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09:00-10:40 Session 7A: Humaniterian logistics
Location: 202
Emergency response to natural hazards in Sweden - needs for improved planning and decision support

ABSTRACT. ABSTRACT Purpose Climate change and the increased risk of multiple (simultaneous or cascading) natural hazards challenge the planning and decision making in emergency response (ER) systems, especially in areas with inexperience of such events. The purpose of this paper is to identify key planning and decision activities of ER to natural hazards, and related decision support needs.

Design/methodology/approach Interviews were conducted with 12 representatives from the Swedish ER system. Thematic coding was applied to identify important planning and decision activities. Activity theory was applied to identify needs of decision support.

Findings We found needs of decision support connected to eight identified key activities concerning consequence analysis, national reinforcements, and resource management. The results illuminate a lack of technology to support planning and decision activities during ER to both single and multiple natural hazards.

Research limitations/implications Studying the needs in other countries is suggested, to provide deeper insights and enable case comparisons. Future work on the identified needs can help improve the response efficiency in Sweden and countries with similar governance and/or inexperience of multiple natural hazards.

Practical implications The findings can inform policy makers in ER of where to concentrate the development of collaborative preparedness and response work to cope with future challenges from natural hazards.

Original/value The contribution is a theoretical understanding and examination of key activities influencing the ER to multiple natural hazards, and a set of support needs to improve planning and decision activities.

Outsourcing Supply Chain Management of Small-Scale Food Producers
PRESENTER: Ville Hinkka

ABSTRACT. Purpose If small-scale food producers, importers, and farmers wish to stand out on the market, they will face difficulties reaching customers at reasonable cost. We aim to address this challenge by developing innovative logistics services that could overcome barriers to market entry of them.

Design/methodology/approach The paper starts with a literature search related to supply chain management (SCM) as a service and fifth-party logistics (5PL) or similar which could work as an outline for developing innovative logistics services. Based on the literature search and expert insights, a logistics service model is developed and proposed. The proposed service is tested by a logistics service provider, and that company’s operations are analysed. Finally, the paper evaluates the success factors of logistics services that would enable small-scale food producers to fully outsource their distribution at reasonable cost.

Findings The development of certain technologies has broadened the possibilities of outsourcing SCM. Based on the study, the most critical success factors are use of e-commerce technologies, open platforms, and information systems that are able to combine different logistics chains.

Research limitations/implications This paper concentrates on developing logistics services for outsourcing SCM of small-scale producers. Literature uses terms like 5PL or software-as-a-service to describe this type of solution. Therefore, although the studied phenomenon is not new, recent technological developments and operational models like open ecosystems have created new possibilities for its realization and hence new motivations for research.

Practical implications The presented logistics service will offer huge opportunities for small producers to broaden their customer base and reach wider markets at reasonable cost. Social implications The proposed solution will enable small companies to compete with bigger rivals and could limit the power of large retailers.

Originality This paper contributes to the literature on outsourcing SCM by presenting a novel distribution model for small consumer goods producers.

Supplying food to disadvantaged communities in the UK: Insights for the Food Supply Chains

ABSTRACT. Purpose: Despite the UK being ranked 6th out of 113 countries in 2021 on the Economist Intelligence Unit’s global Food Security Index, there are about 10.2 million British residents living in food deserts, approximately 12% of these in deprived areas. This paper takes a closer look at the food systems in four UK cities (Plymouth, Tower Hamlets, Whitley-Reading and Brighton and Hove) and how food supply chains (FSC) can better supply food to the disadvantaged in these communities. Design/methodology/approach: The report gathers and analyses under a systematic manner secondary data from academic literature, books, reports, online publications, government reports and local newspapers on the state of the local food systems as they are experienced by the disadvantaged in these communities. Findings: Findings indicate that, despite the variety and uniqueness of the challenges in the four communities, the role that FSCs play within the current systems and how the principles of supply chain management could help address them are woefully underexplored. Social and Practical implications: The findings give a better understanding of the food systems in terms of access and affordability inequalities in the UK and provides a strong basis for appropriate practical interventions. Original/value: The paper presents one of the first studies into the role of supply chain management in food supply to disadvantaged communities in the UK by exploring existent food systems from a supply chain perspective.

09:00-10:40 Session 7B: Sustainable development
Location: 203
Towards a digital and sustainable transformation of supply chains

ABSTRACT. Purpose Digital transformation bears opportunities and risks for the sustainability of global supply chains. This study aims to show how the adoption of digital technologies applied at the structural, process, and plant levels are related to (sustainable) supply chain management practices and associated sustainable outcomes.

Design/methodology/approach 64 peer-reviewed English journal articles on the intersection of digital supply chains and sustainability identified via Scopus and the Web of Science are systematically reviewed. Based on a practice-based view perspective and a conceptual framework comprising elements from the digital transformation and (sustainable) supply chain management literature, content, frequency, and contingency analyses are conducted with the help of MAXQDA and IBM SPSS Statistics.

Findings The study reveals three main topics in the literature: a mainstream eco-efficiency debate (1), supplemented by a data-driven more comprehensive perspective on environmental sustainability (2), and overlooked, hard-to-measure (social) sustainability aspects that can be fostered by selective monitoring and certification (3). Research gaps exist regarding the relationship between structural level technologies, lean SCM practices, and top management orientation as well as plant level technologies and collaboration.

Practical and social implications We propose that a more integrated perspective of the three identified streams is needed to truly improve sustainability and prevent unintended negative consequences.

Original/value This paper scrutinizes the interlinkage between digitally enabled supply chain management practices and related sustainable outcomes. This is essential to improve practitioners’ understanding of causal chains.

Climate Change Adaption in Maritime Logistics

ABSTRACT. Purpose Extreme weather events, for example heavy rainfall, storms and heatwaves, have effects on maritime logistics and hinterland transport. This paper presents the current case on supply chain risks caused by global climate change. Focus of this study is adaption measures for the different sectors of maritime logistics.

