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10:30-12:00 Session 7A: Green transportation
Location: TU1
A Benchmarking Study of Online Carbon Emission Calculators for Freight Transport

ABSTRACT. Purpose While hardly exactly measurable, carbon emissions commonly serve as an idol for environmen-tal friendliness and so many online carbon emission calculators (OCECs) are offered that al-low estimating environmental footprint of freight transport operations. Unfortunately, previ-ous studies have shown that many of these OCECs based on poor input data, apply non-transparent calculation methods, and so too often result in highly inaccurate to very mislead-ing measures. Hence, the objective of this paper is to assess freely accessible OCECs to sort out those that deliver mostly reliable carbon footprint measurement results. Design/methodology/approach A structured online search was conducted to identify suitable OCECs for further assessment in form of a benchmark case that includes different modes of transport from road and rail to air and sea between China and Europe. Further comparison resulted in a ranking of OCECs along the dimensions of transparency (routing system, data sources and calculation method), accuracy (input options) and completeness (data output). Findings Different predefined inputs and calculation methods employed by the OCECs assessed inevi-tably result in a wide spread of more or less reliable carbon footprint measurement results. Research limitations/implications Information to assess the OCECs was obtained so far exclusively from the respective websites - no providers of such offers were contacted to obtain further details. Practical implications All potential users of OCECs, including policymakers, players from the transport industry, and other stakeholders are well advised to question GHG emission statements that are not backed by transparent procedures and internationally recognized calculation standards. Original/value This assessment including a benchmark study and a ranking offers a guideline for potential us-ers of OCEC to avoid major pit holes coming along with present carbon footprint measure-ment of freight transport operations.

The Paradox of Environmental Trucking Reforms: Supply Chain and Policy Lessons Learned from Europe

ABSTRACT. Purpose Few polices have as important impact on the environment as those related to supply chains. The purpose of this research is to investigate the impacts of policy changes regarding cabotage (domestic freight transportation) on sustainability and implications for supply chain strategy. Design/methodology/approach We apply a mixed methods study with qualitative expert interviews and quantitative scenario analysis. The in-depth expert interviews inform how the regulation plays out in practice. We use data from a retailer’s supply chain network in Sweden to create a heuristics model to quantify environmental and economic the short-term and long-term effects of cabotage policy changes. Findings Our research uncovered unrealized sustainment and environmental aspirations of shippers and logistics service providers. However, as the actual transportation is carried out, the focus was more task-oriented, resulting in the use of foreign hauliers. Reliance on low-cost foreign-owned hauliers resulted in decreased supply chain costs but increased greenhouse gas emissions. Research limitations/implications We contribute to the operations and supply chain literature by examining a public policy decision and its effect on the supply chain. As this study pertains to one regulation, we recommend future research to investigate whether more regulations not taking OSCM knowledge into consideration have been implemented. Social Implications Policymakers introduced cabotage deregulation as a means to increase efficiency and sustainability. However, paradoxically our studies proposes that the regulation leads to more trucks on the road and increased pollution. Original/value We introduce a vital sustainability paradox with significant implications for supply chain strategy and public policy. Our empirical study of the effects of transportation policy decisions informs governmental decision-makers, supply chain researchers, and supply chain managers. Policy-makers need to go beyond intent and take basic OSCM knowledge into consideration when designing policies pertaining to supply chain network design.

Investigation of system-level impacts of electrification on the road freight transport system: a System Dynamics approach

ABSTRACT. Purpose Electrification of road freight transport is a promising solution to achieve transportation climate goals. This study aims to provide a system-level understanding of the impacts of electrification on the road freight transport system and to develop a model that describes the system and enables the analysis of the interrelationships between system variables Methodology Using a system dynamics approach, a causal loop diagram (CLD) model is developed. The model structure is based on the three-layer model proposed by Wandel et al. (1992) and developed by Browne et al. (2022). A mixed methods approach is employed, including group model building, an impact analysis workshop, and literature analysis. Findings The study presents a conceptual multi-layer model that illustrates the complex causal relationships between variables in different layers of the freight transport system. Moreover, two example CLD models are provided: one exploring the factors that affect the attractiveness of electric trucks and another illustrating the trade-off between battery size and charging infrastructure. Research limitations The study's main limitation is the challenge of recognizing all variables and their interconnections in such a complex system. Rather than providing an accurate picture of the system, the study aims to demonstrate the system's complexity and highlight some important dynamics. Original/value The study's system dynamics models aim to provide decision-makers with a comprehensive understanding of the system, enabling them to make better-informed decisions that consider the impact of their policies on the system as a whole.

10:30-12:00 Session 7B: Digitalisation
Location: TU5
Designing Digital Platform Ecosystems - A Synthetization of relevant Design Topics for Ecosystems from a Literature Review

ABSTRACT. Purpose The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the existing research on digital platforms by adopting an ecosystem perspective, considering an established ecosystem framework. Our work synthesizes previous findings on digital platforms and offers insights into their ecosystem design.

Design/methodology/approach A literature review was conducted to identify and synthesize the relevant findings. Considering the framework, and by conducting a qualitative content analysis, design recommendations and related aggregated design topics were derived from the publications.

Findings The findings of our study show a detailed framework including various design topics for different stakeholders within the ecosystem of a platform.

Research limitations/implications Our review depends on the quality of the databases selected, as well as the designed search string, to identify clear design topics for platform ecosystems and not the ecosystem logic itself.

Practical implications Our results provide guidance for practitioners as they help to focus development and resource decisions in complex transformation projects. The topics synthesize activities for developing the ecosystem of a platform that can be regarded as a design framework. This framework might constitute a playbook for supporting practitioners in the examination of a digital transformation toward a platform.

