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09:00-10:00 Session 5: Keynote
Location: H 3010
Algebraic Invariants for Affine Programs

ABSTRACT. Automatically generating invariants is a fundamental challenge in program analysis and verification.  In this talk we give a select oveview of previous work on this problem, starting with Michael Karr's 1976 algorithm for computing affine invariants in affine programs (i.e., programs having only non-deterministic (as opposed to conditional) branching and all of whose assignments are given by affine expressions).  We then present the central result of the talk---an algorithm to compute all polynomial invariants that hold at each location of a given a affine program. Our main tool is an algebraic result of independent interest: given a finite set of rational square matrices of the same dimension, we show how to compute the Zariski closure of the semigroup that they generate.

This is joint work with Ehud Hrushovski, Joel Ouaknine, and Amaury Pouly.

10:00-10:30Coffee break
10:30-11:10 Session 6A

Automata and Languages

Location: H 3010
A unified approach to Büchi determinisation

ABSTRACT. Nondeterministic Büchi automata are one of the simplest types of finite automata on infinite words and are successfully applied in model checking. In some settings nondeterminism is not acceptable, but determinisation of Büchi automata is a difficult problem with a long history and a few different solutions. In our work we noticed similarities in two different determinisation constructions (the constructions of Safra and the construction of Muller and Schupp) and studied those to obtain a generalized algorithm from which both original constructions can be recovered as special cases. More details can be found in the attached extended abstract.

Algorithms for inclusion into a regular language

ABSTRACT. We revisit the classical problem to decide whether a language (regular or context-free) is included into a regular language. By relying on fixpoint characterizations, dualization and abstract interpretation we obtain various algorithms. We connect those to existing algorithms.

Determinizing two-way automata with linear-time Turing machines

ABSTRACT. In 1968, Sakoda and Sipser conjectured that the simulation cost of the determinization of two-way automata is exponential in the worst case. In spite of all attempts the problem remains open today. In this work we propose a new approach, in which the simulating deterministic machine has further abilities besides the read-only capacity of two-way automata. We prove a polynomial size-cost simulation of two-way nondeterministic automata by deterministic weight-reducing Turing machines, a syntactical restriction of linear-time Turing machines which recognize regular languages only, as proved by Hennie in 1965. We then discuss the cost of the conversion into weight-reducing linear-bounded-automata, which constrain the former model by restricting the space to the portion of the tape that initially contain the input word.

This is a joint work with Giovanni Pighizzini, Luca Prigioniero and Daniel Průša that has been presented at DLT'18.

10:30-11:10 Session 6B


Location: H 2013
An Optimal Construction for the Barthelmann-Schwentick Normal Form on Classes of Structures of Bounded Degree

ABSTRACT. Building on the locality conditions for first-order logic by Hanf and Gaifman, Barthelmann and Schwentick showed in 1999 that every first-order formula is equivalent to a formula of the shape ∃x₁ . . . ∃xₖ ∀y φ where quantification in φ is relativised to elements of distance ≤ r from y. Such a formula will be called Barthelmann-Schwentick normal form (BSNF) in the following. From BSNF, Barthelmann and Schwentick obtain a local Ehrenfeucht game and an automata-model for first-order logic. For such applications of BSNF, as well as for possible future uses in algorithms, the size of bsnf-formulae is of interest.

Although Barthelmann and Schwentick show that for each first-order for- mula, an equivalent BSNF can be computed effectively, the construction leads to a non-elementary blow-up of the BSNF in terms of the size of the original formula.

We show that, if equivalence on the class of all structures, or even only finite forests, is required, this non-elementary blow-up is indeed unavoidable. We then examine restricted classes of structures where more efficient algorithms are possible. In this direction, we show that on any class of structures of degree ≤ 2, BSNF can be computed in 2-fold exponential time with respect to the size of the input formula. And for any class of structures of degree ≤ d for some d ≥ 3, this is possible in 3-fold exponential time. For both cases, we provide matching lower bounds.

The presented work is a joint work with Lucas Heimberg and submitted to CSL 2018.