Methodology First, for the risk analysis, interviews with practitioners of the maritime logistics domain were held. Second, a literature review on adaption measures was carried out. Afterwards, three workshops with professionals were organized to identify and to create additional controls.

Findings Usage of emergency plans, on-call duties and local weather forecasts are suitable for most companies. Ports should take the forecasted sea level rise for infrastructures into account and should use heat-resistant materials. For barge operations, water level forecast, new functions for River Information Services and the development of new vessel types are good adaption measures. Train operators should implement vegetation-management in order to prevent trees fall on train tracks. Heat-resistant asphalt and additional pumps in tunnels are adaption measures for road infrastructure.

Research limitations/implications This paper gives insights into adaption measures and supports to close a gap in a field with limited existing research.

Practical implications Results of this paper show how risks in the global climate change domain can be tackled with adaption measures.

Original/value Findings from a literature review and experiences of practitioners in global climate change on maritime logistics are presented.

Logistics setups in ports - to enhance the circularity of materials

ABSTRACT. Purpose Achieving the goals of a fossil-free society requires an efficient transport system as well as a shift towards a more circular economy. The purpose of this paper is to create an understanding of how ports can take an active part in enhancing circularity of materials. The material value of waste is typically low and cost-effective logistics solutions including sea transportation are therefore needed if those materials are to be circulated.

Design/methodology/approach The study is exploratory, including three cases of circular material that is transported by sea today. Interviews with ports, commodity owners and waste management companies have been conducted and port sites were visited. The data is analysed based on transport-related activities, value-added activities, and stakeholder relations.

Findings The study finds that ports can enhance circularity of material in their role as a logistics node and by offering value-added services, such as warehousing, stuffing, and cost-efficient handling. Still, their role depends on the type of port and type of material handled. To increase the learnings in new circular supply chains about sea transport options, the port can act as a knowledge communicator.

Research limitations/implications (if applicable) The study is conducted in Sweden.

Practical implications (if applicable) The results could be used as decision basis for ports who want to develop their businesses towards enhancing circularity of materials and the use of sea transportation in a circular economy.

Social implications (if applicable) Policy makers can use incentives to push ports and its stakeholders towards increased circularity.

Original/value The paper suggests logistic setups to enhance circularity with focus on the role of ports.

Actors' Drivers and Barriers when switching to Biomethane: An Embedded-case Study

ABSTRACT. Purpose Implementation of biomethane in the supply chain requires the involvement of multiple actors, each of which have different drivers and barriers from undergoing the switch. The aim of this research is to begin to explore drivers and barriers among different actors when switching to biomethane

Design/methodology/approach A multiple case study was performed, interviewing multiple representatives from each actor. The drivers and barriers from the respective actors were compared across the actors in the network

Findings The case study resulted in seven dimensions for drivers and barriers, as a dimension can function as both drivers and barriers: technology, customer, management, costs, relationships, society and political. The overarching result was a finding that these dimensions are connected and impact each other.

Research limitations/implications While there are multiple possible fossil-free fuels to be used in the future, this research looked deeper into the implentation of biomethane within an established and functioning network.

Practical implications Understanding the impact from drivers and barriers for each actor in the network during the initial implementation of a fossil-free fuel will allow further organizations to properly prepare for the switch.

Original/value Little research on alternative fuel use has been completed from the perspective of logistics actors, namely the Haulier and Freight Forwarder. Studying these previously understated actors help in moving forward towards a more comprehensive understanding of the network.

09:00-10:40 Session 7C: Waste management
Location: 204
Drivers and barriers to circularity in household waste supply chain: A developing economy perspective
PRESENTER: Burçin Özdamar



Household waste supply chain processes, as well as responsibilities and interactions of logistics network actors are not clearly defined towards circular economy practices in developing countries. However, there is a global need for transforming open loop household waste supply chain (HWSC) business models to closed loop systems. This research aims to assess current HWSC within the context of circularity and outline key drivers and barriers for designing circular value co-creating HWSC business models in developing countries.


Data is collected through semi-structured interviews. HWSC professionals from multi levels of actors are selected to assess circularity for various waste types. Interview data is transcribed and coded through content analysis.


This paper presents the current model of HWSC in developing countries, which reveals broad network of actors (including the invisible ones; e.g. waste scavengers, scrap dealers), designates complex relationships and interactions among these actors and outlines the bottleneck points in processes opening the loops. Findings report the drivers and barriers for enhancing close loop HWSC to sustain circularity.

Research limitations/implications This research introduces a leaner and more sustainable HWSC business model that enhances collaboration and coordination among stakeholders through re-defining their roles and value expectations in a circular system.


This study examines the factors for circular value co-creation in HWSC and suggests a circular HWSC business model that helps closing the loop within business ecosystem in developing countries.

Keywords: circular supply chain, household waste, value co-creation, closed loop supply chain, circular economy, circularity, developing countries

Better together? Co-opetition between NPOs and municipal waste management companies in post-use textile collection

ABSTRACT. Purpose On their journey to building a national collection system for post-use textiles, waste management companies (WMCs) made collaboration attempts with non-profit organizations (NPOs) that also run own textile collection. The study creates an understanding of how the inclusion of NPOs can enhance the establishment of the national collection system.

Design/methodology/approach The case study is qualitative, explanatory with semi-structured interviews as the main data source. A researcher’s role is categorized as an interventionist.

Findings NPOs can support WMCs in achieving collection targets for recyclable post-use textiles, improving quality of post-use textile streams collected, and preserving most valuable stream of post-use textiles – reusable clothing, from being directed to textile recycling. The study also identifies related challenges.

Research limitations The case is limited to Finland as a case country, which intends to implement the EU Directive on establishing separate textile collection ahead of timeline.

