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10:15-12:00 Session 12A: NIK 3
Location: KE E-102
Linear MIM-width of the Square of Trees

ABSTRACT. Graph parameters measure the amount of structure (or lack thereof) in a graph that makes it amenable to being decomposed in a way that facilitates dynamic programming. Graph decompositions and their associated parameters are important both in practice (as a tool for designing robust algorithms for NP-hard problems) and in theory (relating large classes of problems to the graphs on which they are solvable in polynomial time).

Linear MIM-width is a variant of the graph parameter MIM-width, introduced by (Vatshelle 2012). MIM-width is a parameter that is constant for many classes of graphs. Most graph classes which have been shown to have constant MIM-width also have constant linear MIM-width. However, computing the (linear) MIM-width of graphs, or showing that it is hard, has proven to be a huge challenge. To date, the only graph class with unbounded linear MIM-width, whose linear MIM-width can be computed in polynomial time, is the trees (Høgemo et al. 2019). In this follow-up, we show that for any tree $T$ with linear MIM-width $k$, the linear MIM-width of its square $T^2$ always lies between $k$ and $2k$, and that these bounds are tight for all $k$.

Accelerating PFLOTRAN-OGS on GPUs using PETSc

ABSTRACT. With the evident effects of rapid climate change and society´s continuing dependence on fossil fuels, efficient modelling of reservoir behaviour for emerging CO2 storage projects is in high demand. Due to the models’ physical complexity and the non-linear nature of CO2 storage processes, the computational demands are so significant that physical aspects, such as the dissolution effect, are ignored due to computational limits. State-of-the-art flow simulation codes use highly parallel hardware and programming models to handle large-domain simulations. At the time of this work, complex flow simulators had yet to fully investigate the benefits and impact of utilising accelerators like GPUs. This study explores the performance of accelerating the production code PFLOTRAN-OGS, developed by OpenGoSim, using GPUs through PETSc’s recently built-in accelerated solvers. Our accelerated simulation is run on two test cases: GW1, a CO2 storage case from OpenGoSim, and SPE1, a simple Black Oil benchmark from the Society of Petroleum Engineers. The preliminary benchmark indicates that a GPU-accelerated solver with a CPU-based framework gives an overall slower simulation. However, our profiling verifies that most of the time was spent on transferring matrices back and forth between the CPU and GPU, while the solver steps have significant speedup on the GPU. Our results thus show that the CUDA-accelerated PETSc FGMRES solver will be faster than its CPU counterpart once the complete code is moved to the GPU.

Evolutionary Computation with Islands: Extending EvoLP.jl for Parallel Computing

ABSTRACT. The use of evolutionary computation for optimisation is a relevant area of research in many fields of science and the industry, where complex problems are frequently encountered. As an effort to support the research in this niche, we present an extension for EvoLP.jl: the evolutionary computation playground in Julia, that includes three new operators for implementing island models for genetic algorithms. The extension enables the framework to run using the Message Passing Interface protocol, an international standard for communication in parallel architectures that is available in most high performance computing clusters today. We study the advantages of the implementation by performing a series of tests on well-known numerical optimisation benchmarks of various difficulties and on several dimensions. Both the code and the data are available in a GitHub repository. This work enables researchers to implement powerful parallel evolutionary algorithms without moving away from the high level of abstraction that the framework provides.

Semantics-Based Version Control for Feature Model Evolution Plans

ABSTRACT. A software product line (SPL) models closely related software systems by capitalizing on the high similarity of the products by organizing them into common and variable parts. To ensure successful long-term development, it is beneficial to not just capture the current software product line, but the planned evolution of the SPL as well. Evolution planning of an SPL is often a dynamic, changing process due to changes in product requirements. In addition, planning is typically a collaborative effort with multiple engineers working separately and independently of each other. To improve development, their individual contributions would need to be unified. This can be a complex task, especially without proper synchronization tools. In this paper, we provide a semantics-based merge algorithm for evolution plans. Given two versions of an evolution plan and the common evolution plan they are derived from, the merge algorithm attempts to merge all the different changes from both versions. The merge algorithm will be an essential component in a version control system, allowing several contributors to unify their versions into a sound evolution plan.

