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08:00-09:00 Session : Registration
Location: Riverside Foyer
09:00-10:00 Session 7: Cybersecurity and the Complex, Connected Battlefield

Presenter:  Mr. Richard A. Hale (Deputy Chief Information Officer for Cybersecurity, U.S. Department of Defense)

This presentation will address the cybersecurity challenges facing a heterogeneous collection of military and civilian entities that need to operate effectively in a complex, contested, connected battlespace and what needs to, can be, is being done to provide warfighters with the assured connectivity and access to information they need for command and control.   

This presentation will address the following questions:

  • How does the challenge of cybersecurity on the battlefield differ from the day-to-day challenges of protecting our networks and information?
  • Is cybersecurity and information sharing a zero sum game?
  • How should cybersecurity requirements be incorporated into our design and acquisition of battlefield systems?
  • What are the interoperability implications of strengthening cybersecurity?
  • How can the U.S. and its allies work together to ensure that the ‘connected’ battlefield is actually connected and secure?
  • What research and analysis is needed to better inform cybersecurity approaches and investments?
  • Is cybersecurity affordable?
Location: Turing Lecture Theatre
10:00-11:00 Session 8: C2 Theory Overview, Recent Developments and Way Forward

Presenter:  Dr. David S. Alberts (IDA, USA)

This presentation will begin by reviewing the Command and Control implications of previous presentations and, in this context, review key Command and Control -related concepts and related hypotheses to include: the Command and Control Approach and Endeavor Spaces, autonomy, mission command, composite networks, cybersecurity, and Command and Control Agility.   Evidence to date supporting these hypotheses will be provided and reviewed. 

This presentation will address the following questions:

  • What are the implications of complex enterprises for Command and Control?  the complexity and dynamics of 21st Century missions?
  • What are the implications for operations assessments?
  • How do we address / mitigate an increasing dependence on communications,  ‘perfect’ information and the availability of our networks?
  • How does Command and Control Theory accommodate increasing scale (numbers of entities) on the battlefield?
  • How does Command and Control Theory help us protect against / mitigate an increasing cyber threat?
Location: Turing Lecture Theatre
11:00-11:30Coffee Break
11:30-12:30 Session 9: C2 Challenges and Application of C2 Theory

Moderator:  Anthony Alston (QinetiQ, UK)

Panelists:  Calvin S. Johnson (Deputy, Mission Command Battle Lab, US)

                      Christopher Briggs (Dstl, UK)

                      Keith Stewart (DRDC, CA)

                      Kevin Chan (ARL, USA)

                 Lorraine Dodd (Cranfield University, UK)

This panel will discuss the challenges facing C2 in the ever increasing complex operating environment our Armed Forces are engaged within and how S&T can contribute to addressing these; the discussions will cover both S&T ‘solutions’ and how their benefits can be demonstrated and how they can be implemented.

This panel will address the following questions:

  • Is a focus on ‘Military C2’ still appropriate? - Is the bounded concept of ‘military C2’ meaningful in a multi-agency environment?
  • How does the current Defence-oriented education and training need to evolve to reflect the multi-agency environment?
  • Is C2 still a meaningful concept? - Do current C2 theories allow us to design/evolve appropriate C2 organisations?
  • How does the S&T community demonstrate the benefits of their theories, techniques and tools to the military?
  • What are the implications of the Information Age on C2? – How will the availability of non-organic information sources contribute to C2?
  • What do concepts such as Shared Awareness/Understanding, intent, value and success mean in a multi-agency organisation?
Location: Turing Lecture Theatre
12:30-13:30Lunch Break
13:30-15:00 Session 10A: Internet of Intelligent Things and Autonomy

First track session on Internet of Intelligent Things and Autonomy

Niranjan Suri (Florida Institute for Human & Machine Cognition (IHMC), USA)
Location: Riverside 4
James Michaelis (U.S. Army Research Laboratory, USA)
Mauro Tortonesi (University of Ferrara, Italy)
Michael Baker (U.S. Army Research Laboratory, USA)
Niranjan Suri (Florida Institute for Human and Machine Cognition, USA)
Applying Semantic Technologies toward Military Internet of Things Infrastructures

ABSTRACT. Historically, military operations have hinged on the availability of both relevant and actionable information collections. The Internet of Things (IoT) paradigm represents a powerful means for data synthesis and dissemination, which stands to significantly impact many existing C4ISR practices. From a military perspective, IoT’s major strengths emerge from the potential integration of diverse services and devices – able to provide greater insights combined as opposed to separate. However, the integration of distributed IoT services – having potentially diverse configurations and ownership – also poses several established challenges to C2 information actionability.

Towards the development of military IoT solutions, this paper argues for the expanded use of semantically-aware IoT middleware – oriented toward interpretation of data within the context of unfolding military operations. Following a discussion of relevant C2 challenges to information actionability, a corresponding collection of information representation and processing technologies will be surveyed, each emerging from the Semantic Web research community. For each technology, discussion on both its integration with existing IoT middleware and relevant ongoing research challenges will be provided.

