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09:00-10:30 Session 17A: Cyborg Ethics
Location: Room H3: building D4, 2nd floor
From a science fiction to the reality: Cyborg ethics in Japan
SPEAKER: unknown

ABSTRACT. This study deals with people’s attitude toward and social acceptance of “cyborg technology” including wearables and insideables (or implantable devices) to enhance human ability in Japan as part of the international research project on cyborg ethics, taking Japanese socio-cultural characteristics surrounding cyborg technology into consideration. Those subjects will be investigated through questionnaire surveys of and follow-up interviews with Japanese university students, which will be conducted in October 2016, as well as surveys of the academic and fiction literature (the social, legal and ethical questions of cyborgs have been considered in fictional presentations for decades) and emerging real-world case studies (such as pacemaker implants and exoskeletons). The study outcomes are expected to clarify ethical challenges concerning the development and usage of cyborg technology in Japan and to provide helpful insights for establishing cyborg ethics.

In 1963, the first cyborg manga/anime in Japan was “8 man”, created by science-fiction writer Kazumasa Hirai and manga artist Jiro Kuwata. One year later, Shotaro Ishi(no)mori’s anime story of nine cyborgs “Cyborg 009” started to be serialised in manga magazine Weekly Shonen King. In both works, the man-machine super-heroes/heroines were portrayed as creatures of pathos, facing existential crises: forced to become a cyborg after death (8 man) or kidnapped and undergoing cyborgisation without consent (Cyborg 009). 8 man and the Cyborg 009 characters are distressed by their human sentiments trapped inside mostly machine bodies. Tetsuro, the main character of the critically acclaimed “Galaxy Express 999” (a serial manga story written and drawn by Leiji Matsumoto from 1977 to 1981), undergoes great hardship as he travels in space towards a place where he can receive a metal body and eternal life as a cyborg. However, in the end he rejects the transformation.

Those depictions of cyborgs in science-fiction manga/anime stories seem to reflect the Confucian ethic of filial piety prevalent among the Japanese, which is well described by the following quote from the Classic of Filial Piety: “Our bodies – to every hair and bit of skin – are received by us from our parents, and we must not presume to injure or wound them. This is the beginning of filial piety” (Legge, 2010).

Attitudes to currently available (or in late development) body modification technologies can provide useful guides to the likely reception of further developments: tattoos; external sensory correctives such as eyeglasses, contact lenses or hearing aids; organ transplants (from recently deceased humans, from genetically modified animals, or vat-grown); implanted sensory correctives such as artificial cochlears; exoskeletons for weakened or paralysed bodies or to enhance strength beyond human norms.

In Japan, tattoos tend to be seen as symbols of an antisocial person or a gangster (the stereotypical unfaithful child); those who have a tattoo are often barred from public baths, public swimming pools and bathing beaches. Organ transplantation is often criticised as the act of robbing others’ (or others’ child’s) body parts due to a rampant egoism in society (Imamichi, 1990). Though brain death is recognised as legal death to encourage organ transplantation in Japan based on the Act of Organ Transplantation (Act No. 104 of 16 July 1997), this is not accepted broadly by ordinary Japanese people. On the other hand, regenerative medical techniques using induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells are considered as an ethically acceptable medical practice compared with one using embryo-stem (ES) cells, because those cells are created from patient’s own existing body whereas these are created from others’ fertilised eggs which are killed in the process of the creation (iPS Trend, 2014). A Japanese research group’s attempts to grow human organs such as the pancreas for transplantation within the body of a pig but using human iPS cells seems to be generally acceptable in Japan, although definitely not to Muslims (a very small, at most tens of thousands, section of the Japanese population (Kawakami, 2007)). The development, production and rental (not sale to prevent military use) of HAL (Hybrid Assistive Limb), the world’s first usable exoskeleton, to improve, support and enhance wearer’s body functions, by Cyberdyne Inc. (http://www.cyberdyne.jp/english/) based in City of Tsukuba, Ibaraki Prefecture is considered a successful university venture as well as a significant social action work in Japan.

There is so far no generally accepted definition of a cyborg. It is hard to draw a clear line between a human being and a cyborg, because human beings as Homo Faber have developed a living and economic environment of “technological conjunction” (Imamichi, 1990) where technological artefacts are intricately intertwined with each other and with natural objects, and people use variety kinds of technological devices as if such devices were parts of their bodies. Moreover, owing to the tremendous advances in and widespread use of ICT-based services, people seem to have already become a cyborg intellectually; a significant portion of their cognitive function, memory, calculation capability and reasoning ability are outsourced to (in many cases cost-free) online services (Sparrow, Liu and Wegner, 2011).

It seems to be no problem to regard a person who wears HAL as a cyborg. However, assuming, for example, that a cyborg is a human being whose physical and/or intellectual ability is enhanced by wearable or insideable/implantable physical devices or equipment developed based on scientific technology, those with eye glasses or contact lenses could be considered as cyborgs. Thus, as a first task, the research project members need to appropriately define a cyborg and cyborg technology that should be investigated and examined in the project with clearly articulating related concepts.

Restoration of vision using glasses or contact lenses is usually not ethically controversial. However, improvement of vision by technology far beyond the innate human ability might be problematic. If a nanochip which is originally developed for the treatment of dementia is used to produce an artificial super genius, or if an advanced artificial leg helps an athlete run 100 meters in 8.0 seconds, such cyborgisation could become an object of criticism. Hence, we can recognise, as a second task, the need to draw a moral line with respect to cyborg technology, or on the spectrum which has the two extremes of an average human and an ultimate cyborg, that should never be crossed. The surveys the project members plan to conduct aim to provide good clues to address this task. Given the local nature of human beings, both tasks need addressing while taking the socio-cultural environment in which the surveys will be conducted into account. Cross-cultural analyses of survey outcomes will also be helpful to establish globally acceptable limits for ethical cyborg technology.

References Imamichi, T. (1990). Eco-Ethica. Kodansha, Tokyo. (In Japanese) iPS Trend (2014). The relations between iPS and ES cells, http://www.jst.go.jp/ips-trend/about/story/no07.html (Accessed 29th August). (In Japanese) Kawakami, Y. (2007). Local Mosques and the Lives of Muslims in Japan. Japan Focus (The Asia-Pacific Journal), 5(5), http://apjjf.org/-Kawakami-Yasunori/2436/article.pdf (Accessed 29th August 2016). Legge, J. (2010). The Hsiao King or Classic of Filial Piety. Kessinger Publishing, Whitefish, MT. Sparrow, B., Liu, J., & Wegner, D. M. (2011). Google effects on memory: Cognitive consequences of having information at our fingertips. Science, 333(6043), 776-778.

Ethical Risks of Enhanced ICT Implants from the Perspective of “Ethical Culture”
SPEAKER: Yanyan Jiang


In spite of the fact that many papers are analyzing the ethical problems of ICT implants, there is still much room for improvements in these researches. Our paper is to propose a new moral philosophy approach for ethical evaluation of enhanced ICT implants.

The invention and application of ICT implants in the medical domain has been under progress for many years. We are faced with new trends these days. The ICT implants will go beyond their original purposes of mere restorative function for human enhancement. “Scientists predict that within the next 30 years neural interface will be designed that will not only increase the dynamic range of senses, but will also enhance memory, enable ‘cyberthink’-invisible communication with others and technology and increase creativity and other abstract facets of the human mind.” (Gasson, M., 2012) Furthermore, as Internet of Things (IoT) and Ubiquitous Network (UN) become more prevalent, ICT might become commonplace in our daily life rather than restricted in a typical field. Therefore, enhanced ICT implants is the inevitable development trend. Ultimately, we will be living in a ubiquitous society with ICT pervasive not only around us but also in our physical body.

