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08:30-09:00Registration - UI Stakkahlíð 1, House Hamar, 105 Reykjavík
10:10-10:30Coffee Break - Hama
10:30-12:10 Session 2A: Port/container issues

Paralell session 1

Location: 202

ABSTRACT. Purpose Empty container repositioning (ECR) as the result of trade imbalances is an increasing problem in today’s globalized world. Since trade imbalances are inevitable due to the current demand patterns, ECR cannot be eliminated completely. However, trade imbalances are not the only factor affecting empty container repositioning; other factors that affect ECR are dynamic operations, uncertainties, size and type of equipment, lack of visibility and collaboration within the transport chain, as well as transport companies’ operational and strategic practices. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to investigate empty container repositioning dynamics in order to reduce unnecessary movements. Design/methodology/approach The same has been studied on a case of Port of Gothenburg in Sweden. The primary data has been collected through two rounds of interviews with 10 companies involved in the port’s ECR operations: shipping lines, land-based transport operators, terminal operators and forwarders. Findings The findings show that there are two main drivers for improvements of ECR: financial and environmental. Nevertheless, there are nine barriers such as technical imbalances, dynamic operations, blind spots, strategies and operational practices, container fleet size, number of actors involved, contract types and uncertainty factors. The identified barriers only further highlight the complexity of container transport chain. The results of the study also indicate 14 different suggestions for potential improvements, i.e., how to mitigate the identified barriers. However, there is no one single solution that is feasible for all barriers for all actors involved. Original/value This study contributes to better understanding of issues related to ECR by matching the barriers with possible solutions to overcome them; the same should ultimately facilitate the management of ECR.


ABSTRACT. Purpose Although trade imbalances make some empty container repositioning (ECR) necessary, the extensive ECR has been challenged, particularly given recent shortage of containers. Several strategies exist to reduce ECR but their potential vary. The purpose is to explore the potential of how key actors can use street turn to reduce empty container repositioning.

Design/methodology/approach Semi-structured interviews have been conducted including several actor perspectives of Swedish ECR: shipping lines, transport operators, forwarders, ports and terminals.

Findings Relevant strategies vary depending on actor perspective. Street turns, collaboration and internet-based systems are interdependent strategies in that increased collaboration between actors and internet-based systems would facilitate street turns. Forwarders and transport operators play key roles to match import and export, but depend on shipping lines for information. Container ownership mismatch limits the potential.

Research limitations/implications (if applicable) Earlier focus on the shipping line perspective is here complemented by perspectives of additional key actors in the Swedish context.

Practical implications (if applicable) Key actors’ roles to realize the potential are described, including incentives and barriers.

Social implications (if applicable) Street turns reduce traffic and hence environmental impact from transport.

Originality Actors’ roles and interactions when reducing ECR is outlined, specifically for use of street turns.

Stakeholder work perspective on dry ports’ development: multiple cases from Sweden

ABSTRACT. Purpose The Swedish dry ports operate in a competitive market, where they serve the same limited number of seaports and may be put in dis/advantageous positions by the state developmental programs. In other words, the Inside-Out dry ports are a product of a multiple actors’ interactive work. In addition, recognition of modal shift benefits and low-capacity utilization of dry ports suggest that strategies within vertical and horizontal relationships allowing for more value creation within and beyond the dry port stakeholder network shall be investigated. Methodology Stakeholders of the dry port networks shall be identified and interviewed about the activities that are/shall be performed within horizontal and vertical relationships at the operational phase of development, and about how these activities contribute to creation and capturing of value, and ultimately to the increase of the dry ports’ capacity utilization. Such research shall allow emphasis of unique strategies leading to the different dry ports arrangements within the same transportation system. Practical implications Identified strategies shall be useful for the stakeholders of the dry port networks to create extra value. Original/value The value of this research is in identifying cooperation and coopetition strategies linked to successful performance of dry port networks. The study also has a theoretical value in its application of the stakeholder theory to public-private partnerships which is uncommon in hinterland transportation research. In addition, the paper shall contribute to the stream of research on dry ports development by attempt to conceptualize successful cooperation and coopetition strategies.

Port governance in Denmark: a retrospective and prospective view on maritime port reforms

ABSTRACT. Purpose The purpose of the paper is to analyze the governance and development of Danish maritime ports in chronological perspective, providing a constant lookback at country’s economy.

Design/methodology/approach The study challenges traditional methodologies that commonly de-contextualize the considered setting and overlook the relations of ports to specific economic and institutional domains. The article underlies the key factors that contributed to the rise of the shipping industry in Denmark and provides an understanding of upcoming challenges with attachment to local territorial context. The empirical results are based on content analysis of Danish maritime reforms and strategy documents.

Findings The outcome of the Danish case reveals that the current reforms though generally expedient are partially inadequate to shift ports competitiveness in terms of IT modernization, clusters expansion and communication between the port actors.

Practical implications The overview could be of use for local decisionmakers and municipalities, port authorities and terminal operator representatives

Originality The study is the first to provide an overview of Danish maritime ports development in connection with policymaking and maritime industry reforms within the country.

10:30-12:10 Session 2B: Education in logistics

Paralell session 2

Location: 203
Linking Teaching with Research in Logistics

ABSTRACT. Purpose The transformation of logistics, driven by major trends such as digitization and decarbonization, is changing the requirements for careers in logistics. A close link between teaching and research enables higher education institutions to focus on competencies actually required in the dynamic logistics environment. Research-informed teaching establishes this link, but implementation may pose challenges. This article therefore describes how students were integrated into a logistics research project and evaluates the outcomes in relation to teaching and research.

Design/methodology/approach The article presents a teaching-led research project on innovative design options for urban consolidation centers as an example case, and describes the outcomes of the project from the educational and research perspectives. The involved students were from a logistics master’s degree program and participated in the project as part of their degree.

Findings The empirical case demonstrates how teaching-led research can contribute to achieving learning outcomes for students’ courses and support a university’s research activities. The findings suggest that logistics is a promising subject for the application of teaching-led research.

Research limitations/implications Although limited by the explorative approach and the focus on a single example case, the empirical findings may contribute to a better understanding of the benefits and limitations of teaching-led research in logistics.

Practical implications The article provides researchers and lecturers at higher education institutions, especially in logistics, with insights into the application of teaching-led research.

Originality/value The work contributes to a practice-oriented understanding of the benefits and limitations of teaching-led research in logistics.

Potentiality of Global Ethics in Contemporary SCM: an Educational Perspective

ABSTRACT. Purpose The objective of this predominantly conceptual study is to expose the major features of global ethics as related to SCM by exploring universal intentions – accepted across the world – that enable us to understand human interactions more thoroughly. The study also addresses the question of what might be the contribution of global ethics in overcoming the future challenges in education.

Design Besides theoretical discussion, the empirical data for this study consists of written documents produced by university students taking courses in sustainability- related SCM. The results were compared to the theoretical foundations. A proposal was made on how to better apply global ethics for educational purposes and SCM.

Findings Global ethics might provide additional support for decision-making by uncovering irrevocable transcendentals and global values. Among students, there seemed to be some tendency to embrace the issues of global ethics in a deeper manner, though this result is implicitly due to difficulties the students have in expressing explicitly the ontological features of ethics. The prevalence of contradictions caused some confusion among students on how to truly address the issues of responsibility.

Practical implications The study provides an alternative way to consider ethical issues in SCM by offering complementary perspectives for developing strategies in complex supply networks. From an educational point of view, the research increases knowledge on how to tackle the diverse attributes of ethics in SCM-related education particularly at the university level.

Originality There is still a scarcity of research work regarding how the issues of global ethics are associated with the challenges of contemporary SCM. The conventional theories are not well-equipped to deal with contradictions between actors. In global ethics the human behavior is not only related to efficiency and profits but rather to human aspirations for making a positive difference.