Ricardo Fernandes (Brazilian Army, Brazil)
Michael Hieb (George Mason University, USA)
Paulo Costa (George Mason University, USA)
Levels of Autonomy: Command and Control of Hybrid Forces
SPEAKER: Michael Hieb

ABSTRACT. Complex operations, in which human units seamlessly collaborate with machines, have never been so close to becoming a reality. The enabling technology is mostly ready, but the Command and Control (C2) infrastructure remains a major roadblock. Collaboration involving Hybrid Teams demands new ways of dealing with levels of autonomy to ensure operational efficacy and efficiency. In this paper we describe a new approach for Autonomy that enables Hybrid Teams to collaborate to achieve mission goals within the Internet of Intelligent Things (IoIT).

We define a Hybrid Team as composed of biological, mechanical or cybernetic agents. We understand C2 as a process to build collaboration to achieve goals. Rather than focusing on the “platform” we focus on their cognitive dimensions. We have developed a framework, Hybrid Cognitive Collaboration (HyCCo), to model C2 in this domain. We define Autonomy as the ability of a Cognitive Agent (or Hybrid Team) to generate a response to environment changes and to preserve a goal commitment. The Levels of Autonomy are then defined as the degrees of freedom a Cognitive Agent has when executing those responses.

We model HyCCo as a collection of operational processes to be executed by Cognitive Agents depending upon their capabilities. The intent of HyCCO is to provide minimum requirements for the C2 of Hybrid Teams. In this paper we present the results of initial experiments to validate the framework. The main scientific benefit is the establishment of a new framework for autonomy for both current operations and future generation systems development.

Paul Phister (MANIAC Consulting, USA)
T.J. Phister (MANIAC Consulting, USA)
AI Technologies Pertinent to Command Centers
SPEAKER: unknown

ABSTRACT. Data/information coming into an Operational Command Center has significantly grown over the past five years. It is estimated that 1-5 terabytes of data/information flows into and out of today’s Command Center within a single 24-hr period. The amount of time required for the operational staff to read, digest and act on the information is from hours to days. Given this timeline, the Commander routinely makes decisions with less than up-to-date information. One solution is to inject artificial intelligence (AI) systems into the Command Center. Fully incorporating pertinent expert systems has the potential to reduce critical timelines to input, digest, and communicate information (e.g., surveillance, exploitation, real-time feeds, etc.) from hours/days to seconds/minutes. AI can also benefit the Commander with respect to the “man-machine” interface. Currently, it takes many individuals on computer terminals to “crunch” the data/information within a Command Center. By inserting an AI interface between the individual terminals and the command center computers can significantly cut down on this “number crounching.” This will provide timely information to the Commander in minutes/seconds. This concept is similar to Star Trek the Next Generation’s “Mr. Data.” Imagine the Commander just talking to the “Computer Interface” and having the requested information returned within seconds or minutes? This paper presents an overview utilizing the Command and Control “bubble” charts developed over the course of NATO SAS efforts from 2000-2012, current AI efforts applicable to a Command Center, and a list of applicable technologies that can be used to inject AI into the Command Center.

13:30-15:00 Session 10B: Battlespace Understanding and Management #2

Second track session on Battlespace Understanding and Management

Peter Houghton (DSTL, United Kingdom)
Location: Riverside 1
Brian Drabble (Bradford University, United Kingdom)
Reasoning about Unknown Objects and Dependencies in C2 Networks Using Value of Information
SPEAKER: Brian Drabble

ABSTRACT. This paper describes an approach to reasoning about unknown objects and dependences in C2 network analysis using Value of Information (VOI). C2 systems and their attributes are modeled as a series of networks describing the inter-dependencies between persons, groups, locations, resources, concepts, etc. This allows for the capture of the required infrastructural, organizational, procedural, etc., aspects of networks. Due to a lack of information C2 network models often contain unknown nodes and dependency links. Unknown nodes are ones that are suspected to be part of the network and could be instantiated to one of several values. For example, an insurgent network must have a leader node but it could be one of several people. Dependency links are ones that suggest possible ways to address a dependency. A C2 Center depends on electrical power which could be supplied via one or more sources. The algorithms described here firstly provide analysts with the ability to track constraints between unknown nodes and links allowing forced instantiations (options reduced to one), empty option (no instantiations possible) and reduced set sizes to be identified. Secondly, it provides analysts with the ability to assess the VOI for an unknown node/link in terms of what other decisions regarding unknowns are made computationally easier by their instantiation. The approach has been integrated with a planning capability to create plans to resolve unknown nodes/links and to bring about desired network effects. It has been applied to several domains including counter insurgency, air campaign planning and countering WMD development.