10:15-12:00 Session 12B: NISK 3: Application and network security
Location: KE A-204
Roaming Security in 5G Systems

ABSTRACT. The Next Generation Critical Communication (NGCC) system in Norway ("Nødnet") will be using mobile systems as its basis. In particular, it appears that Nødnett will be realized as a Home Environment (HE) with its own network functions, but it will not feature the serving network (SN) functions or the radio access network (RAN) part. Thus, the Nødnett system will rely on a roaming agreement with one of the existing operators. However, "national roaming" will also be permitted for Nødnett, which means that Nødnett users will be permitted to use other networks if the preferred one is unavailable. Altogether, this means that roaming and roaming security are very important for Nødnett. In this paper, we investigate and evaluate the state of the art of 5G roaming security, and its application to Nødnett. Roaming, in 5G, is conducted over the N32 interface. Thus, we investigate the security of the "Protocol for N32 INterconnect Security"(PRINS) and the use of TLS over the N32 interface. The PRINS protocol also permits so-called IPX operators (roaming brokers) to be part of the exchange, which potentially creates additional problems for the Nødnett use cases.

Call graph discovery in binary programs from unknown instruction set architectures

ABSTRACT. This study addresses the challenge of reverse engineering binaries from unknown instruction set architectures, a complex task with potential implications for software maintenance and cyber-security. We focus on the tasks of detecting candidate call and return opcodes for automatic extraction of call graphs in order to simplify the reverse engineering process. Empirical testing on a small dataset of binary files from different architectures demonstrates that the approach can accurately detect specific opcodes under conditions of noisy data. The method lays the groundwork for a valuable tool for reverse engineering where the reverse engineer has minimal a priori knowledge of the underlying instruction set architecture.

Trust as the Elephant in the Room - Security Evaluation of Decentralized Online Social Networks with Mastodon

ABSTRACT. Federated online social networks are an alternative to centralized and often profit-driven social networks. Instead of providing exactly one main platform, federated and decentralized approaches consist of multiple platforms, nodes or instances, leading to new challenges for guaranteeing confidentiality, integrity and availability. In addition, privacy is taken into close consideration due to the sensitive nature of processed personal data and the purpose of online social networks as well as the user behavior on social media. The recent popularity and broad use of the federated micro-blogging platform Mastodon issues the matter of security and privacy challenges for this type of architecture and the specific platform as well. Mastodon is part of a larger network called Fediverse with several platforms with different purposes. Communication and interoperability between Fediverse platforms is mostly achieved by ActivityPub protocol as standard for decentralized social networking, defined by W3C. We analyze Mastodon as the currently most prominent and largest example of a Fediverse platform. Therefore, we perform tests for typical types of software vulnerabilities as well as evaluate common security challenges built into its design. As a result, we identify trust as security principle as critical issue, leading to multiple weak points such as enabling attackers and malicious actors to spread misleading information as well as network availability impacts. We suggest possible solutions customized to our findings as well as general security recommendations when building a federated online social network such as the Fediverse.

10:15-12:00 Session 12C: NOKOBIT 3: Education and teaching
Location: KE E-101
Exploring the Potential Impact of Generative AI in Education – A reflective analysis from nine IT courses

ABSTRACT. The increasing use of digital teaching and emerging technologies, particularly AI-based tools, such as ChatGPT, is presenting an inevitable and significant impact on higher education. The capability of processing and generating text could bring change to several areas, such as learning assessments or learning experiences. Besides the negative impact, i.e exam cheating, we also see a positive side that ChatGPT can bring to education. This research article aims to contributing to the current debate on ChatGPT by systematic reflection and experience reported from nine bachelor IT courses at a Norwegian university. We conducted inductive empirical research with reflective notes and focused groups of lecturers from nine different IT courses. The findings were thematically organized with numerous use cases in teaching IT subjects. Our discussion highlights the disruptive implications of AI assistant usage in higher education and emphasizes the need for educators to shape this transformation.

The Post-Pandemic Era of Digital Teaching: A Qualitative Study of Teachers' Perspectives

ABSTRACT. As time passes, our society has embraced living with the highly infectious Covid-19 virus. In Norway, as of March 2022, most restrictions have been lifted and life is slowly returning to normal. Students are returning to uni-versity campuses and classes are held again physically. However, the ques-tion remains whether universities will still apply digital teaching to offer the students more flexibility. This research investigates the higher educa-tion teachers’ perspectives towards the continuation of digital teaching in the post-pandemic era. This single case study provides in depth information taken from interviews. The respondents are information technology (IT), computer engineers, and information systems (IS) teachers from the Univer-sity of South-Eastern Norway. and a thematic analysis explored patterns between the literature and the empirical study. The implications from this study propose a framework with six factors that affects teachers’ perspec-tives towards digital teaching in the aftermath of the pandemic. Teachers promote a well-balanced mix of technology with physical teaching activi-ties, suggesting that digital teaching tools should serve a specific purpose and contribute to the learning outcome.