Logic and rational languages of scattered and countable series-parallel posets

ABSTRACT. Since it was established by Büchi, Elgot and Trakhtenbrot in the early 60's, the connection between automata theory and formal logic has been intensively developed in many directions. An important application is decision algorithms for logical theories. Since those pioneer works, the compositional method introduced by Sheilah in 1975 gave a more general framework than automata theory for deciding logical theories. However, automata theory has a lot of other usages, for example the characterisation of fragments of logics. Among the wide range of results in this direction, let us cite for example McNaughton, Papert and Schützenberger: a formula of the monadic second-order logic (MSO) is effectively equivalent to a formula of its first-order fragment if and only if its associated finite monoid is group-free. Since then, many notions of automata have been introduced: automata on trees, on linear orderings, etc. In this work, we focus on automata over the class of transfinite N-free posets. They are a generalisation of branching automata over finite N-free posets, or equivalently series-parallel posets, and of automata over scattered and countable linear orderings. We give an effective logical characterisation of the class of languages recognised by such automata. The logic involved is an extension of MSO with Presburger arithmetic, named P-MSO. The effective construction of an automaton from a formula of P-MSO is a mere adaptation of the case of finite words. The converse however is much less usual. Starting from a rational expression (effectively equivalent to automata), we build a graph, that we parse and transform into a formula of P-MSO. In the parsing of the graph, recursivity is avoided by a MSO-expressible identification of particular factors of posets.

Expressing Unboudedness in MSO + nabla

ABSTRACT. We consider an extension of MSO on the infinite binary tree. The extensions adds a probabilistic path quantifier that says that with probability 1 a branch is chosen such that the formula holds in this branch. The probability measure that is used is the coin-flipping measure. This added quantifier properly extends MSO, but we do not know whether this logic has decidable satisfiability problem. Here we make progress into showing that the satisfiability problem is undecidable by proving that the logic is powerful enough to be able to express unboundedness of counters.

On Computing the Measures of First-Order Definable Sets of Trees

ABSTRACT. We consider the problem of computing the measure of a regular language of infinite binary trees. While the general case remains unsolved, we show that the measure of a language defined by a first-order formula with no descendant relation or by a Boolean combination of conjunctive queries (with descendant relation) is rational and computable. Additionally, we provide an example of a first-order formula that uses descendant relation and defines a language having an irrational measure.

10:30-11:10 Session 6C

Parity Games

Location: H 2032
Solving parity games in quasi-polynomial time -- a logician's approach

ABSTRACT. Last year was a good year for parity games. After over 25 years of research on algorithm to solve parity games, the first quasi-polynomial solution was published by Calude and colleagues. Later the same year, Jurdziński and Lazic published an independent proof of the same result, based on a drastic improvement of the classic progress measure algorithms.

Here I propose yet another independent algorithm for solving parity games in quasi-polynomial time, this time using methods from logic and descriptive complexity.

This algorithm is based on a new bisimulation invariant measure of complexity for parity games, called the register-index, which aims to capture the complexity of the priority assignment. Like entanglement, register-index is defined in game-theoretic terms, using a parametrised k-register game that is played on a parity game arena. For fixed k, parity games of register-index up to k are solvable in polynomial time. This adds parity games of bounded register-index to the classes of parity games with a known polynomial-time solution. Notably, even the class of games of register-index 1 contains non-trivial parity games of arbitrarily high entanglement, tree-width, Rabin-index, Kelly-width, DAG-width and arbitrarily many priorities, as well as families of games known to exhibiting worst-case performance for recursive, strategy improvement and progress-measure based algorithms.

I show that the register-index of parity games of size n is bounded by O(log n) and derive a quasi-polynomial algorithm.

Although the runtime of this algorithm does not improve over existing quasi-polynomial algorithms, it allows us to relate the quasi-polynomial solvability of parity games to their descriptive complexity. Indeed, the winning regions of parity games of register-index up to k and of maximal priority p can be described by a modal mu formula of which the complexity -- as measured by its alternation depth -- depends on k, rather than p.

This talk is based on work accepted for publication at LICS2018.

Universal trees grow inside separating automata: Quasi-polynomial lower bounds for parity games

ABSTRACT. Several distinct techniques have been proposed to design quasi-polynomial algorithms for solving parity games since the breakthrough result of Calude, Jain, Khoussainov, Li, and Stephan (2017): play summaries, progress measures and universal trees, and register games. We argue that all those techniques can be viewed as instances of the separation approach to solving parity games, a key technical component of which is constructing (explicitly or implicitly) an automaton that separates languages of words encoding plays that are (decisively) won by either of the two players. Our main technical result is a quasi-polynomial lower bound on the size of such separating automata that nearly matches the current best upper bounds. This forms a barrier that all existing approaches must overcome in the ongoing quest for a polynomial-time algorithm for solving parity games. The technical highlight is a proof that every separating safety automaton has a universal tree hidden in its state space; our lower bound then follows by establishing a quasi-polynomial lower bound for universal trees.

Universal parity graphs and lower bounds for parity games

ABSTRACT. This is a collaboration with Nathanaël Fijalkow.

Fix a number of priorities d. A "parity graph" is a (d-)parity labelled graph such that all cycles have an even maximal priority (said differently, a parity game played by Adam only, in which Eve wins). It is "n-universal" if it contains all size-n parity graphs as subgraphs.

