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09:45-12:30 Session 5: Morning Plenary
Location: Red Auditorium
Sascha Harrell (Purdue University, United States)
Manufacturing Talent Pipeline Perceptions Gap (K-12); Improving the Knowledge and Practice of Industry and Education in Manufacturing Career Pathways

ABSTRACT. Manufacturing continues to be considered the backbone of economic growth in the United States. However, a challenge for manufacturing competitiveness can be the negative perception of the industry held by children that makes them reluctant to pursue manufacturing careers and fulfill the projected workforce demands.  Accordingly, there have been a number of K-12 education and/or talent pipeline initiatives to address the issues related to (1) the availability of a skilled workforce, (2) the preparation of students for the jobs of tomorrow, and (3) teacher access to the tools necessary to inspire children to pursue these high-demand career pathways.  However, research attempts focused on better understanding the influences of these industry-driven outreach initiatives on children’s perceptions of manufacturing-related careers are necessary. Therefore, IN-MaC and Purdue University launched a study focused on investigating the investigating the “perceptions gap” of children (Grades K through 12) and the influence of region-wide industry-led outreach, which included summer camps and manufacturing week activities. To do so, data were collected from career perception surveys and a “Draw-A-Manufacturer” test, which were administered both before and after these outreach experiences. The influences of these talent pipeline initiatives on the participants’ career perceptions and interests will be presented and the used as a foundation for discussions and recommendations for enhancing outreach activities and preparing children for the future of work.

Ercenk Keresteci (Microsoft, United States)
Extracting actionable insights from IoT data

ABSTRACT. Manufacturers are looking at a modern factory floor with an eye to improving production and processes using digital tools. And the greatest common denominator is the Internet of Things (IoT). Machines have been emitting data for some time now and storing it in various stores and formats. New machines will doubtlessly be providing even more data. But having the data is just the first step. The more important next step is to make the data usable for analytics to gain insights, but how to do that, what are the available services on the cloud to process this massive amount of data only to increase in size? 

Saigopal Nelaturi (PARC, United States)
FIELDS: Unifying generative design, manufacturing planning, and multi-level representation for next generation products

ABSTRACT. The level of complexity in today’s system designs has reached a point that stresses every aspect of the design process due to limitations of our Computer-Aided Design (CAD) tools in representing emergent novel materials and manufacturing processes. To overcome the challenges of traditional CAD systems, we discuss three core themes:

1. New mathematical models, representations, and computations for physical artifacts with heterogeneous, anisotropic material structure.

2. The tight interoperable integration of synthesis, manufacturing planning, and analysis.

3. Managing enormous design complexity by automatically searching very high dimensional spaces of shape, material, and process alternatives to help human designers discover physically realizable designs.

We discuss unifying these themes by maintaining four views of a physical artifact: As-designed, as-planned, as-manufactured, and as-analyzed. The as-designed view is the output of the design synthesis, the as-planned view of the artifact is a description of the artifact in terms of process parameters used to manufacture it, the as-manufactured (or as-built) view is the (simulated) representation of the manufactured artifact, and the as-analyzed view is the evaluation of performance criteria on the as-manufactured/ as-designed view. Maintaining and interoperating among these four views is necessary to transform the synthesis to manufacturing workflow. Each computational task in this workflow will call upon any of the four views required to answer queries about the physical artifact, and provide feedback to any other task in the design process. We will show several real-world examples of model based design using multiple views.

13:30-14:25 Session 6: Afternoon Plenary
Location: Red Auditorium
Michael Raphael (Direct Dimensions, United States)
Solving Problems with Metrology: 3D scanning across a broad range of industries

ABSTRACT. The technology for capturing real world objects in 3D to create ‘digital twins’ has evolved greatly over the last 30 years.  Michael Raphael and his team at Direct Dimensions have been using 3D scanning throughout this time to help solve a wide range of problems across a wide range of industries and applications.  Applications span diverse industries such as aerospace, automotive, art, architecture, military, museum, medical, and the movie industry. Industry 4.0 demands using digital data for manufacturing, and 3D scanning makes the digital data of objects, parts, tools, spaces, and places in the real world to create accurate 3D models for design, manufacturing, inspection, documentation, and analysis.  This enables engineers, architects, artists, and even doctors to work with reality-based 3D digital data from the physical world.  This presentation will examine how 3D scanning is used to scan planes, trains, and automobiles for reverse engineering; buildings & facilities for re-designing architecture; parts, tools, and molds for inspection and quality control; and even A-list Hollywood actors to make the VFX for some of Hollywood’s biggest movies.