Ulrik Spak (Swedish Defence University, Sweden)
Else Nygren (Uppsala University, Sweden)
Enhancing change detection of the unexpected in monitoring tasks – guiding visual attention in command and control assessment
SPEAKER: Ulrik Spak

ABSTRACT. Many surveillance tasks in military command and control involve monitoring for change in a visual display environment in order to discover potential hazards or new opportunities. Effective change detection in various situational pictures is a requisite for battlespace understanding. The detection of unexpected events is particularly difficult and missed events may cause malicious outcomes in contexts characterized by high complexity and risk. We present examples of change detection failures in the military domain, and explain why and how the psychological phenomena of change blindness and inattentional blindness can generate such failures. We further give an overview of existing solutions to these problems and point out a specific issue, coping with unexpected events, where effective solutions are missing today. Inadequate expectations may be a result of misdirection by the enemy. This paper demonstrates a new concept – an adaptive attention aware system (A3S) for enhanced change detection. The A3S is a concept of gentle support. It is based on cuing of visual attention by a non-obtrusive flash cue in the display (bottom-up), to compensate for guidance by inadequate expectations (top-down) in situations influenced by high levels of uncertainty.

Paul Deitz (U.S. Army Materiel Systems Analysis Activity, USA)
Britt Bray (MNA LLC, USA)
Michael Kolodny (U.S. Army Research Laboratory, USA)
James Michaelis (U.S. Army Research Laboratory, USA)
The Missions & Means Framework Ontology: Matching Military Assets to Mission Objectives
SPEAKER: Britt Bray

ABSTRACT. Modern warfare, whether focused on kinetic, information, or combinations of both effects, is based on many task sequences executed by numerous OWNFOR and OPFOR entities. To frame the complexity of warfare, professional warfighters have for many years followed the Military Decision-Making Process (MDMP). By this approach, mission tasks (with conditions and standards) are used to identify requisite capabilities. Only then are appropriate entities assigned to task execution. What emerges is a clear logical linkage from mission (i.e. tasks) to capabilities to materiel. In 2003, the Missions & Means Framework (MMF) was developed as a formal embodiment of the MDMP.

Unfortunately, in many materiel studies, the MDMP is absent as the logical basis for a] specifying explicitly the military mission and b] quantitatively evaluating the mission utility of alternative products and services. Probably the greatest challenge comes in the disciplines of C4ISR supported by ontologies in which formal naming and definition of the types, properties, and interrelationships of the entities are fundamental to characterizing mission success. Underway is a demonstration using the MMF to plan, monitor and assess execution of operational tests and supporting developmental activities. And recently, the study has expanded to support the MINI-DASS (ISR information-generating methodology) program to highlight the relationship between SA and mission success.

This singular integrating MMF Ontology formalism has significant ramifications across a broad group of research, requirements, test, training, and analytic activities, all of which are identically mirrored in this single conceptual model.

13:30-15:00 Session 10C: Interoperability/Integration and Security #1

First track session on Interoperability/Integration and Security

Michael Wunder (Fraunhofer-FKIE, Germany)
Location: Riverside 5
Lisa Scott (Army Research Laboratory, USA)
Kevin Chan (US Army Research Laboratory, USA)
Alice Leung (BBN Technologies, USA)
Will Dron (BBN Technologies, USA)
Rommie Hardy (US Army Research Laboratory, USA)
Kelvin Marcus (US Army Research Laboorato, USA)
Understanding Interactions between Social, Information and Communication Networks
SPEAKER: Lisa Scott

ABSTRACT. Army forces operate in a connected environment consisting of different types of social, information, and communication networks, some within the exclusive control of the military and some that are used and control externally by others. Generally, the performance and success of these networks are studied independently, but in a military context, mission success depends, to a significant degree, upon the ability to effectively establish command and control utilizing these collective of networks. So there is a need to understand the inter-dependencies of these co-evolving networks because cross-network feedback loops can lead to failure cascades and vulnerabilities or contribute to robustness and agility. In previous work we examined cross-genre network interactions between a constrained communication network and social/cognitive network within a Company Intelligence Support Team (CoIST) inspired scenario. We considered network parameters like group organization, policies regarding information propagation, and communications network bandwidth. Using the same integrated simulation platform, we are extending this work to consider two additional parameters. We explore the impact of the physical layout and resulting characteristics of the underlying communications network, as well as the level of “noise” (i.e. irrelevant content) in the information network. Expanding the multi-network parameter space explored allows us to further understand the interoperability of these network types under a broader range of military relevant conditions. Experimental results can potentially be applied to design networks to meet operational objectives, improve shared situation awareness, dynamically adapt to the unfolding knowledge terrain, and suggest the network layer where security approaches would be the most effective.