Although the current technology is still immature despite of the beautiful landscape we painted above, we nevertheless are urged to contemplate on possible ethical implications inevitably brought by the incessant development of enhanced ICT implants. In March 2005, the European Group on Ethics in Science and New Technologies (EGE) issued an Opinion on “Ethical aspects of ICT implants in the human body” (EGE, 2005) that sparked a hot debate on ICT implants.

Addressed concerns include issues about “human dignity, freedom, privacy, and data protection, freedom of research, identity and personality, autonomy and informed consent” (Capurro, R., 2012). Similar to other applied ethics, mainstream approaches to ethics are mostly utilitarian or deontological or virtue ethics (Hildebrandt, M. & Anrig, B., 2012). Such approaches are always “contextualized and particularized” (Koops, B. & Leenes, R., 2012), whereby moral principles and moral analysis for a particular issue will be put forward in this sense.

Illustrating ethical implications of ICT implants through these aforementioned philosophical positions can be interesting and instructive, yet it has methodological drawbacks. Conceptually, they simply make “ethics” equal to “morality”, which renders the analysis short of the depth of moral philosophy and overstates rational principles and criteria. Moreover, such stand is often found in western philosophy and rooted in western culture, a rather incomprehensive and possibly inadequate take on as the ICT implants reach to every piece of land on earth. It is imperative to include thoughts from the Oriental as well as the marginal culture in the west. In this paper, our aim is to take a difference approach to inspect the potential ethical risks brought by the enhanced ICT implants. We believe our view is broader and more speculative.

Our approach is based on the “Ethical Culture”, the ethical viewpoint rooted in the traditional moral philosophy in China and Hegel’s moral philosophy (G. W. F. Hegel, 1967, 1991) in the west. “Ethical Culture” makes a difference between “ethics” and “morality”, and argues that “ethics” and “morality” are in the relationship of dialectical unity and “ethics” is prior to “morality”. Besides, “Ethics” is more related to “entity”, while “morality” is closer to “subjectivity”. As a consequence, when it comes to the ethical risks of enhanced ICT implants, it means we focus on how the application of enhanced ICT implants will influence the moral philosophy construction of “entity” or “ethical entity” that is a more fundamental and profound problem than the “morality” aspect.

When discussing the “ethics” aspect of enhanced ICT implants, we find that the implication of enhanced ICT implants on “subject” is crucial. In accordance with Mark Poster’s theory of “the Mode of Information” (Poster, M., 1990), “subject” is reconstructed in the process of interactive action. Our study shows that enhanced ICT implants will reinforce the communication patterns of ICT in a more radical way than what the Internet allows, for Internet focuses on virtual cyberspace while ICT implants could redefine the real “subject” in our society. The latter could incubate the instability of the new “subject”. For instance, both the gender and age character may become vague. Consequently, such redefinition will directly have effects on the construction of “ethical entity”, to be more exact, the “family ethical entity”, which is the natural starting point of “ethical entity”. As the two elements of a family ethical entity, the characters of male and female will become increasingly similar blurring their ethical characters. On the other hand, as Dasein of “family ethical entity”, children will become more mature faster. However, with the deficiency of family education, a lack of children’s universal cultivation will occur. These will all bring a negative effect to the construction of “family ethical entity”. Once the construction of “family ethical entity” collapses, the whole “ethical entity” may come to an end as a result, resulting in various moral problems aforementioned. Hence, the ethical implication of enhanced ICT implants seems more fundamental than mere moral stands as the former provides an underlying foundation for the latter. Understanding ethical entity argument may also help us better understand the reason of moral dilemma in our real life. We may more efficiently deal with those problems at source.

This paper contains five parts. We first introduce the development of ICT implants as well as its future potential. Second, we elaborate Poster’s theory of “the Mode of Information” and its relation with the ICT implants. We third introduce the new concept of “Ethical Culture” with the basic framework detailed. At the crux of this paper, we argue that the new “subject” reconstructed by enhanced ICT implants has a negative influence on the family ethical entity, since the latter forms the foundation of all ethical entity. We illustrate how the new subject may deform the original family entity resulting in higher ethical risks. The last section concludes with possible solutions.


Gasson, M.(2012). Human ICT implants: from restorative application to human enhancement. In Gasson, M., Kosta, E. & Bowman, D.(Ed.), Human ICT implants: technical, legal and ethical considerations(pp. 12-28). Berlin: T·M·C·Asser Press.

EGE(2005). Ethical aspects of ICT implants in the human body: opinion presented to the commission by the European Group on Ethics. Retrieved August 15, 2016, from http://europa.eu/rapid/press-release_MEMO-05-97_en.htm?locale=en.

Capurro, R.(2012). Foreword. In Gasson, M., Kosta, E. & Bowman, D.(Ed.), Human ICT implants: technical, legal and ethical considerations(pp. vii-viii). Berlin: T·M·C·Asser Press.

Hildebrandt, M. & Anrig, B. (2012). Ethical implications of ICT implants. In Gasson, M., Kosta, E. & Bowman, D.(Ed.), Human ICT implants: technical, legal and ethical considerations(pp. 135-158). Berlin: T·M·C·Asser Press.

Koops, B. & Leenes, R. (2012).Cheating with implants: implications of the hidden information advantage of bionic ears and eyes. In Gasson, M., Kosta, E. & Bowman, D.(Ed.), Human ICT implants: technical, legal and ethical considerations(pp. 113-134). Berlin: T·M·C·Asser Press.

G. W. F. Hegel(1967). The phenomenology of mind. Trans. J. B. Baillie. New York: Harper & Row.

G. W. F. Hegel(1991). Elements of the philosophy of right. Translated by H. B. Nisbet. London: Cambridge University Press.

Poster, M.(1990). The mode of information: poststructuralism and social context. Cambridge: Polity Press.

Wearable and Insideable devices in Chile: A comparative study from two Chilean regions
SPEAKER: unknown

ABSTRACT. In this paper we will analyze the perceptions about technological implants in Chilean higher education students, exploring both benefits and problems perceived in wearable and insideable devices. Also, we explore the ethical challenges perceived about wearable devices and wearable ones from personal and social perspectives. In addition, we compare the results of two different cities of our country to examine cultural effects on acceptance of these technologies. Data were obtained from a survey applied to 230 students from two different regions of Chile. Findings show that intend to use and acceptance of wearable devices is statistically higher than intend to use and acceptance of insideable devices. Students have a high willingness to use wearable devices but are reluctant to use insideable devices. Unexpectedly, culture had not a significant moderator effect on insideable devices and this effect is not so clear on wearable devices. This result is novel since in the literature there is agreement regarding the moderating effect of culture in technological acceptance. Our study would contradict such results, so more research is needed to explain these findings.

09:00-10:30 Session 17B: Video Games
Location: Room H4: building D4, 2nd floor
“Feeling Feels”: what strong emotional connections with video games mean for morally relevant gameplay

ABSTRACT. This paper explores the relationship between morally relevant gameplay and emotional responses to games by analyzing a series of responses by participants to the question of what games they had strong emotional responses to (and why). It uses the appraisal theory of emotion and emotional gameplay theory as a basis to understand the aspects of games that elicit emotion, and analyses the games they appear in according to Sicart’s morally relevant gameplay framework in order to determine whether there is a relationship between the two aspects, and, if so, what general lessons can be learned about elicitation of emotional responses in game players.

The Ethics of Augmenting Reality
SPEAKER: Andrew Adams

ABSTRACT. Introduction

In Rheingold (1991) the term Virtual Reality (VR) was used to describe the intersection of the information world with the real world, covering a range of (at the time new) technologies including mobile text-communication (SMS), high resolution and high colour depth graphics, autonomous robots, and haptic (touch) interfaces to digital objects. Rheingold’s usage of the term “virtual reality” was a conscious one, even though the term had already been used by others, particularly Lanier (The Virtual Reality Society, n.d.) to refer to only a subset of these interactions: 3-D graphics and haptic interfaces.