Originality Given the importance of designing platforms in both academia and practice, the purpose of this study is to synthesize the current research findings on platforms and to provide a framework with possible design topics under consideration from a business ecosystem perspective.


ABSTRACT. ABSTRACT Purpose Digitalization is often argued as essential for efficient transport but is not used to any large extent within construction. Seeing that there is a great theoretical potential of digitalization, the purpose of the study is to understand if and how digitalization can be used to improve construction transport efficiency. Design/methodology/approach This study uses a case study research method where data was collected through observations and unstructured interviews. The HTO model (human, technological, organizational aspects) is used to support the analysis. Findings Even though digitalization in general is considered to achieve increased efficiency, the findings of the paper show that ineffective use of digitalization increases time and effort. In fact, the way digitalization is currently being used in the case study, manual work has increased rather than decreased. Research limitations/implications (if applicable) This study is based on a single-case study. Further studies are needed to give more insights into this phenomenon. Practical implications (if applicable) The findings of this study suggest that better organization of activities in the transport delivery flow can be achieved if companies make well planned and well executed use of digitalization along with appropriate use of software functionalities. Original/value The study highlights that using digitalization for the sake of using it, is not enough. To fully realize the potential of digitalization, it is important to integrate digitalization in the existing processes. Keywords: Digitalization, Construction transport, Paperless deliveries.

10:30-12:00 Session 7C: Humanitarian SCM
Location: TU4
Digitalization of Performance Management in Humanitarian Supply Chains A systematic literature review for developing future research agenda

ABSTRACT. ABSTRACT Purpose The study aims to understand the state of the art in digitalization of performance management (PM) in humanitarian supply chains (HSCs) research and proposes a potential future research agenda. Design/methodology/approach The study used a systematic literature review method, Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) to collect studies on the digitalization of PM in HSCs research during the past ten years. As a result, there were 22 peer-reviewed journals identified since 2012. Then, the collected studies were analyzed to fulfill the purpose of the study. Findings The findings discuss the state of the art in the digitalization of PM. It identifies knowledge gaps, such as a lack of application of digitalization in PM research and its relevance across different disaster stages, research on categories of digitalization concepts to improve PM, common definitions of digitalization concepts in PM, and research on different digitalization concepts to improve PM concepts and their connections, and research on benefits and challenges. These gaps open the directions for the future research agenda. Research limitations/implications The study opens new directions for further research in the digitalization of PM. The study is based on qualitative methods, data collection from peer-reviewed journals and databases, and conducted by a single author. Further studies could combine with quantitative methods and collect other data (e.g., reports) from different databases, and collaborate with other authors. Practical implications The study can guide future research by addressing knowledge gaps and utilizing possible research topics and methodologies to implement digitalization in improving HSCs’ PM. Original/value Previous studies analyzed HSCs literature in digitalization and PM. On the other hand, this study analyzes HSCs literature in the digitalization of PM and contributes insights for research and practical implications.

Managing medical waste in a humanitarian context
PRESENTER: Margot Rocheteau

ABSTRACT. Purpose The Covid-19 pandemic and other outbreaks have increased the use of single-use materials, negatively impacting the health of populations and the environment. Humanitarian organizations are starting to include the question of products’ end-of-life management into their strategies, especially as it improves the resilience capacities of humanitarian responses.

Design/methodology/approach It uses a comparative case study built on several interviews to highlight the differences and similarities between the two contexts. In addition, the paper provides concrete resilience indicators enabling organizations to measure the level of resilience of their initiatives to allocate their efforts and resources better.

Findings The results showed that context particularity, and the lack of governmental engagement are the main obstacles to the efficient implementation of medical waste management. They also highlighted that humanitarian organizations enhance their resilience by giving concrete advantages to the organization’s members and the local workers, as well as expanding internal capacities, and integrating a long-term approach.

Research limitations/implications (if applicable) Although the study is limited geographically, it be expanded to other areas like the pharmaceutical and medical sectors.

Practical implications (if applicable) This project can help humanitarian organizations take action to build durable systems in unstable countries and open new views on the utility of sustainable practices as a strategic asset in enhancing innovation.

Originality This paper demonstrates how medical waste management positively affects operations’ efficiency, and ultimately supply chain resilience, in two highly disruptive environments, Bangladesh and Afghanistan.

Painting of the Sustainable Humanitarian Cold Chain

ABSTRACT. Purpose: Humanitarian cold chains are especially vulnerable to disruptions that result from climate events. In addition, humanitarian cold chains have a negative impact on the environment. Sustainable practices and processes are one approach to overcome those disruptions whilst adapting to global warming, making humanitarian cold chains more resilient. However, sustainability and resilience are sometimes perceived as mutually exclusive, creating a bottleneck between keeping the chain both cold and green. Using Panarchy theory, this article aims to describe the sustainability narrative of humanitarian cold chains through resilience thinking and through outlier events at different panarchical levels

Design/methodology/approach: With qualitative analysis from a focus-group study, this research argues the identified outlier events prompt the change towards including sustainable practices in humanitarian cold chains. However, the change will not materialize if a traditional interpretation of resilience as static and robust is upheld.

Findings: Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro, Covid-19, and Climate and Environment Charter are amongst the biggest events which have triggered humanitarian organizations to rethink their sustainability practices. Fundamental changes in humanitarian cold chain designs, however, have not happened, partly due to the way they are viewed: as closed and rigid systems. More advocacy from academia and practice is called for to rethink resilience and sustainability as mutually inclusive to promote a true change toward sustainability.

Origin/value: This research constitutes one of the first attempts to apply panarchy theory to the humanitarian logistics discipline. Findings demonstrate the need to rethink the concept of resilience in order to include more sustainable practices in humanitarian cold chains.

