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09:30-10:00 Session 1: Registration for EUSPR Members Meeting attendees

Registration for EUSPR Members only prior to Members Meeting

10:00-12:00 Session 2: EUSPR Members Meeting

EUSPR Members Meeting

11:30-12:00 Session 3: Registration for Early Career Forum participants

Conference registration (for Forum launch event attendees who have not yet registered for the conference)

12:00-13:45 Session 4A: Early Careers Forum Launch and Networking Event

Early Careers Forum Launch and Networking Event (includes lunch)

12:00-13:45 Session 4B: Conference registration and lunch

Main conference registration and lunch

14:00-15:00 Session 5: Conference opening and salutations
  • Mrs Milojka Kolar Celarc, Minister of Health of the Republic of Slovenia
  • Mr Peter Debeljak, MSc, Director of the Office of the Republic of Slovenia for Youth, Ministry of Education, Science and Sport
  • Prof Dr Ivan Eržen, Director of the National Institute of Public Health of the Republic of Slovenia
  • Prof David Foxcroft (EUSPR Board President)
  • Mr Matej Košir (Director of Utrip, SI)
15:00-16:30 Session 6: Plenary Session

Plenary Session 1

Automatic behaviour change in public policy and health
SPEAKER: Hugo Harper

ABSTRACT. Governments around the world are increasingly turning towards a more nuanced understanding of human behaviour to inform policy design and implementation. A notable shift is the growing appreciation that the vast majority of human behaviour is not guided by deliberative conscious decision making, but occurs through a much more automatic process. This is particularly true for many of the health related behaviours that are putting health budgets under strain across Europe. This talk will cover how the use of these insights has grown from simple changes to communications to attempting to tackle some of the most complex current policy problems.  

Health goal priming, Or: How to benefit from nonconscious motivational routes to health behavior

ABSTRACT. Although we have long assumed that attitudes and intentions are crucial predictors of behavior, accumulating research suggests that the influence of these factors is often limited.  Instead, much of our behavior is driven by nonconscious processes, such as habits, norms, and nonconscious motivational processes, which can be triggered by cues in the environment.  This has important implications for understanding population health behavior, as well as for interventions to change it.  In this talk, I will focus on nonconscious motivational processes, and I will discuss the use of priming techniques to facilitate motivated healthy behavior outside of conscious awareness.  A series of experiments in the domain of eating behavior demonstrates how subtle reminders (i.e., primes) of health and dieting goals can lead to healthier shopping behavior, reduce unhealthy intake, stimulate healthy menu choices, and reduce the portion size effect.  Importantly, these effects occur mainly among participants who are motivated to pursue health and dieting goals, suggesting that the primes tap into existing motivational structures and thus help people pursue behaviors that they personally value.  These findings are in line with research on goal priming more generally, and I will suggest routes to systematic applications in other domains.  Finally, I will discuss this approach in relation to other interventions to modulate impulsive behaviors, as well as recent developments such as nudging and re-designing tempting environments.    


16:30-17:30 Session 7: Posters and drinks reception

Parallel Session 1: Posters and complimentary drinks reception

Measurement of the quality of implementation of the Spanish SFP 7-12: Construction and validation of a scale of satisfaction.

ABSTRACT. Introduction: Participants are an important source of information about the quality of the applications of family prevention programs. Satisfaction of participants plays a role in the program results, and these are dependent, among other factors, on the quality of the implementation of the sessions. Our hypothesis is that there is a direct relationship between satisfaction of participants and the achieved results. The aim of this study is to validate a satisfaction scale for users of a selective family prevention program, the Family Competence Program (FCP), the Spanish adaptation of the SFP. Verifying the dimensions implied in the satisfaction of participants allows to improve the processes of the program and to promote the prevention component of FCP.