In this talk, I will explain how these universal parity graphs provide neat explanations of all the subexponential algorithms for solving parity games in the literature. In particular, in each of these algorithms, one can find in its structure a universal parity graph, and conversely, one can devise a variant of the algorithm for each choice of a universal parity graph. As a consequence, it explains the recent result of Czerwinski, Fijalkow, Jurdzinski, Lazic and Parys, and shows that all these algorithms face the same difficulty if one attempts to further optimization.

Solving parity games with tangles

ABSTRACT. Parity games are well known for their applications in formal verification and synthesis, especially to solve both the model-checking and synthesis problems of the modal mu-calculus and related logics like LTL. We have published two novel contributions to this field in the past year and are working on a third. This presentation is based on publications at TACAS'2018 and CAV'2018 containing the following contributions.

Oink is a new implementation of parity game solvers much like the well known PGSolver, but it has a much improved practical performance and we use Oink to perform a new modern comparison of parity game solvers. The tool is designed for easy integration with other toolchains and for easy replication of research results.

We propose a new algorithm to solve parity games called tangle learning. The idea is that all algorithms for parity games explore so-called "tangles" in the parity game and they often repeat exploring the same tangle again and again, which can lead to exponential runtimes. The insight ("highlight") of the tangle learning algorithm is that these tangles can be combined with the attractor computation and then we can use this with a memoization strategy ("learning") to never explore the same tangle twice. The tangles are very much related to another concept called "distractions" that we're currently developing further, and we can show that the interaction of tangles and distractions drives parity game difficulty.

11:20-12:00 Session 7: Spotlight
Location: H 3010
Symbol Elimination for Program Analysis

ABSTRACT. In this talk I describe how a combination of symbolic computation techniques with first-order theorem proving can be used for solving some challenges of automating program analysis, in particular for generating and proving properties about the logically complex parts of software. I will first present how computer algebra methods, such as Groebner basis computation and symbolic summation help us in inferring properties of program loops with non-trivial arithmetic. I will then further extend our work to generate first-order properties of programs with unbounded data structures, such as arrays. For doing so, I will use saturation-based first-order theorem proving and extend first-order provers with support for  program analysis. I will review some of our recent results on Craig interpolation and proving properties in the full first-order theories of data structures. Our work is implemented in the Vampire theorem prover and successfully applied on benchmarks from the software verification and automated reasoning communities. 

12:00-13:30Lunch break
13:30-15:20 Session 8: Invited Session

Logic and Learning

Location: H 3010
The Automatic Data Scientist: Making Data Science Easier using High-level Languages, Fractional Automorphisms, and Arithmetic Circuits

ABSTRACT. Our minds make inferences that appear to go far beyond standard data science. Whereas people can learn richer representations and use them for a wider range of learning tasks, machine learning algorithms have been mainly employed in a stand-alone context, constructing a single function from a table of training examples. In this talk, I shall touch upon a view on data science that can help capturing these human learning aspects by combining high-level languages and databases with statistical learning, optimisation, and deep learning. High-level features such as relations, quantifiers, functions, and procedures provide declarative clarity and succinct characterisations of the data science problem at hand. This helps reducing the cost of modelling and solving it. Putting probabilistic deep learning into the data science stack, it even paves the way towards one of my dreams, the automatic data scientist — an AI that makes data analysis and reporting accessible to a broader audience of non-data scientists. 

This talk is based on joint works with many people such as Carsten Binnig, Martin Grohe, Zoubin Ghahramani, Martin Mladenov, Alejandro Molina, Sriraam Natarajan, Robert Peharz, Cristopher Re, Karl Stelzner, Martin Trapp, Isabel Valera, and Antonio Vergari, among others.

Learning Linear Temporal Properties

ABSTRACT. Making sense of the observed behavior of complex systems is an important problem in practice. It arises, for instance, in debugging (especially in the context of distributed systems), reverse engineering (e.g., of malware and viruses), specification mining for formal verification, and modernization of legacy systems, to name but a few examples.

To help engineers understand the dynamic (i.e., temporal) behavior of complex systems, we develop algorithms to learn linear temporal properties from data. More precisely, the problem we address in this talk is the following: given two disjoint, finite sets of infinite words, representing positive and negative examples, construct a (minimal) LTL formula such that all positive examples satisfy the formula, while all negative example do not. As the resulting formulas are meant to be read and understood by humans, our learning algorithms are designed to learn minimal LTL formulas, or at least "small" formulas with a "simple" structure. We also discuss interesting directions for future work.

