Tags:content similarity, dependency trees, Graph Neural Networks, graph node property prediction, ground term similarity relations, Logic Programming and Machine Learning, symbolic vs. neural AI and text graphs

Abstract:

Graph Neural Networks share with Logic Programming several key relational inference mechanisms. The datasets on which they are trained and evaluated can be seen as database facts containing ground terms. This makes possible modeling their inference mechanisms with equivalent logic programs, to better understand not just how they propagate information between the entities involved in the machine learning process but also to infer limits on what can be learned from a given dataset and how well that might generalize to unseen test data.

This leads us to the key idea of this paper: modeling with the help of a logic program the information flows involved in learning to infer from the link structure of a graph and the information content of its nodes properties of new nodes, given their known connections to nodes with possibly similar properties. The problem is known as graph node property prediction and our approach will consist in emulating with help of a Prolog program the key information propagation steps of a Graph Neural Network's training and inference stages.

We test our a approach on the {\em ogbn-arxiv} node property inference benchmark. To infer class labels for nodes representing papers in a citation network, we distill the dependency trees of the text associated to each node into directed acyclic graphs that we encode as ground Prolog terms. Together with the set of their references to other papers, they become facts in a database on which we reason with help of a Prolog program that mimics the information propagation in graph neural networks predicting node properties. Finally, we implement explanation generators that unveil performance upper bounds inherent to the dataset.

As a practical outcome, we obtain a logic program, that, when seen as machine learning algorithm, performs close to the state of the art on the node property prediction benchmark.

A Gaze into the Internal Logic of Graph Neural Networks, with Logic