Methodology: Statistic description of the principal dimensions of satisfaction scale and confirmatory factorial analysis with family vulnerability index (employment situation, education level and structure of the family cohabitation). Sample: 155 families at risk. Differentiated analysis depending on the implementation agency: drug treatment program Proyecto Hombre (N=63) and social care services (N=92). Scale divided in 4 dimensions: 1. Compliance of the program (attendance, performance tasks…). [0 to 14 points] 2. Evaluation of the facilitators (competence, preparation of the session…). [0 to 5 points] 3. Evaluation of the materials and sessions (quality of materials, incentives, rooms…). [0 to 5 points] 4. Evaluation of the changes into the family (assessment of the communication with children, resolution of problems, organization, family performance…). [0 to 5 points]

Results: Regarding assessment of the FCP, for instance, the mean of compliance of the program is 12,534 (SD=1,694) in the drug treatment program. In social services, the mean is 11,155 (SD=2,63). About the correlation of the assessment of the SFP and the Family Vulnerability Index: compliance of the program (drug treatment program Rho=0,034/p=0,987; social services Rho=-0,086/p=0,513); evaluation of the facilitators (drug treatment program Rho=0,228/p=0,086; social services Rho=-0,092/p=0,407); evaluation of the materials and sessions (drug treatment program Rho=0,239/p=0,071; social services Rho=-0,005/p=0,963); evaluation of the changes into the family (drug treatment program Rho=0,144/p=0,281; social services Rho=0,005/p=0,965).

Conclusions: 1. Good levels of compliance of the SFP/FCP 7-12, very good rating of facilitators (4.42 in Proyecto Hombre sample and 4.55 in social services sample) and the materials and sessions (4.41 and 4.47 respectively). 2.Long-term changes (24-month perspective) into the family dimension obtained positive results (7.9 out of 10 in Proyecto Hombre sample and 8.2 out of 10 in Social Services sample). 3.Positive correlation between evaluation of the facilitators and evaluation of the materials and sessions with family vulnerability index in Proyecto Hombre sample. 4. Family vulnerability index is not associated with different ratings of the SFP/PCF 7-12.

“Keep an eye on your friends, even when you don’t know them”

ABSTRACT. The use of illegal drugs is well documented in some alternative, underground music scenes, like the Goa trance scene. The aim of this paper is to explore harm reduction practices employed by attendees of the Goa trance scene in order to identify potential pathways for targeted interventions in (underground) music scene such as Goa trance. Following pilot observations at Goa parties, in-depth interviews were conducted with 19 Goa party attendees in Belgium. Respondents were recruited using snowball sampling methods. Findings: Participants reported that solidarity is apparent in the Goa trance scene and is an important variable in minimizing drug-related harm, particularly with respect to providing help and support to people in need (communitarian values). On the other hand, personal controls on drug consumption were also employed to minimize harm, such as buying drugs from trusted people, trying to keep drug use limited to weekends and adhering to one’s own limits (neo-liberal values). Conclusions: A combination of communitarian and neo-liberal values were employed by drug users in the Goa trance scene in Belgium, and this offers several options for new harm reduction efforts. Approaching drug users as active citizens and useful resources is a useful way of informing the development of innovative harm reduction strategies. Evaluating enabling resources in settings where drug use occurs, will provide additional pathways to harm reduction policies and programs.

Challenges in collecting, interpreting and compiling scientific results on cannabis use and physical, psychological and social consequences

ABSTRACT. The Public Health Agency of Sweden aims to promote good public health by building and conveying knowledge to professionals. The methods on how to build knowledge is evolving towards becoming more systematic and transparent. The agency has identified a need to provide professionals with updated and evidence-based knowledge on the harms of cannabis use, which is a prerequisite for prevention. The aim of this project is to collect, interpret and conclude the best available knowledge on cannabis use and adverse physical, psychological and social consequences.

In line with the new demands on how to compile knowledge, an overview of systematic reviews will be performed. PICO-questions and inclusion and exclusion criteria were set up and a systematic search of cannabis use and a number of identified possible outcomes was performed in three databases. The reviews will be assessed for relevance and then quality using the AMSTAR tool.

There are a number of challenges and possible problems related to both the method per se (e.g. bias problems due to several reviews referring to the same studies, lack of systematic reviews for a certain outcome). In addition, there will be challenges related to both the interpretation of results and writing conclusions especially in an area where controversies, inconsistencies and disputes continue to be strong. The poster will focus on these methodological issues in order to share experiences with others to improve the quality of this study. This is an ongoing work at the agency and the results will be available early 2016.