Learning Models over Relational Databases

ABSTRACT. In this talk I will overview recent results on learning classification and regression models over training datasets defined by feature extraction queries over relational databases. I will show that the complexity of this task can be connected with known notions of widths that measure the complexity of relational queries, such as the fractional hypertree width. This complexity can be much lower than that of the state of the art approach that first materialises the training dataset. Recent joint work with collaborators from industry shows that this approach can speed up real analytical workloads by several orders of magnitude over state-of-the-art systems.

I will also highlight on-going work on linear algebra over databases and point out exciting directions for future work.

This work is based on long-standing collaboration with Maximilian Schleich and Jakub Zavodny and more recent collaboration with Mahmoud Abo-Khamis, Hung Ngo, and XuanLong Nguyen.


15:20-15:50Coffee break
15:50-16:30 Session 9A

Logic and Graphs

Location: H 3010
Definable Ellipsoid Method, Sums-of-Squares Proofs, and the Graph Isomorphism Problem

ABSTRACT. I will discuss several mathematical programming relaxations of the graph isomorphism problem: the Sherali-Adams hierarchy of LP relaxations, its strengthening via the Lasserre hierarchy of SDP relaxations, and its relaxation via Groebner basis computations. I will present a result which completes a full cycle of implications to show that, for the graph isomorphism problem, the relative strength of those relaxations is the same, up to a small loss in the level of the hierarchy. This is joint work with Albert Atserias.

On the First-Order Complexity of Subgraph Isomorphism

ABSTRACT. Let F be a fixed pattern graph with k vertices. The Subgraph Isomorphism problem asks whether a given host graph G contains a subgraph isomorphic to F. In the induced version of the problem, the question is whether G has an induced copy of F. Each of the two problems can be expressed by a first-order sentence of quantifier depth k. We investigate the question whether this can be done more succinctly with respect to the quantifier depth and the variable width. A more detailed 2-page abstract is uploaded as a pdf file.

This is joint work with Maksim Zhukovskii.

Distinguishing Graphs via Logics with Counting

ABSTRACT. The Weisfeiler-Leman algorithm is a combinatorial procedure that plays a crucial role both in theoretical and practical research on the graph isomorphism problem. For every k there is a k-dimensional version of the algorithm, which iteratively refines a partition of the set of k-tuples of vertices of the input graph. Two graphs are non-isomorphic if (but not only if) their final partitions computed by the algorithm differ.

In this talk, I will give a very brief introduction to the mechanisms of the Weisfeiler-Leman algorithm and present some of our results:

We have studied the number of iterations which the algorithm takes to stabilize. We have found new upper bounds for the iteration number of the 2-dimensional algorithm as well as recently a tight new lower bound for the 1-dimensional algorithm, which I will discuss in the talk. By a famous result established by Cai, Fürer and Immerman, a graph is identified by the k-dimensional Weisfeiler-Leman algorithm if and only if it is definable in C^(k+1), first order logic with counting and restricted to k + 1 variables. Via this correspondence, the number of iterations the algorithm needs to distinguish two graphs corresponds to the quantifier depth of the corresponding counting logic.

Non-convergence in existential monadic second order logic of random graphs

ABSTRACT. We study existential monadic second order (EMSO) properties of undirected graphs. In 2001, J.-M. Le Bars proved that, for EMSO, zero-one fails. Formally, there exists an EMSO sentence about undirected graphs such that the probability that a random graph satisfies it doesn't converge (here, the probability distribution is uniform over the set of all graphs on the labeled n-set of vertices). In the same paper, he conjectured that, for EMSO sentences with 2 first order (FO) variables, the zero-one law holds (every sentence is either true asymptotically almost surely (a.a.s.), or false a.a.s.). We disprove this conjecture. In particular, we give an example of EMSO sentence with 2 monadic variables and FO quantifier depth 2 without convergence. Moreover, this sentence can be rewritten using 1 monadic variable and 2 FO variables. We also consider the sparse binomial random graph (all edges appear independently with probability n^{-\alpha}, 0<\alpha<1) and prove that the EMSO zero-one fails for this random graph is well. The history of the problem, formal definitions, and the proofs are collected in the attached pdf. This is joint work with Maksim Zhukovskii.