Social Robots in Education To Enhance Social Communications And Interaction Skills Of Children With Autism – A Review

ABSTRACT. Background: Social robots are a promising assistive tool in education for enhancing social interaction and empowering learning capability in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Objective: This article reviews reported child-robot interaction factors and areas of social and communication interaction skills enhanced using social robots in children with ASD. Methods: Twenty-two articles were identified, which were later analyzed and synthesized. This study is reported according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Results: The literature addresses several benefits of the use of social robots for children with ASD such as increased eye contact, beneficial robotic intervention therapy, structured learning and learning from repetition, increased deictic gesture, higher autonomic reactions, predictable robotic features, and rewards given by robots are used to enhance communication and interaction skills in children with ASD. Conclusion: The use of social robots in children with ASD is still in the early research phase and it has shown to provide several benefits for children with ASD. However, it is essential to consider the children's autism level before expecting any positive results from robotic intervention. In addition, there are several ethical challenges and implications that need to be considered before fully implementing social robots for children with ASD.

How can Extended Reality (XR) enhance Aviation Personnel Training: A Literature Review

ABSTRACT. The implementation of extended reality (XR) technology into training and education methods is not a new emerging trend. In fact, it has caught researchers’ attention for decades. However, technology has become more accessible to a larger population group, resulting in an increased interest in XR learning. Various industries have investigated how technology can train their personnel with lower costs and increased efficiency; the commercial aviation sector is no exception. This review examines how XR technology can be implemented for training commercial aviation personnel. The aim is to provide an overview of the latest cutting-edge applications within the aviation industry. Using a grounded theory approach, this review has developed themes and categorized various XR applications addressing different areas within aviation training.

10:15-12:00 Session 12D: UDIT 3: Evaluation and Assessment
Location: KE A-101
Hvordan skape økt bevissthet og oppslutning fra studentene i kvalitetsutvikling i høyere utdanning

ABSTRACT. Vi har i denne studien sett på et kvalitetssystem for evaluering og erfaringer med hvordan dette gjennomføres i høyere utdanning. Vi har hatt fokus på rollene emneansvarlig og student og sett på hvordan studieprogramledelsen kan bistå i kvalitetsarbeid på emne- og studieprogramnivå. I utgangspunktet skal det benyttes referansegruppemetodikk samtidig som kvalitetssystemet åpner for alternative gjennomføringer, så lenge kravet om studentmedvirkning er ivaretatt. På bakgrunn av intervjuer og referansegruppemøter med studenter og emneansvarlig ved tre ulike IT-utdanninger, kan vi slå fast at gjennomføring av emneevaluering er ulik. Dette fører blant annet til usikkerhet blant studenter og emneansvarlige i forhold til forankring og studentmedvirkning. Selv om kvalitetssystemet gir føringer for at det fortrinnsvis skal brukes referansegruppemetodikk, viser forskning flere svakheter med tanke på studentmedvirkning. Med dette som utgangspunkt har vi videre sett på hvordan studieprogramledelsen kan bidra i emneevalueringen med målsetting om å sikre større bevissthet og bredere oppslutning blant studenter og emneansvarlige. Vi har sett på effekten av å etablere studiekvalitetsforum der studenter får mulighet til å komme med innspill til studieprogramleder vedrørende enkeltemner og studieprogram. Gjennom fasilitering bidrar studieprogramleder til å balansere innspill slik at de dekker viktige kvalitetsparametre som berører både pedagogisk opplegg, gjennomført undervisning og studentenes læring. I tillegg forankres en felles forståelse av innspillene og hvilke innspill som skal bringes videre til emneansvarlige og studieprogramrådet, som innspill i den videre kvalitetsutviklingen. Gjennom arbeidet i studiekvalitetsforum vil studieprogramledelsen også bidra til bevisstgjøring av kvalitetsarbeidet som gjennomføres og dermed påvirke kvalitetskulturen i organisasjonen.