By the late 90s the term Augmented Reality (AR) (Azuma, 1997) was in broad use to refer to the idea of overlaying the physical world with information, including graphics. Although envisaged then as using the same kind of Heads-Up-Display that was expected to be used for VR, the ubiquity of smartphones in the late 200s and early 2010s led to an expectation that the capabilities of these devices, which combine cameras, high resolution (2D) displays and location tracking, would lead to significant augmented reality developments. The reality proved somewhat lacklustre, with Google StreetView’s static photos combined with mapping and location proving the most popular AR application. Various companies tried and failed to produce more significant AR hardware and applications, such as the Google Glass, proved of limited interest.

In 2016, though, another Google-related venture hit the mainstream. Niantic, a company spun off from Google after some modest success with its mapping-and location-based AR game INGRESS, made a huge splash with its Nintendo partners bring the fictional magical creatures of Pokémon out of the world of games consoles and cartoons and into the real world with Pokémon Go. Despite, or perhaps one should say, because of, the success of the game (Kaminsky, 2016) it has raised significant social, ethical and legal questions. These implications are presented and analysed not just for the specific game in question but for what they mean for developers of future AR applications, regulators (large and small, from national data protection authorities to public park management) and users.

The Social, Ethical and Legal Problems of Pokémon Go

As one tweet (https://twitter.com/devlynxxandra/status/753951065297465344) put it:

1999 -Stop playing Pokemon and go outside. 2016 -Stop playing Pokemon and come inside.

Pokémon Go seems to many like it is addictive (Chamary, 2016). Certainly it has attracted millions of players in the countries in which it has launched. In a park near the author’s home there has been a sudden highly visible increase in usage even during working days, light rain and after dark. The encroachment of players into all areas of the park has been such that park management have placed temporary barriers around children’s play equipment areas marked with signs pointing out that the enclosed space if for children to play and not for the use of smartphones.

In addition to invading children’s play areas in parks, Pokémon Go players seem to be ignoring other social and legal rules on ownership and appropriate use of land and buildings, regarding it as their right to hunt these virtual creatures wherever they can be found. Sites such as the Holocaust museum and Arlington National Cemetery in Washington, D.C. have requested players not to invade these solemn places with their AR gaming and have requested the exclusion of their space from the game by the developer (O’Brien, 2016). Religious institutions (and buildings or land which used to be religious institutions) have been designated “Pokémon Go gyms” (spaces designed to attract player to battle each other) to the consternation of some (Madeline, 2016) and the delight or acceptance of others (Khan, 2016). The capability provided by the game for players to set “lures” for other players has been linked to at least one alleged deliberate use to lure victims to suitable place for robbery (Miller, 2016), and the potential use by sex offenders has led to a ban on registered offenders from even downloading the game (French, 2016; Yoder, 2016).

The distraction effects on drivers and walkers of making mobile phone calls, reading/ writing text messages and using SNS, are now well-known and in some cases constitute a criminal offence (driving while texting, for example). Augmented reality systems such as Pokémon Go require deeper levels of concentration and are putting users at risk of injury, such as walking into a ditch (Tsukayama, 2016), or invading train lines (B16, 2016).

Lessons for AR Developers

As with many developments, particularly software developments, security, privacy and other ethical and social concerns are often seen as things to be added only after something has achieved significant size and success. Building in such elements from the start is often seen as a significant hindrance to that breaking through to mass market size, without which many of these concerns are of limited impact. The problem with this is two-fold. First, for those systems which do achieve this critical mass, all the early adopters are subject to, and/ or cause, the problems and without very quick remedial action on these issues the harm is done before it can be fixed. Secondly, such remedial action is often very hard to do and sometimes impossible. When faced with removing the capabilities which caused the mass success of a system due to the unwanted side effects (in particular when those side effects’ harms are solely or primarily experienced by third parties) the temptation by developers is to leave the harm in place pending court or legislative action.

Augmented reality applies the scaling factors of computer systems to the real world in a way which has rarely been seen before. From the early problems of Google’s Street View reviewed by Strachan (2010) to the issues above of Pokémon Go, we see the scale of problems that developers can cause. Simply in their own interests, developers should consider the potential for massive financial and PR costs (potentially reaching into criminal sanction, though this is less likely).

Considering the types of activity that users will be engaging in, and what sort of places are likely to be suitable for that activity, should be one of the key concerns for developers. Ownership of locations should also be taken into account (and the limits of such knowledge considered). Encouraging trespass on a mass scale could well fall over into criminal sanctions territory. User-generated location mapping, while potentially a very useful crowd-sourcing of high quality information, is also open to abuse. Connecting strangers online has become more-or-less accepted with social norms and education aimed at helping younger and vulnerable users particularly, to act appropriately. Providing systems which encourage random encounters between strangers in the real world is much more problematic and should be carefully considered by developers.

Lessons for Regulators

AR currently falls into one of those policy vacuums that (Reference Moor’s Computer Ethics definition) regarded as one of the defining elements of the merging field of computer ethics. Which regulator has control over AR application: Privacy; Trade; Communications? We are at the beginning of the next revolution in the use of ICT and regulators must begin now to unravel the conceptual muddles and fill the policy vacuums with general principles, from which appropriate detailed arrangements can emerge. Respect for ownership of land, and the right of owners to have some control of how that land is used must be balanced against that freedom of users to explore the newly augmented world between the virtual and real.

Lessons for Users

As with regulators, users of AR need to quickly develop new social norms for their activities. They need to understand the risks involved in splitting their attention between the real world and its virtual overlay. They need to respect the boundaries placed by society on their access to and activities in physical places. The free-for-all of the early online world could be dangerous either physically or socially if replicated in the real world.


Azuma, R. T. (1997). “A survey of augmented reality”. In: Presence: Teleoperators and virtual environments 6.4, pp. 355–385.

Barnato, K. (2016). ‘Pokémon Go’ fans told to stay off rail tracks and out of ER. CNBC. 22nd July. url: tinyurl.com/zcxjoph.

Chamary, J. V. (2016). Science Explains Why You’re Addicted To Pokémon GO. Forbes, 12th July. (Accessed on 29th August 2016). url: tinyurl.com/hcfq328.

French, M. (2016). New York Sex Offenders Banned From Downloading, Playing Pokémon Go. US Weekly. 1st August. url: tinyurl.com/gp63gb6.

Kaminsky, H. (2016). ’Pokémon Go’ has eclipsed $200 million in total revenue one month after launching. url: tinyurl.com/zllz53t.

Khan, A. (2016). How Pokémon is luring millennials to the church (parking lot). Religion News. 11th July. url: tinyurl.com/hbohand.

Madeline, B. (2016). This Church-Turned-House Is Also Unwillingly a Pokémon Gym. Boston Magazine. 11th July. url: tinyurl.com/h5b7ej2.

Miller, R. W. (2016). Teens used Pokémon Go app to lure robbery victims, police say. USA Today. 11th July. url: tinyurl.com/jk7dngh.

O’Brien, S. A. (2016). Pokemon Go players unwelcome at Arlington, Holocaust museum. CNN Money. 13th July. (Accessed 30th August 2016). url: http : / / tinyurl . com/jdt8plx.

Rheingold, H. (1991). Virtual Reality. New York, NY: Summit Books. isbn: 978-0671693633.

Strachan, L. A. (2010). “Re-mapping privacy law: How the google maps scandal requires tort law reform”. In: Richmond Journal of Law and Technology 17.

The Virtual Reality Society (n.d.). Who Coined the Term ”Virtual Reality”. url: tinyurl.com/ju8ajqr.