Raheleh Dilmaghani (SSCPAC, USA)
Trent Bottin (SPAWAR System Center Pacific, USA)
Evaluation of Software-Defined Networking (SDN) for Mission Operation

ABSTRACT. Assured Command and Control (C2) requires a highly reliable, agile, resilient, and secure network infrastructure. Efficient network management, lower size and cost are among other requirements. The emerging communication platform must be flexible and scalable to support a myriad of applications with different needs such as data, voice, video, and document sharing.

A robust network should react to dynamic changes in mission requirements or environment conditions to continuously and reliably operate in a local or distributed deployment. The network should be able to quickly recover from cyber attacks and limit the perimeter of the impacts. Reducing configuration complexity, reconfiguration effort, access policies, and security to ensure delivery of right information to the right people at the right time is critical. Interoperability becomes more of an issue when multiple nations are involved with a variety of devices.

The need is well recognized and the U.S. Navy has invested in emerging technologies to explore how developing new technologies can improve interoperability, integration, and withstand the barrage of attacks.

Software-Defined networking (SDN) separates data plane from control plane and makes the network programmable. Orchestration and programmability enables the network to dynamically adapt to the application needs and mitigates the network administrators’ efforts from mundane and error-prone configuration settings and enforces consistent security policies across the network. In this paper, we present the advantages and challenges of SDN in a mission environment along with the experimentation results of SDN in a distributed heterogeneous test bed implementation with a multi-bearer network topology with link failure.

Stephen Russell (US Army Research Laboratory, USA)
Niranjan Suri (Florida Institute for Human & Machine Cognition (IHMC), USA)
Rita Lenzi (Florida Institute for Human & Machine Cognition (IHMC), USA)
Measures of Compatibility and Interoperability for C2 Information Management Systems
SPEAKER: unknown

ABSTRACT. Interoperability is an essential requirement to achieve the promise of a fully and transparently connected battlespace of the future. However interoperability has been the holy grail of information systems since their inception. In a battlespace context, the challenges of interoperability occur at many different levels: the coalition level, the joint operations level, and even within a single force. Factors that create or contribute to these challenges include syntactic and semantic differences in the data, update rates, latency requirements, messaging formats, security requirements (including encryption and data at rest), validation requirements, network protocols, Application Programming Interfaces (APIs), and even the certification processes themselves.

This paper identifies and discusses different measures for compatibility and categorizes them to define different levels of Interoperability for Command and Control (C2) information management systems. As a motivating use case, the discussion of compatibility examines the US Marine Corps Command and Control / Situation Awareness (MC2SA) Tactical Service Oriented Architecture (TSOA). However, the concepts and measures are generalized to apply to any C2 Information Management (IM) system. As an initial step, this characterization may be useful for developing a common language that can be used to express compatibility requirements between C2 systems. Furthermore, we hope that increased awareness and characterization of compatibility requirements will reduce the element of interoperability (or lack thereof) “surprise”, that often occurs when trying to interconnect C2 systems.

13:30-15:00 Session 10D: KSCO #1: Coalition Information Management

First KSCO track session: Coalition Information Management

Austin Tate (University of Edinburgh, United Kingdom)
Location: Turing Lecture Theatre
David Kamien (Mind-Alliance Systems, USA)
MindCollect: An Information Needs Management System for Coalition Situational Awareness, Sensemaking, Decision Making, and Mission Integration
SPEAKER: David Kamien

ABSTRACT. An efficient mechanism for bottom-up elicitation from domain experts is a key enabler for producing meaningful information requirements specifications. This paper describes “MindCollect,” an information-requirements management system that consists of: (a) An Information Needs Profiling Module for Q&A-based elicitation and gathering of operational user tasks and associated information needs; (b) Answer dataset management; and, (c) Automated formulation of coherent task narratives (aka user stories) using techniques inspired by Natural Language Generation approaches. MindCollect has proven efficient and effective in the bottom-up elicitation of requirements from domain experts. The use of MindCollect for determination of requirements in a civil emergency management project is described. Finally, we describe future research directions, including the potential for leveraging Linked Open Data.

Hans-Christian Schmitz (Fraunhofer Institute for Communication, Information Processing and Ergonomics, Germany)
Applying OntoClean for the Evaluation of the MIP Information Model

ABSTRACT. The Multilateral Interoperability Programme (MIP) is a multinational military standardization committee that develops interoperability specifications for Command and Control Information Systems (C2IS). A key product is the MIP Information Model (MIM). It serves as a standard for information exchange for multiple echelons in joint and combined operations. The MIM harmonizes information elements from a variety of data sources and communities of interest (COIs) and is under continuous development for enabling interoperability under changing operational requirements. In the construction of information models and ontologies, such as the MIM, inconsistencies can occur and usually do occur. To avoid them, it is advisable to guide the model construction from the very beginning and to identify and resolve inconsistencies early. We recently tested and applied an evaluation method called OntoClean, which has been proposed as a universal evaluation method based on insights from philosophical ontology. OntoClean defines meta-properties that are applied to the concepts defined within a specific information model. With reference to these meta- properties, subsumption constraints are defined that can be tested in an automated manner. If the constraints are fulfilled, the model is considered “onto clean”. It turned out that the MIM can be considered “ontoclean” but the evaluation revealed that the further specification of concepts and the introduction of allegedly plausible relations might lead to semantic problems. Admittedly, the OntoClean annotation remains a challenge: an annotation experiment, conducted with military experts, revealed significant differences between annotations and proofed that the application of the method is not trivial.