15:50-16:30 Session 9B


Location: H 2013
Regular Transducer Expressions for Regular Transformations

ABSTRACT. Functional MSO transductions, deterministic two-way transducers, as well as streaming string transducers are all equivalent models for regular functions. In this paper, we show that every regular function, either on finite words or on infinite words, captured by a deterministic two-way transducer, can be described with a regular transducer expression (RTE). For infinite words, the transducer uses Muller acceptance and \omega-regular look-ahead. \RTEs are constructed from constant functions using the combinators if-then-else (deterministic choice), Hadamard product, and unambiguous versions of the Cauchy product, the 2-chained Kleene-iteration and the 2-chained omega-iteration. Our proof works for transformations of both finite and infinite words, extending the result on finite words of Alur et al.\ in LICS'14. In order to construct an RTE associated with a deterministic two-way Muller transducer with look-ahead, we introduce the notion of transition monoid for such two-way transducers where the look-ahead is captured by some backward deterministic B\"uchi automaton. Then, we use an unambiguous version of Imre Simon's famous forest factorization theorem in order to derive a ``good'' (\omega-)regular expression for the domain of the two-way transducer. ``Good'' expressions are unambiguous and Kleene-plus as well as $\omega$-iterations are only used on subexpressions corresponding to \emph{idempotent} elements of the transition monoid. The combinator expressions are finally constructed by structural induction on the ``good'' ($\omega$-)regular expression describing the domain of the transducer.

Regular and First Order List Functions

ABSTRACT. We define two classes of functions, called regular (respectively, first-order) list functions, which manipulate objects such as lists, lists of lists, pairs of lists, lists of pairs of lists, etc. The definition is in the style of regular expressions: the functions are constructed by starting with some basic functions (e.g. projections from pairs, or head and tail operations on lists) and putting them together using four combinators (most importantly, composition of functions). Our main results are that first-order list functions are exactly the same as first-order transductions, under a suitable encoding of the inputs; and the regular list functions are exactly the same as MSO-transductions.

A paper at LICS 2018, joint with Laure Daviaud and Krishna Shankara Narayanan https://arxiv.org/abs/1803.06168

Resynchronizing Classes of Word Relations

ABSTRACT. A natural approach to define binary word relations over a finite alphabet A is through two-tape finite state automata that recognize regular languages over {1,2}xA, where (i,a) is interpreted as reading letter a from tape i. Accordingly, a word w in a language L denotes the pair (u,v) in A*xA* in which u is the projection of w onto 1-labelled letters and v is the projection of w onto 2-labelled letters. While this formalism defines the well-studied class of Rational relations (a.k.a. non-deterministic finite state transducers), enforcing restrictions on the reading regime from the tapes, which we call "synchronization", yields various sub-classes of relations. Such synchronization restrictions are imposed through regular properties on the projection of the language onto {1,2}. In this way, for each regular language C contained in {1,2}*, one obtains a class Rel(C) of relations. Regular, Recognizable, and length-preserving rational relations are all examples of classes that can be defined in this way.

We study the problem of containment for synchronized classes of relations: given C,D regular languages contained in {1,2}*, is Rel(C) a subset of Rel(D)? We show a characterization in terms of C and D which gives a decidability procedure to test for class inclusion. This also yields a procedure to re-synchronize languages from {1,2}xA preserving the denoted relation whenever the inclusion holds. This is joint work with D. Figueira and G. Puppis.

15:50-16:30 Session 9C

Games and Logic

Location: H 2032
Parity Games with Weights

ABSTRACT. Quantitative extensions of parity games have recently attracted significant interest. These extensions include parity games with energy and payoff conditions as well as finitary parity games and their generalization to parity games with costs. Finitary parity games enjoy a special status among these extensions, as they offer a native combination of the qualitative and quantitative aspects in infinite games: The quantitative aspect of finitary parity games is a quality measure for the qualitative aspect, as it measures the limit superior of the time it takes to overwrite an odd color by a larger even one. Finitary parity games have been extended to parity games with costs, where each transition is labelled with a non-negative weight that reflects the costs incurred by taking it. We lift this restriction and consider parity games with costs with arbitrary integer weights. We show that solving such games is in NP $\cap$ coNP, the signature complexity for games of this type. We also show that the protagonist has finite-state winning strategies, and provide tight exponential bounds for the memory he needs to win the game. Naturally, the antagonist may need need infinite memory to win. Finally, we present tight bounds on the quality of winning strategies for the protagonist.

Solving mean-payoff parity games in pseudo-quasi-polynomial time.

ABSTRACT. In a mean-payoff parity game, one of the two players aims both to achieve a qualitative parity objective and to minimize a quantitative long-term average of payoffs (aka. mean payoff). The game is zero-sum and hence the aim of the other player is to either foil the parity objective or to maximize the mean payoff.

Our main technical result is a pseudo-quasi-polynomial algorithm for solving mean-payoff parity games. All algorithms for the problem that have been developed for over a decade have a pseudo-polynomial and an exponential factors in their running times; in the running time of our algorithm the latter is replaced with a quasi-polynomial one.

