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11:30-12:30 Session 1: Opening Ceremony

Opening Speakers:


Introductory speech:

Prof. Nebojša Dončov, University of Niš

ICEST 2023 Conference Chair


Opening speech:

Prof. Kalin Dimitrov, TU Sofia

ICEST 2023 Conference Vice-Chair


Opening speech:

Prof. Mitko Kostov, St. Kliment Ohridski University,Bitola

ICEST 2023 Conference Vice-Chair


Opening speech:

Prof. Zlatica Marinković, University of Niš

Vice-Chair of IEEE Serbia and Montenegro Section


Opening speech:

Prof. Boban Veselić, University of Niš

Vice-Dean of the Faculty of Electronic Engineering


Opening speech and ceremonial opening of the ICEST 2023 conference

Prof. Dragan Antić, University of Niš

Rector of the University of Niš


Musical Performance

Location: Congress Hall
12:30-13:00 Session 2: Plenary Session
Location: Congress Hall
Rockfall Monitoring using Multi-technological Wireless Sensor Network (Plenary Lecture)

ABSTRACT. Rockfall phenomenon is caused by the exposure of rock masses to weather and erosion. Over time, a rock or boulder can become unstable and fall along a slope. To monitor this phenomenon, several methodologies based on sensor networks have been developed in recent times; among these we find geotechnical monitoring Wireless Sensor Network (WSN). The flexibility of these structures makes them a well-suited solution. In this paper, a multi-technological rockfall-oriented WSN is presented; this system is composed of several Long Range (LoRa) based sensors that retrieve various geotechnical parameters, along with other cellular based nodes for rock impact monitoring. Sensors of different technologies are integrated in the network to obtain a wider spectrum of monitored events in order to enable a complete observation possibility for the status of the rock formations. The entire system follows an Internet of Things (IoT) scheme, where data is accessible anytime from an online platform. The experimental system is installed in the locality of San Demetrio Ne’ Vestini, Italy, in particular at the Grotte di Stiffe site.

13:00-14:00Welcome Cocktail
15:00-16:15 Session 3A: Signal and Image Processing
Location: Room A
MSE Analysis of 24-Bit Fixed-Point Format in a Wide Variance Range
PRESENTER: Milan Dinčić

ABSTRACT. In this paper, we consider a fixed-point format which is one of the commonly used binary format for data representation. In particular, we focus on the 24-bit fixed-point format (FXP24) and the analysis provided here can be observed as our further research in this area. Using the relationship that exists between the structure of the fixed-point format and uniform scalar quantization, we actually use SQNR (signal-to quantization noise ratio) to measure the performance of mentioned binary format. Assuming data modelled with a Laplacian distribution, we theoretically investigate the performance of the FXP24 format across the wide dynamic range of variances under the constraint that the number of bits in the integer part n changes. We have shown that with an adequate selection of n, it is possible to find the range of variances in which FXP24 provides better SQNR (that is, a higher accuracy) than its floating-point counterpart FP24.

Performance Analysis of Fixed-Point and Floating-Point 32-bit Quantizers for L1 Norm and Laplacian Source
PRESENTER: Nikola Vucic

ABSTRACT. In this paper, the goal is to examine how the choice of parameters of two different quantizers designed to correspond to fixed-point and floating-point 32-bit formats affect the signal-to-quantization-noise ratio (SQNR) for a wide variance range of the input signal modelled by the Laplacian probability density function, where the L1 norm is used to measure the distortion brought by both quantization models. It is shown that it is possible to choose the parameters of the quantizer designed according to the fixed-point 32-bit format in such a way that it outperforms the quantizer designed according to the 32-bit floating-point format in terms of the average SQNR. Since the quantizer designed according to the fixed-point format is simpler to design and implement than the one designed according to the floating-point format, the presented analysis is of great importance for the implementation of a simpler quantizer model, which could be important for numerous applications in which the simplicity of the quantizer model is very important.