Sarah Markham (Birkbeck College London, United Kingdom)
- CANCELLED - Methodological Development, Experimentation, Analysis, Assessment and Metrics
SPEAKER: Sarah Markham

ABSTRACT. In organisations peopled by expert individuals with specific experiential knowledge bases, the knowledge they have which is of relevance to the organisation may be lost when they leave it. Some of this knowledge may be tacit and not explicitly requested, expressed or recognised. This paper presents an exploration of potential mechanisms of expert experiential knowledge identification, capture and representation with a view to automated reasoning, sharing and handover within organisations.

15:00-15:30Coffee Break
15:29-17:00 Session 11: Socio-technical Networks in Complex Connected Battlespace #2

Second track session on Socio-technical Networks in Complex Connected Battlespace

Elizabeth Bowman (ARL, USA)
Location: Riverside 4
Heng Wang (Science and Technology on Information Systems Engineering Laboratory, China)
Ming Lei (Science and Technology on Information Systems Engineering Laboratory, China)
Shuangling Wang (Science and Technology on Information Systems Engineering Laboratory, China)
Self-adaptivity and Structure Optimization and Control for Network-Enabled C2 Systems
SPEAKER: unknown

ABSTRACT. Since information-based warfare is characterized by complexity, changeability and strong antagonism, it is necessary that a network-enabled C2 system, which serves to be the “brain” of an information-based operation, should be self-adaptive. The concept of self-adaptivity for a network-enabled C2 system (NEC2S) is proposed in this paper, and its concept model, which is called Awareness-Decision-Execution (ADE) model, is also built. In order to realize self-adaptive optimization and control of a system structure under the conditions of changeable tasks, situations and environment, a method for optimization and control of a system structure is proposed based on the improved genetic algorithm. A typical area air defense C2 system simulation test show that, when a network-enabled C2 system has the mechanism of self-adaptivity, its structure enjoys significantly improved performance through optimization and control.

Adrienne Raglin (Army Research Laboratory, USA)
Andre Harrison (United States Army Research Laboratory, USA)
AADT software: A training tool for Commanders preparing Warfighters for various battlefield tasks

ABSTRACT. For current and future missions, the need for commanders to train Warfighters effectively and efficiently remains a critical challenge. This effort may be complicated by a limitation of resources and the integration of various new devices into a Warfighters’ arsenal. Commanders may also be faced with preparing their Warfighters to support missions with fast turn around times in dynamic asymmetric environments. Commanders also need to provide their Warfighters with training on the latest tactics of their adversaries. A potential solution is to utilize flexible software based training tools, capable of creating training courses that are customized to a commander’s needs and Warfighter’s schedule.

The Applied Anomaly Detection Tool (AADT) is a software package for enabling trainers to quickly create courses using images and videos collected from multiple sources. These courses can then easily be disseminated across training centers, bases, and theaters of operation. The AADT software can also be used across multiple platforms – including desktops and tablet devices – such that Warfighters can review training material either collectively or individually. Versions of the AADT software courses aid training the Warfighters in the detection of different types of anomalies and indicators related to the target within different types of scenes. As an evaluation of the utility of the software, we also present experimental results that demonstrate a positive transfer of training when Warfighters used courses within the AADT software.

Marcelo Jose Camilo (Exercito Brasileiro, Brazil)
Andersonn Kohl (Exercito Brasileiro, Brazil)
David Fernandes Cruz Moura (Exercito Brasileiro, Brazil)
Leonardo Henrique Moreira (Exercito Brasileiro, Brazil)

ABSTRACT. In this paper we aim to analyze the value of the information that is delivered to the decision maker in Command and Control systems. We consider a packet of information as a discrete unit of information. We suppose that the system has a queue in which all packets of information are stored before being sent to the commander. Afterwards, we define functions that assign values over time to the packets of information. Therefore, we analyze two traditional strategies to deliver the packets of information to the decision maker. The first one is to deliver the packets of information in the chronological order that they arrive in the system. The second one is to deliver the packets of information in the descending order of their values. So, we have proposed a new strategy, named SMLPI (Strategy of Minimal Loss for Processed Information). This strategy aims to increase the aggregated value of the packets of information to the decision maker. We defined LVQj (Lost of Value to the Queue) of a packet of information j as being the sum of the loss of value in all other packets of information that remain in the queue when we choose the packet of information j to be processed. The SMLPI strategy sends the packet that has the smallest LVQj to the decision maker. Simulations show that the average of the aggregated value to the decision maker using the proposed strategy is higher than the evaluated value using the aforementioned traditional strategies. Another important observation is that the most the decision maker is overloaded, the most the proposed strategy is advantageous.