Tsukayama, H. (2016). Pokémon Go’s unexpected side effect: injuries. The Washington Post. 10th July. url: tinyurl.com/gvyn2xa.

Yoder, S. (2016). Why the ’Pokémon Go’ Ban on Sex Offenders Makes No Sense. Vice. 5th August. url: tinyurl.com/ha6k2l7.

Exchanging IRL for VR: experience machines and opportunity costs

ABSTRACT. Virtual Reality (VR) experiences have just arrived for a wide audience, and already there is a nagging suspicion that VR experience might entice us to abandon experience In Real Life (IRL). Indeed, one work raises the concern in VR itself: In the surreal VR video "Stor Eiglass,” one glides through a virtual world falling to ruin and decay unnoticed by the world’s inhabitants, who are all obliviously cocooned behind VR headsets. I will argue that, although such worries cannot be dismissed out of hand, they are liable to be imprecise and distorted without careful analysis of the opportunity costs of VR experience. Generally, we are not liable to abandon real experience for its virtual analogue. More precisely, even a perfect VR experience is generally not a perfect substitute for a like experience IRL. Instead, the success of VR will depend on its ability to produce experiences valued for what they actually are.

What VR can and cannot deliver is revealed in light of the “experience machine” case described in Nozick (1974). Nozick’s famous thought experiment is widely considered decisive against hedonism, showing that most of us value something other than the mere experience of pleasure, something that cannot be reduced to experience alone. What humans value besides pleasure is somewhat obscure, but one suspects it has something to do with truth and reality, a suspicion confirmed in the empirical psychology of pleasure documented in Bloom (2010).

To identify the opportunity costs of time spent in an “experience machine,” we must acknowledge the value of what is not reducible to experience. Economists use opportunity costs to determine the rationality of some course of action based on the foregone benefits of alternatives. For example, spending a sum of money on a cup of coffee means forgoing all the other uses for that money, so the benefits of having the cup of coffee must equal or exceed whatever benefits could have resulted from other uses if the purchase is rational. The opportunity cost of a perfect substitute is zero—e.g., there is no reason to demand otherwise similar coffee from this or that pot. Nozick’s thought experiment points to a general argument against exchanging an experience IRL for its simulation in VR, since such an exchange is seldom rational in terms of the relevant opportunity costs.

Following a more detailed unpacking of these key ideas, the paper will turn to a series of examples from already available VR titles to illustrate the thesis, indicate its significance, and illuminate what is at stake where the analysis is less straightforward.

EverestVR will never be a perfect substitute for actually climbing mountains. No matter how good the technology gets, the relevant opportunity cost of EverestVR will generally be watching a documentary on a flat screen, not actually climbing actual mountains. Actual climbers typically value the accomplishment, not just the experience. Similarly, the opportunity cost of playing VR games like “Longbow” or Thrill of the Fight is not typically RL archery or boxing. Rather, these and other games are generally in competition with similar games on a flat screen. Bloom (2010) documents a basic human preference for real artifacts over reproductions even when these cannot be told apart by experience. We enjoy seeing the real Mona Lisa because it is real and would feel cheated if we learned it was a counterfeit, and this has implications for virtual visits to museums and travel destinations. The VR experience in such cases may be superior to books and documentaries, but it will always leave out something we value just because the experience is virtual. In general, VR experience is no perfect substitute for experience IRL.

Still, an analysis in terms of opportunity costs is no conceptual proof that VR never competes with RL. We cannot know in advance of consumers’ revealed preferences what will substitute for what in the marketplace. We can only make our best guesses, and some cases are more obscure than others. For example, a typical opportunity cost of VR porn might be flat screen porn or it might be actual sex. Replacing porn on the flat screen for a more satisfying VR experience does not seem a bad trade on its face, but the prospect of forgoing opportunities for actual sex in favor of VR experiences may sound disturbingly escapist. On this matter individuals are sure to differ, and there is no way to tell in advance what proportion of individuals might come to prefer VR sex to the real thing. The foregoing analysis cannot settle this matter, but it does illuminate what is at stake. Everything turns on what individuals come to value in sexual experience, which is already a matter of diverse judgment subject to much dispute and anxiety. Such judgments might prove quite malleable in the face of inexpensive VR experiences, further undermining efforts at confident prediction. What is clear, however, is that insofar as individuals are rational and actual sex delivers value that no experience machine can deliver—plausible but hardly indisputable assumptions—we should expect the opportunity cost of VR porn to be flat porn and not actual sex. However, we cannot know in advance to what degree these assumptions will be confirmed in the revealed preferences of actual consumers.

The discussion so far provides a conceptual apparatus for critically examining such revealed preferences. If our instinct is that substituting VR sex for the real thing is a bad trade, then we affirm that Nozick and Bloom are basically right—there is something more to actual sex than the mere experience of pleasure. Bloom documents that there is something more in the case of gustatory or aesthetic pleasures, so there is good reason to think this of sexual pleasure as well. If this expectation is not confirmed by consumer behavior, then we will have to revise our beliefs regarding their rationality or their values or both. The general point stands: Only when the value of an experience is fully reducible to the experience qua experience should we expect VR to directly compete with RL.

It may still turn out that VR displaces RL not by winning in direct competition with RL but forthrightly as an alternative or a complement to it. Even if no one would rationally choose a VR experience over a qualitatively similar experience IRL, it may be that VR delivers what we reasonably value from mere experience to such a degree or so much more efficiently that we tend to spend more time in VR and less IRL. Net costs and benefits may favor VR even if it is never a perfect substitute for RL. To illustrate, getting good at “Longbow” is not the same as getting good at archery IRL, but it may be that getting good at “Longbow” is valued for what it is and not as a substitute for something else. It may prove valuable enough to win over enthusiasts as a net rather than perfect substitute. Notice, however, that it is not what is virtual about “Longbow” but precisely what it really is that is decisive. One may get good at virtual archery in the game, but one gets actually good at “Longbow.” In those cases where VR serves as training for RL (something which “Longbow” cannot be supposed to do, but which more sophisticated simulations might accomplish), VR experiences are better understood as complements rather than substitutes for experience IRL. Insofar as one trains in VR for the sake of the experience IRL, demand for each moves together. While VR training may substitute for training IRL, training in VR complements the experience IRL. Even if this results in a net reduction of time spent on the activity IRL, the time spent in VR will be a means to activity IRL and will be valued for what it actually is. VR experience qua experience is not substituted for the experience qua experience IRL.

Ultimately, the value of VR comes from what it actually is and not as a substitute for reality. Nowhere is this more apparent than in the sorts of artistic experiences already available, including “LoVR" and “Stor Eiglass.” These experiences have no direct analogue IRL, and this is precisely where VR can most obviously deliver real value. The paper will examine these experiences and perhaps others (new experiences are released daily) to indicate how they point to the real promise of VR.

References Bloom, Paul (2010). How Pleasure Works. New York: W.W. Norton & Company.

Fitz, Ian (2016). Thrill of the Fight. Online at http://store.steampowered.com/app/494150/ accessed 9.9.2016.

Immersive (2016). “LoVR.” Online at https://www.jauntvr.com/title/8617386566 accessed 9.9.2016.

Nozick, Robert (1974). Anarchy, State, and Utopia. New York: Basic Books, 42-45.

Sólfar Studios (2016). EverestVR. Online at http://store.steampowered.com/app/384750/ accessed 9.9.2016.

Squarepusher. "Stor Eiglass.” Online at http://with.in/watch/stor-eiglass/ accessed 9.9.2016.

Valve (2016). “Longbow” in The Lab. Online at http://store.steampowered.com/app/450390/ accessed 9.9.2016.