On Applying Expert Knowledge for Spline-based Segmentation of Liver on Computed Tomography Images
PRESENTER: Szilvia Nagy

ABSTRACT. The segmentation of the liver from the surrounding tissues on a non-enhanced, arterial or delayed phase computed tomography slice is of the complicated, as the muscle and many other soft tissues have very similar X-ray attenuation, thus they manifest as similar intensity and similar pattern domains on the computed tomography images. However, of the anatomical setup of the human body and the location of the bones, that have much higher attenuation are taken into account, a sufficiently smooth and precise borderline can be drawn between the ribcage and the liver, that can be developed into a liver contour by successive erosion and active contour methods. The paper demonstrates the applicability of this setup.

Quasi-periodic image noise filtering using Inverse Laplace filter
PRESENTER: Đorđe Čikić

ABSTRACT. In the process of image acquisition a lot of different types of noise can arise. Filtering this noise is a well-known problem in image processing. Quasi-periodic noise filtering has proven to be a challenging problem in this topic. This paper presents a novel automated approach for filtering quasi-periodic noise using Laplace distribution for modelling Fourier transform coefficients, Inverse Laplace filter and Median filter.

Comparative Analysis of Local Adaptive LMS Image Filtration
PRESENTER: Rumen Mironov

ABSTRACT. In this paper the 2D part of the developed method for local adaptive three-dimensional filtration of multidimensional halftone images is compared with some advanced methods for image filtrations – BM3D, Average, Gaussian and etc. The adaptation of the presented algorithm is based on the local information from the neighbourhood of the pixels of processed images using generalized 2D Adaptive LMS filter. An analysis of the quality of the processed images is made in terms of both peak signal-to-noise ratio calculations and subjective visual quality. The experimental results are performed on a set of real test halftone images which are noised with Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN) with different variance levels.

15:00-16:30 Session 3B: Control Systems & Engineering Education
Location: Room B
The Object Spatial Orientation Calculation based on 3D Inertial Module and Kalman Filter
PRESENTER: Rosen Miletiev

ABSTRACT. The objects spatial orientation is one of the major navigation problems and absolute orientation estimation is one of the key steps in the computer vision. Many methods have been proposed to estimate absolute object pose based on orientation sensors, such as gyroscopes, accelerometers, or inertial measurement units (IMUs). The current paper described a Kalman filter based algorithm to obtain the spatial orientation and the proposed algorithm results from the experimental study are compared with the calculated values from the built-in software library in the BNO055 sensor module. The proposed algorithm for the absolute orientation estimation may be easily integrated in the different embedded systems with limited resources such as gyro-stabilized camera systems, etc.

Feature Selection for Fault Diagnosis Using Principal Component Analysis

ABSTRACT. the application of feature selection to fault diagnosis is presented. First, Filtered data identification algorithm is derived for controlled autoregressive autoregressive (CARAR) system in order to estimate the system parameters. The Proposed technique offers a high computational efficiency. These estimated parameters are referred as features and these features are not all have the same informative value. Next, features selection is carried out using principal components analysis. Finally, the simulation results demonstrate the value of the suggested procedures.

Accuracy and Repeatability Dependency from Speed about MELFA Robots
PRESENTER: Boris Kostov

ABSTRACT. This paper presents an experimental investigation of the accuracy and repeatability dependency on speed for MELFA robots. The study was conducted using a MELFA RV-2F robot arm equipped with a high-precision displacement sensor to measure the end-effector position. The robot arm was programmed to perform a series of point-to-point movements at different speeds, and the position error and repeatability were measured and analyzed. The results indicate that the accuracy and repeatability of the MELFA robot are strongly dependent on the speed of the robot arm. At low speeds, the robot arm exhibits high accuracy and repeatability, while at high speeds, the accuracy and repeatability decrease significantly. These findings have important implications for the design and operation of MELFA robots and can be used to optimize their performance in various industrial applications.

Using ChatGPT Standard Prompt Engineering Techniques in Lesson Preparation: Role, Instructions and Seed-word Prompts

ABSTRACT. The application of available natural language processing systems can have a significant impact on the education process. The primary aim of this research was to test the impact of three standard prompting techniques on the results obtained from ChatGPT. Generation of a lesson plan for programming for preschoolers was chosen as the task set for AI. The obtained results show that use of a standard prompting with additional defined roles and seed words can be useful in preparation of teaching units and lessons and it can be considered as a technique of teachers’ choice.

