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09:00-10:00 Session 1: MPC Keynote
Location: Miragaia
Experiments in Information Flow Analysis

ABSTRACT. Designing programs which do not leak confidential information continues to be a challenge. Part of the difficulty arises when partial information leaks are inevitable, implying that design interventions can only limit rather than eliminate their impact.

We show, by example, how to gain a better understanding of the consequences of information leaks by modelling what adversaries might be able to do with any leaked information. Our presentation is based on the theory of Quantitative Information Flow, but takes an experimental approach to explore potential vulnerabilities in program designs. We make use of the tool Kuifje to interpret a small programming language in a probabilistic semantics that supports quantitative information flow analysis.

10:00-10:30Coffee Break
10:30-12:30 Session 2
Location: Miragaia
Handling Local State with Global State

ABSTRACT. Equational reasoning is one of the most important tools of functional programming. To facilitate its application to monadic programs, Gibbons and Hinze have proposed a simple axiomatic approach using laws that characterise the computational effects without exposing their implementation details. At the same time Plotkin and Pretnar have proposed algebraic effects and handlers, a mechanism of layered abstract by which effects can be implemented in terms of other effects.

This paper performs a case study that connects these two strands of research. We consider two ways in which the nondeterminism and state effects can interact: the high-level semantics where every nondeterministic branch has a local copy of the state, and the low-level semantics where a single sequentially threaded state is global to all branches.

We give a monadic account of the folklore technique of handling local state in terms of global state, provide a novel axiomatic characterisation of global state and prove that the handler satisfies Gibbons and Hinze's local state axioms by means of a novel combination of free monads and contextual equivalence. We also provide a model for global state that is necessarily non-monadic.

Certification of Breadth-First Algorithms by Extraction

ABSTRACT. By using pointers, breadth-first algorithms are very easy to implement efficiently in imperative languages. Implementing them with the same bounds on execution time in purely functional style can be challenging, as explained in Okasaki's paper at ICFP 2000 that even restricts the problem to binary trees but considers numbering instead of just traversal. Okasaki's solution is modular and factors out the problem of implementing queues (FIFOs) with worst-case constant time operations. We certify those FIFO-based breadth-first algorithms on binary trees by extracting them from fully specified Coq terms, given an axiomatic description of FIFOs. In addition, we axiomatically characterize the strict and total order on branches that captures the nature of breadth-first traversal and propose alternative characterizations of breadth-first traversal of forests. We also propose efficient certified implementations of FIFOs by extraction, either with pairs of lists (with amortized constant time operations) or triples of lazy lists (with worst-case constant time operations), thus getting from extraction certified breadth-first algorithms with the optimal bounds on execution time.

Verified Self-Explaining Computation

ABSTRACT. Common programming tools, like compilers, debuggers, and IDEs, crucially rely on the ability to analyse program code to reason about its behaviour and properties. There has been a great deal of work on verifying compilers and static analyses, but far less on verifying dynamic analyses such as program slicing. Recently, a new mathematical framework for slicing was introduced in which forward and backward slicing are dual in the sense that they constitute a Galois connection. This paper formalizes forward and backward dynamic slicing algorithms for a simple imperative programming language, and formally verifies their duality using the Coq proof assistant.

12:30-14:00Lunch Break
14:00-15:00 Session 3
Location: Miragaia
Self-Certifying Railroad Diagrams, or: How to Teach Nondeterministic Finite Automata

ABSTRACT. Regular expressions can be visualized using railroad or syntax diagrams. The construction does not depend on fancy artistic skills. Rather, a diagram can be systematically constructed through simple, local transformations due to Manna. We argue that the result can be seen as a nondeterministic finite automaton with ε-transitions. Despite its simplicity, the construction has a number of pleasing characteristics: the number of states and the number of edges is linear in the size of the regular expression; due to sharing of sub-automata and auto-merging of states the resulting automaton is often surprisingly small. The proof of correctness relies on the notion of a subfactor. In fact, Antimirov's subfactors (partial derivatives) appear as target states of non-ε-transitions, suggesting a smooth path to nondeterministic finite automata without ε-transitions. Antimirov's subfactors, in turn, provide a fine-grained analysis of Brzozowski's factors (derivatives), suggesting a smooth path to deterministic finite automata. We believe that this makes a good story line for introducing regular expressions and automata.

15:00-15:30Coffee Break
15:30-17:00 Session 4
Location: Miragaia
How to Calculate with Nondeterministic Functions

ABSTRACT. While simple equational reasoning is adequate for the calculation of many algorithms from their functional specifications, it is not up to the task of dealing with others, particularly those specified as optimisation problems. One approach is to replace functions by relations, and equational reasoning by reasoning about relational inclusion. But such a wholesale approach means one has to adopt a new and sometimes subtle language to argue about the properties of relational expressions. A more modest proposal is to generalise our powers of specification by allowing certain nondeterministic, or multi-valued functions, and to reason about refinement instead. Such functions will not appear in any final code. Refinement calculi have been studied extensively over the years and our aim in this article is just to explore the issues in a simple setting and to justify the axioms of refinement using the semantics suggested by Morris and Bunkenburg.

Setoid Type Theory --- A Syntactic Translation

ABSTRACT. We introduce setoid type theory, an intensional type theory with a proof-irrelevant universe of propositions and an equality type satisfying function extensionality, propositional extensionality and a definitional computation rule for transport. We justify the rules of setoid type theory by a syntactic translation into a pure type theory with a universe of propositions. We conjecture that our syntax is complete with regards to this translation.