09:00-10:30 Session 17C: Work
Location: Room H5: building D4, 2nd floor
The Blurry Ethics of Work in the Sharing Economy
SPEAKER: unknown

ABSTRACT. Introduction

Sharing economy is a term that represents the collaborative utility of excess capacity in goods and services whose distribution, sharing and reuse is enabled by an underlying digital infrastructure (Hamari, Sjöklint and Ukkonen 2015). In other words, it is a digitally enabled shared access which provides a required resource to someone while simultaneously creating value for the owner (Chasin et. al. 2015). Popular innovations in this area are Uber and Lyft (transport sharing service akin to taxis), Airbnb (room sharing service akin to hotels) and Mechanical Turk (task sharing service akin to recruitment companies). While the sharing economy has been applauded for its potential contribution to the global economy, there are still questions left unanswered as to the ethics of work under this umbrella. Although a lot of studies have been done in the area of ethics in work (Reamer 1998, Sullivan 1995), there appears to be need for further research on the emerging forms of work enabled by digitalization (Ashford et al. 2007, Yoo et al 2010). Sharing economy seems to unveil a new set of ethical issues related to mutualization of value created by work and responsibilities carried by service providers to their users and to society as whole. For example, private citizens providing ride-share services do not always carry commercial insurance, thus it may be unclear who covers the costs if accident takes place (Malhotra & Van Alstyne 2014). We argue that it is important to explore the ethical questions that these new forms of work are espousing. While we do not claim to draw the ethical lines of work in the sharing economy, we present this paper as a modest contribution towards providing useful insights towards achieving this.

In this extended abstract, we discuss, how companies operate in sharing economy, and explore the ethical questions which are related to the ways these companies operate. We draw from a case study on Uber as a prime example of sharing economy. Uber is a company that provides ride sharing services enabled by a digital platform. It allows car owners to offer rides to passengers in need of mobility for a price predetermined by Uber. Essentially, it helps put the otherwise unused capacity of a resource (the car) owned by one individual into valuable use for another individual in need of that resource. By connecting these two individuals, Uber enables the exchange of value by both parties and in return gets a preset commission for providing the service/platform. The digital nature of the platform enables the exchange to take place within a loosely coupled work relationship between Uber and the drivers. With this business model, Uber has been considered a flagship example of the sharing economy and it has grown phenomenally since its inception to become a global company with operations in different parts of the world.

Our first research question is, how the relationship between Uber and its drivers/contractors is represented through narratives of Uber drivers/contractors. Our second research question is, what ethical dilemmas are related to relationship between Uber and its drivers/contractors. We take a critical stance to enable us construct the avenues through which the insights form the Uber case can be of value for research in other emerging forms of work (Grant and Park 2009) and particularly in the sharing economy contexts.

Research Method and Preliminary Findings

We build the paper as a case study research with Uber being the sharing economy case company under study. We adopt a qualitative research approach involving interviews to get an in-depth understanding of the “why” and “how” practice of work within the Uber work structure, particularly from the perspective of the drivers. To get a deeper insight of the case and the nuances of its work structure in different locations, we conducted our interviews in two different geographic location in the US. This locations are Boston in Massachusetts and San Diego in California. A total of seventeen interviews were collected from Uber drivers in the two locations.

The results from the data collection are indicative of the work arrangement between Uber and its drivers and the associated work relationship that characterizes them. A noticeable aspect is the asymmetric nature of this relationship that could be observed from the data. For example, the capacity of Uber to change its operating principles (loosely translated as contract in traditional sense of work-relationships) when and how it so desires. We also notice the demography and various motivation of the drivers to work for Uber. We particularly draw insights from those drivers who are particularly dependent on Uber and highlight the associated impact of the asymmetry in the work- relationship on their social and economic well-being of these people.

Some of the key results from the interviews exploring the relationships between Uber and the drivers are highlighted below: • Changing rates of fare for passengers • Changing rates of commission • Changing incentives after reaching critical mass in a location • Deactivating drivers at will and based on passenger rating • Facilitating and encouraging drivers to work even where illegal


Considering the ethical issues that are identifiable in the case, we posit that it is of importance to delineate value provided by emerging work forms such as the sharing economy and the ethical dilemmas that they open up. It is apparent that the affordances of digitalization enables the sharing economy to provide a different form of work compared to the traditional form of work (Yoo et al. 2010), which consequently enables it to bypass well known issues that are covered by work ethics in a subtle yet impactful manner. The ethical issues bordering the nature of work in the sharing economy begs the question of the essence of “sharing” in sharing economy. This raises doubts on the use of the term sharing and makes it appear as a case of sharewashing (Kalamar, 2013), which is akin to greenwashing (Laufer 2003).

While Uber provides value to both the drivers and the passengers within its ecosystem, it appears to be taking advantage of the legal loopholes and the depressed status of the global economy to exploit people while reaping a bountiful harvest from their efforts. Additionally, it is capitalizing on the mechanisms of capitalism to surf the wave of a business model that supports the thriving of the top 1% at the expense of the majority that make the bottom percentage. This findings are reminiscence of the Marxist view that the principle of working hard is a delusion that is created for the working class to create more wealth for the upper class. Situations like these have been studied to be a step away from manipulation and hence raises a flag of possible ethical misdemeanors.

While this study has focused on Uber for articulating the ethical issues in the sharing economy model, similar questionable patterns and issues are possible in other cases of the sharing economy. We hereby, position this paper as a call for further studies to help illuminate the issues within this context that opens up various ethical considerations.

The False Prometheus – Customer Choice, Smart Devices and Trust
SPEAKER: unknown

ABSTRACT. In the information society of today, privacy is a premium service and user-related information a commodity. This development has gone unnoticed for many, but for some it contradicts with their common sense and perception of right and wrong. If we look into user agreements, and the effect Fair Information Practice Principles (FIPPs) seem to have, this development is particularly evident. One-on-one agreements such as End User License Agreements (EULAs) between the providers and users have become ubiquitous to most users who simply scroll through the agreement and click ‘I agree’ without actually understanding or caring what they have accepted.

There are various reasons for this kind of behavior ranging from complete indifference, to inadequate internet and technology literacy, and even to peer pressure as certain applications have become a ‘must have’ amongst a group of users. This problem is particularly current as personal mobile devices have become important, for some even inseparable, part of our daily lives. These devices, such as smart phones and tablets, have also become user-centered aggregation points of information that contain personal, even sensitive information about us, and those around us. At the same time, the number of different applications that have practically unrestrained access to the Internet, is on the rise.

When combined with ignorance and negligence, the risk of placing personal information into wrong hands is a very real one. In the following, we focus on this well-explored challenge from a novel perspective; informed consent, and argue that one way to address this problem is to develop solutions that not only promote personal choice and awareness, but are also context-dependent. In order to provide a practical insight into our primarily conceptual work, we use one of the most popular applications, the Pokémon GO by Niantic Inc., in highlighting some of the encountered privacy-related issues.

Prejudiced algorithms? Some arguments about algorithmic power and bias
SPEAKER: unknown

ABSTRACT. The notion of algorithmic power has recently become an object of scholarly attention. However, despite the growing interest in the topic, algorithmic power has not yet been subjected to a rigorous analytical treatment. Moreover, little attempt has so far been made to relate algorithmic power to those conceptions of power developed within the social sciences and philosophy. This paper aims to address these shortcomings by developing an empirically-informed philosophical framework for understanding what algorithmic power means and how algorithmic power relates to dispositional, relational and institutional conceptions of power extant in the social sciences and philosophy. In expounding the notion of algorithmic power, the present work aims to bring analytical rigor and a level of interdisciplinarity to the debate with the aim of facilitating crossdisciplinary communication between critical studies of algorithms, social and political science and philosophy. We give a special attention to algorithms that can become a means to entrenching prejudices, such as racism and sexism.