10:30-12:00 Session 7D: Procurement
Location: TU3

ABSTRACT. Purpose The number of semiconductor and electronic components (SEC) in vehicles has grown considerably, and the supply market of electronics has experienced many changes in the last two decades that have challenged the automotive industry. While studies suggest a link between the way purchasing and supply is managed and the structure of the market, there is limited empirical research elaborating on the how and the implications. This study aims at investigating the interplay between Purchasing and Supply Management (PSM) strategy and supply network structure of electronics and semiconductors, to understand the implication for the automotive OEMs. Methodology Focusing on the supply network of a leading North European OEM, data is collected from the OEM, 2 additional automotive OEMs, semiconductor suppliers, and industry experts. The PSM strategy and evolution of the supply network in the period 1996-2023, and the parallels between PSM strategy and network structure changes are mapped. Findings PSM strategy by the OEMs focused on Tier 1 supplier relationships and cost effectiveness, while the supply network grew long and complex. OEMs’ closeness centrality decreased over time, until supply disruptions required a change of focus on securing supply and new connections in the supply network. Practical implications The findings show how PSM practitioners must consider the supply network structure in selecting PSM strategy for their organizations. Original value The paper presents novel, empirically-based insights on how PSM strategy act as an antecedent of and is impacted by supply network structure.


ABSTRACT. Purpose In buyer-supplier relationships, when the delivered products or services fail, the buyer must attend to the consequences but should also understand the cause behind the failure as it may determine the future of the relationship and actions post failure. Despite their importance, failure attributions can be complicated and biased, and current research offers limited understanding of the factors that impact such attribution. Our aim is to understand how short and long-term gains for the supplier, as perceived by the buyer, impact buyer attribution.

Design/methodology/approach We use a vignette-based behavioral experiment with 870 supply chain professionals to test our hypotheses. All variables are measured from the buyer perspective and include attributions of failure by the buyer.

Findings The supplier’s gains in operating profit (connected to the failure), as perceived by the buyer, encouraged the buyer’s attribution of the failure to the supplier (self-serving motives). The perceived losses of the supplier’s originating from failure-related contractual penalties, or re-work obligations of outcome-based contracts boosted relational attributions (inefficient communications). The perceived competency of the supplier moderated these effects. The strategic importance of the buyer to the supplier ‒measured as share in supplier’s sales and substitutability of the buyer‒ also discourages attribution of the failure to the supplier.

Practical implications Understanding failure attribution biases helps suppliers to avoid an unfair (hidden action) attribution by providing relevant information to the buyer. Such understanding also helps buyers to make fairer attributions.

Originality/value After a supply failure, and before taking corrective action, the buyer needs to conclude why their expectations were not met. If the supplier is perceived to be competent ‒ruling out incompetency as the cause of failure ‒ then the buyer will likely attribute the failure to either self-serving actions of the supplier or inefficient buyer-supplier communications (arising from uncommunicated expectations). We are among the first to show that such attribution is influenced by the perceived gain/loss of the supplier and the strategic importance of the buyer to the supplier.

The Selective Logistics Service Provider: Creating the right customer mix to unlock economy of scale

ABSTRACT. Purpose To create economies of scale in operational units, service providers need to efficiently mix the right customers’ products in their different operational units. The purpose of the study is to explore how service providers/3PL create economies of scale by combining warehousing and sharing resources between customers, aka achieving advantages by unlocking the effects from economy of scale by increasing the utilization rate in operational units.

Design/methodology/approach The paper has an explorative approach with data collected through semi-structured interviews. The analysis draws from economies of scale and service literature, to identify how service providers create economies of scale in everyday operations.

Findings Service providers that create the right mix of customers for their different operational unit’s abilities to utilize economy of scale advantages, provide better services and lower cost to their customer. The service providers therefore need to create the right mix of customers, based of differences like fluctuating buying patterns and similarities like product size, weight, handling possibilities. Furthermore, understanding their customer’s customer is also a way to create the right mix of customers.

Research limitations/implications (if applicable)

Practical implications (if applicable) Service providers can be aware of the selective matching process to enable the sharing of resources between customers to create economies of scale. By selecting customers with different buying patterns but with similar product sizes the service provider can aggregate a stable demand and thereby increase utilization rate in their own operations.

Social implications (if applicable)

Original/value The paper contributes to an understanding of how service providers can enable economies of scale by integrating their customers. It also highlights the importance of relationships, trust and control.

10:30-12:00 Session 7E: Optimisation
Location: AS4
The Implementation of Berth Allocation Policies that Align with IMO’s JIT strategy: Lessons from the Port of Gävle

ABSTRACT. Purpose The International Maritime Organization’s (IMO) Just-in-Time (JIT) ship-arrival report highlighted how important “enhanced slot allocation policies” are to JIT – however, there are few examples of ports adopting new berth allocation policies. The purpose is to explore port authorities’ implementation process of Pre-Booking Berth Allocation Policy (PBBAP) supporting JIT arrival for tramp-ships. Design/methodology/approach The Port of Gävle (PoG) was chosen as a case to study because of a pilot-project they initiated to implement the PBBP, allowing the author to study the implementation of a PBBP in an empirical setting. Interviews, document reviews, and observations were used to collect data during 2020-2022. Findings The transition towards PBBP required review and revision of PoG’s current legal framework to new code of conduct. Risk identification and mitigation-plans associated with the PBBP were valuable to perform. Moreover, PoG developed a port community system (PCS) and provided training programs to relevant actors to improve their understanding of the PBBP, usability of the PCS, and how the updated process impact different actors’ roles and responsibilities. One difficulty was determining the time-window to reserve a berth-slot that would ensure fairness given the different voyage characteristics of the ships that call the port. Identifying indicators to measure the performance of the two scenarios (FCFS and PBBP) is crucial to evaluate the outcome of the transition. However, some of the data required to measure these indicators may not be owned by the port, making accessibility an issue. Research limitations/implications (if applicable) A single case-study limits the generalizability of the findings. Practical implications (if applicable) Port authorities can better understand how to manage their transition from FCFS to PBBP supporting JIT ship-arrival. Original/value This is among the first studies that empirically investigate the implementation of a PBBP in the tramp segment.