The Digital Transformation of SCM Education - A Comparison of Curricula with Focus on Digitalization and Logistics 4.0

ABSTRACT. Purpose Digital transformation of supply chains and logistics implies new requirements on competencies and alters the emphasis of skills and capabilities to be taught. Academic education must adjust curricula to prepare students accordingly. This paper investigates approaches in this endeavour in order to reveal key challenges, core topics and structural patterns. Design/methodology/approach We apply means of content analysis to assess SCM and logistics master studies´ curricula. Findings Our results indicate different levels of coping with the educational challenges associated with the digital transformation of SCM and logistics from just slight cosmetics of relabeling to well thought through curricula that aim to prepare students for the future. Research limitations/implications (if applicable) So far, we focused in our assessment on curricula of full time master programs according to Eduniversal Best Masters Ranking 2021 and QS Business Masters Rankings 2022. In a second stage, corresponding other master programmes in the digital economy, business analytics, informatics and computer science domain are included to serve as a benchmark. Practical implications (if applicable) Best practices and the development of resulting guidelines should support future SCM and logistics education to provide students with knowledge and skills to master present and upcoming digital transformation challenges. Social implications (if applicable) Mastering the digital transformation implies major challenges for future societies. Related education is a necessary part of this. Original/value By working towards maturity levels and highlighting differences in the implementation of digital elements in curricula, we hope to help separating pure relabeling and buzz wording from a more rigorous reflection of the digital transformation in SCM and logistics education.

Logistics Management Skill Set - Proposition for Higher Education

ABSTRACT. Purpose To propose a logistics management skill set more practically useful for those who set out for curricular development as well as investigating required and existing skills.

Design/methodology/approach The research combined deductive and inductive elements. Skill sets from previous research were used to form a starting point. From interviews with experienced teachers, additional skills were added to the “long list” of tentative skills. In a workshop, the set of skills was reduced to a “short list”, which then was reviewed by teachers/researchers from eight universities.

Findings Compared to previous research, the proposed set of skills is divided into two major categories: Knowing about: Topics of importance for a logistician to be familiar with; and Knowing how: Logistics-related methods for planning, analysis and development. This division highlights the importance of different methods, or tools, for practical use, in addition to the more theoretical knowledge-related skills presented in previous presented skill sets within logistics. Further, the skill set includes clear descriptions of the included skills, something missing in previous skill sets.

Research implications Further research is suggested to strengthen the validity of the included skills by input from business and society representatives. Another interesting track for further research would be to use it for evaluating and developing existing curricula in logistics education.

Practical implications Those responsible for program and course development at Higher Education Institutions providing education in Logistics Management can use the results from this research when designing programs and courses.

10:30-12:10 Session 2C: Retail/Etail logistics

Paralell session 3

Location: 204
How can parcel lockers contribute to a more efficient and sustainable e-commerce?

ABSTRACT. Purpose During the Corona pandemic the demand for home deliveries has increased tremendously, and it is expected that this level will continue also after the pandemic. However, last mile delivery for E-commerce are expensive, and consists of 33-50% of the total logistics cost. Increased demand for home deliveries affects the distribution system. Therefore, there is a need for more efficient last mile delivery solutions. On one hand, there is a scale advantage for the service providers to deliver more parcels in a geographic area, but on the other hand, this present challenges for delivery capacity. Parcel lockers is a capacity-expanding measure, and a main question is whether this will replace home deliveries or pick up points in stores, and if it is more economic and environmentally sustainable. Design/methodology/approach This is a case study based on data from the service provider PostNord. During 2021 they have installed lockers on more than 200 locations. Based on real time shipment data and vehicle data, we have analysed scenarios for different distribution solutions. Findings In this paper we have analysed how parcel lockers can contribute to increased capacity and a more sustainable and efficient last mile distribution, measured in cost and CO2 emissions. Practical implications This study contributes to PostNord knowledge to further invest in parcel lockers in the future. Original/value New technology within parcel lockers creates new and more effective distribution system.

An examination of consumer preference on the types of online grocery retailers and delivery services
PRESENTER: Hyunwoo Lim

ABSTRACT. Purpose This study aims to examine customer preference for online grocery shopping by analyzing factors influencing consumers' choices on i) different types of online grocery retailers and ii) various types of delivery services.

Design/methodology/approach This study is based on the consumer survey data on online grocery shopping behavior in South Korea as of January 2021. Twenty online grocery retailers are categorized as open market e-tailers, e-grocery retailers, and omnichannel retailers. Types of delivery services include early morning delivery, delivery on specified date & time window, same-day delivery, delivery within 3 hours after the order, subscription-based periodic delivery. The multinomial logit (MNL) model is used to analyze the factors influencing the consumers’ choice of different types of online grocery retailers and delivery services.

Findings The dominant choice factors for the three types of online grocery retailers are i) selling processed food that can be handled at ambient temperature at a low price while providing a convenient online shopping environment (open market e-tailers), ii) providing unique, high-quality fresh produce and home-ready meal in safe and reliable packaging services (e-grocery retailers), and iii) providing high-quality fresh produce and processed food delivered at customer-specified dates and times (omnichannel retailers). In terms of delivery services, consumers prefer to receive fresh produce on a specified date and time window than for early morning delivery.

Original/value This study contributed to the existing literature by identifying consumer preferences on different types of online grocery retailers and delivery services based on various factors, including price, product assortment, promotions, shopping convenience, purchasing behavior, product characteristics, and customer demographics. This research can provide meaningful insights for online grocery retailers to identify their target customers and determine their appropriate service output.

Doctoral program (WIP): Evaluation design for sustainable mobility with focus on last-mile solutions

ABSTRACT. The challenges in the fields of mobility and logistics are increasing. A lot of different solutions exist to cope with these challenges. However, the impact for regions regarding economic, environmental, and social impacts of these solutions are not yet assessed. Within the 5-year living lab ‘MobiLab’ in Austria different innovative mobility/logistics solutions will be implemented. A multi-criteria evaluation will be set-up to compare the individual impact of the different actions as well as the impact of the total living lab. The result will be a systemic evaluation methodology to assess economic, environmental, and social impacts of selected logistics solutions for regions. This study will enable new perspectives and potential solutions to be developed to meet the diverse needs of mobility and logistics stakeholders. Innovative design and collaboration methods will be used, know-how from MobiLab and proven services will be applied. Their impact will be evaluated, published and transferable to other regions. In order to achieve the sustainability goals of the agenda 2030, strategies for the topics of sustainable mobility, sustainable logistics, logistics training and Sustainable Urban Mobility Plan / Sustainable Urban Logistics Plan will be developed in the project in an ongoing stakeholder process in order to implement proposed solutions together with cities, municipalities or companies and bring them into action. This work enables stakeholders to deal with the dynamic developments in mobility and logistics and offers them the impact of some instruments to be well prepared to cope with the future challenges.


ABSTRACT. Purpose The purpose is to examine the possibilities for a city to use insights from transition theory to affect and govern the development of the urban freight system toward environmental sustainability.

Design/methodology/approach An analytical framework was developed, based on transition theory, to structure and describe transition processes in urban freight systems and to examine the city’s possibilities to affect the development. The framework was applied to data from a Swedish city to explore its value.

Findings The analytical framework provides a processual overview of urban freight systems from a socio-technical perspective. It helps to place factors and forces affecting the development into a meaningful structure and provides guidance for the transition management work at different levels of a transition.

Research limitations/implications (if applicable) The framework is abstract and could be further developed. Future studies could detail activities for execution of transition management, explore governance over time or focus on the governance of systematic learning in the process.

Practical implications (if applicable) City officials and other stakeholders can apply the analytical framework and get inspiration from the case presented.

Social implications (if applicable) The analytical framework supports sustainable development of urban freight systems. This is valuable for both the urban environment and the inhabitants.

Original/value The main contribution is the application of an analytical framework for transition governance on urban freight system transitions. The study also contributes to theoretical insights by identifying a broad range of structures which can prevent development of urban freight systems, as well as forces which can be used to stimulate development in these systems.