Virtual Reality Application for Height Fear Treatment
PRESENTER: Nicole Christoff

ABSTRACT. In the article, we propose a software-based implementation of a virtual reality exposure therapy application for the treatment of a particular phobia, such as a fear of heights. One of the aims of the research is to implement a method that would enable users of application to gradually face their phobias inside within the boundaries of a safe environment in the hopes of assisting them in overcoming it.

16:30-17:00Coffee Break
17:30-19:00 Session 4A: Electronics
Location: Poster Hall
GaN HEMT Modeling versus Bias Point and Gate Width

ABSTRACT. This paper focuses on the equivalent-circuit modelling of gallium-nitride (GaN) high electron-mobility transistors (HEMTs) on silicon carbide (SiC) substrate. The model is extracted from scattering (S-) parameters measurements by using the well-known “cold” approach. The extracted model is successfully validated by investigating three devices with different gate widths in a wide range of bias points over a broad frequency range spanning from 45 MHz up to 50 GHz.

Prediction of Life Expectancy of Electronic Components Estimated by Neural Network
PRESENTER: Vasil Shterev

ABSTRACT. This paper presents a study on the use of neural networks (NN) for predicting the life expectancy of electronic components. Electronic components are prone to failure over time due to aging, environmental factors, and other causes. Accurate prediction of the remaining useful life of these components is critical for improving reliability and reducing downtime. In this study, we propose a neural network-based approach for predicting the life expectancy of electronic components. The neural network is trained on a dataset of historical component data and corresponding failure times. The results demonstrate that the proposed approach can accurately predict the remaining useful life of electronic components with high accuracy, outperforming traditional statistical methods. This study provides a valuable contribution to the field of prognostics and health management and has important implications for improving the reliability of electronic systems.

Analysis of indoor localization techniques
PRESENTER: Milica Jovanovic

ABSTRACT. Location-based applications and services have gained growing business interest in recent years. Systems for indoor localization relay on various localization techniques, which can vary significantly when it comes to the technology, accuracy, cost, robustness, etc. Unlikely outdoor localization, the indoor localization requires a higher precision and can be more challenging due to the signal dispersion and obstacle reflections. Currently, there are numerous solutions proposed in this field of research. In this paper, we provide the survey of the existing technologies and techniques for indoor localization systems.

A Survey of Hardware Fault Tolerance Techniques

ABSTRACT. The paper surveys various hardware fault tolerance techniques. The techniques include three basic forms of hardware redundancy: passive, active and hybrid. Advantages and disadvantages are listed for each technique, as well as a proposal for choosing the optimal technique in relation to the needs of the system.

Converters with Energy Dosing by Inductance

ABSTRACT. This paper presents the results of studying the converters with energy dosing by inductance and proves their ability to maintain stable output power when the load parameters vary, without using and applying the regulatory properties of the control system. The properties of the following circuits: boost converter, buck – boost converter, buck-boost converter with galvanic isolation, circuit from Patent US 10,700,598 B2 are presented and analysed. On the basis of the analysis of electromagnetic processes, the restrictive conditions are derived for the circuit operation with constant power or output voltage when load parameters or input voltage vary. Expressions have been obtained with the help of which the control system can predict, compensate and set the desired converter parameters. The regulatory characteristics built as a function of the load value and inductance make it possible to evaluate the behaviour of the converters, on the one hand and on the other hand, to carry out their rapid design.

Harmonic Analysis of Boost DC-DC Converter
PRESENTER: Gergana Vacheva

ABSTRACT. Frequency scanning analysis is currently the most widely used method for identifying the existence of resonance and for determining resonant frequencies. Unfortunately, the method does not provide complete information necessary for effective prediction of the resonance phenomenon. The purpose of this paper is to present an approach for the analysis of resonance phenomena in the boost DC-DC converters in pre-design studies.

Development A Hardware RTC timer Based On TTL Logic
PRESENTER: Iliyan Boychev

ABSTRACT. This article presents a method of construct a hardware RTC timer as device based on TTL logic. The RTC timer provides functionalities as measures real time clock, chronometer function and start stop button for pausing. The RTC timer is based on TTL counters and development bool logic to managing correct counting seconds, minutes and hours.