11:00-12:30 Session 18A: Cyborg Ethics
Location: Room H3: building D4, 2nd floor
From human to transhuman: Cyborg Ethics in Mexico.
SPEAKER: unknown

ABSTRACT. The proliferation and the societal growing demands of technology has impacted in areas such as business and economy; for instance many organizations focus on developing new and innovative products or improving production and logistic lines, etc. Nowadays, there are a growing cultural change associated with technology usage; that is they are a substantial part of citizen’s everyday life. Mobile devices are an example of how technology has changed the way of how people interact each other through social networks, message services and video on demand. The roll of ubiquity has been published in several academic papers in which is explained the impact of mobility in areas such as marketing, education, government among others (Buchanan-Oliver y Cruz, 2011; Martínez-Torres et al., 2014). Technology has been in a rapid and far-reaching change, due to this, many organizations are taking advantage of economies of scale by increasing demand and developing new gadgets based on ubiquity. The market of wearables devices (smart watches and smart bracelets) grew up in the last year 170% and the sales were increased from 28,8 million in 2014 to 78,1 million in 2015 (Diario Wearable, 2016). However, in a near future the wearable may change from devices to technological implants (insideables), and thus enabling humans in a few instances to improve their quality of life or to improve their abilities (transhumans). The transhumanism is an intellectual movement that holds that we are in an evolutionary leap, in which the use of technology allow us to move from human beings to posthumanism (Romañach Cabrero, 2016). The idea to wear devices inside the human body is not new, most of the technological implants are related to health areas, for instance, cardiac pacemaker or intraocular lenses surgeries helps people to have a better life. In some areas such as bionic/robotic and neuroscience are working on how connect and control the brain from computers to help people with disabilities or with paralysis (Boyce, 2002). But, the general question is why would people want to buy, adopt and use technology implants? Do consumers should be aware of the implications of this?. In the business area the consumer psychology has been studied in order to determine the factors that are potentially influencing in the consumers’ conduct towards adopting or using technologies. We can find in the literature that some of those factors refers in topics such as security (Xu, 2013) and trust (Carter y Bélanger, 2005; Yu et al., 2005), also the subjective norms (Venkatesh et al., 2000; Venkatesh y Davis, 2000) could influence in the consumer conduct, another important factor that have been studied in the area are perceived quality and price (Liao et al., 2008; Volckner et al., 2010). The situation in Mexico regarding the developing of implants focuses in the health arena. Recently in the Bnemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla (BUAP) was developed a biomaterial capable to help in the regeneration of the damaged osseous tissue (BUAP, 2016). The Centro de Ciencias Aplicadas y Desarrollo Tecnológico affiliated with the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM) have developed cranial prosthesis in order to help patients recovering or facial reconstruction (Molina, 2015). In recent times, the proposal to use of microcircuits implants and the mobile apps for improving health and care on women was accepted in Mexico. The implants will serve as effective tool to monitor the patient’s health status and as reminder of the breast self-care (SDPnoticias.com, 2016). The cyborg concept is not only a sci-fi topic or medical common implants, this topic can go step further. For instance, nowadays many people have been using/wearing implants to work against their disabilities (Jarrett, 2013), or medical specialist could use a 3D printer to design an implant immediately (Agencia Reforma, 2014; Soler, 2016). However, the transhumanism and its approaches and proposals must be analysed from the point of view of social ethics and their implications on the Human Rights (Romañach Cabrero, 2016). In this study we will analyse the perceptions about the acceptance of technological implants in Mexican citizens (particularly higher education students in San Luis Potosí). Furthermore we will analyse the impact of the transhuman movement (cyborg implants) in the social ethics perspectives. References Agencia Reforma. (2014), «La Medicina en el futuro», Periódico AM. Boyce, N. (2002), «Enter the Cyborgs.», U.S. News & World Report, pp. 56-58. BUAP. (2016), «Se desarrolla en la BUAP biomaterial con potencial para reparación de tejido óseo», Comunicación Institucional - Boletines. Buchanan-Oliver, M. y Cruz, A. (2011), «Discourses of technology consumption: Ambivalence, fear, and Liminality», Advances in Consumer Research, Vol. 39, pp. 287-291. Carter, L. y Bélanger, F. (2005), «The utilization of e-government services: Citizen trust, innovation and acceptance factors», Information Systems Journal, Vol. 15 No. 1, pp. 5-25. Diario Wearable. (2016), «Los smartwatches y pulseras de actividad más vendidos en 2015», Diario Wearable. Jarrett, C. (2013), «The age of the pitcher», The Psychologist, Vol. 26 No. 10, pp. 720-724. Liao, C.-H., Tsou, C.-W. y Shu, Y. (2008), «The roles of perceived enjoyment and price perception in determining acceptance of multimedia-on-demand», International Journal of Business and Information, Vol. 3 No. 1, pp. 27-52. Martínez-Torres, M.R., Díaz-Fernández, M.C., Toral, S.L. y Barrero, F. (2014), «The moderating role of prior experience in technological acceptance models for ubiquitous computing services in urban environments», Technological Forecasting and Social Change, Elsevier B.V., pp. 1-15. Molina, M. (2015), «Fabrican implantes craneales con tecnologia 3D», Agencia Informativa CONACYT. Romañach Cabrero, J. (2016), «Las propuestas éticas y sociales del transhumanismo y los Derechos Humanos. Ethical and social proposals of transhumanism and Human Rights.», UNIVERSITAS. Revista de Filosofía, Derecho y Política, Vol. 24 No. 24, pp. 2-38. SDPnoticias.com. (2016), «Lanzan implante mamario que podrás revisar desde una app», SDPnoticias.com. Soler, J. (2016), «De los creadores de Android: Reporte del futuro», Tendencias. Milenio.com. Venkatesh, V. y Davis, F.D. (2000), «A Theoretical Extension of the Technology Acceptance Model: Four Longitudinal Field Studies», Management Science, Vol. 46 No. 2, pp. 186-204. Venkatesh, V., Morris, M.G. y Ackerman, P.L. (2000), «A Longitudinal Field Investigation of Gender Differences in Individual Technology Adoption Decision-Making Processes.», Organizational behavior and human decision processes, Vol. 83 No. 1, pp. 33-60. Volckner, F., Sattler, H., Hennig-Thurau, T. y Ringle, C.M. (2010), «The Role of Parent Brand Quality for Service Brand Extension Success», Journal of Service Research, Vol. 13 No. 4, pp. 379-396. Xu, H. (2013), «The Effect of Perceived Security on Consumers’ Intent to Use»:, Journal of Electronic Commerce in Organizations, Vol. 11 No. 4, pp. 37-51. Yu, J., Ha, I., Choi, M. y Rho, J. (2005), «Extending the TAM for a t-commerce», Information & Management, Vol. 42 No. 7, pp. 965-976.

Cyborg Ethics: wearables to insideables in Spain
SPEAKER: unknown

ABSTRACT. The true technological breakthrough will happen when consumers switch from wearables (smart devices worn externally, such as watches, clothes or glasses) to insideables (smart devices that are integrated in the human body) (Olarte-Pascual, Pelegrín-Borondo, & Reinares-Lara, 2015).

Most of implantable devices developed in the past few years focus on medical purposes. They restore the control of paralyzed limbs, maintain regular heart rhythm, improve impaired vision or hearing, etc. (Raatikainen et al., 2015). Sophisticated devices, such as a wireless brain-computer interface implantable in the skull of people, allow them to control TVs, wheelchairs, or other tools (Regalado, 2015). However, some implantable devices move forward from medical goals, and try to increase people’s capabilities, such as mental agility, memory, physical strength, or remote control of machines (Buchanan, 2011; Gasson, Kosta, & Bowman, 2012; Jotterand, 2008; Lin & Allhoff, 2008; Robitaille, 2008).