10:30-12:10 Session 2D: Risk management

Paralell session 4

Location: 208
The evolution of early warning effectiveness Recommending proactive measures in the event of an early warning and resulting learning effects
PRESENTER: Daniel Langner

ABSTRACT. Purpose Global supply chains have been lulled into a sense of complacency, by reducing costs and efficiency, leading to a continuously increasing degree of complexity, rigidity, and loss of control by outsourcing. Since supply chain risk management could not cope with this development, essential but overdue development steps are required. An EWS in SCM is powerful if the additional preparation time is used effectively in uncertain situations.

Design/methodology/approach By combining DSR and the qualitative data analysis of interviews, the study develops a framework to increase early warning effectiveness for supply chain disruptions. We chose this approach because early warning in SCM is in an exploratory stage.

Findings We have established a framework for the purposeful evolution of early warning effectiveness.

Practical implications (if applicable) This paper identifies a crucial framework for practitioners to increase early warning effectiveness and simultaneously develops a catalog of actionable measures in case of an early warning. Therefore, it provides practical guidelines for managers to take the right action steps when a supply chain disruption is imminent.

Original/value This paper is among the first contributions to explore the evolution of early warning by investigating learning effects and providing a catalog of measures in case of early warning.

The severity of supply chain disruptions and related network characteristics

ABSTRACT. Purpose Disruptions pose significant threats to supply chains, whose effects are particularly detrimental in case they ripple through supply chain networks affecting supply chain performance and finally resulting in lower revenues and profits. To reduce the impacts of disruptions, the resilience of supply chain networks needs to be increased. This paper aims at identifying firstly those parts of supply chain networks whose disruption is likely to trigger the ripple effect and, secondly, those network characteristics that allow assessing supply chain networks towards these vulnerabilities.

Design/methodology/approach We conducted nine interviews to identify characteristics of detrimental disruptions and analyze how disruption severity can be assessed by investigating the underlying supply chain network structure.

Findings Our research shows that disruptions of transportation routes have severe impacts on supply chain performance. We furthermore identify network characteristics that allow assessing the supply chain network's resilience towards transportation-related vulnerabilities. Research limitations/implications (if applicable) This research is limited to German companies. Also, interviewees' responses might be driven by recent disruptions, which overemphasizes their significance.

Practical implications (if applicable) The results of this research will help practitioners identify possible vulnerabilities in their supply chain networks.

Social implications (if applicable)

Original/value This paper addresses a shortage in studies of supply chain resilience in examining the most detrimental disruptions for supply chains and linking the resilience of supply chain networks to specific network characteristics.

The interplay between uncertainty management and sustainability performance in circular supply chains

ABSTRACT. Purpose Circular supply chains (CSCs) have elicited a lively debate in operations and supply chain management. However, a gap remains regarding how firms align circular economy (CE) with uncertainty management and sustainability performance in CSCs. By applying contingency and alignment theory, this paper analyzes the interplay between uncertainty management and sustainability performance in CSCs. Design/methodology/approach A single case study on manufacturing CSCs is conducted with nine firms as embedded units of analysis, using 27 semi-structured interviews that were triangulated with secondary data. Findings The case study unveils alignments between CE, uncertainty management, and sustainability performance in CSCs. Implementing preventive and reutilization practices (Rs) increases complexity and uncertainty in CSCs, thereby requiring proactive uncertainty management to enhance sustainability performance. Reducing uncertainty strategies can proactively manage uncertainties and lead to breakthroughs in sustainability performance in CSCs. Practical implications Aligning CE with uncertainty management and sustainability performance enables firms to understand the implications of employing Rs in their operations. Firms need to complement CE implementation with proactive uncertainty management and the triple bottom line approach. Original/value This paper fills a critical gap in supply chain uncertainty management by unveiling its alignment with sustainability performance. Empirical insights from manufacturing CSCs are provided to guide scholars and practitioners interested in CE implementation.


ABSTRACT. Purpose The purpose of this research is to investigate the impact of supply chain processes on risk management and particularly information systems security resilience, a growing area of concern as we strive to eliminate downtime in supply chain information systems. We want to understand where we start in supply chain to impact information systems security resilience and by extension supply chain resilience.

Design/methodology/approach This work takes a multi-phase methodological approach to develop and test a construct from supply chain resilience, adapted and tested in information systems security resilience.

Findings Thus far in this work it has become clear that dynamic capabilities are essential to resilience and that supply chain processes are essential to information systems security resilience.

Research limitations/implications This work is limited by the fact that it is focused on the manufacturing sector and there could be additional findings looking at the service sector, healthcare and others.

Practical implications Supply chain managers can use the information in this study to motivate their teams to identify information systems vulnerabilities that currently exist in supply chain processes. Managers need to consider that information systems security resilience is highly interdependent with supply chain resilience, and supply chain processes and practices.

Original/value This discovery opens new opportunity to supply chain organizations to contribute to risk management in the organization, especially in heretofore unidentified cyberthreats.

10:30-12:10 Session 2E: Collaboration

Paralell session 5

Location: 209

ABSTRACT. Purpose Key performance indicators (KPIs) are important elements of the performance-based contracting (PBC) approach and they are also core elements of the research on performance measurement. With references to control theory, KPIs in PBC are seen as an interplay of formal outcome control mechanisms. The purpose of the study is to investigate this interplay. Design/methodology/approach The developed research hypotheses have been tested on a sample of PBC-informants applying structural equation modelling (SEM). Respondents to the survey (N=126) informed about their PBC approach, the performance measurement and management, as well as contract success. Findings The results show that performance measurement is the enabling link, fully mediating performance specification and incentive payments of PBC with management behaviour and contract success. In other words, this research has empirically proven that PBC only develops its full potential when performance measurement practices are implemented. Research limitations/implications The implications point to a more differentiated view on control mechanisms and provides evidence for the high potential of a combined use of formal control mechanisms. Often, research focused on informal, relational control mechanisms in the past. This work is an initial call to further research the interplay of formal controls on different implementation levels. Practical implications (if applicable) Managers should be aware that they could only exploit the full potential of a PBC if they design and implement a reliable performance management system. This might justify effort invested in performance measurement activities during design and execution phases of a PBC. Originality Research on PBC distinguishes incentives, risk, and performance dimensions and often incentives and risk are focused. In contrast, this study shows that in the case of PBC outcome-based formal controls (incentives and risk-related outcomes) are mediated by behavior-based formal controls of performance measurement, what points to a more balanced view on PBC characteristics.

Supply Chain Transparency: A Facilitator of Adaptability and Flexibility

ABSTRACT. Purpose The current research explores supply chain transparency and its application in developing supply chain responsiveness capabilities. Specifically, we examine the role of supply chain transparency as a driver of supply chain responsiveness, considering both adaptability (structural change) and flexibility (policy change). The role and contribution of supply chain transparency reflect knowledge management, by which a collaborative effort to jointly create knowledge changes the nature of supply chain operations in uncertain and dynamic markets.

Design/methodology/approach Drawing on the theoretical lens of the knowledge-based view, a theoretical model is proposed and tested using data collected from 212 supply chain professionals using structural equation modeling.

Findings The results reveal that supply chain transparency is a driver of knowledge creation. Specifically, the relationship between flexibility, a dimension of responsiveness, and risk management is partially mediated by supplier transparency and knowledge creation.

Research limitations/implications This study investigates market risk as a motivator for developing firm resources through supply chain transparency. These resources are captured through joint knowledge creation and contribute to firm responsiveness. Supply chain transparency research is underdeveloped in the academic literature and future studies should expand on the nomological network of antecedents and outcomes related to this phenomenon.

Original/value The concept of supply chain transparency is discussed as a mechanism to collect, translate, and disseminate knowledge within a partnership, leading to the development of tangible dynamic capabilities. This study uses joint knowledge creation as a critical factor that mitigates market risks and enhances responsiveness.


ABSTRACT. Purpose Although interaction between supply chain partners is central for successful implementation of sustainable logistics practices, much remains to be understood about how knowledge is shared. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is: To increase the understanding on how knowledge is shared in the transformation towards sustainable logistics.

Design/methodology/approach A longitudinal case study approach has been applied, including one logistics service provider (LSP) and one of its most proactive customers. Five strategical meetings with several participants from both organizations have been the main source of empirical data.