Substrate Effects on Electrophoretic Deposited Biocompatible Piezo-Salts
PRESENTER: Rostislav Rusev

ABSTRACT. Piezo layers of non-toxic and biocompatible salts are formed for the green microelectronics, such as Rochelle Salt and ammonium dihydrogen phosphate. These layers were deposited with electrophoresis on aluminium and copper substrates. The influence of the substrates on the morphology of the layers and their piezo-response were studied. The obtained structures are polycrystalline, but have the piezo-moduli comparable to monocrystals and inorganic ceramics

Investment Analysis of PV System for Supplying Small Manufactory
PRESENTER: Gergana Vacheva

ABSTRACT. The study aims to make a comprehensive analysis for the minimization of losses and optimization of profit in an upcoming investment of a photovoltaic plant model for the production and consumption of electricity for the needs of a farm under its specific needs.

17:30-19:00 Session 4B: Telecommunications & Signal Processing
Location: Poster Hall
A Simplified Methodology for H-plane SIW Horn Antenna Design
PRESENTER: Ivaylo Nachev

ABSTRACT. The H-plane horn antenna fabricated by waveguide integration in dielectric substrate (SIW) technology is presented in this paper. The considered antenna is designed on 4 layers dielectric substrate, which leads to an easy implementation using fabrication technology for multilayer PCB. A bandpass filter, again in SIW implementation, consisting of a simple cascade structure is integrated into the feeding waveguide feeding, which limits the excitation of higher modes in the dielectric and ensures good antenna feed matching. The horn is designed for a center frequency of 6.3GHz and simulated and measured results of the synthesized SIW horn antenna are presented.

Optical Communication System Investigation with Application for VLF Solar Flares Monitoring System
PRESENTER: Ivaylo Nachev

ABSTRACT. In this research focuses on investigating an optical communication channel in a system for monitoring solar flares system using a technique for VLF signal level monitoring. Optical communication has the potential to offer high data rates, long transmission distances without loses, and immunity to electromagnetic interference, making it a promising technology for use in systems of the proposed type.

Uplink NOMA Analysis with Different Allocation Algorithms over F Fading Channels

ABSTRACT. In this work, we investigate uplink non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) performance in which divide-next-largest-difference-Based user pairing algorithm (D-NLUPA) is employed. Communication is performed among base station (BS) and paired users in arbitrary number of clusters. The channels are described by Fischer-Snedecor (F) fading model, which is experimentally confirmed model in literature as applicable in characterizing device-to-device communication links. The outage probability and sum data rate are defined for power-domain NOMA using data rate-based power allocation procedure. More specific, comparison of two pairing schemes, D-NLUPA and High-Low, is obtained in terms of aforementioned metrics. Numerical results also show the influence of fading depth and shadowing sharpness of the cell-center and cell-edge user’s links; and their locations, i.e. path gains on performance metrics under consideration, as well as number of users in the cell.

Comparative Analysis of AODV and MTP Routing Protocols in VANET
PRESENTER: Tsvetan Marinov

ABSTRACT. Nowadays, vehicles are used on a daily basis. People's lives would be much more difficult without them. They help us to carry passengers, cargo, prevent accidents and so on. Despite all the advantages they have, there are also disadvantages that must be overcome. Road accidents, traffic jams and dirty air are seen every day. One way to deal with these problems is to build a network in which vehicles can communicate. That is why the VANET (Vehicular ad-hoc network) network was created. One of the most important things in VANET are the routing protocols. It is up to them to ensure that messages arrive on time and with their integrity intact. In this work, a comparative analysis of the routing protocols AODV and MTP is made.

Bi-isotropic Prolate Rotational Ellipsoid in a Homogeneous Axial Electric Field
PRESENTER: Zaklina Mancic

ABSTRACT. A bi-isotropic prolate rotational ellipsoid in a homogeneous axial electric field is considered in this paper. By solving of Laplace’s and Poisson’s equation, the expressions for electric and magnetic scalar potential and electric and magnetic field, inside and outside of an ellipsoid, are completely determined. In the case of bi-isotropic parameter equal to zero, they reduce to known expressions of a pure dielectric ellipsoid. Polarization in the bi-isotropic ellipsoid is determined as well.