Our main conceptual contributions are the definitions of strategy decompositions for both players, and a notion of progress measures for mean-payoff parity games that generalizes both parity and energy progress measures. The former provides normal forms for and succinct representations of winning strategies, and the latter enables the application to mean-payoff parity games of the order-theoretic machinery that underpins a recent quasi-polynomial algorithm for solving parity games.

This is a joint work with Marcin Jurdzinski and Ranko Lazic.

Introduction to Iltis: An Interactive, Web-Based System for Teaching Logic

ABSTRACT. The Iltis project aims at providing a web-based, interactive system that supports teaching logical methods. In particular the system shall (a) support to learn to model knowledge and to infer new knowledge using propositional logic, modal logic and first-order logic, and (b) provide immediate feedback and support to students. The current prototype supports the above tasks for propositional logic.

In this talk I will present the status of the project, outline arising theoretical questions, and report on first impressions on using the prototype in a second year logic course for computer science students.

The talk is based on joined work with Gaetano Geck, Artur Ljulin, Sebastian Peter, Jonas Schmidt, and Fabian Vehlken.

Gralog, a visual tool for working with graphs, games, automata, logics

ABSTRACT. We want to present Gralog, a completely new and advanced version of a visual tool for computer scientists and graph theorists for their every day work with graphs and similar objects and for teaching.

A mixture of a GUI and an quickly-to-learn terminal-like commands allows one to easily generate ("add K(n)/Grid(m,n)/Path(n)...") and change graphs, automata, games or Kripke structures (e.g. contracting subgraphs to a single vertex, subdividing edges, changing kinds of positions in games) or read them in any usual format. The picture can be exported to Tikz in a human oriented, easy to edit form. From the menu one can call some algorithms usually presented in basic computer science courses and apply them step-wise to the graph, for example the simple FO-model-checking algorithm or the breadth-first search.

Furthermore, it is possible to bind one's own programme (written an any language that supports piping from and to standard input/output, say, in Python) to Gralog to let it illustrate the steps of the algorithm. For this one writes in the "Python"-algorithm commands like "get graph from Gralog", "pause" (a kind of a breakpoint), "display/track variable X", "insert/delete/color vertex/edge" and so on. One can even use the graph data structure of Gralog (in Python!) to concentrate on the actual algorithm. This should allow the scientist to implement her algorithms in an easy and quick way. Gralog takes care of maintaining graph data structures, graph formats and the visualisation of algorithm steps. It should also be convenient to debug programmes on graphs using Gralog.

We understand that this is a rather unusual submission for Highlights, but we believe that the Gralog will be interesting and useful in the community of Highlights.

16:40-17:20 Session 10A

Categories and Algebras

Location: H 3010
Efficient and Modular Coalgebraic Partition-Refinement

ABSTRACT. This talk presents joint work with U. Dorsch, S. Milius and L. Schröder on a generic algorithm combining the following aspects:

(1) Partition refinement: In a state based system, partition refinement identifies all states that exhibit the same behaviour. The notion of "same behaviour" of course heavily depends on the concrete type of system worked with and thus is a parameter in the form described next.

(2) Coalgebras for a fixed endofunctor H model state based systems with transition structure according to H. E.g. H-coalgebras for HX = 2 × X^A are deterministic automata, whereas for HX = Powerset(A × X), the H-coalgebras are labelled transition systems. With assumptions on H, we obtain:

(3) Efficiency: Given an H-coalgebra with n states and m edges, the generic algorithm runs in O((m + n) · log n). Even though the assumptions on H are restrictive, our algorithm minimizes transition systems and weighted systems (with possibly negative weights) in O((m + n) · log n), deterministic finite automata (for a fixed alphabet) in O(n · log n), matching up with the respectively best algorithms for these systems.

(4) Modularity is given since we can combine existing transition structures by sequencing, products, or coproducts. Hence, the generic algorithm handles labelled transition systems and deterministic finite automata with non-fixed alphabet slightly slower than existing specific implementations, but for Segala Systems we obtain a new minimization method in O((m + n) · log(m + n)) which is slightly faster than the best known specific implementation.

This talk presents the results of a CONCUR 2017 paper and an extended journal version currently under review for the associated special issue.

Abstract MSO languages over monads

ABSTRACT. The algebraic approach of automata and recognizable languages shown in [2] and the use of monads as a natural categorical generalization of universal algebra has led to the study of algebraic language theory from a categorical point of view. On the other hand, the logical characterization of regular languages as the MSO definable languages, see, e.g., [3], has inspired the possibility of developing an abstract categorical framework for MSO [1]. In this presentation, I will summarize some of the first steps towards the study of abstract MSO languages for algebras over a monad. Definitions and properties for an abstract MSO framework are inspired on the classical case of words and monoids and its corresponding proof. Such properties are stated in a categorical setting in order to restrict the kind of monads that in some sense allows us an abstract study of MSO languages. This is an ongoing joint work with Mikolaj Bojanczyk and Bartek Klin.

