next day
all days

View: session overviewtalk overview

09:00-10:00 Session 1: Invited lecture
Concurrent Separation Logics: Logical Abstraction, Logical Atomicity and Environment Liveness Conditions

ABSTRACT. Scalable verification for concurrent programs with shared memory is a long-standing, difficult problem. In 2004, O'Hearn and Brookes introduced concurrent separation logic to provide compositional reasoning about coarse-grained concurrent programs with synchronisation primitives (Gödel prize, 2016).

In 2010, I introduced logical abstraction (the fiction of separation) to CSL, developing the CAP logic for reasoning about fine-grained concurrent programs in general and fine-grained lock algorithms in particular. In one logic, it was possible to provide two-sided specifications of concurrent operations, with formally verified implementations and clients.

In 2014, I introduced logical atomicity (the fiction of atomicity) to concurrent separation logics, developing the TaDA logic to capture when individual operations behave atomically. Unlike CAP, where synchronisation primitives leak into the specifications, with TaDA the specifications are "just right" in that they provide more general atomic functions specifications to capture, for example, the full behaviour of lock operations.

In 2021, I introduced environment liveness conditions to concurrent separation logics, developing the TaDA Live logic for reasoning compositionally about the termination of blocking fine-grained concurrent programs. The crucial challenge is how to deal with abstract atomic blocking: that is, abstract atomic operations that have blocking behaviour arising from busy-waiting patterns as found in, for example, fine-grained spin locks. The fundamental innovation is with the design of abstract specifications that capture this blocking behaviour as liveness assumptions on the environment.

In this talk, I will explain this on-going journey in the wonderful world of concurrent separation logics. I will also explain why I have a bright green office chair in the corner of my office, patterned in gold lamé.

Many thanks to my fabulous coauthors on concurrent separation logics: Thomas Dinsdale-Young, Emanuele D'Osualdo, Mike Dodds, Azadeh Farzan, Matthew Parkinson, Pedro da Rocha Pinto, Julian Sutherland, Viktor Vafeiadis and more.

10:30-12:00 Session 2: Process algebra & semantics
On the Axiomatisation of Branching Bisimulation Congruence over CCS

ABSTRACT. In this paper we investigate the equational theory of (the restriction, relabelling, and recursion free fragment of) CCS modulo rooted branching bisimilarity, which is a classic, bisimulation-based notion of equivalence that abstracts from internal computational steps in process behaviour. Firstly, we show that CCS is not finitely based modulo the considered congruence. As a key step of independent interest in the proof of that negative result, we prove that each CCS process has a unique parallel decomposition into indecomposable processes modulo branching bisimilarity. As a second main contribution, we show that, when the set of actions is finite, rooted branching bisimilarity has a finite equational basis over CCS enriched with the left merge and communication merge operators from ACP.

Non-Deterministic Abstract Machines

ABSTRACT. We present a generic design of abstract machines for non-deterministic programming languages, such as process calculi or concurrent lambda calculi, that provides a simple way to implement them. Such a machine traverses a term in the search for a redex, making non-deterministic choices when several paths are possible and backtracking when it reaches a dead end, i.e., an irreducible subterm. The search is guaranteed to terminate thanks to term annotations the machine introduces along the way.

We show how to automatically derive a non-deterministic abstract machine from a zipper semantics---a form of structural operational semantics in which the decomposition process of a term into a context and a redex is made explicit. The derivation method ensures the soundness and completeness of the machines w.r.t. the zipper semantics.

Slimming Down Petri Boxes: Compact Petri Net Models of Control Flows

ABSTRACT. We look at the construction of compact Petri net models corresponding to process algebra expressions supporting sequential, choice, and parallel compositions. If ‘silent’ transitions are disallowed, a construction based on Cartesian product is traditionally used to construct places in the target Petri net, resulting in an exponential explosion in the net size. We demonstrate that this exponential explosion can be avoided, by developing a link between this construction problem and the problem of finding an edge clique cover of a graph that is guaranteed to be complement-reducible (i.e., a cograph). It turns out that the exponential number of places created by the Cartesian product construction can be reduced down to polynomial (quadratic) even in the worst case, and to logarithmic in the best (non-degraded) case. As these results affect the ‘core’ modelling techniques based on Petri nets, eliminating a source of an exponential explosion, we hope they will have applications in Petri net modelling and translations of various formalisms to Petri nets.

14:00-15:30 Session 3: Stochastic models
On the Sequential Probability Ratio Test in Hidden Markov Models

ABSTRACT. We consider the Sequential Probability Ratio Test applied to Hidden Markov Models. Given two Hidden Markov Models and a sequence of observations generated by one of them, the Sequential Probability Ratio Test attempts to decide which model produced the sequence. We show relationships between the execution time of such an algorithm and Lyapunov exponents of random matrix systems. Further, we give complexity results about the execution time taken by the Sequential Probability Ratio Test.

Parameter Synthesis for Parametric Probabilistic Dynamical Systems and Prefix-Independent Specifications
PRESENTER: David Purser

ABSTRACT. We consider the model-checking problem for parametric probabilistic dynamical systems, formalised as Markov chains with parametric transition functions, analysed under the distribution-transformer semantics (in which a Markov chain induces a sequence of distributions over states).