Findings An informal and interactive dialogue between managers from both organisations is the main type of knowledge sharing applied. The knowledge exchanged are familiar and local for one actor, while very distant for the other. The knowledge shared can to a large extent be described as complex and thereby difficult to codify and imitate.

Research limitations/implications This study provides insights to not only how and what forms of knowledge is shared, but also why and when a close, but time-consuming, interaction is needed. A research agenda on knowledge sharing for sustainable logistics is suggested.

Practical implications This study provides insights to LSPs and shippers on how to share knowledge to facilitate a rapid transfer towards sustainable logistics.

Social implications The paper provides insights supporting the environmental as well as social aspects of supply chain interaction.

Original/value Contrary to previous studies, this paper targets the types and forms of knowledge that needs to be shared for a more sustainable logistics.

12:10-13:00Lunch Break - Hama
13:45-15:00 Session 4A: Supply network
Location: 202

ABSTRACT. Purpose The concept of Supply Chain Orientation (SCO) is the subject of a small but growing literature. Esper et al. (2010) integrative conceptual framework, put forward that a SCO cannot be understood without incorporating both a firm’s strategic intention to compete via supply chain capabilities and the firm’s internal structural elements. The purpose of the present research is to test and extend this theoretical framework. Design/methodology/approach The article is based on an analysis of IKEA, an organization that appears to be extremely supply chain oriented. The data used for the analysis consists of 57 academic publications that used the organization as the focus of their study. Findings The IKEA case confirms the existence of Esper et al.’s SCO conceptual framework. Nevertheless, the findings show that the organization’s strong supply chain orientation is manifested not only at strategic and structural levels, but also through the marketing strategy. Our results expand the current framework to include Marketing as a third perspective of SCO. Research limitations/implications (if applicable) This research is based on the analysis of a single organization. In order to generalize these results, further research needs to be carried out. Originality Although SCO research is still in its infancy compared with the marketing orientation, the value of this article is to show in detail how a strongly supply chain-oriented organization functions. Further, it creates a link between supply chain management research and marketing.



Purpose The purpose is to consolidate the literature on volume and weight in physical distribution in order to provide an integrated view of the literature published on all aspects and facets of volume and weight in physical distribution.

Design/methodology/approach A systematic literature review that follows the transparent and coherent pragmatic four-stage approach is used, i.e. planning the review; developing and validating the search strategy; conducting the search; synthesizing literature and advancing theory.

Findings A diverse range of research disciplines that form a set of multi-faced streams of literature was found. The phenomena are emerging with strong growth in academic publications. The selected publications published in distinct scientific journals.

Research implications This paper can be a reference point for scholars to increase their knowledge and understanding about volume and weight phenomena in physical distribution.

Practical implications This paper can be a reference point for supply chain actors who aim to improve performance along the supply chain through volume and weight efficiency in physical distribution.

Social implications. This paper may serve as an inspiration for the relevant stakeholders, within government and industry, to improve environmental issues through volume and weight efficiency in physical distribution.

Original/value No systematic literature review of volume and weight phenomena in physical distribution yet exists, thus this paper will provide valuable input to researchers and practitioners


ABSTRACT. Purpose Military logistics growth is a particularly chaotic phenomenon. Given the changing security situation in parts of Europe, militaries are seeking new ways to grow and counter such risks. However, there is a rarity of militaries or armed forces addressing logistics growth within literature. Thus, this paper seeks to identify logistics growth antecedents that can enable militaries develop, conduct and grow logistics in the military to achieve its operational objectives.

Design/methodology/approach Paper undertakes extant literature analysis of three relevant theories of growth as a means to review for understanding firm growth. A theoretical framework presents the relationships between logistics growth and three theories in order to develop propositions. Paper also analyzes Industry-practice-based growth concepts.

Findings Paper argues that that the development of the concept of logistics growth within the armed forces require support not just from the established theories but also from established practice within the logistics and supply chain management industry in order to fully develop a true concept of logistics growth for a military perspective. Growth from a theoretical perspective can occur in two ways; organic and non-organic growth. Nine propositions reflecting antecedent relationships amongst theoretical variables for growth are developed.

Originality Study serves as a point of departure for further research on military growth in general and military logistics growth in particular and provides guidance for military leaders in assessing the value of logistics as an antecedent for growth.

13:45-15:00 Session 4B: Home delivery issues
Location: 203
Automated online order picking systems in omnichannel grocery retail

ABSTRACT. Ebba Eriksson

Lund University, Department of Industrial Management and Logistics, SE-22100 Lund, Sweden,

Purpose Omnichannel logistics and material handling is undergoing a significant transformation. A key to omnichannel success in grocery retail is decreasing material-handling costs and increasing service levels, which is often done by investing in new automation solutions. Shedding light on this critical but under-researched topic, this paper aims to explore and understand different automation solutions omnichannel grocery retailers invest in and why.

Design/methodology/approach Applying contingency theory as a theoretical lens, a case study was performed with two grocery retailers representing two different types of warehouses with automated online order picking systems. Interviews were conducted with several informants, representing a range of perspectives.

Findings Several contextual factors were identified influencing the automation decision and configuration. The study highlights significant differences in contextual factors, such as logistics' strategic focus, investment capabilities, and overall omnichannel strategy that seem to influence decision-making differences. Finally, I propose seven propositions to describe the automation investment and automation configuration in omnichannel grocery retail.

Original/value This study is original by exploring and understanding automation solutions in omnichannel grocery retail. It contributes to theory and practice by contextualizing the automation investment and configuration and providing a first in-depth mapping of different automation solutions in this specific context.


ABSTRACT. Purpose Home delivery services are a current trend and its demand is expected to continue expanding along with the growth of e-commerce. Home delivery of groceries, particularly, entails high requirements to ensure that the quality and safety of the products are maintained until the delivery. To be efficient, these services must function in agile and well-synchronised logistics systems. The purpose of this paper is thus to clarify the means to improve the logistics performance of home delivery of groceries. Design/methodology/approach The research design entails a systematic literature review on the most recent research on the topic. The sample is analysed to find, structure and compile the current knowledge on logistics performance of home delivery of groceries, as well as the challenges and suggested approaches. Findings The analysis identified several themes: transport, delivery (drop-off), cold chain and packaging. Under these themes several challenges were identified, “inefficient routes”, “low fill-rates” and “failed deliveries” being some of the main represented ones in the sample. For each of these challenges, some of the approaches proposed in the literature are presented too. Original/value Even though there are many literature reviews on the topic, this study is designed to analyse and deconstruct the state of the art on logistics performance of home delivery of groceries, as well as to measure and map the processes that impact that performance.

Strategic perspectives on warehouse automation technology: a study with Swedish retailers

ABSTRACT. Purpose The purpose of this study is to investigate warehouse automation from a strategic point of view. We explore three questions: i) what are the strategically important logistics challenges that warehouse automation can resolve; ii) what are the evaluation criteria for selecting a certain automation technology; and iii) to what extent does logistics strategy define the choice of warehouse automation technology, and vice versa.

Design/methodology/approach An exploratory survey is conducted with 30 leading Swedish retailers in different segments.

Findings The study suggests that investing in automation technology is a complex decision with many influencing factors. It is also an important decision as warehousing is critical for addressing and balancing a range of logistics challenges. The findings indicate an interdependence between logistics strategy and warehouse automation technology; that is, a retailers different long-term strategy influences the degree and choice of technology and, interestingly, that the selected automation technology may impact future logistics strategy decisions.

Research limitations/implications Based on the findings, future research avenues are pointed out. Particularly, it is relevant to study how automation technology can help combining seemingly opposing strategic goals, and to what extent automation technology influences future logistics strategy.

Practical implications The findings highlight the importance of understanding context for investing in warehouse automation technology and emphasize the critical role and influence of warehousing and technology adaptation on a retailer’s future logistics strategy.

Original/value This is, to best of the authors’ knowledge, the first study to empirically investigate investments in warehouse automation from a strategic point of view.