14:35-16:50 Session 7A: Business & Skills Breakout
Location: Red Auditorium
Robert Reaume (Naval Surface Warfare Center Philadelphia Division, United States)
Model Based Systems Engineering (MBSE): Approach for Battery Management System (BMS) Interface Design

ABSTRACT. Energy storage is a key enabling technology for next-generation directed energy and electric weapons systems (US Navy seeks Energy Magazine for directed energy weapons, 2019). Battery systems make up a significant portion of the energy storage technologies presently available. The inevitability of continued interaction with battery systems in the Navy provides a need to develop a standard method to manage and interface with current and future Navy Systems (Kuseian, 2013). The approach taken in this effort seeks to develop interface requirements for a wide variety of Battery Management Systems (BMS), in order to achieve safe and reliable operation of battery systems for the Navy. This endeavor employed Model Based Systems Engineering (MBSE) practices utilizing Systems Engineering Modeling Language (SysML), Cameo System Modeler (CSM), and the MagicGrid framework. NoMagic’s Cameo Systems Modeler and MagicGrid framework, were chosen by reason of availability, propriety, and capacity for future use. In addition, the MagicGrid framework provides a rigorous and industry-accepted structure suitable for the scope of this work.

Ashley Yarbrough (Auburn University, United States)
Greg Harris (Auburn University, United States)
The Digital Transformation Gap Widens Between OEMs and SMMs
PRESENTER: Ashley Yarbrough

ABSTRACT. Research indicates that there is a digital gap developing between Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs)/large 1st tier manufacturers and the lower supply chain tier of Small and Medium-sized Manufacturers (SMMs). A substantial portion of these SMMs exhibit little awareness or understanding of digital manufacturing technologies and their applications.  This lack of readiness and awareness was revealed through industry interviews conducted in the MxD project - Digitally Enabling the Supply Chain and was confirmed through additional research to be an issue for SMMs globally.  An online Digital Manufacturing Guide website has been developed to help bridge the gap between the OEM and SMM adoption of digital capabilities.  Further study of the state of SMMs in the U.S. industrial base and the development of U.S. government policy are needed to assist SMMs in digital transformation.

Matthew Bowden (Johns Hopkins University, United States)
Michael Jones (Johns Hopkins University, United States)
The Cost of Enabling the Digital Thread
PRESENTER: Matthew Bowden

ABSTRACT. In a Model-Based Enterprise (MBE) environment, the Digital thread conveys data flows of a system or product between various phases of its lifecycle. During the design phase, the engineering function develops a Model-Based Definition (MBD) which provides a 3D digital-product model that defines the requirements and specifications of the system to downstream users. Researchers suggest the deployment of a Digital thread (by means of MBD) has significant benefits over using 2D drawing-based processes. In a paper titled ‘Testing the Digital Thread in Support of Model-Based Manufacturing and Inspection’, researchers developed quantitative evidence of these benefits by conducting a study comparing 2D drawing-based processes to 3D model-based processes for mechanical components. This paper extends upon that research by analyzing historical data from a complex manufacturing program to further compare the 2D drawing-based design process to the 3D model-based design process for mechanical components and mechanical assemblies. The results both validate the work of the aforementioned researchers by indicating that the design effort of 2D drawings are less than that of 3D MBD for mechanical components and suggests the trend is analogous for mechanical assemblies.

Curtis Brown (Kansas City National Security Campus, United States)
Sarah Hale (Sandia National Labs, United States)
Jeffrey Winter (DOE's National Nuclear Security Administration, United States)
A next-Generation Model-Based Enterprise Maturity Index
PRESENTER: Curtis Brown

ABSTRACT. For any transition journey, one needs a vision for your organization to get started; one needs plans, for your organization to finish; and one needs an index for your organization to define a path for success. This paper introduces the next generation Model-Based Enterprise (MBE) Maturity Index that helps define and normalize the transition from a document-centric, drawing-based business to a part-centric, digital, model-based enterprise. The aim of this paper is to share NNSA’s efforts related to MBE and thus help increase the pace of progress in industry.

14:35-16:50 Session 7B: Technology Breakout
Russell Waddell (AMT, United States)
Shaurabh Singh (AMT-The Association for Manufacturing Technology, United States)
Capability Modeling for Smart Manufacturing Standards Development
PRESENTER: Russell Waddell

ABSTRACT. Data on capabilities are critical inputs to a variety of smart manufacturing use cases including process planning, job routing, and digital twins, but these data remain both poorly defined and badly siloed. We propose a basic capability model for CNC machine tools by extending the MTConnect standard to demonstrate: 1) how capabilities can be represented within an existing standard; and, 2) the mechanism for advancing capability definitions and models in a standards development organization. The extended MTConnect tags are deployed to a small multi-device manufacturing demonstration cell consisting of a PocketNC desktop 5-axis CNC mill and an Arduino-powered robot.