15:30-17:00 Session 12A: Battlespace Understanding and Management #3

Third track session on Battlespace Understanding and Management

Peter Houghton (DSTL, United Kingdom)
Location: Riverside 1
Michael A. Kolodny (U.S. Army Research Laboratory (United States), USA)
Tien Pham (U.S. Army Research Laboratory (United States), USA)
Paul H. Deitz (U.S. Army Materiel Systems Analysis Activity (United States), USA)
MINI-DASS: a new Missions & Means Framework ontological approach for ISR PED missions .....the magic rabbits
SPEAKER: unknown

ABSTRACT. Today’s battlefield space is extremely complex, dealing with an enemy that is neither well-defined nor well-understood. “Bad actors” comprise widely-distributed, loosely-networked groups engaging in nefarious actives to harm us. Battlespace situational understanding is needed by our decision makers; understanding of adversarial capabilities and intent is essential. Varied Intelligence, Surveillance & Reconnaissance (ISR) Processing, Exploitation & Dissemination (PED) missions are needed to accomplish this. Information sources providing mission-relevant needed information are numerous and include sensors, social networks, multimedia, internet, HUMINT, etc. Management of this multi-dimensional battlespace of informational sources is critical. This paper will present a new approach being undertaken to answer the challenge of developing battlefield understanding by optimizing the application of informational sources (means) to required PED missions as well as monitoring mission execution while coordinating, prioritizing and de-conflicting utilization of ISR assets in a multi-dimensional battlespace.

Capabilities and operational requirements are usually expressed in terms of a presumed technology solution (e.g., imagery). A metaphor of the “magic rabbits” was conceived to remove presumed technology solutions from requirements by claiming the “required” technology is obsolete. Instead, intelligent “magic rabbits” are used to provide needed information. The question then becomes: “WHAT INFORMATION DO YOU NEED THE RABBITS TO GIVE YOU?” This paper will describe a new approach called MINI-DASS (Mission-Informed Needed Information - Discoverable, Available Sensing Sources) that designs a process that builds PED-inspired missions and determines not only what the “magic rabbits” need to provide the decision maker but defines it in a manner that is machine understandable.

Laurel Sadler (U. S. Army Research Laboratory, USA)
James Michaelis (U.S. Army Research Laboratory, USA)
An Information Management Framework for C2 Data Analysis in Tactical Operations Centers

ABSTRACT. In delivering effective analysis software, evaluating real-time data received from the tactical edge, managing and modifying current missions, planning for upcoming missions and providing basic Command and Control (C2) are all established challenges. Furthermore, such software can be made rapidly obsolete both by continued advances in battlefield instrumentation and information processing methods. Under these conditions, researchers need computing environments to facilitate agile development of new analysis tool releases – in which basic research on information processing and human information interaction can be integrated and empirically evaluated. Towards this end, this research presents IOAIDE – Information Object Analysis, Intent, Dissemination and Enhancement – a novel information management framework aimed at jointly supporting the needs of Command and Control analysts as well as researchers in both algorithm and tool prototyping.

For Command and Control analysts, IOAIDE introduces a modular design for enabling plugin of analysis modules – ranging from data analytics to anomaly detection – aimed at aligning with the needs of specific users and tasks. Within individual modules, methods are supported to guide parameter adjustments, aimed at both reducing analyst workload and improving understanding of data spaces. Likewise, IOAIDE’s design enables researchers to make adjustments as needed to create and test new algorithms and methods – both from computational and user-oriented perspectives.

Simon Smith (MooD International, United Kingdom)
Dick Whittington (MooD International, United Kingdom)
Mark Balmer (MooD International, United Kingdom)
Making sense of the cyber-rich mission battlespace: causality and Mission C2
SPEAKER: Simon Smith

ABSTRACT. MooD International has been working with the UK’s Dstl organisation to develop a system for cyber situation awareness that supports the mission commander in taking appropriate action in the face of the overwhelming amounts of data typically associated with analysing and responding to cyber events. The approach projects likely consequences of actions, whether by a cyber adversary, or the mitigating actions of the cyber defender, by exploiting cause and effect chains across cyber events and mission performance, embedded in a model that aligns a rich diversity of social and technical capabilities and components of the mission landscape.