Method of Exponentially Varying Amplitudes for Finding Periodic Solutions of Autonomous Equations

ABSTRACT. A method derived based on the small parameter method is presented, which can describe not only the steady state corresponding to oscillating motion, but also the transient process. The nonlinear equation is reduced to solving linear differential equations, the solution of which is known and easily found. The dependence of the solution on the initial conditions is found by factoring in the amplitude and phase of the solution.

DA-FBLMS Adaptive Filter Design for Accurate ECG Signal Detection using FPGA
PRESENTER: Dipak Patil

ABSTRACT. Biomed Signalling are a form of signal that is extremely important in the field of significant clinical diagnostics. Many attempts must be made in real-world applications to pick the step size. This is modest, in order to get as high a level of clutter elimination and convergence speed as possible. Furthermore, the step size obtained by matrix eigen decomposition will necessitate a substantial amount of computation time. The adaptive step size based DA and FBLMS algorithms are presented in this work, which alter the step size by measuring the correlation coherence of the reference signal between the current iteration and the previous iteration. The major focus of the study is on the implementation of the proposed DA-FBLMS adaptive digital filter for reliable ECG signal identification. To achieve greater accuracy and reduced power consumption, the DA-FBLMS adaptive filter is built on FPGA Virtex 5 boards. The study compares distributed arithmetic (DA) based Fast Block LMS (FBLMS) to DABLMS and recommends iteration of LUT sharing to minimize energy usage and allow for faster detection of accurate ECG signals. The FPGA implementation is carried out on a Virtex board with a 5 grade speed of xc2vpx70-5ff1704. The final product emphasizes the implementation's minimal power and memory needs, resulting in increased speed and accuracy.

Overview Paper: Datasets of 3D Deformable Digital Models of Clothes and Garments Usable in the Metaverse

ABSTRACT. The reconstruction of 3D models of people and dressing them in digital clothes, also known as avatars in recent years, has seen a kind of evolution caused by the growing needs of our society in the online environment. The processes of digitalization and virtualization in every aspect of our lives will give rise to phenomena leading to changes in social relations and the construction of a new reality. In this scientific paper, an overview of all available datasets of 3D deformable digital models of clothes and garments is done. The intent of this survey is to review the state-of-the-art approaches in the area and analyse their strengths and weaknesses.

An Experimental Analysis of Deep Learning Models for Human Activity Recognition with Synthetic Data

ABSTRACT. In this paper, an experimental study of state-of-the-art techniques in Human Activity Recognition (HAR) is presented. Different Deep Learning algorithms, including CNNs and RNNs, are examined and compared. The experimental part is done using two real-life datasets Kinetics-400 and UCF-101 and one synthetic – SURREACT. All of them are used both for training and testing. The models – SlowFast, X3D and MViT are evaluated using accuracy top-1, and the results are identifying the best-performing combinations of dataset and model. One important question this study is trying to answer is whether a synthetic dataset can replace a real-world one. Finally, limitations and future directions are discussed, along with potential real-world applications.

17:30-19:00 Session 4C: Measurement Science, Remote Ecological Monitoring & Control Systems
Location: Poster Hall
Friendly Software-Based Method for Evaluating the Electromagnetic Field Influence at Electrospinning

ABSTRACT. In the study, a new, more user-friendly software-based method for examining the distribution of nanofiber mats produced on the collector surface was used to evaluate the possibility of modifying some operating parameters of the electrospinning process. The technique makes use of widely accessible image processing software to provide data on the impact of the distance between the nozzle and collector screen as well as the area occupied by the nanofibers. It has been determined that the ideal operating conditions for using a 9% PVA solution are a working voltage of 20 kV, a needle-to-collector distance of between 10 and 17 cm, and a needle size of 25G. The area of the nanomat deposited at a voltage of 20 kV increased by 7 to 27% (depending on the needle size) when compared to the area deposited at a voltage of 15 kV.

Application of Commercial p-channel Power VDMOS Transistors as Dosimeters for Photon Ionizing Radiation

ABSTRACT. The experimental results of the threshold voltage shift depending on the absorbed radiation dose of gamma radiation of commercial p-channel power VDMOS transistors IRF9520 were presented. Transistors irradiation was performed for gate voltage 0, 1.25, 2.5, 3.75 and 5 V in order to examine the influence of this parameter on the response of these components. It was shown that increasing the radiation dose and voltage at the gate during irradiation leads to an increase in threshold voltage shift. This increase is a consequence of the increase of traps in the oxide, where holes are captured. After irradiation, the recovery of the irradiated transistors at room temperature without the presence of gate voltage was monitored. It was shown that during 14 days of recovery there is no significant change in the threshold voltage shift. Based on the obtained results, the possibility of using these components as ionizing radiation dosimeters was analyzed.