De-conflicting freight streetside operations for liveable streets. From conflicts identification to right-of-way decisions modelling

ABSTRACT. Purpose This paper investigates streetside conflicts involving freight delivery operations to better understand the challenges in fostering liveable streets and potential modelling approaches to face them.

Design/Methodology/Approach Specific streets in The West End of central London served as a case study. The research identified tensions between different modes of transport in using streetside space, with a focus on freight-related interactions, i.e., freight streetside conflicts. Data collection and analytics involved qualitative and quantitative methods to provide input to the assessment of right-of-way (ROW) decisions regarding conflict solutions.

Findings The public sector seeks to solve streetside conflicts by ROW decisions regarding space allocation to specific users. Empirical evidence showed the challenges freight operations face given current ROW rules and their implications in the occurrence of streetside conflicts. Three ROW approaches were assessed regarding their scope in de-conflicting the streetside.

Research limitations/implications The sample of organisations providing information, field observation time windows and the number of interviews could be expanded in future research to improve data representativeness. Also, the transferability of the findings to other contexts should be further addressed.

Practical implications Results from this research can help decision-makers from the public and private sectors identify challenges in the use of public space and allocation decisions to enhance last-mile delivery efficiency while minimising negative impacts on streets’ liveability.

Original value The analysis of freight parking operations and their interactions with other users represent a novel approach in the field of city logistics that traditionally study freight operations in isolation.


ABSTRACT. Purpose Recent review papers about the challenges of horizontal collaboration (HC) in logistics emphasize the issue of how to form coalitions among players. This paper aims to optimally solve this challenge in a supply chain of a single manufacturer and multiple collaborative suppliers in a non-superadditive cooperative game framework. Design/methodology/approach We use a mathematical programming model connected to a dynamic programming algorithm under the umbrella of cooperative game theory. Findings Relevant literature has generally assumed that a grand coalition is formed in HCL which consists of all players. We show why HCL will not form the grand coalition due to the high coordination costs for large-size coalitions. Moreover, this paper highlights the role of IT where it reduces coordination costs, and consequently, facilitates a transition from singleton and intra-organizational arrangements to coalitional collaboration and market arrangements. Research limitations/implications We do not study the profit allocation problem (how to share the gain resulting from HCL among players) because it is rich in the related literature. However, our new method is well-adapted to all profit allocation methods. Original/value The contributions of this research are twofold: 1) This is the first research in the literature that studies the optimality of coalition size in a trade-off between transportation-inventory cost and coordination cost. 2) This paper considers uncertainty and risk-pooling effects in coalition formation for HCL and analyses its impacts on the profitability of HC and the optimum coalition size.

14:15-15:45 Session 9A: Transportation (WIP)
Location: TU1
Plugging the Data Hole of Truck Parking Policy Issues

ABSTRACT. ABSTRACT Purpose Many organizations such as municipalities, are experiencing a drought of information when it comes to data on locations of overnight parking and characteristics of the parking trucks. The purpose of this paper is to outline contextual issues, elaborate various options and show a crowdsourced solution for how city planners can get commercial truck parking location data to effectively select policies to implement. Design/methodology/approach We apply engaged scholarship, conduct a case study, and test a solution, in collaboration with the city of Helsingborg, Sweden. We collected qualitative data through interviews with local stakeholders in Helsingborg and a comparable city (Jönköping, Sweden). We have collected quantifiable data from more than four thousand observations of crowdsourced location data to understand drivers resting places. Finally, we compare the qualitative and quantitative data according to the comparison methodology outlined in (Holguín-Veras et al., 2017) Findings We found that this technology can give policy planners lots of insight into their targeted group. Our analysis suggests that many international and domestic hauliers are not using dedicated parking spaces and favoring other, unsanctioned, resting places instead. The externalities that arise from workers that never return home are noteworthy. Cities tend to experience greater pollution and drivers are more likely to have negative feelings such as isolation, and low satisfaction with life. Implications From this study, we have proved that crowdsourcing is a viable way to draw conclusions of truck movements. Though this methodology has not been proven to work on a small scale, we can safely justify the findings at a scale close to Helsingborg. The implications for the city’s decision makers are great. Cities that receive a fair amount of commercial traffic should look to the strategy outlined in this paper. Drivers of trucks will also benefit from the findings of this paper. The city can implement new projects that specifically impact specific subsections of drivers. Value This paper details a continuous and reliable way to track locations of commercial motor traffic. Many other reports do not list crowdsourcing as a reputable way to formulate municipal policies, but this paper seeks to prove that crowdsourcing can be an asset in when making new municipal policies.

How to make Urban Consolidation Centers more successful in sustainable urban logistics: a Nordic case study

ABSTRACT. Last-mile logistics is costly, the least efficient and the most polluting part of the supply chain. To make urban delivery more environmentally and socially responsible as well as more resilient, many logistic carriers and municipalities around the world have adopted Urban Consolidation Centers (UCC). A UCC is a facility usually located in the proximity of a city allowing to bundle freight flows using an eco-friendly fleet and often subsidized by municipalities. UCCs have been tried extensively in Europe and elsewhere for quite some time and in large numbers. They often fail after the project period ends and tax money are withdrawn. The aim of this paper is to examine critical factors and technological challenges that should be addressed during the planning and implementation of UCCs to ensure the viability of the business model. These factors will be tested in practice. This paper builds upon previous research that has suggested a series of critical factors for UCCs that we aim to test in a real setting and develop further.