David Alejandro Robles Ramírez (Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Mexico)
Theo Tryfonas (University of Bristol, UK)
Ponciano Jorge Escamilla-Ambrosio (CIC-IPN, Mexico)
Tesleem Fagade (University of Bristol, UK)
Kalliopi Anastasopoulou (Greek Ministry of Health/ 7th Health Region of Crete (R & D dept), Greece)
Andrea Tassi (University of Bristol, UK)
Robert Piechocki (University of Bristol, UK)
Model-Based Cybersecurity Engineering for Connected and Automated Vehicles: the FLOURISH Project
PRESENTER: Theo Tryfonas

ABSTRACT. Connected and automated vehicles (CAVs) represent a challenge for future transportation systems, as they generate a massive amount of data which may also include security threats and vulnerabilities for users. In this paper, we adapt a model-based systems engineering (MBSE) approach called the Internet of Things Security Modelling (IoTsecM) to address security challenges and system-level security critical issues in the domain of CAVs. Not only are connected autonomous vehicles considered, but also their interactions with other assets such as city infrastructure, sensors and traffic lights. The application is based on a real-life project, which identified innovative solutions related to connectivity, data analytics and safe design for CAVs in the UK. The objective of introducing IoTsecM into the project context was to provide a MBSE method to develop a systems architecture where the security mechanisms and controls are identified and modelled during the requirements stage in order to facilitate secure, trustworthy and private CAV technology development by design.

Rosemary Astheimer (Purdue University, United States)
Daniel Campbell (Capvidia, United States)
Evan Kessick (GE Appliances, a Haier company, United States)
Consequences of Non-Semantic PMI
PRESENTER: Evan Kessick

ABSTRACT. Sharing information digitally between stakeholders is at the heart of a model-based definition, but the data out is only as good as the information that is captured. This presentation will explore differences of connecting Product and Manufacturing Information (PMI) to a variety of references in a model-based process in order to produce quality output with minimal or no consequences.

We know that connecting PMI to all relevant references is important, but does it matter how those references were defined? How do these references differ when looking through the lens of a Coordinate Measuring Machine (CMM) or a Computer Numerically Controlled (CNC) program? What changes if you are connecting PMI to a hole feature in a native CAD model vs. the surface of a cylindrical feature in a neutral format? But wait! Some CAD systems split cylindrical features into two surfaces. What does that do to the definition?

We will demonstrate that it isn’t hard to connect PMI to geometry, but what are the consequences if you don’t fully understand how the output will be used? This presentation will discuss common PMI data exchange scenarios, the potential for change in the way the data is communicated and how to identify such associated risk.

Masatomo Inui (Ibaraki University, Japan)
Shinnosuke Naganuma (Ibaraki University, Japan)
Kouhei Nishimiya (Ibaraki University, Japan)
Nobuyuki Umezu (Ibaraki University, Japan)
Visualizing Thickness and Clearance of 3D Objects
PRESENTER: Masatomo Inui

ABSTRACT. Thickness and clearance are two of most fundamental parameters during design processes of mechanical products. In this paper, we propose novel definitions of these two parameters about a three-dimensional object, named “volumetric thickness” and “accessibility clearance.” These new definitions have a range of applications in design processes. For example, the interior part of a solid object can be classified according to our volumetric thickness. Visualization based on such classification results allow us to better understand the thickness distribution of the three-dimensional object. In terms of clearance, this attribute in current industrial practice is typically measured as the distance between two shape elements. This definition, however, is basically incomplete for evaluating the clearance during assembly tasks that also require the depth information. Our accessibility clearance handles both the width and depth simultaneously and its visualization offers intuitive understanding about assembly capability of that product.