Practical implications Cooperation between WMCs and NPOs is a potential way to minimize export of low-quality post-use textiles to developing countries. In past years, Nordic countries increased textile export by 25%.

Social implications NPOs offer vast knowledge on collection, sorting, and development of consumer sorting practices for reuse. Inclusion of NPOs brings a valuable social element to the collection system due to their non-profit, social mission.

Original/value The study discusses co-opetition in reverse supply chains between actors of different kind, from the non-profit and public sectors.


ABSTRACT. Purpose Humanitarian organisations have frequently been criticised for attending to their waste that results from delivering inappropriate items or excess packaging. Recognising this, several humanitarian organisations have joined an endeavour to reduce and manage the waste they generate. This paper supports this endeavour with reviewing academic and practitioner literature to further the understanding of the reverse logistics challenges and potential solutions in the humanitarian context. The purpose of this paper is to create a framework of waste management and reverse logistics in the humanitarian context. Design This literature review combines academic with practitioner literature on waste management, reverse logistics, humanitarian logistics and disaster management. Academic literature has been identified through keyword searches and complemented with case reports from waste management programmes. Findings Numerous greening endeavours exist across humanitarian organisations. Yet the research and documentation of waste management and reverse logistics is limited in this context. The analysis of the literature identified three main themes: the umbrella theme of environmental sustainability, and the specific subthemes of waste management and reverse logistics, with specific unique topics attributed to each. Research limitations/implications This paper maps out the current state of research and practice in waste management and reverse logistics in the humanitarian context. It highlights challenges and defines contextual differences and gaps that will guide future research. Practical implications The paper contributes to the learning across humanitarian organisations and their programmes. Social implications The focus of this paper is on the ecological side of humanitarian logistics. The identified challenges bear important policy implications locally, as well as for global donors. Originality This paper lays the foundations of a joint endeavour across humanitarian organisations in the area of waste management and reverse logistics. By bringing in insights from grey literature, it extends on the so far purely conceptual stream of literature in this area.

09:00-10:40 Session 7D: Circularity
Location: 208
Remanufacture of warranty returns as experimental outsets towards product take-back

ABSTRACT. Purpose Gathering learnings through experimentation is considered a key lever for the implementation of product take-back. Based on an industrial case, this study explores how remanufacture of warranty returns can generate learnings, foster capabilities, and thus act as an experimental outset towards take-back of end-of-life products.

Design/methodology/approach The study adopts a single case study methodology. Data is collected through semi-structured interviews with practitioners from the case company, a large Danish mechatronics manufacturer.

Findings The study finds that targeting the existing return flow of warranty cases offer fruitful learning conditions due to pre-existing inspection and analysis capabilities. Not having to focus on product acquisition reduces complexity, and companies can instead experiment with remanufacturing to accumulate knowledge on product behaviour, reliability, and subsequent sales strategies. However, it comes with limitations.

Research limitations/implications As the study is based on a single case, generalizability of the findings is limited. Future research is encouraged to remedy this through multiple case studies, possibly across industries.

Practical implications The study introduces an approach to reduce uncertainties of product take-back and remanufacturing, which can be adopted by practitioners as vehicle for learning and enable them to instigate a circular transition.

Social implications The study aids to decoupling virgin resource consumption from growth ambitions.

Original/value The study adds coveted industrial insights to the implementation of product take-back and remanufacturing, and provides an approach to reduce uncertainty of the change process.

WHAT TO TAKE BACK? Decision-making factors for functional value product exploitation

ABSTRACT. Purpose Industries struggle to realize economically feasible take-back (TB) programs. Literature indicates that pursuing functional value is more environmentally and economically beneficial than exploiting material value, but also more costly and risky to achieve. The aim of this paper is to develop a decision method to identify products with the greatest potential for TB when pursuing functional value exploitation

Design/methodology/approach The factors were determined through literature review and interviews with industrial practitioners (in different business areas). The evaluation of their relative importance was determined using the Analytic Hierarchy Process. The method was validated on a case company in the mechatronic industry.

Findings A hierarchical model of factors to be considered when selecting the product(s) to take back. The weighting process balances trade-offs between physical characteristics, regenerative process conditions, and market considerations.

Research limitations/implications From an economic perspective, the best regeneration trajectory should be determined on a product basis rather than using a general approach for many products, as the health state of the product plays an essential role in the trajectory decision. The use of one case study limits the generalizability of the findings. The hierarchy found aims at improving economic and environmental performance, prioritizing functional value exploitation and providing a starting point for future research on balancing the trade-offs when cascading (functional and material).

Practical implications (if applicable) The findings will help practitioners to choose the most appropriate product to take back.

Social implications TB programs are essential for closed-loop industrial systems that aim to reduce the environmental impact of manufacturing.

Original/value Theoretical and practical insights to choose the adequate EoL regenerative process offer insights on what factors and product variables to consider when targeting a specific loop such as remanufacturing

Supply chain capabilities in the circular textile-to-textile recycling supply chain

ABSTRACT. Purpose The textile and fashion industry currently undergoes a shift towards more circular practices, and post consumer used textiles are increasingly brought into circular flows typically including reuse, resell and repair. To decrease the share of landfill and incineration, large-scale textile-to-textile recycling practices need to be developed as a complement to these reuse-alternatives. The purpose of this study is to explore supply chain capabilities required in the textile-to-textile recycling supply chain.

Design/methodology/approach Based on an action research approach, empirical data to this study has been collected at a large fashion retailer, currently involved in a pilot project aimed at understanding the end-to-end, fibre-to-fibre recycling supply chain practices and its involved stakeholders.

Findings Three major supply chain capabilities were identified: standardisation of products, managing inventories, and designing supply chains. Their content and importance are elaborated in the context of the textile-to-textile recycling supply chain, which is characterised by rapidly increasing volumes, consumer requirements, and technology developments.