Comparing Linear and Adaptive Mathematics Tests: A Pilot Study Using Automated Digital Testing

ABSTRACT. We conducted a lab-based randomized controlled trial (RCT) using an automated digital testing system to administer both linear and adaptive mathematics tests to students. Each question was accompanied by feedback, and an overall summary was provided following the completion of the test. Subsequently, all participants completed an identical 4-question "mathematics exam."

We find that students subject to the adaptive mathematics test displayed significantly higher performance compared to those in the linear test group (difference of 26.2 percentage points, p<0.05).

It is important to interpret these findings within the context of a pilot study. First, the study's statistical power is constrained because of the small number of participants (N=47). Second, relying on only four “exam questions” may introduce imprecision in measuring learning outcomes.

What did the students say? An analysis of student feedback in a large introductory software engineering course

ABSTRACT. The contents of this paper falls into four parts (1) a course description, (2) a discus-sion of statistical problems – e.g., sample size, (3) challenges related to data analyses, mostly based on bar charts and (4) analyses of the survey data and (5) conclusion on how to improve the course. The survey showed that the three best course components where retrospectives, individual reflections and group reflections – all helping the students to reflect on their own work and how they interacted with the rest of the group. The most surprising result is that while the majority of the students gave a satisfaction with own work score of 5 (at the top) or 4 (almost at the top), they still indicating several course components that needed to be improved. The general attitude seems to be that while they felt the course to be good, they still saw some course components that could be improved. Those that scored the course as 3 or lower had few improvement suggestions.

National Prior Knowledge Test in Programming - How proficient are incoming higher education students?

ABSTRACT. As per the UDIT specification, an abstract is not included.

14:15-16:15 Session 14A: NOKOBIT 4: Digital ecosystems and digital transformation
Location: KE E-101
Hvordan fikk Norge et betalingsformidlingssystem i verdensklasse? En historisk analyse av samarbeidende digitale økosystemer i banksektoren

ABSTRACT. Denne artikkelen analyserer utviklingen av det norske digitale økosystemet for betalingsformidling. På tross av at norske banker er konkurrenter, utviklet de i fellesskap, over en periode på seksti år, betalingstjenester i verdensklasse. Sam-arbeidet og løsningene regnes som unike i en internasjonal sammenheng. Metodisk bygger vi på skriftlige kilder og samtaler med nøkkelpersoner. Vårt analytiske perspektiv er samarbeidende digitale økosystemer, uten en dominerende plattformeier. Studien viser at bankene lyktes fordi de klarte å utvikle et nasjonalt samarbeidende digitalt økosystem for betalingsformidling. De to viktigste elementene var en unik samarbeidskultur, som gjorde at konkurrenter kunne lage felles løsninger, og en digital arkitektur, som var fremsynt og skalerbar.

Ecosystem well-being and platform survival in the current energy transition: A case study on the evolution of an EV-charging platform
PRESENTER: Ahmed Idries

ABSTRACT. This paper aims to identify the capabilities required for electrical energy service platforms to survive and sustain in the ongoing energy transition. The paper contributes to two fields: Information systems in the domain of platforms ecosystems and digital services innovation through the usage of service-dominant logic and the value co-creation lens, and energy informatics in the domain of digital business models and service innovation. Using a case study, we investigate the case of an EV (Electrical vehicles) charging platform and how the platform owner is building capabilities for platform ecosystem survival in a new and dynamic market context. Through semi-structured interviews, the study managed to identify several activities related to each capability which are: System orchestration, Ecosystem preservation, system reformation, and ecosystem diversification and then classified them into sub-capabilities and identified activities related to each sub-capability. The paper concludes with managerial implications for practitioners and initiates an empirical extension for the service dominant logic and value co-creation theoretical lens.

Key aspects influencing the scaling of digital remote care: A case from a Norwegian hospital region
PRESENTER: Ole Hanseth

ABSTRACT. Digital remote care (DRC) is one means to contribute to digital transformation (DT) in the healthcare sector; a sector where DT has a long way to go before reaching its potential to be a significant contributor to the fulfilment of the need for more efficient, effective and up-to-date services. In this longitudinal case study, we investigate a Norwegian hospital region’s efforts to carry out ambitious transformations with DRC; in particular, we follow the DRC trajectories at one of the region’s hospitals. We aim to explore DRC and how it can scale through expansion, both in functionality and within the organisation to accommodate large-scale health information infrastructures. Our contribution to the information systems literature lies in providing a rich description of the challenges that emerge in relation to DRC initiatives and how such issues are addressed. We also contribute to the DRC practices by identifying four key aspects related to scaling and by deriving six lessons learned for planning and implementing DRC initiatives.