Exploring local business adoption of e-cargo bikes as delivery vehicles Challenges, Prerequisites, and Potential Approaches

ABSTRACT. ABSTRACT Purpose This study aims to investigate the adoption of e-cargo bikes as delivery vehicles by local businesses. Specifically, we aim to identify the prerequisites for such a transition, the challenges and barriers businesses face, and potential approaches to overcome these obstacles. Design/methodology/approach A questionnaire survey is conducted with previous participants of e-cargo bike loan schemes. The survey seeks to understand their motivation, experience, and efforts when using e-cargo bikes as delivery vehicles. In addition, participatory workshops will be conducted with invited participants to explore the preparatory steps, requirements, and challenges faced by businesses transitioning to e-cargo bikes and identify potential approaches to increase e-cargo bike adoption by business organisations. Findings This study identifies motivations, benefits, and challenges in using e-cargo bikes as a transport mode for local business organisations as well as potential factors affecting the wider adoption of e-cargo bikes. Research limitations/implications The insights gained from in-depth discussions in the participatory workshops contribute to existing knowledge and provide a better understanding of challenges and prerequisites for a transition towards sustainable transport modes. This study may have limitations in terms of the scope of data as it will be based on a single city. Practical implications The insights gained from the participatory workshops will be a sound base for policy development and recommendation to increase e-cargo bike adoption among local businesses that can impact the reduction of transport externalities in cities. Originality/value Data collected from the participants with first-hand experience increase the contextual understanding while our study may increase the wider awareness of sustainable transport modes that can reduce dependence on fossil-fuelled vehicles and also inform relevant policy decision-makers

Consumer and citizen perspectives on sustainability in last-mile deliveries

ABSTRACT. Purpose Consumers are a central stakeholder in last-mile deliveries (LMD), particularly with the increases in online ordering. However, consumers’ perspectives are not represented much in research regarding LMDs in urban areas. Therefore, this paper examines consumers’ perceptions regarding choices made for LMDs, sustainability (or lack) thereof and how increased deliveries impact urban space. Design/methodology/approach The data was collected through six qualitative focus groups of international university students. Wooclap tool was used to collect the students’ views on four different themes of urban LMDs. Discussions were recorded, transcribed and analysed through coding. Findings The results show that there is interest in sustainable options in LMDs, but consumers feel they are not given enough information to make informed choices. Convenience of deliveries, i.e. speed and price, as well as the option to choose a delivery time and/or location were considered important. The students were from four different universities in Canada, China, Denmark, and Finland, so where they were based influenced their responses. Research limitations/implications (if applicable) This study was made with a predominantly young demographic. A similar study with a different age group may yield different results, so we hope to expand the study with additional data. Originality Consumer perspectives, choices, and demands have significant influence on choices companies make. The consequences of increased LMDs on urban space, particularly from a citizen point of view are rare and we explore this in the paper.

14:15-15:45 Session 9B: Digitalisation (WIP)
Location: TU5

ABSTRACT. Purpose While industrial manufacturers are investing in the design of intelligent plants, the construction industry is looking for solutions to minimize the massive CO2 emissions of buildings. The construction industry can take advantage of the progress made by the manufacturing sector. By producing modern facade panels in decentralized smart factories construction site processes can be industrialized. This paper aims to investigate what future changes can be expected for the supply chain.

Methodology/approach The paper follows the Design Science Research process. Both quantitative and qualitative methods are used. A literature review is conducted to determine the current state of research. Subsequently, the artifact is designed according to the specifications of systems theory. To test its feasibility, a model application is carried out.

Findings The study presents an initial supply chain concept of a smart factory in construction industry.

Research limitations/implications This research refers to the analysis of using present IT systems. No systems are selected that only exist in theory.

Practical implications The paper provides an overview of future parties and planning systems of the new digital supply network in construction engineering.


For the first time, the development of a digital supply chain concept for a smart factory in construction engineering is being investigated. By enabling buildings to be prefabricated more effectively, logistics can make a significant contribution to achieving climate targets.

Artificial intelligence as a catalyst for supply chain resilience and sustainability - A systematic literature review

ABSTRACT. Purpose The use of artificial intelligence (AI) is rising sharply in almost all business areas, driven not least by digitization processes and the networking of physical and virtual objects through the Internet of things. Supply chain management (SCM) is also affected by this trend, expressed in practice with an increasing number of AI-based solution providers and in research with growing attention in scientific publications.

Design/methodology/approach A systematic literature review of numerous research papers and scientific publications on the interplay of AI, supply chain resilience (SCRES), and supply chain sustainability (SCSUS) is conducted. In addition, selective expert interviews will be shown to validate and refine the findings of the systematic literature review.

Findings This study presents an updated picture of recent developments, emerging trends, and gaps for future research in AI to improve SCRES and SCSUS. Theoretical implications From the findings, a theory is derived that relates to the use and possibilities of AI for SCRES and SCSUS so that a general conclusion should be allowed. Furthermore, observations in practice should be made explainable.

Practical implications From the derived theory, practitioners and decision-makers can conclude their own (smart and digitized) corporate strategy and uncover areas for action.

Original/value With the help of this systematic literature review, theories in SCM are to be improved, and knowledge of real-world problems is to be advanced.