14:35-16:50 Session 7C: Technology Breakout
Thurston Sexton (National Institute of Standards and Technology, United States)
Location: Portrait Room
Senthil Chandrasegaran (University of California, Davis, United States)
Xiaoyu Zhang (University of California, Davis, United States)
Michael P Brundage (National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD, United States)
Kwan-Liu Ma (University of California, Davis, United States)
Using Text Visualization to Aid Analysis of Machine Maintenance Logs

ABSTRACT. Maintenance and error logs for machines in manufacturing organizations are typically written as informal notes by operators or technicians working on the machines. These logs are described using a combination of common language as well as internally-used abbreviations and jargon. Due to inconsistencies in the terminology used during error logging and in identifying root causes of issues, the data needs to be repaired before automated analyses can be effectively used. This requires a human to go through and repair/tag the data, disambiguate multiple terms, and sometimes assign additional tags to the data objects to aid automated classification. With some organizations storing over a million records of legacy maintenance report data, this is not entirely feasible. We introduce a visual analytic approach to help analysts sift through such heterogeneous datasets so that the inconsistent data can be tagged and categorized with minimum manual effort. Though such data typically includes metadata such as date, time, severity, machine IDs etc., we focus on the human-entered text descriptions. We use metrics such as word occurrence frequency and information-theoretic metrics to visually highlight common and uncommon issues and fixes that occur in the maintenance logs. We illustrate our approach with data from industry, and discuss future research directions to address scalability, metadata, and other approaches for grouping similar logs.

Kamran Goher (Cranifeld University, UK)
Essam Shehab (Cranfield University, UK)
Ahmed Al-Ashaab (Cranfield University, UK)
Trends in Model-Based Definition Based Assembly Information for High-Value Manufacturing
PRESENTER: Kamran Goher

ABSTRACT. 3D modeling is in use for the last many decades at various stages of the product lifecycle i.e., design, analysis, manufacturing, and inspection. In the modern era of Industry 4.0 where the high-value manufacturing industry is aiming at the digital thread, Model-Based Definition (MBD) has been considered as the heart of this transformation. However, MBD needs to be realized throughout the product lifecycle to get full advantage. In literature, considerable work has been found focusing on a shift from traditional 2D drawings to MBD. The majority of this work focused on design, manufacturing, and inspection stages, whereas, there is lack of work in the area of MBD based assembly information. This paper focuses on the current state of knowledge in MBD based assembly information, the trends, challenges, and future research directions

Michael Brundage (National Institute of Standards and Technology, United States)
Radu Pavel (TechSolve, United States)
Using Text Analytics Solutions with Small to Medium Sized Manufacturers: Lessons Learned

ABSTRACT. As Smart Manufacturing becomes more prevalent throughout industry, manufacturers are continuing to look for ways to more efficiently apply advanced data analysis methods to improve their decision processes. One promising area for improving decision making is through the use of natural language processing (NLP) methods on text based data in maintenance. Maintenance personnel often capture important information on the problems and repairs throughout the manufacturing facility in informal text. This information is key to improving maintenance decisions, such as scheduling, dispatching, diagnosis, and inventory management, but is difficult to access due to the informal and domain specific nature of the text. Methods are available to aid manufacturers with parsing through this information, however small-to-medium sized manufacturers (SMMs) still have issues in implementing NLP solutions in practice. This paper discusses lessons learned in applying a NIST developed methodology to SMMs maintenance data.

Teodor Vernica (NIST, United States)
Aaron Hanke (TU Dresden, Germany)
William Bernstein (NIST, United States)
Leveraging standard geospatial representations for industrial augmented reality
PRESENTER: Teodor Vernica

ABSTRACT. Due to its tremendous potential, Augmented Reality (AR) has experienced a recent surge in adoption and integration within the manufacturing enterprise. While industrial AR has been successfully implemented and shown to have significant benefits in a variety of applications, proper use case development, application-specific evaluation, and data interoperability remain open research challenges. In this work, we demonstrate an AR-enabled use case that allows for remote monitoring and inspection of manufacturing systems by overlaying contextual information, such as machine execution data, over the video feed of the manufacturing floor. Additionally, we discuss challenges related to our prototype's implementation and potential opportunities to mitigate such issues through standard indoor geospatial representations.

14:35-16:50 Session 7D: Vendor Breakout
Location: Lecture Room A
Thomas Hall (IBM Corporation, United States)
Graham Bleakley (IBM Corporation, UK)
How Model-Based Testing (MBT) Helps Increase Your MBE ROI
PRESENTER: Thomas Hall

ABSTRACT. The Verification and Validation of safety-critical software for use in Automotive, Medical, or Aerospace & Defense products can be a very expensive proposition. Model Based Testing allows you to test, validate, and document safety-critical software, catching defects and regressions early in development.

We’ll discuss how the IBM Rhapsody Test Conductor add-on to IBM Engineering Systems Design Rhapsody allows the automated execution of test cases that validate Requirements traceability, as well as reporting Model coverage and Code coverage.

We’ll take 10 minutes to look at a quick PowerPoint presentation to introduce the topic of MBT, describe the high costs of validating safety-critical software, and then describe the areas that MBT can enhance from a Return on Investment (ROI) viewpoint. We’ll share customer experiences (names redacted as needed) and set expectations and describe what to look for in the demonstration.