The initial stages of this work were reported on at the 19th ICCRTS in 2014, and this paper provides an update on further progress to date:

• The application of a persona method to improve the understanding of the concepts that the system deals with, including mission thread, decisive conditions, and how these fit with cyber events • Investigating the applicability of a general purpose causal graph approach being developed by MooD International • Work on how the processes of cyber analysis and mission intelligence, and the functioning of operational pictures, may evolve given the availability of such a system for cyber situation awareness The end result is increasing maturity for a system that is focused on providing transparency into how a mission is achieving its outcomes, and so enables decisions on cyber actions to be made on the basis of mission outcomes and performance, rather than on cyber network behaviour alone.

15:30-17:00 Session 12B: Interoperability/Integration and Security #2

Second track session on Interoperability/Integration and Security

Michael Wunder (Fraunhofer-FKIE, Germany)
Location: Riverside 5
Adam Brook (QinetiQ Ltd, United Kingdom)
Brian Wardman (Defence Science and Technology Laboratories, United Kingdom)
Bharat Patel (Defence Science and Technology Laboratories, United Kingdom)
The Use of C2-Simulation Interoperability Standards in a Coalition Virtual Interoperability Prototyping and Research Environment
SPEAKER: unknown

ABSTRACT. This paper describes how C2-Simulation interoperability standards, particularly the Coalition Battle Management Language (C-BML), are being used to underpin the delivery of The Technical Cooperation Program (TTCP) nations’ (Australia, Canada, New Zealand, United Kingdom and United States of America) Virtual Interoperability Prototyping and Research Environment (VIPRE / “viper”) initiative. Built on the latest service-oriented paradigms, VIPRE is an on-demand, agile, distributed and coalition C2 and Simulation (C2Sim) environment that supports a broad range of unclassified and classified experimentation across the five nations. C-BML provides a means of triggering the behaviours of simulated entities derived from operational plans developed using operational command and control applications. Simply put, it enables a functional interface between C2 systems and simulations, allowing faster-than-real-time course of action analysis, mission preparation, mission rehearsal and more efficient training.

This paper gives a brief summary of the lessons learned from this and related activities, gives an example of a VIPRE test case where a UK C2Sim test-bed has been used to demonstrate C2Sim-base Joint Mission Planning using the NATO Comprehensive Planning Directive (COPD) for guidance and offers insight into the future direction and exploitation of C-BML by the UK.

Kenneth Lesueur (US Army, USA)
James Ruth (BMA, USA)
J. Mark Pullen (GMU, USA)
Operationalization of Standardized C2-Simulation (C2SIM) Interoperability

ABSTRACT. The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) has formed Modeling and Simulation (M&S) Groups (MSG) to investigate how M&S can enhance NATO’s mission accomplishment. The recently formed MSG-145, Operationalization of Standardized C2-Simulation Interoperability (C2SIM), is tasked to mature the efforts of the MSG-085 and 048 from an academic study into a truly operational capability.

C2SIM provides individual nations a capability to use their national C2 and simulation systems during planning within a coalition military force. The use of Coalition Battle Management Language (C-BML) as the information exchange hub allows each nation to conduct planning in a distributed environment in collaboration with their coalition partners.

This paper provides the background of previous MSG efforts in C2SIM and current U.S. Army efforts in information sharing within a coalition force. It also describes the human, technology, and process connections that must take place to establish the C2SIM capability envisioned by MSG-145 and identifies how the U.S. Army can leverage the C2SIM capability during coalition operations. The unique nature of C2SIM and C-BML allows commanders and their staff to conduct a planning process on their own C2 and simulation systems, yet is sharable with other forces within a NATO coalition. The U.S. Army has multiple venues where the C2SIM capability can be implemented to improve its coalition warfighting readiness within the NATO organizational construct.

J Mark Pullen (George Mason University C4I Center, USA)
Kevin Galvin (Thales Cyber and Consulting Services, United Kingdom)
New Directions for C2-Simulation Interoperability Standards
SPEAKER: Kevin Galvin

ABSTRACT. C2-simulation interoperability (C2SIM) is an area where modeling and simulation (M&S) has great potential in operational planning and execution of missions. This potential has been demonstrated at a number of events by the application of evolving technical standards developed by the Simulation Interoperability Standards Organization (SISO) to support in areas of system initialization, tasking and reporting. However, it has become clear that achieving that full potential requires a partnership between defense technical and operational activities and standards-making teams within SISO, so the standards can be developed on the basis of practical usage involving a mixture of experienced national teams. Previous SISO product development groups for C2SIM have merged in order to produce more harmonized results and save effort where there was overlap in their activities. The paper describes as a background the development and characteristics of current C2SIM standards Military Scenario Development Language (MSDL) and Coalition Battle Management Language (C-BML). It then proceeds to explain the process that is developing next-generation SISO C2SIM standards while also sustaining the initial versions. SISO C2SIM standards form an essential element advancing use of simulation in support of military operations. An important contribution to the SISO effort will be technology development and operational evaluation to be made by NATO Modelling and Simulation Group’s Technical Activity 145 (MSG-145). The authors are Co-Chairs of the SISO C2SIM Product Development Group and also are active in NATO MSG-145.