Manufacturing firms’ efforts and challenges in digitalization: searching for circularity

ABSTRACT. Purpose Digitalization creates numerous opportunities including digitally enabled offerings and extended “product lifetime” (Ertz et al., 2022). Manufacturers are increasingly investing in a range of digital technologies (Aryal et al., 2018). Research starts to explore how digital-enabled circular strategies can work and how digital technologies can be leveraged for circular economy (CE) (Kristoffersen et al., 2020). However, how to achieve this is in practical terms is referred to as an industry challenge and very uncertain (Björkdahl, 2020). Manufacturers need decision and implementation support for developing CE strategies and related application of digital technologies. Developing this type of understanding and support is the starting point for this paper. In this study, we aim to study manufacturing companies’ efforts towards digitalization and circularity. The goal is to analyze the challenges involved and to identify possible paths forward towards circularity.

Design/methodology/approach The paper builds on a multiple case study of three manufacturers in Sweden. The case studies rely on multiple data sources, interviews, study visits, workshops, and secondary information. The within-case analysis forms the base for discussion across cases and elaborate on the paths towards circularity.

Findings The preliminary results show that the three manufacturers have focused on exploring new service-based offering to their customers using digitalization, seeing it as an enabler to enrich their market offers. While interested in circularity, using digitalization to become more circular seems challenging due to digitalization not being treated as an opportunity for cross-department transformations.

Original/value This paper sheds light on how three manufacturers use digital technologies to develop service-based products and are planning for sustainable circular transition through digitalization. It identifies common industrial challenges and provide suggestions to practitioners and researchers on what is needed to achieve digitally enabled circular systems.

Enabling artificial intelligence in procurement - An investigation of influencing factors

ABSTRACT. Purpose Procurement plays a crucial role in the value creation of companies. Still, there are levers to make more reliable decisions within the procurement process due to a variety of potential suppliers, a mass of data, and a lack of time. A possible lever can be artificial intelligence (AI) approaches. This study examines the factors influencing the use of AI in procurement.

Design/methodology/approach We conduct 15 semi-structured interviews with Swiss experts in procurement and AI. The interviews are analyzed using Grounded Theory analysis, applying the Gioia method.

Findings We identify multiple drivers and barriers that should be addressed to enable the targeted use of AI-based software in procurement, thereby supporting the actions of decision-makers.

Research limitations/implications The study is limited by the researcher's influence on the analysis, especially the coding. Furthermore, the comprehensive but not exhaustive scope of the mentioned levels is a limiting factor.

Practical implications For practitioners, this study contains a framework to help address the right drivers at the right time and overcome the right barriers in the process.

Original/value This paper aims to initiate starting points for practitioners to use AI in procurement.

14:15-15:45 Session 9C: Supply chain resilience (WIP)
Location: TU4
Influence of firms & networks on SC Resilience: a SLR (WIP)

ABSTRACT. ABSTRACT Purpose This WIP paper explores the degree firm-level supply chain resilience (SCR) influences the SC network (SCN) and whether this influence is reciprocated between the two. The motivation is to assess SCR as a product of inputs from across a SCN and extend previous research that only assessed SCR at the firm or dyadic levels. Design/methodology/approach Systematic literature review Findings This research offers six propositions that provide future opportunities to assess how resilience develops in SCNs. Research limitations/implications New insights for strategies to mitigate SC disruption risk. Original/value Little is known about the influence of firms and SCNs on SCR and whether resilience across firms makes a SC more resilient.

Supply Chain Adjustment: An Examination of Responsiveness and Resilience

ABSTRACT. Supply Chain Adjustment: An Examination of Responsiveness and Resilience

ABSTRACT Purpose The paper’s premise is that supply chain responsiveness enables supply chain resilience to disruptions and opportunities. The relationship between responsiveness and resilience embodies a process of firm adjustment to market disruptions. The adjustment process is influenced by collaborative relationships, which augments a feedback loop that allows supply chains to respond to disruptions efficiently and effectively.

Design/methodology/approach This paper draws upon qualitative data from interviews addressing managerial experience and a survey of leading supply chain companies.

Findings (Contributions) The paper examines how four dimensions of supply chain responsiveness function as mechanisms that drive a supply chain’s resilience to market disruptions. The resilience outcome establishes a benchmark outlining how well responsiveness mechanisms react to the disruption. This recurring process creates a feedback loop that ultimately influences overall performance.

Research limitations/implications (if applicable) Supply chain responsiveness and resilience are recent marquee topics in supply chain literature. However, scant research exists into the influence each ‘state’ has upon the other. This study investigates the adjustment cycle between responsiveness and resilience to showcase the mechanisms that influence and connect responsiveness to resilience and the feedback loop their interaction develops to respond to disruptions.

Originality We expand the responsiveness view, enabled through relationship governance, as critical to a firm’s market adjustment process. In addition, we enhance the literature’s work on the relationship between responsiveness and resilience contribution to performance.

Enhanced resilience through collaboration and resource sharing

ABSTRACT. Purpose Supply chains are facing an increasingly turbulent environment characterised by major disruptions and extreme events. To manage these disruptions, organisations depend on external resources provided by other organisations. Hence, strategies for managing supply chain disruptions must take such (inter)dependencies into account. This WIP presents the preliminary literature review on which an empirical study of public preparedness initiatives will build. Design/methodology/approach A semi-structured structured literature review was conducted in order to investigate relevant literature related to collaborative management of supply chain risks. Findings Public organisations use collaborative variations of (1) strategic stock, (2) economic supply incentives, (3) relocation of resources and (4) resource sharing approaches to enable effective and efficient responses to supply chain disruptions. The suitability of each approach depend on factors relating to the resource being demanded, the disruption or threat, and the markets or geographical areas that the organisations are serving. Practical implications Assuming that collaborative arrangements could lower costs and tied-up capital for the involved parties, this study could potentially give insight into strategies that lowers the bar for investing in risk mitigation resources. Social implications It could provide arguments that enhances the public sectors’ attractiveness as a customer and contribute to better societal preparedness Original/value Taking the Industrial Marketing and Purchasing and the resource interaction perspective, this study aims to provide a novel perspective on collaborative approaches that public organisations use to increase resource availability for managing disruptions.