13:45-15:00 Session 4C: Closed loops
Location: 204
Closed loop supply chain as an enabler of increased circularity within the retail supply chain: An illustrative single-case study of Lindex

ABSTRACT. ABSTRACT Purpose The improvement of production processes has in many cases shortened the product life cycle, changing consumer behaviour and leading to increased use of natural resources. The study describes the reverse logistics flow of garments in a closed loop retail supply chain as well as proposes improvements to the reverse logistics flow. The purpose is to increase the knowledge of how a logistics service can enable a high level of circularity within the retail supply chain. By identifying challenges within the CLSC propose improvements from a logistics perspective.

Design/methodology/approach The retail CLSC has not been extensively studied from a theoretical perspective; therefore, this project complements the general CLSC theories with grey literature. A case study method has been used and is appropriate for conducting exploratory research, to empirically illustrate a reverse logistics flow of garments. Empirical information was collected through qualitative semi-structured interviews, intending to identify possible improvements.

Findings Uncertainties in the CLSC is hindering development and planning, restricting possibilities to reach economies of scale as a driver for change and development. However, increased transparency from Governmental organizations related to their view towards a sustainable society greatly increases the success of the CLSC.

Research limitations/implications (if applicable) The practical model derived from the case study is a contribution to the development of CLSC models in research.

Practical implications (if applicable) Practitioners can be inspired by the gap analysis, which can assist in developing new CLSC within the retail industry.

Original/value Only limited research related to this scope of the CLSC for the retail industry is identified, why the study demonstrates originality.

Circular Supply Chain: A Fancy Word for Closed-Loop Supply Chain or More?

ABSTRACT. Purpose: Integrating circular economy (CE) into supply chains (SCs) is a nascent topic in the sustainable supply chain management (SCM) discourse. However, there is confusion on the use of terminology. Many scholars identify SCs in the CE context as closed-loop and open-loop SCs, while the term “circular supply chains (CSCs)” is becoming established. Hence, the purpose of this study is to elucidate the terminology while conceptualizing CSCs with a theoretical approach.

Design/methodology/approach: We combined well established theoretical approaches from SCM and CE scholarly debates to conceptualize CSCs. These archetypes were further illustrated through real-world examples while juxtaposing their characteristics.

Findings: CSCs are conceptualized as complex adaptive systems with different SC actors who support product/End-of-Life product/material flows while overcoming certain limitations intrinsic to CE. Different CSCs archetypes such as closed-loop, open-loop SCs are presented, connecting them to different CE implementation strategies such as reuse, reduce, repurpose and recycling.

Research limitations/implications: The conceptual nature of the study needs further validation. Hence, future research can focus on empirical work such as case studies and surveys.

Practical implications: Practitioners can benefit from this conceptualization by comprehending the potentials and boundaries of CSCs. This study hints at the importance of understanding the compatibility among resource flows to ensure improved sustainability in CSCs while directing the practitioners to identify potential collaboration opportunities with non-traditional stakeholders to improve sustainability performance in CSCs.

Originality: This is one of the first attempts to revert to the roots of the SCs and understand how CSCs should be improved beyond terminologies, overcoming certain critiques toward CE.

Exploring service as a mechanism to close the loop in supply chains: An ABC classification approach

ABSTRACT. Purpose The purpose of this paper is to investigate into service as a mechanism to close the loop in supply chains. The paper discusses how adapted service levels, using the ABC analysis approach, may increase the share of value in waste resources. Design/methodology/approach This study investigates a B2B relationship between waste management customers and an agency for waste management. Different methods for ABC classification of customers are explored, based on various criteria (such as volume of waste, number of containers, value of contracts, etc.) as well as on different proportions of customers in each class. Secondly, differentiated levels of service, i.e. frequency of emptying waste containers, are considered for each class. Then, each method is simulated to measure different KPIs such as total cost, capacity utilization of resources, risk of unsatisfied customers, etc. At the end, the methods are compared based on KPIs to find the most suitable way of ABC classification in order to close the loop in supply chains. Findings The results show that ABC classification of customers has significant effect on KPIs such as cost and service level. They also show that the way ABC analysis is carried out, has significant effect on the performance as well. Research limitations/implications (if applicable) A classic logistical tool of ABC-analysis, combined with service definitions, demonstrates how one can understand the waste management customer. Practical implications (if applicable) This research contributes to knowledge of how customer service is a tool to close the loop in supply chains. This research will give businesses within the waste management industry practical advice and tool in ensuring such an important transition. Original/value ABC analysis is used and simulated in a new field. It demonstrates the value of applying basic logistics and supply chain management tools and techniques in new settings and contexts.

13:45-15:00 Session 4D: Port and container operations
Location: 208

ABSTRACT. Purpose Impact of global warming have increased the interests in containerised shipping via the North Sea Route (NSR). The purpose of this paper is to explore opportunities and challenges in feasibility in containerised shipping via the NSR as an alternative to the Suez Canal route (SCR). Methodology A structured literature review on navigational, economic, and geopolitical feasibility was conducted. Mixed methods approach was applied in a case study of containerised shipping between Rotterdam and Shanghai. Simulations were used to evaluate the navigational and economic feasibility of an ice-classed ship, semi-structured interviews were used to evaluate operational costs and geopolitical feasibility. Findings Containerised shipping via the NSR is not a navigational, economic, and geopolitical feasible option. Using the NSR create opportunities to decrease voyage time 11,5-14,7%, voyage cost by 15,7%, prevent congestion, increase goods volume in European ports. Using the NSR include challenges in increased operational costs, costs of insurance premiums, protection of the Arctic environment, and changes in geopolitical relationships. Research limitations A container ship used between Rotterdam and Shanghai, insurance and maintenance costs are included. Further empirical studies should include other routes, ships and crew costs to ensure generalisability. Practical implications A conceptual framework to evaluate containerised shipping via the NSR is presented. Social implications The Arctic Shipping Corporate Pledge to protect the Arctic environment is included. Original/value The paper is one of the few which evaluate containerised shipping based on navigational, economic, and geopolitical feasibility.

The Potential of Information Sharing in the Port Call Process: The Case of Gävle

ABSTRACT. Purpose Port calls involve many actors providing different services to calling ships, making them difficult to coordinate. Improved coordination between these actors can increase the efficiency of port calls. The purpose is to study port-actors’ information needs to facilitate coordination and explore the benefits of improved coordination through information-sharing.

Design/methodology A single case-study was conducted at Port of Gävle’s (PoG) energy-terminal for tankers, focusing on an ICT-system to facilitate information sharing. 23 interviews – with agents, stevedores, pilots, cargo-owners, and port, shipping, and terminal-managers – documentation, and meeting-participation were used for data-collection.

Findings Port-actors’ information needs are the estimated time of arrival, completion, and departure of ships (ETA, ETC and ETD), delay-information, real-time weather condition (RTWC), and incoming ships on a quay-level. Agents can benefit of incoming ships’ information, ETD and delay-information to inform captains about quay-availability to avoid queues or adjust speed. RTWC improves the loading-plan – as weather affects the draught of the ship which limits how much loading is possible – and decisions about resource-need (e.g., stormy-weather may require additional tugboat). ETA, ETC and ETD improve planning opportunities for pilots and stevedores. The interviews reveal agents’ physical presence improve information availability.

Research limitations The study is limited to a single case about tanker port call process at PoG.

Practical implications Identified information needs and their possible benefits allow managers to understand the value of information and how it can be used to improve port call coordination.

Original/value This study is part of the development of an ICT-system, one of the first of its kind. It provides clarity to port-actors motive to take part in the development-process and provide value showing the potentials of digitalizing information-sharing, compared to phone-calls and e-mailing that are common today. Such systems are essential to implement environmental clauses to reduce emissions from shipping.