14:15-16:15 Session 14B: UDIT 4: Sustainability ++
Location: KE A-101
Looking for a Major in Computing? Technical Knowledge versus Broader Social Values in Computing Majors

ABSTRACT. Since universities have a crucial role in training the next generation of experts in the field, this exploratory study aims to investigate how universities present computing majors to prospective students to better understand potential barriers to diversity and inclusion. The study analyzes textual descriptions of computing majors, and titles and learning outcomes of compulsory courses of four European universities. The findings suggest that while universities acknowledge the social embeddedness of computing in majors' descriptions, their curricula prioritize technical knowledge over helping students understand the broader social impact of their future work. The misalignment between the values of prospective students, who care for the social perspective, and how universities present the field could limit diversity and inclusion. This research aims to contribute to the understanding of how universities can promote themselves and their courses to attract a more diverse and inclusive student population in computing majors, by proposing a method for objectively unveiling existing communication mismatch.

Challenges of Integrating a Sustainability Interdisciplinary Profile in Computing Education: A Case Study

ABSTRACT. Sustainability in higher computing education is becoming an increasingly important direction adopted by educational institutions, IT industry, and researchers. However, the incorporation of sustainability at the curriculum level is challenging. Among the challenges are students’ attitudes towards the integration of a sustainability profile (minor) within the core curriculum, as explored in this paper. This research evaluates students’ attitudes to an existing undergraduate computing education model, in which a sustainability profile is included. The empirical focus is on the case of the integration of an elective sustainability profile within the informatics curriculum at a Norwegian university. The case study involves examining relevant documents and conducting interviews with students who did not choose the interdisciplinary profile or, particularly, the sustainability track, followed by an interview with the sustainability profile leader to discuss students’ responses. The findings provide the faculty with feedback that can be employed in effective planning to include a sustainability profile in computing curricula. The study emphasizes that the incorporation of a profile that combines technology and humanity subjects, such as sustainability, is challenging, mainly due to lack of computing students’ interest in humanitarian topics. The findings indicate that higher educational institutions need to consider the time and provide sufficient information about the interdisciplinary subjects to students, especially that the choice of interdisciplinary courses affects, and is affected by, students’ pre-professional identity. The most significant finding in the study is the necessity of collective collaboration across the concerned disciplines to engage students from different academic fields in sustainability.

Sustainability integration in a higher education computer science department – a case study

ABSTRACT. Integrating sustainability into teaching practices in higher education is a challenge that is addressed both from the top down through institutional policies and from the bottom up through individual contributions. In this article, we present the ap-proach taken to integrate sustainability topics into the teaching practices of a computer science department at a Norwegian university. We provide an overview of the current state of the art and the results of interviews and focus group discussions with educators and researchers. Using a feedback-based approach, we de-velop an approach to engage relevant stakeholders in achieving desired learning objectives and highlight key areas that need to be addressed in order for faculty to integrate sustainability. We conclude with a set of solutions reported both in the literature and by members of the department.

Categorizing Projects for Software Engineering Capstone Courses

ABSTRACT. CCourses centered around a capstone project are common in Computer Science (CS) and Software Engineering (SE) programs. They are normally offered towards the end of the study program and give students the possibility to work on realistic and engaging projects, at the same time giving them hands-on experience of working with external actors, hereafter customers. In this paper we investigate the type of projects that are proposed by external customers. The study is based on a specific course at our university, where capstone projects are proposed by external customers from industry, start-ups, non-governmental organizations, and research organizations. In the scope of this work, we analyzed the 134 project proposals that were submit-ted for our course over the last five years, 2018-2022. The research question that we are addressing is: Which type of projects are proposed by external customers? To answer this question, we categorize the submitted project proposals into nine categories: compulsory or volunteer system, product driven or goal oriented, new product or enhancement, gen-eral audience or specific target group, information system or embedded sys-tem, sustainability aspects, type of license and competency-based classifica-tion. By classifying the proposals, we identify trends that might be used as a starting point to reflect on course and program organization. Based on our study, we suggest classifying projects from external customers as an important strategic tool for helping teachers to reflect on their work.