Research limitations/implications Recent technology developments such as chemical fibre-to-fibre recycling and automated textile sorting are currently accelerating the development of new circular supply chains of low-value textile waste. Supply chain capabilities are imperative for efficient and effective logistics operations in these supply chains.

Original/value In contrast to circular business models focused on reuse-alternatives, the textile-to-textile recycling supply chain is much less explored, despite it is anticipated to play a major role in a future, more circular, textile and fashion industry.

Additive Manufacturing Supply Chains in Circular Economy: Prospects and Challenges

ABSTRACT. Purpose: Additive manufacturing (AM) offers various opportunities and empowers supply chains to adopt the circular economy (CE). Technologies can stimulate the adoption of CE positively. However, CE holds several native constraints which restrict achieving its true potential. Therefore, it is important to explore how to alleviate those constraints. Hence, this study explores how technology-driven supply chains such as AM supply chains successfully adopt CE while overcoming CE’s native constraints.

Design/methodology/approach: We systematically analysed peer-reviewed journal articles published in English by employing the content analysis method. Articles were extracted using an extensive search string based on keywords covering AM, CE and supply chain aspects.

Findings: The analysis revealed that AM supports overcoming the constraints of CE. Since AM allows distributed local manufacturing, it minimises the network complexity by reducing the number of stakeholders involved in the supply chain.

Research limitations/implications: The conceptual findings of this study are based on content analysis. Hence, empirical studies are needed to further validate the findings.

Practical implications: From practitioners’ viewpoint, this study proposes guidance for organisations on adopting CE in AM supply chains while dampening the constraints of CE using the inherent features of AM technology.

Originality: This study contributes to the industry and academia by exploring the prospects of how AM supply chains could adopt CE while mitigating the constraints.

09:00-10:40 Session 7E: Logistics during Covid 19
Location: 209

ABSTRACT. Purpose During the Covid-19 pandemic, severe disruptions to supply chains have been noted, e.g. port closures, congestion, shortages in shipping capacity and related inland transport, propagating and affecting many. The purpose is to provide insights regarding important characteristics of disruptions to increase knowledge on how to limit effects in maritime supply chains by comparing effects and measures related to the pandemic to those of a port conflict. Design/methodology/approach Semi-structured interviews with shipping lines, shippers, forwarders and ports provided data on effects and measures during the pandemic, comparing it to the Gothenburg port conflict. Findings Similarities and differences between the pandemic and port conflict are identified. Both involve long duration, capacity shortages and flexible measures. The pandemic was global and started further away, highlighting differences in control. Sweden’s peripheral location in the maritime transport system emphasises resource prioritisation, e.g. containers. The pandemic also features capacity shortages in vessel fleets, air, rail, and challenges related to carrier, volume and temporal flexibility. Research limitations/implications Focuses on container flows to and from Sweden. Practical implications The multi-actor perspective illustrates the value of understanding relevant mitigation strategies when actors react to measures by others. Prioritisation has implications for contracts. Original/value Comparing effects and measures in a pandemic versus port conflict provides insights regarding important characteristics of disruptions and relevance of mitigation strategies, specific to maritime supply chains.

Impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on supply chains - A Delphi study from a process perspective

ABSTRACT. Purpose This study investigates impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on global supply chains (SCs) and their management. The study elaborates on vulnerabilities, response measures, resilience building and restoring operations of global SCs from a process perspective. Design/methodology/approach A Delphi study with three rounds of online-based, structured questionnaires has been conducted with SCM researchers in industrialized and emerging countries. The results were evaluated under consideration of four areas: vulnerabilities, response measures, resilience building, restoring operations. The first-round results were condensed to nine constructs by inductive content analysis. In the second round, the nine constructs were framed against SCOR processes. The results were validated in the third round. Findings The experts’ responses hardly show any similarity between the processes. No construct has turned out to be highly relevant to all three SCOR processes “source”, “make” and “deliver”. This suggests difficulties to conceptualize and implement an integrated SC risk & resilience management in the face of a global pandemic. Research implications The study illustrates how a pandemic impacts global SCs and their operational processes. It sheds light on SC vulnerabilities and response measures to improve resilience and to restore operations. Practical implications The study may help practitioners reducing SC vulnerabilities, improving SC resilience and restoring operations. Original/value The study is among the first ones that investigate SC impacts of a pandemic from a process perspective.

Realizing supply chain agility under time pressure: Ad hoc supply chains in the COVID-19 pandemic
PRESENTER: Jasmina Müller

ABSTRACT. Purpose In response to the unprecedented demand shock for personal protective equipment (PPE) early in the COVID-19 pandemic, many companies from different industries built ad hoc supply chains. When building ad hoc supply chains, companies displayed supply chain agility, allowing them to find new suppliers, ramp-up production, and distribute to customers within weeks or even days. In our study, we explain how companies realize supply chain agility to build ad hoc supply chains. Design/methodology/approach We designed a multiple case study to explore inductively which capabilities companies deploy to reach supply chain agility when building ad hoc supply chains. We sampled 34 German companies that built supply chains for PPE during the COVID-19 pandemic and conducted in total 52 interviews with representatives of these companies. Findings We developed a theoretical model identifying three capabilities that enable companies to build ad hoc supply chains at an extreme speed: dynamic capabilities allow companies to leverage internal and external capabilities purposefully; an entrepreneurial orientation enables companies to build ad hoc supply chains immediately; and a temporary orientation allows companies to adapt the structure and processes to speed up for a limited time period. Originality The central contribution of our study is a theoretical model that explains how companies realize speed when building ad hoc supply chains. Furthermore, we contribute to different literature streams by identifying dynamic capabilities as an enabler of ad hoc problem-solving and showing that innovativeness can be counterproductive when entering a new market. Finally, we introduce temporary orientation as a new construct to literature.