Digital solutions for port access processes: A business model perspective

ABSTRACT. Purpose Trucks arriving at port terminals do often not have access to the right containers at the right time, resulting in wasted time. To improve this, several services that innovate a port operator business model by using digital information exchange can be implemented. The purpose is to outline business model innovation for hinterland connections between a port and hinterland transports to generate understanding for efficiency improvements for hinterland connections. Design/methodology/approach Semi-structured interviews are conducted with port operators, hauliers and rail operators in the various European ports to understand how services for hinterland connection are implemented in ports, drivers and barriers for stakeholders, and crucial elements of business models. Findings This ongoing study outlines incentives in the ports along with differences in port characteristics. It preliminary indicates that hauliers may resist the implementation of time slots and explores how such resistance has been managed. To outline business model elements, informal and formal relationships between the stakeholders and their views on value propositions are investigated. Research limitations/implications Focus is on European container port terminals. Practical implications Understanding crucial elements of business models can guide successful implementation of hinterland connection services in port terminals. Social implications Reduced queuing implies reduced negative environmental impact. Original/value How services for hinterland connections correspond to important criteria for key stakeholders is addressed.

13:45-15:00 Session 4E: Logistics structures
Location: 209
PRESENTER: Sofie Adamsen


Purpose While ambitious goals for climate impact reduction exist, they rarely result in significant progress and even less if we look for systematic climate impact reduction in upstream supply chains. This paper aims to identify the structural elements of a green supplier collaboration program.

Design/methodology/approach Based on a literature review within the topic of program management and green supplier collaboration programs, a conceptual model is developed.

Findings This paper suggests the program type goal-oriented programs, an architecture of three life cycle phases and four different management mechanisms. Some are focusing on short-term activities and some on long-term and continuous efforts to form an organization that supports the execution of the program. Furthermore, it aims to accommodate the complexity, that green activities often bring when working cross-functional internally and externally.

Research limitations/implications 31% of programs are discontinued due to project failures, and 53% are reported to underperform. This paper suggests structural program elements to accommodate these challenges.

Practical implications Organizations with a large supplier base experience great complexity in helping suppliers reduce their CO2 emissions. A well-structured program will increase the opportunity of anchoring the activities internally and gaining environmental performance improvement externally.

Original/value A study in integrating sustainability in the structural elements of a collaboration supplier program.

Digitalization of Rural Supply Chains - Striking Gap in Literature

ABSTRACT. Purpose Published supply chain research explicitly recognizes the rural areas almost exclusively through the lenses of urban or city logistics, lacking the holistic point of view. Based on the systematic literature review in this working paper, the authors identify the gap and suggest possible directions in which the research in the field of rural supply chain management should be conducted further. Design/methodology/approach Geographically scoped, the authors conducted systematic literature review of peer-reviewed qualitative and quantitative studies touching the emerging topic of rural supply chains. Findings It is striking the complete combination of specified keywords identified beyond the abstract or title, excluding the potentially predatory journals, produced only extremely low number of outcomes meeting the review criteria. Such a finding itself justifies the necessity to explore the topic with the introduction or development of new models or collection and analysis of empirical data. Research limitations/implications The study supports the very limited number of published sources framing the emerging theory of rural supply chain management. Its major limitation is the primary focus on European environment and its context. Practical implications Since social equity is one of the sustainable development dimensions, the research suggests further research direction and framework addressing the challenges of living and doing business in rural areas the policy makers and rural development stakeholders shall deal with. Original/value The multidimensional view on rural life and relevant supply chains of the study reflects and investigates the relatively resilient environment with the potential to thrive no less than the urban and sub-urban areas while engaging the potential of digitalization and its applications.


ABSTRACT. Purpose Antibiotic resistance is a global threat, worsened when manufacturers release resistance-causing materials into the local environment. To lessen environmental impact, medicine procurers can introduce environmental criteria into their tendering procedures. Yet, at the same time, medicine shortages are an increasing global problem, partly due to few manufacturers. Strict environmental criteria could result in no eligible manufacturers of an essential antibiotic. Yet, this paper examines if environmental criteria can be applied in such a way to improve sustainability.

Design/methodology/approach A case study of antibiotics was conducted in cooperation with the Norwegian Hospital Procurement Trust.

Findings Awarding fulfillment of environmental criteria through higher prices makes the market potentially more interesting for some suppliers. Environmental incentives in tenders also provide a secondary benefit - it may increase supply chain transparency, allowing procurers to understand where active ingredients and finished products are produced. With this increased knowledge (which is unavailable today), procurers can also attempt to incentivize geographically diverse manufacturers, potentially alleviating shortages.

Research limitations/implications (if applicable) The study provides initial understanding of how to improve sustainability in medicine supply chains.

Practical implications (if applicable) Stakeholders are provided with increased understanding of how environmental criteria can benefit supply chain transparency and supplier longevity, and thus potentially reducing shortages.

Social implications (if applicable) Hindering antibiotic resistance while bolstering sustainable medicine supply chains are vital to maintain population health and to ensure health systems operate effectively.

Original/value The paper reports on one of the first attempts to use environmental criteria in procurement of medicines and find that applying such criteria can improve sustainability, also through more transparency, allowing longer-term profitability, environmental and social considerations.

15:00-15:30Coffee Break - Hama
15:30-16:45 Session 5A: Organisational interaction
Location: 202
Information asymmetry in greening humanitarian supply chain: a case study of a sequential principal-agent relationship

ABSTRACT. Purpose The paper explores how information asymmetry arising from a sequential principal-agent relationship will impact on the efforts to green the humanitarian supply chain.

Design/methodology/approach The paper is based on a case study with a humanitarian organization as its focal organization. Data was collected via semi-structured interviews and documents from this supply chain.

Findings There is a sequential principal-agent relationship between donors, the focal organization, and its implementing partners. With regards to greening, the focal organization faces three challenges: resistance from local implementing partners, lack of systematic monitoring, and limited resources.

Research implications This paper provides an interesting case in which agency theory is applied in the humanitarian supply chain context. The case studied is defined as a sequential principal-agent relationship, and all parties have their interests and priorities while working towards the same goal. Importantly, information asymmetry is not only prevalent upstream and downstream the supply chain but also within the focal organization.

Practical implications The paper explores the dilemma of humanitarian organization in which a compromise must be made because of limited resources.

Originality In addition to the principal-agent relationship externally, this paper also explores the principal-agent relationship internal to the focal organization. Therefore, this paper provides a good case to examine how principal-agent relationship can be better managed across organizational boundary, but also inside the organization.

The role of logistics in a Swedish total defense concept
PRESENTER: Roland Hellberg

ABSTRACT. Purpose Total defense includes activities needed to prepare Sweden (or similar nations) for conflict. Total defense consists of military and civil defense. The aim of the study is to shed light on the role and need for logistics in a total defense perspective, since Swedish society does not currently have an organized logistics concept for the civilian part of total defense.

Design/methodology/approach A review of selected literature on Swedish total defense, including military logistics and the role of civilian logistics support, constitutes the basis for the study. Swedish society's ability to adapt and support each other illustrated by a parallel action during the Corona epidemic.

Findings The total defense bases mainly on civil society taking responsibility (responsibility principle). The state of logistics organisation and infrastructure, at given time is critical to a sufficient non-military logistics contribution within the total defence concept. For defence effectiveness over time, the non-military logistics functions must be supportive to both parts of total defence.

Research implications This study provides basis for further research in logistics' significance for total defence.

Originality Logistics input within total defence has until now, to a small degree received attention in the literature. Given the knowledge gap, this study is of original value.

Developing constuction logistics services in the construction equipment rental company-contractor dyad
PRESENTER: Petter Haglund

ABSTRACT. Purpose: The understanding of how to develop or expand logistics service offerings to the construction industry has received limited attention in the research community. The purpose of this study is to investigate how construction equipment rental companies (CERCs) can approach the challenge of expanding their service offerings to include construction logistics services.

Desing/methodology/approach: The study builds on a descriptive case study to analyse how a CERC has approached developing logistics services for construction through the lens of New Service Development literature.

Findings: The study shows that the CERC’s ongoing transition from a construction equipment supplier to a logistics service provider requires both back-end and front-end service development. The New Service Development process extends into sales and delivery of solutions where the company’s established customer-base in the construction industry can be beneficial.