The interest in such devices among research centres and companies is rising. For instance, MIT Technology Review include a reference to brain implants, point out that will improve memory as one of the most innovative emerging technologies (Cohen, 2013). As well major technological companies such as Google, Facebook or PayPal are investing considerable financial resources to start-up companies that are developing technologies to enhanced human capabilities (Cortina & Serrá Beltrán, 2015)—for example, Calico™ or Vicarious™ (Sánchez, 2015). In such a new scenario the ethical challenge for modern society is inevitable. Insideables could split humanity between hyper-performing and normal humans (Deplazes, 2008; Fletcher, 2014; Lai, 2012; Pelegrín-Borondo et al., 2016, Reinares-Lara et al., 2016; Schermer, 2009). These types of products could greatly exacerbate social differences. It is thus essential for future research dealing with this issue to return as much information as possible to society in order to enable the type of informed decision-making that will be essential to our progress as social human beings. Usually “cyborg technologies” area accepted to improve quality of life of disabled people or even solve their disability. But to foster capacity of people without any medical problem has other perception. Ethical discussions emerge and acceptation about the use of these new technological products in this case is not so clear. Differences between therapy and enhancement are and will be critical (Duarte and Park, 2014). The ambivalence of futuristic-sounding pictures of a dissolving human body, on the one hand, and the biotech symbiosis that is happening at the moment in real life and society, on the other, clearly challenges the societal norms and standards that make up our conception of humankind (Greiner, 2014).

In Spain implants are not a new issue. Spanish Society of Aesthetic Surgery (SECPRE, 2014) estimated that 18.000-19.000 Spanish women made breast implants each year, as the most demanded aesthetic service. In 2013 there were 36.600 pacemakers registered in Spain (Samartín et al. 2014). These facts show that non-technological implants are accepted in society nowadays. Regarding non-medical implants, we don’t have indicators yet. In this paper we will analyze the perceptions about technological implants in Spanish higher education students, exploring both benefits and problems perceived in insideables to increase people’s capabilities. We will explore as well the ethical challenges perceived in insideables from personal and social perspectives.

2. References Buchanan-Oliver, M., and Cruz, A. (2011). “Discourses of technology consumption: Ambivalence, fear, and liminality”, in NA - Advances in Consumer Research 39, ed. T.L.C. Rohini Ahluwalia, and R.K.R, Duluth (MN: Association for Consumer Research), 287-291. http://hdl.handle.net/2292/23656. Cohen, J. (2013). 10 Breakthrough technologies 2013: Memory implants. MIT Technology Review. Available at: http://goo.gl/qHv5eJ [accessed January 31, 2015]. Cortina, A. & Serra Beltrán, M. A. (2015). ¿Humanos o posthumanos? Barcelona: Fragmenta. Deplazes, A. (2008). Nanobiotechnology and Synthetic Biology. Two forms of overlap between biology and technology. A comparison of scientific, social, ethical and philosophical aspects of the two disicplines. In J. S. Ach & C. Weidemann, Size matters, ethical, legal and social aspects of nanobiotechnology and nano-medicine (pp. 51–74). Berlin, Lit Verlag. Duarte, B. N., & Park, E. (2014). Body, Technology and Society: a Dance of Encounters. NanoEthics, 8(3), 259-261. Fletcher, D. J. (2014). Transhuman perfection: The eradication of disabilities through transhuman technologies. Humana.Mente Journal of Philosophical Studies, 26, 79–94. Gasson, M. N., Kosta, E., & Bowman, D. M. (2012). Human ICT implants: Technical, legal and ethical considerations. New York: Springer. Greiner, S. (2014). Cyborg Bodies—Self-Reflections on Sensory Augmentations. NanoEthics, 8(3), 299-302. Jotterand, F. (2008). Beyond therapy and enhancement: The alteration of human nature. NanoEthics, 2, 15–23. Lai, A. (2012). Cyborg as commodity: Exploring conception of self-identity, body and citizenship within the context of emerging transplant technologies. Advances in Consumer Research. 40, 386-394. Lin, P. & Allhoff, F. (2008). Untangling the debate: The ethics of human enhancement. NanoEthics, 2, 251–264. Olarte-Pascual, C., Pelegrin-Borondo, J., and Reinares-Lara, E. (2015). Implants to increase innate capacities: integrated vs. apocalyptic attitudes. Is there a new market? Universia Business Review. 48 (fourth quarter), 86-117. Pelegrín-Borondo J, Reinares-Lara E, Olarte-Pascual C and Garcia-Sierra M (2016). Assessing the Moderating Effect of the End User in Consumer Behavior: The Acceptance of Technological Implants to Increase Innate Human Capacities. Frontiers in Psychology. 7:132. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2016.00132 Raatikainen, M. J. P., Arnar, D. O., Zeppenfeld, K., Merino, J. L., Levya, F., Hindriks, G. & Kuck, K. H. (2015). Statistics on the use of cardiac electronic devices and electrophysiological procedures in the European society of cardiology countries: 2014 Report from the European heart rhythm association. Europace, 17, i1–i75. Regalado, A. (2015). A brain-computer interface that works wirelessly. MIT Technological Review. Available at: http://www.technologyreview.com/news/534206/a-brain-computer-interface-that-works-wirelessly/ [accessed May 18, 2015]. Reinares-Lara, E., Olarte-Pascual, C., Pelegrin-Borondo, J., and Pino, G. (2016). Nanoimplants that Enhance Human Capabilities: A Cognitive-Affective Approach to Assess Individuals’ Acceptance of this Controversial Technology. Psychology and Marketing. 33 (8), in press. Robitaille, M. (2008). Optimization of human capacities and the representation of the nanoscale body. International Journal of Disability, Community & Rehabilitation, 8, Retrieved June 5, 2015, from: ttp://ijdcr.ca/VOL08_02/articles/robitaille.shtml. Samartín, R. C., Pérez, Ó. C., & Jiménez, M. P. (2014). Registro Español de Marcapasos. XI Informe Oficial de la Sección de Estimulación Cardiaca de la Sociedad Española de Cardiología (2013). Revista Española de Cardiología, 67 (12), 1024-1038. Sánchez, C. M. (2015). Año 2045. El ser humano cambiará para siempre. XL Semanal, 1450, 14–21. Schermer, M. (2009). The mind and the machine. On the conceptual and moral implications of brain-machine interaction. NanoEthics. 3(3), 217-230. doi: http://doi.org/b296bv. Sociedad Española de Cirugía Plástica, Reparadora y Estética (SECPRE) (2014). La realidad de la cirugía estética en España 2014. Sociedad Española de Cirugía Plástica, Reparadora y Estética

Who will rule the world in the future?

ABSTRACT. New technologies are dramatically changing human civilization in a way few could have imagined even at the end of the 20th century. And yet, many things will change even more. Very soon, computer intelligence will surpass the abilities of the human brain, genetic research and regenerative medicine will create practically immortal genetically enhanced humans with super-intelligence and superpowers, and natural people will become a minority in the world of human cyborgs. In such a new world, the supremacy of humans will be disputed. This paper presents the issues arising from the mind controlled devices, pointing out those viewpoints which might completely destroy, and those which can preserve the equilibrium of the world we live in.

11:00-12:30 Session 18B: Social Media
Location: Room H4: building D4, 2nd floor
Ethical questions related to using netnography as research method
SPEAKER: unknown

ABSTRACT. Netnography is a relatively new research method, which adapts research techniques of ethnography to study cultures and communities through computer-mediated communications. It has become a popular research method in marketing research during the 21st century. However, the use of netnography in the field of information systems (later referred as IS) has not been studied to great extent. Thus, we have conducted a systematic literature review to investigate the ethical practices of netnographic research in the field IS.