Exposure and Vulnerability to COVID-19: Opportunities for Disaster Risk Reduction

ABSTRACT. Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to increase understanding of exposure and vulnerability of nations to pandemic disasters. Pandemics are unique disasters, due to their global impact and peculiar exposure and vulnerability characteristics.

Design/methodology/approach: A secondary dataset of explanatory variables is assembled, drawing on sources such as the World Risk Report, and analysed using regression techniques.

Findings: Migration, urbanization, civil liberties, and adult obesity explain a substantial share of national exposure, measured by number of cases of COVID-19. Deaths are explained by median age and adult obesity rates.

Originality: This paper makes an original contribution by revealing that pandemic exposure factors are quite different than exposure factors for other disasters, such as earthquakes and cyclones. In addition, it uses social indicators to explain pandemic exposure and vulnerability. Disaster risk reduction specialists should find value in this research.

Research limitations/implications: Though the models explain a fair amount of the variance in national COVID-19 cases and deaths, they include a limited set of variables. Future research is needed to expand the set of explanatory variables.

Practical implications: The study should help disaster risk reduction professionals and national pandemic planners understand the uniqueness of pandemics, facilitating response to such disasters in the future. Hopefully, next time, the response will be more proactive as opposed to reactive.

Social implications: Several important current social issues (e.g. human migration, civil liberties and adult obesity) appear to be related to exposure and vulnerability. Resolving these matters is likely to enhance preparation and response to the next pandemic.

10:40-11:00Coffee Break - Hama
12:20-13:10Lunch Break - Hama
13:10-14:50 Session 10A: Electrification of operations
Location: 202

ABSTRACT. Purpose Electrification of freight transports is an area that is under fast development, but large-scale implementation is lacking. In response, the purpose is to understand the logistical challenges which are important to overcome in the transition to electrified logistics systems.

Design/methodology/approach A systematic literature review has been carried out and thematic coding was used to identify dominant themes and to identify critical aspects within the themes.

Findings Preliminary results suggest that there has been a lack of focus on the logistical aspects that need to be considered to achieve functioning electrified freight systems. The literature review points to several thematic areas and logistics factors that affect the electrified logistics systems, and these factors need to be understood and managed in the design of these novel logistics systems.

Research implications Based on the identified thematic areas, a future research agenda has been proposed that highlight different logistics factors and how they need to be taken into consideration when designing electrified logistics systems.

Practical implications Within the area of electrification of freight transports, the industry and research are evolving simultaneously, and the proposed research agenda can thereby function as a guide on what stakeholders need to focus on.

Social implications Transition to electrified freight transports is an important step towards reducing the sector’s negative impact on the environment.

Original/value This paper is one of the first to provide an overview of electrification of freight transport with the perspective of well-functioning logistics system.


ABSTRACT. Purpose If the modernization of container seaports is to offer long-term benefits it must be approached with an eye toward sustainability. This work considers the question: What is the right suite of energy and technology to support a modernized sustainable container seaport transfer facility without sacrificing performance?

Design/methodology/approach This work considers sustainable logistics and supply chain management in the context of the wicked problem (Camillus 2008). This work uses a diffusion of innovation (Rogers 2003) approach, garnering qualitative and quantitative inputs from two proof-of-concept projects.

Findings Thus far work has been completed to design the proof-of-concept projects: (1) electrifying the power packs for refrigerated containers, and (2) electrifying the on-dock rail capability. These projects were selected because they were determined to be the most impactful areas on which to test electric power for eventual scaling.

Research limitations/implications This work is limited by the fact that it is tested on specific acute solutions at one port facility as a starting point. Future research needs to be conducted on additional equipment at additional container seaports.

Practical implications Managers can use the findings from these proof-of-concept projects to demonstrate the capability and trade-offs in using electric power for infrastructure and equipment at container seaports.

Social implications From a social perspective, these projects lead to improved environmental impact that can be scaled to improve environmental impact nationally and internationally.

Original/value This work is valuable to academics and companies who strive to create clean energy solutions at ports and across the supply chain.


ABSTRACT. ABSTRACT Purpose The last mile of the supply chain is the most labour, emission, and cost intensive part of the delivery. This paper analyses an autonomous electric vehicle making parcel deliveries in an urban area of Helsinki. The vehicle contains several parcel lockers, and consumers were able to select it as a delivery option in addition to stationary pick-up points. Design/methodology/approach A survey was sent to residents of the neighbourhoods, including questions about the usability of the vehicle, as well as its presence in the city. Findings The findings of the survey and interviews are generally positive towards the autonomous vehicle. The neighbourhood where the vehicle operated is recently built, so the infrastructure is favourable to it i.e., the streets are wide, there are many pedestrian areas, and the area is densely populated. The vehicle is appreciated for its novelty and convenience, as it increased parcel pick-up points significantly. Research limitations/implications The survey was done based on a pilot for the autonomous delivery vehicle in one neighbourhood in Helsinki, meaning that the findings are specific to that area and context. Practical implications The findings are relevant information to the company who built the vehicle, as well as the city of Helsinki. They will be used to determine the success of the endeavour. Originality Last-mile deliveries are a new area of research, and autonomous vehicles are an innovation increasing sustainability in that field.

The Adoption of Battery Electric Vehicles - Challenges from the perspective of Commercial Vehicle Manufacturers

ABSTRACT. Purpose Electrification of transports is one way to improve environmental sustainability in logistics. To facilitate this transformation, an understanding of supply chain actors’ perspectives is crucial. The purpose of this paper is to identify and classify the perceived challenges of the adoption of Battery Electric Vehicles. The paper takes the commercial vehicle manufacturers perspective.

Design/methodology/approach The paper is built on semi-structured interviews of two commercial vehicle manufacturers. In the analysis, challenges are classified and discussed primarily in relation to the role of the commercial vehicle manufacturers. In addition, challenges for hauliers are discussed from a commercial vehicle manufacturer’s perspective.