Studying the Possibility of using a Multi-sensory System for Precise Monitoring of Some Environmental Factors in Order to Assist in the Management of an Orchard
PRESENTER: Lyubomir Laskov

ABSTRACT. The aim of our study is to check the possibility of using of the multisensory system for accurate monitoring of the change in temperature and relative humidity in the air and soil in an orchard. The measurements have been made for two years in several areas of an orchard, in specific places in the crowns of trees and the root soil layer. The results through entire period were adequate, and the correlation coefficient between the measured air temperatures for September 2020 at a height of 0.8 m and a height of 1.6 in Zone A was 0.9972. The correlation coefficient between the measured values of relative air humidity for September in 2020 at a height of 0.8 m and a height of 1.6 m in zone A is 0.9977. The correlation coefficient between the measured air temperature for September in 2020 at a height of 0.8 m and a height of 1.6 in zone B is 0.9954. The correlation coefficient between the measured relative air humidity values for September in 2020 at a height of 0.8 m and a height of 1.6 m in zone B is 0.9966.

Distributed Thermal Scanners for Detecting Changes in Grasslands

ABSTRACT. This study is a continuation of our study on grassland survey using aerial photography, focusing here on a multi-point survey using distributed thermographic sensors and performing area-of-interest scanning in order to collect a large database, enable statistical processing and monitoring of the state and parameters of pastures.

Use of Thermography Methods for Monitoring Grazing Livestock

ABSTRACT. This paper explores the possibility of recognizing and separating the individual biological units in a particular field of study. The aim is to separate the different biological units and distinguish them by species such as cattle, smaller domestic animals and carnivores. It is possible to determine the number and localization of animals from the analysis of photographic material captured by unmanned aerial vehicles and processed by software.

Requirements Capture Process in the Vehicle Authorisation Procedure

ABSTRACT. Vehicle authorisation procedure required by Directive (EU) 2016/797 on the interoperability of the rail system within the European Union is in line with the Fourth Railway Package and the adopted one-stop shop approach. The main legal texts on the procedure are included in the Regulation (EU) 2018/545 and its article 13 relates to requirements capture process of all applicable requirements. In the paper we analyse several topics, identify issues and doubts, provide clarifications, and propose two models of the requirements capture process in the context of the vehicle authorisation procedure.

17:30-19:00 Session 4D: Informatics and Computer Science
Location: Poster Hall
Equivalences Induced by (n,1), (n,n-1) and (n,k) - Equivalences(1<k<n-1)
PRESENTER: Sonja Chalamani

ABSTRACT. In this paper we generate equivalences induced by (n,1), (n,n-1) and (n,k) - Equivalences(1<k<n-1).The connections between such equivalences are proved.

Algorithm for Iris Segmentation in Human Eye

ABSTRACT. The article presents an algorithm for automatic detection and separation of the iris from other parts of the human eye. The detection is realized by a combination of an edge detector and a circular transformation of Hough, for the detection of the pupil and a specific algorithm for the detection of the outer border of the iris. Complete segmentation involves separating the iris from the rest of the eye, removing noise in the image, and transforming the iris into a specific format. The software product used for image processing and implementation of algorithms is MATLAB.

Algorithm for Generating Human Eye Iris Texture Code

ABSTRACT. This paper describes two algorithms developed for extracting iris texture data. The purpose of the development is to compare the coding algorithms and select the one that gives the best results. A method for optimal data encoding is also described. Given an image texture, code is obtained that is in a format suitable for comparison and storage. The software product used for image processing and algorithm implementation is MATLAB.