To analyse the ethical practices of netnographic research and discussion surrounding it, we have collected 52 articles which use netnography either as their sole research method or as their completing research method. These articles were selected from 77 IS journals. Our findings indicate that netnography is an emerging research method which is still moulding its ethical guidelines. Researchers, who use netnography, do not completely agree on the ethically just manner of conducting netnography. However, it is apparent that certain ways of conducting netnography are often considered to be ethically just where as some other ways might be often considered to be ethically unjust.

Editorial responsibilities arising from personalization algorithms
SPEAKER: unknown

ABSTRACT. Social media platforms routinely apply personalization algorithms to ensure the content presented to the user is relevant and engaging. These algorithms are designed to prioritize and make some pieces of information more visible than others. However, there is typically no transparency in the criteria used for ranking the information, and more importantly, the consequences that the resulting content could have on users. Social media platforms argue that because they do not alter content, just reshape the way it is presented to the user, they are merely technological companies (not media companies). We highlight the value of a Responsible Research and innovation (RRI) approach to the design, implementation and use of personalization algorithms. Based on this and in combination with reasoned analysis and the use of case studies, we suggest that social media platforms should take editorial responsibility and adopt a code of ethics to promote corporate social responsibility.

On the Taxonomy of Social Media Marketing: From the view of Sociomateriality
SPEAKER: Hiroshi Koga

ABSTRACT. In this paper, we will present a frame of reference on the privacy issue of the Social media marketing strategy. As is well known, social media marketing is one of the sub-strategy of the omni channel strategy, which combines owned media, earned media, and social media. Then, information service to individuals from each of the media on the web could cause privacy issues. Thus, we will try to typify the characteristics of the privacy issues of social media. In particular, from the point of view of the “sociomateriality” that has been attracting attention in recent years IS research, we would like to consider the taxonomy. Therefore, this paper consists of three parts.

1. The privacy issues on the web marketing First of all, we review the privacy problem in the web marketing strategy. In the marketing of the academic area, purchase history data and personal data is considered as important management resources. Then, customers enjoy a variety of services, instead of providing their own attributes and behaviors result. In other words, information about privacy can be understood as a consideration for the service. However, such a situation it can be said that the paradox of privacy concept. To begin with, the concept of privacy has been proposed as different rights and property rights. Nonetheless, it is treated as money. Therefore, it can be said that the paradox of privacy. In consequence, it has been proposed the concept of the right to control self-information or the concept of the right to be forgotten.

2. Characteristics of the Omni Channel and Social Media Marketing: From a sociomaterial view First, the features of the Omni channel will be ascertained from a sociomaterial view. Here, sociomateriality is a view that captures the relationship of technology and organization (Orlikowski and Scott, 2008). Traditionally, technology and organization have been considered to be a separate entity. Then, it has been the elucidation of the relationship between the two (in particular, cause-and-effect relationship, and the relationship among organization - technology - results.)

On the other hand, in order to consider the interaction of the organization and technology, theory of sturucturation (Giddens, 1984) and Actor-Network Theory (cf. Callon, 1984) has been incorporated. Then, nowadays, perspective to focus on the practice as ensemble of organization and technology have emerged. It is a view that focus on the relationship of human agency and artifacts performability.

By adopting the view of sociomateriality, it is necessary to focus on the consumer's practice with the media. In other words, the point of view of promotion and public relations became insufficient. Therefore, in the following, by focusing into practice, we will consider the relationship with the privacy.

To be more specific, it is the owned media such as the official of their own web sites and smartphone apps. In such a media, often, personal information will be grasped by member registration. As a result, promotional information, such as the coupon will be sent to the individual addressed. In the sociomateriality perspective, it is the characteristics of the owned media that the customers’ practice will be carried out in web space provided by companies. Therefore, it is easy to induction by companies.

In the paid media it will be grasped that web browsing history. Thereby, it will be performed measurements such as conversion rate. In sociomateriality of perspective, paid media is because the information medium of advertising, the perspective of interaction with consumers is scarce.

In the case of social media, it is a little more complicated. Usually, social media will be considered as the place of word-of-mouth communication. Therefore, it is considered that it is difficult to control and/or management the social media by companies. However, a direct marketing approach through the social media is possible. In some case (for example, flash marketing), the coupon will be distributed. These are the marketing activities to be carried out through the official Twitter and Facebook companies. On the other hand, it is also possible to reach out to customers of Twitter and Facebook account. Companies can find the customer's account by performing ego-searching. Thus, it is possible to talk directly to the customer's account. Such interactivity is characteristic of social media.

For social media, basically, like the owned media, it is important to explicate privacy policy. In fact, companies account in social media can be said to be the same as owned media. Needless to say, there is a difference among them. It will allow to provide information by limiting the time and space, to communicate to the customer directly and interactively, and so on. For example, through social media, companies can send a “thank you message” and/or appreciation directly to the customer and/or can directly sends answers to the complaint or claim of customer. However, against the claim that could to burst into flames, rather than directly, indirect corresponding would be better. In other words, corresponding is important in accordance with the content and context that the customer has offered.

In sociomateriality of perspective, social media is likely to be emergent interaction between companies and customers. For this purpose, there is a high possibility that privacy issues from the interaction occurs. In the next section, we want to discuss this point.

3. Taxonomy of Privacy Issues on the Social Media Marketing Salient features of consumer behavior in social media's anonymity and quasi-identity (pseudonymity). Therefore, in the social media marketing company, it is necessary to consider the consumers of anonymity and pseudonymity. Here, Anonymity is an attempt to reduce the identifiability of the individual. On the other hand, pseudonymity is an attempt to loosen the identification level.

Social media is not a complete anonymity. Rather, there is a pseudonymity behind the consumer behavior in the media space --- specifically, posts such as the user experience, product reviews, and so on.

Another key is context of social media. Specifically, in the perspective of the context, the difference of Facebook and Twitter is a remarkable --- The context will affect the post content.

Therefore, if the attention to the difference of context and degree of anonymity (level of pseudonymity), issues of privacy issues become apparent in social media marketing.

In this paper, using two of the dichotomy that the extent of pseudonymity and the degree of difficulty in the context setting by the company, we will classify into four type of social media marketing.

(a) Low context setting - low pseudonymity: e.g. anonymous bulletin board. This is difficult to use as a marketing tool. (b) Low context setting - high pseudonymity: e.g. Twitter. It is considered an effective means in setting the claim corresponding context in the enterprise side. (c) High context setting - low pseudonymity: e.g. corporate blog. It is difficult to induce the interaction with the customer. (d) High context set - high pseudonymity: e.g. Facebook and ownd media. In this case, since the accessible personal information and action history, there is a possibility that privacy problems. If firms will use the personal information grasped, it is necessary to be careful.

Reference Callon, M. (1986). “The sociology of an actor-network: The case of the electric vehicle,” In M. Callon et al. (eds.), Mapping the dynamics of science and technology: Sociology of Science in the Real World, Macmillan Press, UK, pp. 19-34. Giddens, A. (1984). The Construction of Society. Cambridge: Polity. Orlikowski, W. J., & Scott, S. V. (2008). “Sociomateriality: challenging the separation of technology, work and organization,” The academy of management annals, 2(1), 433-474.

11:00-12:30 Session 18C: EthosIT Workshop on Codes of Ethics
Location: Room H2: building D4, 2nd floor
14:00-15:00 Session 19: Plenary Weizenbaum Award: James Moor
Location: Aura Magna: building D2, base floor
15:30-17:00 Session 20: Plenary: Updating the ACM Code of Ethics
Location: Aura Magna: building D2, base floor
Dynamic Technology Challenges Static Codes of Ethics: A Case Study
SPEAKER: unknown

ABSTRACT. We describe the process of changing and the changes being suggested for the ACM Code of Ethics and Professional Conduct. In addition to addressing the technical and ethical basis for the proposed changes, we identify suggestions that commenters made in response to the first draft. We invite feedback on the proposed changes and on the suggestions that commenters made.