References [1] M. Bojanczyk. Recognisable languages over monads. CoRR, abs/1502.04898, 2015. [2] J. Mezei and J. Wright. Algebraic automata and context-free sets. Information and Control, 11(1):3 – 29, 1967. [3] W. Thomas. Languages, Automata, and Logic, pages 389–455. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 1997.

Eilenberg Theorems for Free

ABSTRACT. Algebraic language theory investigates the behaviors of finite machines by relating them to finite algebraic structures. For instance, regular languages - the behaviours of finite automata - can be described purely algebraically as the languages recognized by finite monoids, and a fundamental relation between these concepts is given by Eilenberg’s variety theorem: varieties of languages (classes of regular languages closed under boolean operations, derivatives, and preimages of monoid morphisms) correspond bijectively to pseudovarieties of monoids (classes of finite monoids closed under homomorphic images, submonoids, and finite products). This together with Reiterman's theorem, which characterizes pseudovarieties as the classes of monoids presentable by profinite equations, establishes a firm connection between automata, algebra, topology, and logic. Dozens of extensions of these results are known which consider either notions of varieties with modified closure properties, or other types languages such as omega-regular languages, tree languages or cost functions.

In this talk, I will outline a uniform category theoretic approach to algebraic language theory that encompasses all the above work. The key idea is to

(1) model languages and the algebraic structures recognizing them by a monad T on some algebraic category D;

(2) interpret profinite equations and Reiterman’s theorem by means of a codensity monad induced by T, called the profinite monad; and

(3) interpret the algebraic recognition of languages in terms of second algebraic category C that dualizes to D on the level of finite algebras.

As a result, we obtain an Eilenberg-Reiterman correspondence which establishes a bijective correspondence between varieties of T-recognizable languages, pseudovarieties of T-algebras, and profinite equational theories. The classical case of regular languages is recovered by taking the categories C = boolean algebras and D = sets, and the free-monoid monad on D. Likewise, by varying the parameters, almost all Eilenberg-Reiterman correspondences known in the literature emerge as special cases of the categorical framework. In addition, a number of new results come for free, including a variety theorem for data languages.

The presentation is based on the recent paper:

H. Urbat, J. Adámek, L.-T. Chen, S. Milius: Eilenberg Theorems for Free. Proc. 42nd International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (2017). EATCS Best Paper Award. LIPIcs, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik.

Bracket Algebras: a nominal theory of interleaved scopes

ABSTRACT. Nominal techniques have received a lot of attention in recent years, as they describe in a simple yet precise manner phenomena related to variable renaming, like alpha-equivalence, scopes, locality... However, they seem to suffer from two shortcomings: they are not yet able to handle interleaved scopes, and do not apply well to relational semantics of programs. In this talk I will describe an ongoing project to provide an algebraic treatment of the semantics of programming languages which contain explicitly allocation and de-allocation binders, inspired by previous work of Gabbay, Ghica and Petrişan. I will present the initial setup, defining a notion of alpha-equivalence of traces, and briefly describe how this may be extended to regular languages. I will present some decidability results we obtained, and hint at future investigations. Most of these developments have been formalised in Coq. This is joint work with Alexandra Silva and Daniela Petrisan.

16:40-17:20 Session 10B

Logic and Automata

Location: H 2013
A Pattern Logic for Automata with Outputs

ABSTRACT. We introduce a logic to express structural properties of automata with string inputs and, possibly, outputs in some monoid. In this logic, the set of predicates talking about the output values is parametric, and we provide sufficient conditions on the predicates under which the model-checking problem is decidable. We then consider three particular automata models (finite automata, transducers and automata weighted by integers) and instantiate the generic logic for each of them. We give tight complexity results for the three logics with respect to the model-checking problem, depending on whether the formula is fixed or not. We study the expressiveness of our logics by expressing classical structural patterns characterising for instance finite ambiguity and polynomial ambiguity in the case of finite automata, determinisability and finite-valuedness in the case of transducers and automata weighted by integers. As a consequence of our complexity results, we directly obtain that these classical properties can be decided in polynomial time.

It Is Easy to Be Wise After the Event: Communicating Finite-State Machines Capture First-Order Logic with "Happened Before"

ABSTRACT. Message sequence charts (MSCs) naturally arise as executions of communicating finite-state machines (CFMs), in which finite-state processes exchange messages through unbounded FIFO channels. We study the first-order logic of MSCs, featuring Lamport's happened-before relation. Our main result states that every first-order sentence can be transformed into an equivalent CFM. This answers an open question and settles the exact relation between CFMs and fragments of monadic second-order logic. As a byproduct, we obtain self-contained normal-form constructions for first-order logic over MSCs (and, therefore, over words). In particular, we show that first-order logic over MSCs has the three-variable property.