A Method for Calculating the Difference Between Two Iris Codes
PRESENTER: Gergana Spasova

ABSTRACT. This article describes a model for comparing two iris codes. The goal is to calculate the difference between two iris codes after performing a large number of comparisons. For greater accuracy, a comparison of iris codes with an additional cyclic offset is also implemented. Masking of parts of the iris codes that correspond to noise is also allowed. The model makes it possible to work not only with codes of the same size, but also with codes of different sizes. The software product used for image processing and algorithm implementation is MATLAB.

FPS Performance Factors in Standalone Virtual Reality Applications
PRESENTER: Nikola Rendevski

ABSTRACT. Standalone virtual reality (VR) applications has gained huge popularity and attention in various industry verticals, education and entertainment. Moving the processing and 3D rendering tasks from a PC to the mobile VR headset creates serious challenges from a development and content creation perspectives. The achievement of high frames-per-second (FPS) rates while keeping high quality of user experience is a main goal for the VR creators. In this paper, based on real practical development experience, we present the main challenges and the best practices to overcome the limitations caused by the limited graphics and computational processing power of the contemporary mobile VR headsets

17:30-19:00 Session 4E: Energy Systems and Efficiency
Location: Poster Hall
Modeling of Fire in Road Tunnels
PRESENTER: Svetlin Antonov

ABSTRACT. The occurrence of a fire in a road tunnel is accompanied by car crashes in them. Due to the tunnel-specific conditions, the development of fires leads to severe consequences, both for their construction and for human casualties. The equations modeling the temperatures and fire propagation speeds in the brick in the case of a still air environment, as well as in the presence of ventilation, are presented. For the impact of an attacking air current, a comparison is made with a phenomenon developing in free space. The experiment was conducted with a car fire and can serve as a partial verification of the given dependencies and results.

Optimization of Technological Systems by Redundancy of the Main Structural Elements

ABSTRACT. The purpose of this paper is to offer a different approach to the optimization of a modernized power supply system with renewable energy sources (RES) at a predetermined level of reliability of  0.98 by using redundancy. The article examines two redundancy options based on the significance of the respective structural components in the power supply system. While the second structural element is more significant in the other variant, the first structural element is more significant in the first variant. The two main components of the power system under consideration each have a probability of failure-free operation of 0.8 and 0.4, respectively. When designing the entire power system, a methodology is used to determine the necessary number of backup components that will allow maintaining the specified level of reliability.

Economic Dispatch of Hydrothermal System
PRESENTER: Teodora Denić

ABSTRACT. This paper addresses the problem of economic dispatch of hydrothermal system, i.e. hydrothermal coordination (HTC) problem. The paper proposes the mathematical model for HTC and applies it to solve a specific optimization problem, utilizing a publicly available software package, and discusses the main results and the efficiency of applied software.

Mathematical Model for Assessment of Production and Energy Utilization of Landfill Gas in the Pelagonija Region in Republic of N. Macedonia
PRESENTER: Blagoj Dimovski

ABSTRACT. This paper presents a simulation of biogas production in the projected landfill in the Pelagonija region in the Republic of N. Macedonia, using the Landfill Gas Emissions Model (LandGEM, version 3.03). The purpose of the analysis is to obtain the amount of produced biogas and the possibility of using it as energy, as well as the other products from anaerobic digestion which have a negative impact on the environment.

Increasing the Productivity of an Electricity System Based on Energy Generated by Hydropower with the Help of Artificial Intelligence

ABSTRACT. This research study deals with optimizing the production of renewable hydropower. A randomly constrained programming model for capacity planning and optimization is formulated that can handle the intermittent nature of renewable energy sources. An analysis of the potential capacity of the hydroelectric power station is carried out in order to minimize the total costs of energy generation and storage. The presented model is based on a capacity enhancement algorithm and optimal system planning. A new hypothesis in this subject area is the short-term forecasting of data not only with the time series but also with selected hours of the day.

17:30-19:00 Session 4F: Engineering Education
Location: Poster Hall
Use of Optical Methods for Detecting Low Frequency Sounds

ABSTRACT. This paper is a continuation of our studies related to the use of optical methods and optical communication fiber and wireless systems not only as a communication channel, but also as a network of sensors offering information. This type of information is generated by external influencing factors in the complex infrastructure of modern cities. One of these factors we have focused on is noise monitoring. This paper will consider an optical method based on wireless optical and fiber optic systems for monitoring and detecting low frequency sounds.