We’ll then work through a 30 minute demonstration using Rhapsody Test Conductor to execute a Test Case comprised of Sequence diagrams, Statecharts, Flowcharts, as well as Source Code. We’ll showcase the demonstration results – reports describing Requirements Coverage, Model Coverage, Code Coverage. Also, we’ll show how that pass/fail test verdict is round-tripped back into the larger Test Plan.

Test Conductor can increase ROI through higher quality, faster turnaround, more comprehensive testing and reporting. By automatically creating tests from the System, you get requirements coverage, model and source code coverage, early defect detection, visualization, and a significantly reduced maintenance effort. The test case development, frequent execution and minimal maintenance will greatly improve ROI.

The supporting documentation includes the tool “Pre-Qualification” evidence, and describes the availability of a free validation suite to create this evidence. Also included is comprehensive documentation that maps Rhapsody workflow activities to safety standards including DO-178, IEC 62304, ISO 26262, IEC 61508, IEC 62304, and EN 50128.

Tony Davenport (Phoenix Integration, United States)
Digital Mission Engineering

ABSTRACT. Digital Mission Engineering is a developing field that integrates Mission, System, Cost and Analytical models to validate the product life cycle from conceptual design through development and ultimately mission operations. Through DME, the "right-level" of physics are brought as early as possible to decision makers to generate a trade study to ensure the highest probability of mission success. This presentation will highlight the key tenants of Digital Mission Engineering and how the defense industrial base is adapting DME into their product life cycle management to better serve their customers.

Pawel Chadzynski (Aras Corporation, United States)
Verl McQueen (Aras Corporation, United States)
The MBE Vision Needs MBD to Reach Outside Its Current MCAD and PMI Comfort Zone
PRESENTER: Pawel Chadzynski

ABSTRACT. The vision of a Model Based Enterprise (MBE) is to have an authoritative and traceable source for all artifacts and activities throughout a product’s lifecycle. The promise of reduced costs, higher quality (including tighter adherence to governance and regulations), and improved productivity; drives this digital revolution. This. among other things, requires replacement of a paper-based communication system comprised of 2D drawings and related Product Manufacturing Information (PMI) with a model-based system. Much emphasis has been placed on the Model Based Design (MBD) element of MBE through creation of 3D CAD models with intelligent and dynamic views, that in addition to the full geometric description, are annotated with associated PMI—3D PMI. Barriers to achieving full MBE vision are largely twofold—cultural and technical. The world generally still views the 2D representation as authoritative and acceptance of models over “tribal knowledge” is slow. At the same time, the coming workforce is losing the capability to read “blueprints.” For MBD specifically, transfer of design information to manufacturing still relies heavily on the conversion of delivered 2D drawings into 3D Computer Aided Manufacturing (CAM), some 3D models with accompanying 2D PMI, and rarely, full 3D model transmissions directly from the CAD repositories. For all practical purposes, the MBD approach is still viewed as a process of injecting PMI data into 3D PDFs generated from 2D drawings. Authorship competency of sufficiently informative 3D models can still be considered in the early learning stages at best. Standards for representing MBD data are primarily in the proposal phase, remain far from widespread acceptance, and the communication of PMI through APIs is problematic. All of this, in an environment of ever-increasing complexity, governance creep, and new materials and manufacturing processes cries out for transformation.

Lars Olson (SAP, United States)
A Paradigm Shift in Enterprise Software User Experience (UX) via a Visual Digital Twin

ABSTRACT. A paradigm shift has occurred in the enterprise software User Experience (UX) by associating 3D product models with enterprise data from Design to Operate. This creates a Visual Index for every persona/end user in the digital supply chain and Industry 4.0. Historical views of enterprise data in the form of tables, list, hierarchies and exploded BOM’s have been replaced by a Model Based Enterprise where the 3D product model and visual analytics becomes the primary user interface to enterprise data, insights and actions. There are many benefits of leveraging the 3D product models, combined with graphs and data such as Visual Learning which increases information retention, enables higher-order thinking skills, and transcends language barriers. Virtually putting the manufactures physical products up front and center, in context of the business data to reduce the time to find and access information required to make key business decisions and transactions.

In this product demonstration we will showcase the ability to leverage 3D product models coming from any Mechanical CAD (MCAD) package, associating each component and or assembly to enterprise data and systems such as customer experience, project and requirements management, systems engineering, simulation, design, procurement, supply chain, manufacturing, quality, asset management, IoT, and service to create a visual digital thread throughout the extended enterprise value chain.