This is joint work with Benedikt Bollig and Paul Gastin, accepted at CONCUR 2018.

Binary reachability of timed pushdown automata via quantifier elimination and cyclic order atoms

ABSTRACT. We study an expressive model of timed pushdown automata extended with modular and fractional clock constraints. We show that the binary reachability relation is effectively expressible in hybrid linear arithmetic with a rational and an integer sort. This subsumes analogous expressibility results previously known for finite and pushdown timed automata with untimed stack. As key technical tools, we use quantifier elimination for a fragment of hybrid linear arithmetic and for cyclic order atoms, and a reduction to register pushdown automata over cyclic order atoms. This is joint work with S. Lasota.

Uniformization Problem for Variants of First Order Logic over Words

ABSTRACT. We study the uniformization problem for natural variants of the first order logic over finite words. We show that none of them has the uniformization property, as witnessed by proposed counterexamples.

16:40-17:20 Session 10C

Automata and Games

Location: H 2032
Unambiguous languages exhaust the index hierarchy

ABSTRACT. This work resolves the question whether languages recognisable by unambiguous parity tree automata are of bounded Rabin-Mostowski index. The answer is negative, as exhibited by a family of examples. The fact that the provided languages are unambiguous is rather simple. However, much less clear is why these languages cannot be recognised by alternating parity tree automata of bounded Rabin-Mostowski index. The proof of this fact relies on new constructions regarding signatures of parity games.

Is your automaton good for playing games ?

ABSTRACT. Good-for-Games automata are non-deterministic automata on infinite words, where the non-determinism choices can be resolved knowing only the prefix of the input word read so far. They represent an interesting compromise between determinism and non-determinism, as they retain desirable properties from both formalisms. One of the main open questions about this model is the following problem: what is the complexity of deciding whether an input parity automaton is Good-for-Games ? I will present the latest advances on this subject, and if time permits, related notions that emerged in the pursuit of this goal.

Eventually safe languages and Good-for-Games automata

ABSTRACT. (joint work with Denis Kuperberg)

Good-for-Games (GFG) automata are a type of nondeterministic automata with a strategy resolving the nondeterminism depending only on the word read so far. These automata are suitable for avoiding the determinization step in the standard solution to the controller synthesis problem (the problem of automatically synthesizing a system satisfying a given specification). It is known that in some cases (in particular : in the co-Büchi case) these automata can be exponentially smaller than their deterministic equivalents, and hence could be an appropriate approach to reduce the doubly exponential cost of controller synthesis.

This talk will present a family of languages with this property of GFG succinctness, and definable in Linear Temporal Logic (LTL) - which was not the case of the previously known examples. I will also present a natural modification of LTL via a fixed point operator (the "Eventually Safe Logic") that seems more suited for the GFG approach to the controller synthesis problem, and allows for an algorithm producing GFG co-Büchi automata equivalent to formulas in this logic ; this algorithm still has a doubly-exponential state-blowup in the worst case, but behaves well on the known examples where GFG automata are more succinct than deterministic ones.

Permutation Games for the Weakly Aconjunctive mu-Calculus

ABSTRACT. Satisfiability games for the $\mu$-calculus typically employ determinized parity automata to track fixpoint formulas through pre-tableaux. We introduce a natural notion of limit-deterministic parity automata along with a construction that determinizes limit-deterministic parity automata of size $n$ with $k$ priorities through limit-deterministic Büchi automata to deterministic parity automata of size $\mathcal{O}((nk)!)$ and with $\mathcal{O}(nk)$ priorities. The construction relies on limit-determinism to avoid the full complexity of the Safra/Piterman-construction by using partial permutations of states in place of Safra-Trees. By showing that limit-deterministic parity automata can be used to recognize unsuccessful branches in pre-tableaux for the weakly aconjunctive $\mu$-calculus, we obtain satisfiability games of size $\mathcal{O}((nk)!)$ with $\mathcal{O}(nk)$ priorities for weakly aconjunctive input formulas of size $n$ and alternation-depth $k$. A prototypical implementation that employs a tableau-based global caching algorithm to solve these games on-the-fly shows promising initial results.

This work has been published as ``Permutation Games for the Weakly Aconjunctive mu-Calculus'' at TACAS 2018 by Daniel Hausmann, Lutz Schr\"oder and Hans-Peter Deifel (https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-319-89963-3_21).

18:00-20:00Picnic (in Tiergarten)