Utilization of Affordable Modern Technologies in Examination of DC/AC Machines and Drives
PRESENTER: Filip Filipović

ABSTRACT. This paper presents a laboratory setup for the examination of separately excited DC motor and induction motor along with appropriate drives that enable energy recuperation. Various configurations and modes of operation are controlled using a supervisory system that ensures a safe mode of operation and enables the record and export of relevant signals in a format suitable for further analysis.

Buck Converter Modelling with Cadence OrCAD
PRESENTER: Tihomir Brusev

ABSTRACT. A buck dc-dc converter modelled with Cadence OrCAD is presented in this paper. The investigated circuit is suitable for automotive applications. The input voltage VIN of the buck dc-dc converter is equal to 24 V, while the output voltage is regulated to be equal to 12 V. The PSpice models of MOSFET transistor “BSC020N03MS” of the company Infineon are used in this investigation. The short-circuit losses in the power stage are eliminated using small gap time, when both output transistors are switched-off. The maximum efficiency of the modelled buck dc-dc converter is 95 %, when output current IOUT is equal to 7 A.

Practical Buck DC/DC Converter Theoretical and Experimental Evaluation
PRESENTER: Tsveti Hranov

ABSTRACT. In this paper is presented the study of a buck DC/DC converter via mathematical modelling and then a comparison is made against experimental studies via electronic EVM board. The main goal is to evaluate the feasibility of the model for studies, related to the verification of the design and operating regimes of buck DC/DC converters. The EVM allows for change of the circuit elements, hence the parameters of the DC/DC converter and by studying their influence, it can be concluded how that affects the steady-state operating regimes. By using model-based evaluation one can view the study as a useful tool in design stage for taking decisions about the building blocks and components, that will be used in the design. The study can also be very useful for students and trainees to verify the influence of the passive filters in the converters.

Laboratory Set-up for Testing of Vector Controlled Induction Motor Drives
PRESENTER: Filip Filipovic

ABSTRACT. In this paper an educational approach for development of induction motor control algorithms on dSPACE hardware platform and Matlab/Simulink environment is described. The control algorithms, Rotor Field Oriented Control (RFO) and Direct Torque Control (DTC), are successfully integrated into Electric Drives Laboratory and represent the user friendly learning tool for understanding of theoretical concepts.

LabView Based Function Generator for Power Electronics Training Needs
PRESENTER: Nikolay Hinov

ABSTRACT. The manuscript presents the synthesis and program implementation of a functional generator for conducting simulation studies in the field of power electronics. The individual generator blocks are presented, along with their block diagrams and their specific implementation in the LabView visual programming environment. The functionality of the device is demonstrated using separate examples of the synthesis of common signals to control power electronic devices, such as pulse width modulation (PWM) simulations. The presented approach is very useful for power electronics training needs, as it enables a variety of experiments to be performed with both models and real devices, thanks to the specialized hardware developed by National Instruments.

Dialectic on Principles of Reliability
PRESENTER: Yuri Zhelyazkov

ABSTRACT. In this scientific work, a study and analysis of the reliability principles of the technical-economic and socio-biological systems of the modern digital society and of course their dialectics is carried out. The analysis and the corresponding scientific synthesis was carried out on the basis of the existing conflict between the axiomatics of the theory of probability, used as a formal tool of the theory of reliability, and the intuitive perception of probabilistic representations and concepts (distributions).

An Approach to User-friendly GUI Model using HCI Principles on University Websites
PRESENTER: Ayesha Amin

ABSTRACT. Universities have realized the need to have websites in order to take advantage of proper academic communication in today's highly evolved academic communities. The purpose of this study is to propose a new model for university websites using HCI and ergonomics. This study focuses on the issues that students face most commonly when visiting university websites. Five different university websites have been examined in order to find out the user interaction related flaws. Then, based on the flaws, a set of questionnaires were developed and a survey was conducted to learn more about user perceptions. Based on the reviews, a new model was created and a sample website was developed. After developing the website, another survey was conducted with a small group of participants from those five university students. A very positive response was received to the new model in comparison to the previously existing models.

18:30-19:00 Session 5: Let's celebrate WiE day!

Fun Fact: WiE was established on June 29, 1997.

Location: Room A