Societal Preparedness and Response as Complex Adaptive Systems

ABSTRACT. Purpose A country’s ability to cope with major crises rests on its capacity to connect organised actors, voluntary actors, and NGOs to utilise all resources available for the society. Such systems are complex networks of actors, partly designed beforehand and partly evolving during crisis response. The purpose with this WIP is to discuss a novel analytical framework combining Complex Adaptive Systems (CAS) literature and industrial network theory, and its applicability for studying how national preparedness networks evolve during major crises.

Design/methodology/approach Data will be collected through interviews with civil defence, military defence, NGOs and communities, and document studies of reports from total defence exercises and the COVID-19 responses in the Nordic countries.

Findings National preparedness & response systems work in rugged landscapes which blur causal relationships between efforts and results. Based on preliminary knowledge, we expect to find that even if behavioural paths temporarily change during response, behaviour patterns persist, because the State as the major actor in the network is itself a complex system, and changing the State takes time.

Research limitations/implications The Nordic countries organise societal response systems differently. Exploring these will provide systemic knowledge about Nordic societal security and how a ‘whole-of-nation’ approach contributes to robust and resilient crisis response. A further ambition is to contribute to theory building within CAS and network theory.

Originality Combining CAS and Network theory provides a new tool for understanding collaboration between diverse actors during crises.

14:15-15:45 Session 9D: Innovation (WIP)
Location: TU3
A configuration approach to financing the upstream supply chain network

ABSTRACT. Purpose This research aims to identify the relevant characteristics of supply chain networks that impact the upstream supply chain financing and determine the configurations of these characteristics that are most suitable for implementing deep-tier supply chain financing (DTSCF) from a buying company’s perspective. Design/methodology/approach The study involves a literature review of supply chain financing and an application of qualitative comparative analysis (QCA) based on multiple case studies to identify advisable configurations of supply chain characteristics for applying DTSCF. Findings The research identifies the relevant characteristics of supply chain networks for financing upstream suppliers and provides a comprehensive understanding of these characteristics. Additionally, the study identifies specific configurations of these characteristics that are most suitable for implementing DTSCF. Practical implications The research provides anchor companies with a basis for developing more effective financing approaches for suppliers in the lower tiers of the supply chain, which can improve the overall resilience and efficiency of the supply chain. Hence, the research addresses the knowledge gap regarding suppliers’ financing in the lower tiers of the supply chain. Original/value The originality of this study lies in its contribution to the understanding of the financing needs of suppliers in the lower tiers of the supply chain and the identification of relevant characteristics of supply chain networks that impact the financing of the upstream supply chain.


ABSTRACT. Purpose Digitization in particular is changing the governance structures in supply chains more and more in the direction of ecosystems, here understood from a perspective of ecosystems as a structure. Instead of focal actors or strong dyadic relationships, the focus is more clearly on the collaboration of several autonomous organizations. In consequence, typical development processes that have often grown over decades, only appear partially compatible with this perspective. This paper aims to stimulate a debate on inter-organizational innovation processes in an ecosystem context. Design/methodology/approach The authors combine the perspective of ecosystems with the knowledge of inter-organizational collaboration in product and service development. Findings The paper highlights the challenge of governance and openness within inter-organizational innovation processes in the changing context of ecosystems vs. supply chains. Research limitations/implications This is an explorative study that provides potential starting points for further analysis of inter-organizational innovation and development processes in the emerging context of ecosystems. Practical implications Collaboration within ecosystems represents an immanent challenge for current mangers in the field. Starting points for improving this are urgently requested. Original/value The combination of research in ecosystem structure with that on innovation processes appears a under researched but emerging area in supply chain management. We stimulate a debate for further research in this area.


ABSTRACT. Purpose The objective of this paper is to explore and evaluate the barriers and enablers for the implementation of innovations in circular packaging on the supply chain level. The purpose is also to find out if there are differences in the critical factors between the cases studied. The research questions for the study are: How can innovations be implemented in the supply chains? What prohibits and enables the change for an innovation to be implemented on the supply chain level in the reusable packaging context? Design/methodology/approach The theoretical background for the paper is formed by sustainable supply chain innovations and sustainable supply chain management with a focus on circularity. The implementation of innovations is evaluated using a published framework on critical factors and process model developed in literature for sustainable supply chain innovations, by analysing four case studies about reusable consumer packaging. The data is collected mainly by semi-structured interviews with relevant companies in each case and cross-case analysis of the cases is conducted to find differences between the cases. Findings After analysing the cases and the whole, the expected findings are that implementing sustainable innovations in supply chains require collaboration between the partners and that there are some differences between the cases in terms and some factors are more critical in some cases than in others. Research limitations/implications The paper contributes to theory development of sustainable supply chain management implemented in the circular packaging context. Practical implications The paper contributes to practice by analysis of the cases, in proposing improvements for both policymakers, companies and consumers in adopting and creating sustainable and circular packaging solutions. Social implications A shift to reusable packaging can require more consumer involvement depending on the take-back system. Originality Due to the increasing pressure from policy to shift higher on the waste hierarchy, this paper provides insights on the ways in which the new circular solutions could be implemented, as the innovations need implementation for driving change.