Findings Preliminary results include a range of challenges, classified as technological, operational, and financial. These overall themes are relevant for challenges for vehicle manufacturers and hauliers, however they differ in details due to the actors’ respective position in the supply chain. The analysis resulted in potential conflicts, such as the responsibility to finance the new freight transport solutions.

Research limitations/implications The research is based on interviews with commercial vehicle manufacturers. To complement the present findings, the haulier perspective, alongside perspectives of other supply chain actors can be added.

Practical implications The paper’s results can support commercial actors in the transformation towards electrified freight, by better understanding the challenges they encounter.

Social implications The results will support the transition towards electrified freight, with great potential to improve environmental sustainability.

13:10-14:50 Session 10B: Transport efficiency
Location: 203
Designing the transport organization of a smart factory for the mass retrofit of houses in Sweden

ABSTRACT. Purpose Growth in population and urbanization led to the infrastructure project "Swedish Million Programme". One million dwellings were built in the 1960s. Today, most of these buildings generate excessive CO2 emissions due to their architectural standard. This enormous number of dwellings to be renovated marks a challenge for production and logistical processes. To tackle the need for rapid renovations, the project INDU-ZERO was initiated. A smart factory is designed to speed up the renovation pace to 15,000 dwellings per year. This paper aims to find out which transport modes are best suited for these renovations.

Methodology/approach The study follows the design-science research process. The research gap was identified based on a literature review. Understandings gained in this process were further compared within the INDU-ZERO case study.

Findings In order to renovate the large number of buildings and organize their transportation planning, a transport calculation tool was designed, which determines the most efficient mode of transport after entering the parameters destination and number of apartments.

Research limitations/implications Since not all houses can be considered individually, a clustering into cities and regions is carried out.

Practical implications The paper presents a calculation tool for the specified use case that combines economic and sustainable aspects and carries out a choice of transport mode, a cost consideration as well as a CO2 balance.

Original/value For the first time, the logistical supply of construction sites for industrialized renovation of specific buildings in Sweden is studied.

Increasing the organizational efficiency of large and heavy transports in XXL scale

ABSTRACT. Purpose Large-volume and heavy-load transports in XXL scale exceed all dimensions at once. Length, width, height, weights and axle loads, including cargo, do not fit on ordinary routes. Extensive and cost-intensive route assessments are required for approval. The aim of the paper is to facilitate the planning of such transports with the help of an open source intelligent database.

Methodology/approach Prior to the development of the database, extensive research on already realized transports is carried out. Databases are searched as well as shipper and logistics service provider surveys are conducted. The paper deals with the questions whether recurring patterns are recognizable and whether knowledge, experience and histories can be digitally processed.

Findings With the help of this database, information about possible combinations of transport goods, vehicles and routes are offered as soon as relevant technical data is generated. The results show that it is possible to avoid recurring route assessments.

Research limitations/implications The scope refers to routes in Northern Germany. Since XXL transports are currently not systematically recorded, this knowledge cannot be drawn upon.

Practical implications Parties involved in XXL transports are supported. Route assessments and approval procedures are significantly simplified. Reference decisions can be used as guidance for planners and road authorities.

Original/value For the first time, scales of XXL transports are systematically researched. They are analyzed and categorized with parameters. Their influence on planned projects and feasibility is evaluated compared to ordinary large-volume and heavy-load transports.

Sustainability in Last Mile Delivery — Exploring the Cognitive Frames of Retailers and LSPs

ABSTRACT. Purpose The increasing amount of last mile deliveries (LMD) pose many sustainability challenges, that retailers and logistics service providers (LSPs) can alleviate. This study explores the underlying sustainability interpretations of retail and LSP managers in the context of LMD, utilizing cognitive frames as a lens. Methodology The methodological approach is a comparative multiple case study, including both retailers and LSPs as cases. The data consists of retailer and LSP interviews and secondary data. Findings Both retailers and LSPs interpret sustainability primarily as environmental sustainability and social sustainability is not considered. Most managers have a hierarchical cognitive frame regarding sustainability, where sustainability is an important topic, but is subversive to economic interests. The frame attributes differ between retailers and LSPs. Research limitations The generalizability of the findings is limited by the case method and the data, gathered from companies and respondents primarily active in the Nordics. Practical implications Managers focus on environmental sustainability and those working with LMD could take a closer look at what social sustainability means for their operations. There also seems to be an imbalance between how retailers and LSPs see information being shared and utilized.

Social implications This study can help retailers and LSPs be more aware of their sustainability decision-making in LMD and become more active regarding sustainability externalities, thus enabling better urban solutions.

Original/value This study builds on previous work on cognitive frames in supply chain management by applying cognitive frames empirically in a last mile sustainability context.



Lately, mass logistics centres (MLCs) have emerged to increase transport efficiency in soil and rock (mass) material transports. However, the impact of these MLCs has received limited attention. The purpose of this study is to explore the potential of MLCs to increase transport efficiency in terms of number of transports, distance travelled, transport work, and emissions.



The purpose is fulfilled through a scenario analysis of an MLC and its effect on distance travelled, transport work, fuel consumption, and emissions as well as the traditional measure of number of transports.



The study finds that the traditional transport efficiency measure “number of transports” is insufficient in describing transport efficiency in MLCs and similar logistics setups. A logistics centre will lead to more transports but with the correct setup, transport work, distance travelled, fuel consumption and emissions can be reduced.


Research limitations/implications

This study is limited to one MLC in Sweden. Future research should investigate other MLCs and go deeper into how MLCs should be designed to increase transport efficiency.

Practical implications

Contractors and municipalities can find support on how to evaluate the transport efficiency effects an MLC has.