We examine the problem of synthesising the set of parameter valuations of a parametric Markov chain such that the orbits of induced state distributions satisfy a prefix-independent omega-regular property.

Our main result establishes that in all non-degenerate instances, the feasible set of parameters is (up to a null set) semialgebraic, and can moreover be computed (in polynomial time assuming that the ambient dimension, corresponding to the number of states of the Markov chain, is fixed).

Anytime Guarantees for Reachability in Uncountable Markov Decision Processes

ABSTRACT. We consider the problem of approximating the reachability probabilities in Markov decision processes (MDP) with uncountable (continuous) state and action spaces. While there are algorithms that, for special classes of such MDP, provide a sequence of approximations converging to the true value in the limit, our aim is to obtain an algorithm with guarantees on the precision of the approximation.

As this problem is undecidable in general, assumptions on the MDP are necessary. Our main contribution is to identify sufficient assumptions that are as weak as possible, thus approaching the "boundary" of which systems can be correctly and reliably analyzed. To this end, we also argue why each of our assumptions is necessary for algorithms based on processing finitely many observations.

We present two solution variants. The first one provides converging lower bounds under weaker assumptions than typical ones from previous works concerned with guarantees. The second one then utilizes stronger assumptions to additionally provide converging upper bounds. Altogether, we obtain an anytime algorithm, i.e. yielding a sequence of approximants with known and iteratively improving precision, converging to the true value in the limit. Besides, due to the generality of our assumptions, our algorithms are very general templates, readily allowing for various heuristics from literature in contrast to, e.g., a specific discretization algorithm. Our theoretical contribution thus paves the way for future practical improvements without sacrificing correctness guarantees.

16:00-18:00 Session 4: Timed systems
Checking timed Büchi automata emptiness using the local-time semantics

ABSTRACT. We study the Büchi non-emptiness problem for networks of timed automata. Standard solutions consider the network as a monolithic timed automaton obtained as a synchronized product and build its zone graph on-the-fly under the classical global-time semantics. In the global-time semantics, all processes are assumed to have a common global timeline.

Bengtsson et al. in 1998 have proposed a local-time semantics where each process in the network moves independently according to a local timeline, and processes synchronize their timelines when they do a common action. It has been shown that the local-time semantics is equivalent to the global-time semantics for finite runs, and hence can be used for checking reachability. The local-time semantics allows computation of a local zone graph which has good independence properties and is amenable to partial-order methods. Hence local zone graphs are able to better tackle the state-space explosion due to concurrency.

In this work, we extend the results to the Büchi setting. We propose a local zone graph computation that can be coupled with a partial-order method, to solve the Büchi non-emptiness problem in timed networks. In the process, we develop a theory of regions for the local-time semantics.

Simulations for Event-Clock Automata

ABSTRACT. Event-clock automata are a well-known subclass of timed automata which enjoy admirable theoretical properties, e.g., determinizability, and are practically useful to capture timed specifications. However, unlike for timed automata, there exist no implementations for event-clock automata. A main reason for this is the difficulty in adapting zone-based algorithms, critical in the timed automata setting, to the event-clock automata setting. This difficulty was recently studied in [Geeraerts et al 2011,2014], where the authors also proposed a solution using extrapolations.

In this paper, we propose an alternative zone-based algorithm, using simulations for finiteness, to solve the reachability problem for event-clock automata. Our algorithm exploits the G-simulation framework, which is the coarsest known simulation relation for reachability, and has been recently used for advances in other extensions of timed automata.

History-deterministic Timed Automata

ABSTRACT. We explore the notion of history-determinism in the context of timed automata (TA). History-deterministic automata are those in which nondeterminism can be resolved on the fly, based on the run constructed thus far. History-determinism is a robust property that admits different game-based characterisations, and history-deterministic specifications allow for game-based verification without an expensive determinization step.

We show yet another characterisation of history-determinism in terms of fair simulation, at the general level of labelled transition systems: a system is history-deterministic precisely iff it fairly simulates all language smaller systems.

For timed automata over infinite timed words it is known that universality is undecidable for Büchi TA. We show that for history-deterministic TA with arbitrary parity acceptance, timed universality, inclusion, and synthesis all remain decidable and are EXPTIME-complete.

For the subclass of TA with safety or reachability acceptance, we show that checking whether such an automaton is history-deterministic is decidable (in EXPTIME), and history-deterministic TA with safety acceptance are effectively determinizable without introducing new states.

Decidability of One-Clock Weighted Timed Games with Arbitrary Weights
PRESENTER: Julie Parreaux

ABSTRACT. Weighted Timed Games (WTG for short) are the most widely used model to describe controller synthesis problems involving real-time issues. Unfortunately, they are notoriously difficult, and undecidable in general. As a consequence, one-clock WTG has attracted a lot of attention, especially because they are known to be decidable when only non-negative weights are allowed. However, when arbitrary weights are considered, despite several recent works, their decidability status was still unknown. In this paper, we solve this problem positively and show that the value function can be computed in exponential time (if weights are encoded in unary).