15:30-17:00 Session 12C: KSCO #2: Coalition Decision Making

Second  KSCO track session: Coalition Decision Making

Austin Tate (University of Edinburgh, United Kingdom)
Location: Turing Lecture Theatre
Martin Hofmann (Lockheed Martin Advanced Technology Laboratories, USA)
Katherine Guo (Lockheed Martin, USA)
Kevin Spivey (Lockheed Martin, USA)
Rachel Hingst (Lockheed Martin, USA)
Resilient C2 in the A2/AD Environment

ABSTRACT. In contested environments, where communications with the centralized Air Operation Center (AOC) are denied or degraded, the forward-located Distributed Control Nodes (DCNs) will need to assume the AOC’s planning and control functions. USAF is investigating the DCN construct, since forward deployed DCNs are much less vulnerable to communications denial as they can take advantage of shorter-range, directional communications means to coordinate with each other, while the long-haul communications links to the AOC present a large, soft, high-value target to a capable adversary. The DCN construct naturally extends to coalition operations where coalition partners provide or staff forward control nodes, and where coalition forces would ideally be controlled in an integrated manner by DCNs. CONOPS featuring unified coalition operational control would enable more effective and agile employment of forces and more optimal sharing of resources. However, to achieve these benefits with only a small fraction of the AOC’s manpower, expertise, and situational awareness, each DCN needs to contribute to the planning and replanning, controlling, and assessing of a comprehensive set of missions. We present an initial experiment with a decision support capability that assists DCNs’ staff in allocating and sharing responsibilities for the C2 tasks (mission planning, controlling, and assessing) across a set of parallel missions. Our experiment demonstrates that an auction-based, many-to-many resource allocation technique effectively allocates and schedules C2 tasks to DCNs. Under reasonable assumptions about DCN staffing, our experiment supports the viability of the DCN construct to sustain the tempo of air operations in accordance with Commander’s Intent.

Anne-Claire Boury-Brisset (Defence Research and Development Canada – Valcartier, Canada)
Michael A. Kolodny (U.S. Army Research Laboratory, USA)
Tien Pham (ARL, USA)
ISR asset visibility and collection management optimization through knowledge models and automated reasoning

ABSTRACT. The increasing number and diversity of information sources makes ISR operations more and more challenging; this is especially true in a coalition environment. Optimizing the discovery and utility of coalition ISR assets when facing multiple requests for information, and enhancing the data to decisions process by gathering mission-relevant information to consumers will require automated tools in support of collection planning and assessment. Defence R&D Canada and the US Army Research Laboratory have related research activities in the area of ISR asset interoperability and information collection. In this paper, we present these projects and collaborative efforts to enhance ISR interoperability, through plug-and-play ISR interoperability and semantic knowledge representation of ISR concepts as well as approaches to maximize the utilization of available ISR collection assets.

Brian Kettler (Lockheed Martin Advanced Technology Laboratories, USA)
Rachel Hingst (Lockheed Martin Advanced Technology Labs, USA)
Gary Edwards (Lockheed Martin Advanced Technology Labs, USA)
Richard Metzger (Air Force Research Lab, USA)
Toward a Living Web of Plans
SPEAKER: Brian Kettler

ABSTRACT. More challenging and dynamic future battlespace environments such Anti-Access/Area Denial (A2AD) require more operationally agile, higher ops tempo processes for planning and execution of synchronized operations beyond today’s fairly rigid planning processes (e.g., the Joint Air Tasking Cycle for air operations planning). The modern battlespace increasingly includes multiple military domains (air, land, cyber, etc.), other governmental and nongovernmental organizations, and coalition partner countries. Driven by increasing threats to command and control (C2) infrastructure, new concepts of operations such as distributed control will further fragment the planning enterprise as operational-level planning shifts from a large, physically centralized center (e.g., a Coalition Air Operations Center) to more peer-to-peer planning among multiple, dispersed units. To better integrate diverse plans in various stages of planning/execution across these participants, commanders and planners face challenges in understanding and influencing this more interconnected, distributed planning enterprise; maintaining unity of effort across semi- independently authored plans; and detecting conflicts, gaps, inefficiencies, and opportunities across these moving parts. Our novel Living Web of Plans vision will help commanders achieve a greater unity of effort out of diverse, decentralized planning through new automation that proactively discovers plans and plan fragments from distributed repositories and nontraditional open sources; links plans by identifying cross-plan relationships; and exploits the resulting dynamic, living “web of plans” to proactively identify synergies, conflicts, and provide planners and commander with visibility into and over an increasingly distributed planning enterprise. This paper describes the vision, and technology enablers towards a Living Web of Plans.

18:00-21:00 Session : Dinner

Dinner at Honourable Artillery Company (HAC), Armoury House, City Road, London, EC1Y 2BQ