Social implications

This study is an important step in analysing the potential of MLCs as a tool for reducing the negative impact of mass transports.



This is one of the first in-depth studies of how MLCs affect mass transport flows from a transport efficiency perspective.

13:10-14:50 Session 10C: Application of ICT
Location: 204
AI impacts on the performance in supply chains

ABSTRACT. Purpose The integration of cross-company activities to form global supply chains (SC) reduces costs, energy and resource waste, and builds relationships for improvement of all network actors. However, the more tiers of suppliers and customers there are, the more difficult it is to monitor processes and assess and address problems. This puts the continuity of the SC at risk.

The EU knowlEdge project addresses the need for automatic monitoring and learning in the SC and proposes artificial intelligence (AI) solutions that are flexible, distributed, scalable, standardised and collaborative. As a result, rigid organisation is replaced by flexible networks, involving algorithms for self-learning and automatic value creation. This facilitates knowledge sharing.

Research approach Technologies from different domains, including AI, data analytics, and edge and cloud computing, are unified into a software architecture. The selected use case shows a need for AI-based adaptations to address supply chain challenges.

Findings The architecture constitutes a systemic solution as compared to an incremental improvement. It leapfrogs SC performance, including adaptability and autonomy.

Research implications The research explores agile production and improved quality and robustness of processes through AI applications. It also impacts on understanding future management and learning in SC.

Practical implications Industry will move towards adaptive strategies using their SC. Managers will be able to rapidly change production in accordance with evolving customer requirements, while deviations in planned processes can be addressed better.

Social implications The research promotes human engagement and can increase trust in AI.

Originality The paper adds to the literature by presenting a novel IT architecture for AI SC applications. It will have relevance to researchers and managers alike.

Factors Affecting Implementation of Supply Chain Analytics – Results from an Interview Study

ABSTRACT. Purpose Facing large amounts of data accumulated through a variety of sources, improving supply chain processes based on data analytics (i.e. Supply Chain Analytics, SCA) is a major opportunity for corporations. While this potential benefit is commonly accepted across organizations, the realization of the potentials inherent in the collected data remains a challenge for many companies. Among the reasons for the discrepancy between potential and actualized value of the technological opportunities is sub-optimal implementation.

Design/methodology/approach We utilize an expanded Technology-Organization-Environment (TOE)-Framework combined with an expert interview study among 24 interviewees at the intersection of Data Analytics and Supply Chain Management.

Findings We primarily establish the necessity of varying organizational structures. This involves internal definition of structures in which SCA is conducted, as well as processes and governing systems. These should be adapted to the specific case, we outline some advantages and drawbacks of different modes of organizational setup.

Research limitations/implications (if applicable) We consider the literature on SCA implementation and consider additional factors according to our own empirical findings. In future research, we aim to provide a closer link between implementation success and business value. Our primary limitation lies in the limited breadth of our empirical data, which is nonetheless valuable due to its depth.

Practical implications (if applicable) Notably, non-technical factors seem to have faced reduced attention in previous research but turn out to be highly relevant in affecting implementation success. We aim to provide insights for organizations to enhance their implementation processes to generate more business value through Supply Chain Analytics.

Original/value The overarching aim of our work is a holistic assessment of SCA implementation that is theoretically grounded and empirically validated. Considering a diverse set of interdependencies between factors influencing implementation success and thus increasing expected value of SCA initiatives.

A systematic categorization process facilitating the selection of demand forecasting methods

ABSTRACT. Demand forecasting is the process of estimating the demand for products or services in future time periods. Forecasts are usually generated for different stock keeping units (SKUs) and selecting the appropriate forecasting methods for multiple SKUs can be challenging. Numerous categorizations have been proposed to facilitate the selection of forecasting methods by grouping SKUs with similar characteristics together. The SBC categorization scheme has received significant attention in literature and categorizes SKUs according to their underlying demand patterns. The purpose of this study was to compare several categorizations and identify the categorizations that led to the lowest forecasting error for each distinct demand pattern. The additional categorizations were comprised of a trend analysis, seasonality detection and ABC analysis. The forecasts were generated with Croston’s method, the Syntetos-Boylan Approximation, the Teunter-Syntetos-Babai method and random forest. The forecasting performances were then compared based on the mean absolute scaled error (MASE) and root mean square error (RMSE) accuracy measures. Most of the SKUs in a data set from ÁTVR were found to have a smooth demand pattern. Approximately half as many SKUs had intermittent or lumpy demand patterns and the fewest number of SKUs had erratic demand patterns. Various combinations of categorizations were tested and the results generally showed that the trend analysis led to the lowest MASE value for intermittent and lumpy demand patterns while the ABC analysis produced lower MASE values for smooth and erratic demand patterns. Furthermore, the ABC analysis led to the lowest RMSE value for all the demand patterns.

Exploiting Supply Chain Visibility Propositions Regarding Value Creation, Delivery and Capturing

ABSTRACT. Purpose Supply Chain Visibility (SCV) is often seen as an enabler for performance improvements although scientific literature indicates a black box between visibility and the realization of valuable benefits. Therefore, the authors aim to review this gap by considering aspects of value creation and by adopting a managerial view under consideration of business model views. Design/methodology/approach Based on a theoretical discussion, the authors demonstrate a missing link between visibility and related benefits. Drawing on a literature review, we further elaborate ideas towards closing this gap. Further on, the authors apply business model views to substantiate these ideas and to posit four propositions for providing and exploiting SCV. Findings The authors provide two principal thoughts for linking SCV with benefits and four propositions that can help to provide SCV and to exploit its value for supply chain actors. The propositions focus on issues of value creation, delivery, and capturing. Research limitations/implications This research develops propositions from existing literature. These propositions represent a starting point for further, empirical studies to analyse and validate preconditions for realizing SCV benefits. Practical implications For supply chain actors, the propositions provide first insights into important preconditions to provide SCV. Especially actors, who regard themselves as a “supply chain visibility provider”, can consider these propositions in their business model. Original/value The authors shed light on the realization of SCV and related benefits. In this context, a focus on value creation and roles for provision of value is introduced supporting a managerial view to exploit SCV.