Research limitations/implications (if applicable): The study is limited to the Swedish construction context and further studies are needed to generalize the findings. Future studies should investigate how well service offerings match the contractor’s needs.

Practical implications (if applicable): The study can be used by contractors and prospective logistics service providers for developing logistics services.

Original/value: The study contributes to construction logistics literature by addressing how construction logistics services can be developed by adopting a New Service Development approach.

15:30-16:45 Session 5B: Transport decarbonisation
Location: 203
A cost analysis model of decarbonizing the heavy truck sector

ABSTRACT. The transport sector is one of the major contributors to total carbon emissions. The transition toward a carbon-neutral transport sector requires extensive investment. Reliant on previous estimations, this study provides a systematic analysis aimed at refining existing estimations of investment needs and related costs for the sustainability transition of the road transport sector. The model relies on mathematical modeling with the aid of Python programming to build a time-variant model designed to calculate current and future investment needs, capital costs, and operational expenses. The model determines the total cost of a system for the sustainability transition of the road transport sector. A plausible scenario was applied to test the model, highlighting the cost variance in response to different policies. This model enables us to investigate the effects of financial policies, and charging strategies on system costs. Practitioners and policymakers can employ this model to test plausible scenarios for the future of the transport system and to evaluate the effects of policies. This study provides estimations of how much and where to direct financing to accelerate the transition. We contribute to the rapidly growing literature on the sustainability transition of transport systems by including financing costs in our analysis.

Estimating the total cost of sustainability transition of the road transport system: A case of the Swedish heavy-duty fleet

ABSTRACT. This study aims to illustrate the potential cost of the sustainability transition for the Swedish road transport system under six different scenarios. Interviews with experts are used to project the future pathway for the road transport sector in Sweden's heavy-duty fleets and set up the scenarios. Based on these projections we calculate the cost of the system under different scenarios. The results show that in scenarios with both dominant battery-electric trucks and a mix of battery-electric trucks and fuel cells when the speed of transition is high and 100% market share is taken by carbon-neutral vehicles by 2050, the lower fuel and maintenance costs can offset the higher investment cost. Our results also confirm a significant fuel cost variance under different charging/refueling strategies showing the importance of charging/refueling strategic decisions on the operational cost and therefore different vehicle technologies' competitiveness. The results can be used to inform strategic decision-making about charging/refueling strategies for commercial transportation and a direction for policymakers in Sweden to facilitate the use of strategies through redirecting their investments towards optimized options. Our results provide a better understanding of the cost of the sustainability transition for Sweden’s road transport system. This study combines qualitative and qualitative research to project the cost of transition. The significant influence of charging strategies on technologies' competitiveness and system cost has been highlighted in this research.

Process management for greening the Swedish Road Freight transport

ABSTRACT. ABSTRACT Purpose The purpose of this paper is to investigate the support of dynamic capabilities and process management for enhancing environmental sustainability within Swedish Road Freight Transport (RFT). Design/methodology/approach This paper includes a narrative literature review, as well as interviews, document studies and observations at two Swedish transport companies. Findings Partnerships with customers, suppliers, and governmental institutions support and stimulate the design and development of environmental initiatives. Process management provides structure and system thinking to support the development of dynamic capabilities. Moreover, process management principles and internal and external antecedents support competitive advantage in RFTs. Research limitations/implications This paper contributes to filling the gap on how process management could support the greening of RFT. Moreover, it contributes to dynamic capabilities theory by associating environmental practices at RFTs to antecedents for dynamic capabilities. A limitation is the availability of information due to confidentiality from the partners. Practical implications Practitioners from RFT could use this paper as an introduction for understanding the importance of cooperation within their supply chain. It also provides examples of environmental initiatives within RFT, which can be useful for practitioners. Social implications (if applicable) By enhancing the environmental sustainability of RFT, this study can have both social and environmental implications in the quality of life for the Swedish people. Original/value This paper is a novel combination between the research fields of quality management, green logistics, and dynamic capabilities.

15:30-16:45 Session 5C: Digitalisation
Location: 204
Digitalization of Supply Chain Risk Management Eliciting Potential and Barriers with Qualitative Interviews


The great potential of digitalization for Supply Chain Risk Management (SCRM) stands in stark contrast to the actual degree of technology utilization with measurement and reporting of disruptions lagging behind the demands of ever-increasing (global) incidents. This is despite the fact that IT-supported processes and software tools are positively associated with supply chain resilience. This study seeks to identify potentials and barriers of introducing IT-supported SCRM with the aim of facilitating adoption.


Existing literature is reviewed, highlighting previous efforts concerning the effects of digitalization on SCRM, followed by a series of semi-structured expert interviews on structured SCRM application and IT-support including modelling and monitoring of risks with practitioners from SCRM, SCM or RM situated in Germany.


The findings reveal a range of cultural, technological and organizational barriers such as awareness, difficulties in measuring the impact of successful risk management and data integration along the supply chain or even single locations. Similarly, identified potential include a change towards data-driven, rational culture and positive effects on other functional areas of an organisation.

Research limitations/implications

Limitations include the number of interview partners and their respective practical background. Future research may be concerned with creating a structured approach towards lowering the identified barriers and introducing SCRM into organisations, realizing the identified potentials.

Practical implications

This paper raises awareness of issues surrounding SCRM adaption and may consequently help practitioners in analyzing their own organization accordingly.


The approach allowed to gather first-hand information from practitioners in the field with regard to potentials and barriers of SCRM.

Conceptualising Blockchains in Supply Chains

ABSTRACT. Purpose There are now multiple papers presenting research on blockchains in supply chains. By now, there are even more than 20 literature review papers. Yet, the findings are so diverse, that a conceptual consolidation would be useful. Design/methodology/approach The research builds on eleven in-depth interviews with authors in the field that contributed to the development of the field many of their blockchain related papers being well cited. Data was analysed employing content analysis and consolidated by Findings Based on the interviews, key potential benefits of the application of blockchains in supply chains can be identified: visibility and transparency, trust, shared data access, efficiency gains, product safety, secure and integrating technology. Barriers are organisational, human and technical, while there might be a lack of data quality so that all factors would lead to a lack of trust. A list of ambivalent aspects could be identified, among them cost and sustainability. Research limitations/implications The research condenses the diverse debate on blockchains in supply chains building on primary data. This allows consolidating the debate in the field and establishes a firm ground for future research. Practical implications The findings contribute to deepening the comprehension of how blockchains can be applied in supply chains. Social implications Transparency and visibility of enabled through blockchains could be used to monitor social aspects such as working conditions in supply chains. Originality While the paper confirms many already discussed topics, it sums them up in a comprehensive manner building on expert opinions. Further, it points to several open, ambigious topics demanding further research.

Revisiting the bullwhip effect: How can AI be enabled to smoothen the bullwhip phenomenom?

ABSTRACT. Purpose Although artificial intelligence (AI) provides a foundation to smoothen the bullwhip effect in the supply chain, only little research has examined this phenomenon. In this article, we conceptualize a framework that allows for a more structured management approach to examine the bullwhip effect using AI. In addition, we conduct a systematic literature review of this current status of how management can use AI to reduce the bullwhip effect and locate opportunities for future research.

Design/methodology/approach Guided by the systematic literature review approach from Durach et al. (2017), we review and analyze key attributes and characteristics of both AI and the bullwhip effect from a management perspective.

Findings Our findings reveal that literature examining how AI can enable management to reduce the bullwhip effect is a rather under-researched area that provides an abundance of research avenues. Based on identified AI capabilities, we propose three key management pillars that form the basis of our Bullwhip-Smoothing-Framework (BSF): i) digital skills, (ii) leadership, and (iii) collaboration. We also critically assess current research efforts and offer suggestions for future research.

Originality This is the first study that reviews management literature specifically focused on how artificial intelligence can help to smoothen the bullwhip effect in supply chain.