14:15-15:45 Session 9E: Humanitarian and defence logistics (WIP)
Location: AS4
Strengthening the capability of small-scale farmers: local food accessibility in midst of disrupted supply chain

ABSTRACT. Purpose Empirical evidence reveals that, short-term cycle of food aid projects via direct distribution of food aid to recipients is suboptimal solution over the long run. The alternative point to logistics training on how to source raw materials (e.g., crops, seed). The research presents the status of food aid development (FAD) projects, gaps, and solutions for localizing logistics trainings in Kenya.


The paper examines the extent, range, and nature of research activity through a survey research design of diversified training concepts applied in promoting a sustainable livelihood.


Preliminary findings show that beneficiaries livelihood status, their participation in a project training and decision-making inclusion at the household level impacts the sustainability awareness and have a significant contribution in project sustainability.

Research limitation

The study is limited to beneficiaries' training concepts in FAD projects, Kenya. Not the academic gap facing humanitarian practitioners, this is subject to further research.

Practical implications

The outcome of the study calls for a rethinking insight to humanitarian agencies and policy makers to integrate localized sourcing training to beneficiaries.

Social implications Humanitarian logistics (HL) entails serving the beneficiaries'; thus, localized welfare is at the core of the discipline. The findings have societal impact in improved livelihood of beneficiaries e.g., women groups.


Several articles have reviewed HL research before, but gap on the HL and related localized trainings to beneficiaries regarding FAD is understudied.

WHAT IS SUPPLIER IN THE HUMANITARIAN CONTEXT AND HOW TO DEFINE IT? : Defining the Concept of Non-Commercial Supplier in Humanitarian Supply Chain Management.

ABSTRACT. Purpose: The purpose of this research is to investigate the perceptions of suppliers in humanitarian supply networks and to validate the concept of non-commercial supplier in humanitarian supply chain management (SCM) in order to improve humanitarian disaster relief operations as an area of academic research. Design/methodology/approach: The study collects data in two stages using a mixed-method approach. In the initial phase, a qualitative approach and a single case study research design were used in participation with a humanitarian non-governmental organisation. The first stage has been completed, and the findings from the qualitative data will be used to inform the quantitative study that will take place in the second stage. Findings: The study highlights the need for conceptualising the term ‘supplier’ from a humanitarian standpoint, due to the incompatibility between the commercial concept in SCM and the humanitarian concept. The later portion of the ongoing study will attempt to demonstrate how suppliers are perceived and defined from a humanitarian viewpoint through quantitative analysis. Original/value: Commercial principles in SCM are not always perfectly aligned with humanitarian concepts in SCM. Some effort should be made to rethink if some terms commonly used in SCM can be applicable to humanitarian SCM. Since the term ‘customer’ has been used to mean ‘beneficiaries’ or ‘donors’ for humanitarian organisations, the traditional term “supplier”; needs to be rethought to make sure it fits with the unique needs of humanitarian organisations.


ABSTRACT. Purpose The ability of the armed forces to employ logistics and its growth in such a way such that it signals military power is critical for state entities in avoiding conflicts and shaping perception. However, prior experience and judgements can affect the choice and degree of signaling to employ. The purpose of this study is to develop a Perception-Visibility framework for logistics signaling within military applications.

Design/methodology/approach This research employs the regulatory focus theory to the analysis of logistics for signaling power along the dimensions of perception and visibility of logistics. Literature on logistics power, signaling and cognitive sciences are explored. A framework for analyzing signaling based on the perception-visibility relationship is developed.

Findings Because signaling within the military remains a complex interplay of inter-dependent factors such as cognition, experience, prior knowledge, cost, resource availability and current or prevailing situation on the ground, and as such requires a deep understand of the art of brinkmanship. The paper characterizes response attitudes based on the regulatory framework theory and further proposes four strategies for signalling logistics power, willingness or resolve.

Research implications The research contributes to the signaling literature by way of arguing for and demonstrating how logistics, an area not traditionally perceived as effective signalers of resolve, can be used as effective as signals of power.

Originality While there is an abundance of research on growth analysis methods and models for business organizations, corresponding research on the growth of the armed forces has received little attention.

Foreign ownership of defence industries: Are they trustworthy suppliers?

ABSTRACT. Purpose The defence industries are often argued as an important factor for national defence capabilities. This study aim is to explore how foreign direct investments in Swedish defence industries affect the trustworthiness of long-term defence supply chain relationships and especially during periods of political crisis with threats of armed conflicts. Design/methodology/approach This paper study defence industries is Sweden. The paper is built on an inductive approach and based on workshops with senior officers in foreign owned Swedish industries and representatives from Swedish public authorities. The data is analysed with support of French and Raven (1959) bases of power. Findings The authorities have proven that they are capable to use coercive power. The analysis show that there is room for improvement on using positive power tools. There exist a solid distrust between the actors, but the war in Ukraine have made both parties to come to the conclusion that this need to change. Research limitations/implications (if applicable) Foreign ownership is often perceives as a complicating factor, which often is believed to reduce the trustworthiness of the defence industries. In this study only the Swedish situation is studied, thereby difference in national legislation will affect the results, thereby this study is only valid for the Swedish context. This study is planned to be continued with a more extensive study on the legal aspects of foreign ownership, to broaden the practical perspectives on how to handle relations with foreign owned defence industries. Practical implications (if applicable) The result aims to improve the understanding on how to build relations between public authorities and defence industries with extensive foreign direct investments. Originality Practitioners have discussed aspects of ownership for many years. This paper aim to give a first answer if foreign ownership affects the trustworthiness of defence industries.