13:10-14:50 Session 10D: Logistics networks
Location: 208
Flexible and scalable defence logistics network - The Swedish restart of enhanced value co-creation

ABSTRACT. Purpose The Swedish defence logistics organization was fundamentally down-sized from around 2000 to 2015. The government stated in 2020 that the military logistics capability needs to be reinforced, the relationship state-defence industry shall be developed to create a flexible, robust and resilient defence logistics that can escalate in intensity over peace, crisis and war. The present security situation further creates urgency for this development.

Design/methodology/approach Several interdependent but loosely coupled relationships state-industry exist in defence logistics. Interviews have been performed with industry and will be made with FMV and Armed Forces. Three performed workshops with external partners. The approach to the topic is to first through interviews and discussions identify what the weaknesses are in the present state-industry relationship, and what characterizes a well-functioning relationship. The value co-creation of the relationship network offers value-in-use for all actors; ultimately logistic capability for the military. Theoretical scope: Uppsala network school; defence logistics business models (e.g. Ekström, 2020); combined with theories on value-co-creation (e.g. Saarijärvi et al 2013) and management of complex systems.

Findings Industry experiences considerable uncertainty and insufficient long-term strategic synchronization vis-à-vis state. Relationships must become closer and more trust-based.

Research limitations/implications (if applicable) Implications: Increased understanding of the nature of required defence logistics relationships, suggestions for improving the conditions.

Practical implications (if applicable) Contribute to more appropriate relationships; stronger logistic capability for actors; robust business models for industry. Vast importance for included actors and Swedish military capability and readiness.

Originality Novelty connects to state-industry relationships for flexible defence logistics under globalized supply chains.

Keywords: Business models; Relationships; Trust; Defence Logistics; Networks; Flexibility; Scalability; State-Industry;

Retail 4.0: How can brick-and-mortar stores survive in an omnichannel retail environment? - A spatial analytical approach
PRESENTER: Hyunwoo Lim

ABSTRACT. Purpose The purpose of this paper is to provide a systematic e-fulfillment store location and product allocation strategy in an omnichannel retail environment.

Design/methodology/approach We propose a data-driven approach integrating the spatial cluster detection method and market basket analysis based on the online customer order data from an omnichannel retailer in South Korea.

Findings The suggested procedure is as follows. First, product categories suitable for in-store order fulfillment services are determined based on consumer behavior and historical sales records for the target month of the year. Second, hotspot analysis is performed to detect spatial clusters of high-demand locations for the specific product groups. Then, stores desirable for e-fulfillment service are determined based on their accessibilities to hotspots of the online orders. Finally, store-specific product groups are suggested based on association rule mining for customer orders within the service area of each chosen store.

Practical implications The outcome of this study can provide store-specific customized marketing strategies to improve the effectiveness of the in-store order fulfillment services.

Original/value The existing literature on omnichannel retailing did not address specific issues for store location and product allocation strategies based on the actual customer order data. The originality of this thesis lies in its data-driven approach to address such problems by combining spatial cluster detection and conventional association rule mining for identifying location-specific product sales patterns.

German Act on Corporate Due Diligence in Supply Chains Managing Impact on Supply Chains Tied to African Markets

ABSTRACT. Purpose In June 2021 the German parliament has passed the Act on Corporate Due Diligence in Supply Chains (Lieferkettensorgfaltspflichtengesetz) committing large enterprises to comply to sustainability standards along their supply chains (SCs). We analyze the measures to put the requirements into practice, the perception of risks and opportunities and the impacts on sustainability performance.

Design/methodology/approach Nine semi-structured interviews are conducted with German firms from different industry sectors with business in Africa. Expert knowledge helps identifying implications for SC sustainability that result from this act.

Findings The implementation of social sustainability is considered challenging due to different cultural interpretations of human rights measures. The act does not consider such challenges, as it is designed from a Western perspective.

Research implications The concept of chain liability on sustainable supply chain management could be an adequate theoretical underpinning for this specific topic. The paper highlights the influence of legal requirements for sustainable supply chain management thereby outlining the complexity of the topic.

Practical implications The in-depth analysis may also help to directly address sustainability challenges in SCs tied to Africa. Practitioners find insight into issues and opportunities of the act.

Original/value Since the act was recently passed, related studies are scarce and mostly published in German language. A particular focus is put on risks and opportunities of the act and the resulting sustainability performance impacts.

Logistics value co-creation in defence supply chains - A Swedish perspective
PRESENTER: Roland Hellberg

ABSTRACT. Purpose In previous research, academics have addressed logistics value and logistics value co-creation in commercial supply chains, where the objective is financial outcomes. However, they have payed less attention to logistics value co-creation in defence supply chains, where the objective is operational outcomes. The purpose is to investigate how suppliers and customers can co-create logistics value in a defence setting.

Design/methodology/approach The research uses literature reviews, interviews and workshops in an abductive research approach.

Findings The research defines logistics value, and describes value co-creation, in a defence setting.

Research limitations/implications (if applicable) The study basis its findings on research in a Swedish context. Further research is required for generalisation of the results to the wider defence sector and the public sector in general.

Practical implications (if applicable) The findings will enable the defence industry to better understand the requirements of its military customers, and what they can do together to satisfy these requirements. The findings will also inform the military customers of how working together with industry may benefit them. Social implications (if applicable)

Original/value The value of the research is that it extends the extant body of academic knowledge into the defence sector and that it serves as a first step towards logistics value co-creation in defence supply chains, which could contribute to increasing the competitiveness of the defence industry and the operational capability of the Swedish Armed Forces.