and parallel setting. We will also describe an extension of pseudo-deterministic algorithms to interactive proofs for search problems where the verifier is guaranteed with high probability to output the same output on different executions, regardless of the prover strategies. Based on joint work with Goldreich, Ron, Grossman and Holden.

15:30-16:00Coffee Break
16:00-17:00 Session 67B: FSCD Invited talk: Grigore Rosu
Formal Design, Implementation and Verification of Blockchain Languages

ABSTRACT. Many of the recent cryptocurrency bugs and exploits are due to flaws or weaknesses of the underlying blockchain programming languages or virtual machines. The usual post-mortem approach to formal language semantics and verification, where the language is firstly implemented and used in production for many years before a need for formal semantics and verification tools naturally arises, simply does not work anymore. New blockchain languages or virtual machines are proposed at an alarming rate, followed by new versions of them every few weeks, together with programs (or smart contracts) in these languages that are responsible for financial transactions of potentially significant value. Formal analysis and verification tools are therefore needed immediately for such languages and virtual machines. We present recent academic and commercial results in developing blockchain languages and virtual machines that come directly equipped with formal analysis and verification tools. The main idea is to generate all these automatically, correct-by-construction from a formal specification. We demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed approach by applying it to two blockchains, Ethereum and Cardano.

19:00-21:30 FLoC banquet at Examination Schools

FLoC banquet at Examination Schools. Drinks and food available from 7pm (pre-booking via FLoC registration system required; guests welcome).