15:30-16:45 Session 5D: Pckaging issues
Location: 208
PRESENTER: Rosa Palmgren

ABSTRACT. Purpose This paper aims to find out prerequisites from a logistics perspective for replacing single use packages with reusable packaging, with a focus on the reverse logistics activities such as collection, washing, storage, transportation and redistribution of packaging. Design/methodology/approach The methodology includes exploring existing literature about the logistics related to reusable packaging and qualitative semi-structured interviews with companies in different parts and roles of the supply chain within fast-moving consumer goods packaging. Six cases related to the companies interviewed will be explored from a logistics perspective, to understand the needs for logistics in the different cases. Findings It was found that existing infrastructure for the different reverse logistics activities can partly be used depending on the context of the case. For some cases, there is no existing infrastructure for example for washing the packaging and those should be established. Empty reverse flow capacity should be used as much as possible, to limit the need for more transports. Research limitations/implications This paper is limited to reusable consumer packaging logistics, and thus business-to-business packaging will only be included in terms of learnings from existing literature that can be transferred to reusable consumer packaging logistics. Practical implications An outlook of the logistics prerequisites is explored in this research, providing an opportunity for practice to find possibilities in reusable packaging logistics solutions. Social implications The environmental burden of single-use plastics and littering has gained a lot of attention in recent years. This paper contributes to the ways that logistics of reusable packaging could contribute to circulating the packaging without having to produce new packaging each time. Originality There is little research on reusable consumer packaging logistics. This paper aims to contribute to this gap.


ABSTRACT. Purpose Packaging and packaging innovation affect companies’ logistics performance. The purpose of this paper is to develop and apply a scorecard for assessing the packaging innovation process and its impact on logistics performance.

Design/methodology/approach A general conceptual framework from innovation theory is adjusted and applied to packaging innovation. This links the packaging innovation process to logistics and supply chain performance. It also supports the researchers’ development of a scorecard for assessing the packaging innovation process. This scorecard is applied in a case study covering packaging innovation at IKEA of Sweden. Data were collected with semi-structured interviews, document analysis and business management data.

Findings Seven interrelated sub-processes together define packaging innovation. These sub-processes are linked to logistics and supply chain performance in a conceptual framework. A scorecard describes how to measure the sub-processes. The application of the scorecard in a case study shows how the content covered in packaging innovation subprocesses impacts the performance of logistics.

Research limitations/implications The scorecard for assessing the packaging innovation process and its impact on logistics performance should be tested in other contexts than the current case study.

Practical implications A scorecard for assessing the performance of sub-processes within packaging innovation helps companies to improve packaging innovation and thus their logistics performance.

Original/value The theoretically based scorecard for assessing packaging innovation is novel in logistics research. It links the packaging innovation process to logistics performance and helps companies to identify improvement possibilities. The paper shows how a scorecard helps to address packaging strategically by measuring the activities conducted in the packaging innovation process with links to logistics performance.

Cross-border E-commerce logistics - Challenges of package deliveries from Finland to Russia

ABSTRACT. Purpose Russia is Europe’s largest internet market and have provided huge opportunities for foreign companies to increase their e-commerce sales. First, the paper highlights the state of e-commerce in Russia and logistics solutions from Finland to Russia before Russian invasion of Ukraine. Second, the paper updates the current situation in cross-border package deliveries in May 2022. Design/methodology/approach The paper is based on semi-structured interviews carried out in March 2021 that include three companies and one logistics service provider. In addition, data was collected through parcel tracking experiment, literature studies and an interview in May 2022. Findings Two major barriers found that affect companies when aiming for the Russian e-commerce market are lack of knowledge and language barrier. Companies would benefit from receiving more information about the delivery process and the practicalities related to it. However, after the Russian invasion of Ukraine the cross-border deliveries are radically reduced but not stopped. The sanctions of luxury goods and restrictions on money transfers have had the main impact on e-commerce deliveries. Also, the availability and increased costs of truck deliveries hamper the deliveries. Research limitations/implications The study is based on a limited number of interviews from Finland. However, the challenges may be similar from deliveries from other EU countries too. Practical implications The study provides updated information about Russian e-commerce market and current challenges of cross-border deliveries for e-commerce companies, logistics service providers and public organizations. Original/value The paper highlights the cross-border e-commerce logistics and its challenges between Finland and Russia. The paper provides up-to-date information about the impacts of sanctions.

15:30-16:45 Session 5E: Last mile
Location: 209

ABSTRACT. The objective of the paper is to further elaborate and support the expanding research on the topic of e-commerce related to the logistics facility location problem. In recent years, there has been a significant growth in e-commerce, which has resulted in clear changes and shifts in shopping practices and consumer behaviour. This growth is reinforced by the COVID-19 pandemic, which has accelerated the transition to e-commerce and the needs of supply chains. The paper focuses on the analysis and data mining of secondary data related to customers’ online grocery shopping experiences, which is linked to the research focusing on the selection and optimal location of inventory facilities related to the e-commerce of perishable goods. It aims to characterise the respondents according to various sociodemographic factors. The data has been extracted using the Market & Media & Lifestyle, also known as the MML-TGI database. The database consists of a sample group of 15,000 respondents from different regions in the Czech Republic. The customers’ preferences of online grocery shopping can enhance the business strategies of certain retailers to ‘go online’ and location selection of logistics centres based on demand and supply perspective in the logistics real estate market. The added value of the research can be used for theory and research, where the research seeks to bring a new perspective on the optimal location of logistics objects linked to e-commerce depending on wide range of factors.

Performance of light electric freight vehicles in the last mile: a Nordic case study

ABSTRACT. Purpose To assess the introduction and performance of LEFVs, more specifically cargo cycles in major 3PL organizations in at least two Nordic countries. Design/methodology/approach Case studies. Interviews. Company data on performance before the introduction as well as after the introduction. Study of differing business models as well as operational setups. Findings The results from the studied cases, interviews, and the collected data show that LEFVs can outperform conventional vans in last mile delivery operations of e-commerce parcels. We account for when this might be the case, during which circumstances and why. Research limitations/implications Inherent limitations of the case study approach, specifically on generalization. Future research could be to include a more Public-private partnership, multi actor approach for scalability. Practical implications Adding to knowledge on public sector facilitation necessary to succeed with implementation. What is original/value of paper One novelty is the access of very detailed data from before the implementation of new vehicles and the data after the implementation. A fair comparison is made possible by the operational structure, area of delivery, number of customers, customer density, type of packages, and to some extent number of packages being quite similar. This is valuable information for organizations that are thinking of trying LEFVs in operations as well as municipalities/local authorities.


ABSTRACT. Purpose Studies present different results regarding the environmental potentials when implementing urban consolidation centres (UCCs). This study aims to create a deeper understanding of these potentials, taking into consideration the different contexts and designs of UCCs.

Design/methodology/approach Articles and research reports that have quantified the environmental effects of UCCs are used as point of departure. Cross case analysis is applied to compare the results as well as identification of underlaying differences between the studies.

Findings Increased consolidation and implementation of fossil-free fuels are often described as the largest environmental potentials of implementing UCCs, but surprisingly, new activities implemented in the terminal building show the greatest environmental potential.

Research implications This study shows the large potentials hidden in inter-organizational interaction in order to increase green potentials of UCCs. The study also highlights different performance indicators and the need to enlarge the scope by including, e.g. energy consumption as an evaluator.

Practical implications There are large environmental potentials often overseen in the implementation of UCCs, such as the use of the terminal for facilitating more close loop supply chains in the society.

Social implications This study shows the large, sometimes hidden, environmental potentials in UCCs.

Original/value Few studies quantify the potentials of UCCs, and among those who does, little (no) focus is directed towards comparing the results of different studies.

16:45-17:15 Session 6: Meet the Editors

The two editors' in chief of IJPDLM, Chee Yew Wong and JBL, R. Glenn Richey will host a short session on "Meet the editors" with sort presentations and dialog with the NOFOMA society. 

Location: 202
19:15-23:00 Dinner in Gamla Bio

Dinner in Gamla Bio (down town), Ingólfsstræti 2a,101 Reykjavík