Evaluation of “Choice-8”Effect in a Year after Implementing the Substance Abuse Prevention Program

ABSTRACT. Introduction: “Choice-8” is a drug misuse, HIV/AIDS and crime prevention program for eighth-graders (13-14 years old students). It consists of ten sessions and includes five brief thematic documentaries: “Responsible Choice”, “Risks”, "Be Aware of Crime”, “HIV/AIDS: Challenge and Response”, “Your Future”, “Norms of Behavior”. It is conducted by certified trainers who are volunteers recruited among Pedagogical University freshmen, cadets of the Law College of the Penitentiary Service of Ukraine, juvenile delinquency police officers, social teachers and psychologists. In the academic year of 2013-2014, the program was implemented in 11 schools of Chernihiv and three schools of Odesa, Ukraine. A pre survey was conducted in October 2013 among 817 students. In February 2014 a post survey was carried out among 415 eighth-graders of the intervention group and 397 students of the control group. The surveys showed 12.8% use of alcohol and 14.2% tobacco use for the intervention group while for the control group there was 19.6% alcohol and 21.4% tobacco use. The goals of the current research project are to measure the longer-term effect of the “Choice-8”, as well to conduct a booster session. Methods: In October 2014 a follow-up survey was conducted in three schools of Chernihiv among 180 ninth-graders, half of which benefited of the “Choice-8” a year ago and another half constituted the control group. All of the students responded 12 questions of a questionnaire designed to find out the longer-term effect of the “Choice-8”. One of the questions aimed to measure tolerance to PLWH (People Living with HIV): “Are you ready to make friends with a person living with HIV?”. A booster session and the documentary, “Responsible Choice”, were offered for the intervention group after the October 2014 survey was carried out. The session included issues from all ten themes of the “Choice-8”. Results: The follow-up survey indicated that for the intervention group 16.2% students used alcohol and 17.5% ninths-graders used tobacco at least one time in the last 30 days; 82% students were ready to make friends with PLWH. For the control group, 23.5% students used alcohol and 27.8% ninth-graders used tobacco in the last 30 days; 54% students were ready to make friends with PLWH. Conclusion: The findings demonstrate a lasting effect of the “Choice-8”. To measure subsequent effects of the program as well efficacy of the booster sessions, the research project will be continued in schools of Ukraine.

Parental control perception on alcohol-influenced sexual encounters in Spanish adolescents

ABSTRACT. It is estimated that countries with many citizens in the lower socioeconomic level have a burden of disproportionate morbidity due to alcohol use. Spain is the second European country with the highest poverty rate. Parental style moderates adolescents’ alcohol use, but no data is available to show this relationship in the poor population. This study examines the effect of parental control perception on alcohol use among 13- to 17-year-old adolescents with low-income families in Spain. A total of 523 adolescents with low-income families were eligible for the study. The sample was recruited from 18 high schools located in areas in the north, south, east and southeast of Spain. The average age was 14.96 (SD = 1.12), and 49% were males. Of the adolescents having sex under the influence of alcohol, most of them (80.3%) perceived that their parents have a low or moderate-low control on them (χ2=19.99, p= 0.001). Binary logistic regression revealed a lesser risk of having sex under the influence of alcohol in adolescents who perceived that their parents are quite strict (OR:0.10 [0.29-0.39]) or a bit strict (OR:0.23[0.08-0.67]) compared to those whom parents were very strict. Perceiving that their parents are not strict or very strict was related to a higher likelihood of combining sex with alcohol. Drug-prevention interventions targeted toward parents from lower socio-economic communities should emphasize the importance of having moderate control on their adolescents, and promote family-communication as a strategy to prevent risky behaviors in their adolescents.

Financial Support: Foundation for Research and Prevention in Spain (FIPSE 360971/10) and Vali+D program of the Deparment of Culture, Education, and Science, Valencian Community Government (ACIF/2012/132).

Prevalence of addictive behaviors among Spanish adolescents and its correlation with substance use

ABSTRACT. A variety of behaviors have come to be considered as addictions. Substance addictions pertain to excessive intake of substances such as drugs or food, whereas behavioral addictions pertain to engaging in behaviors. In Spain, there are not behavioral addictions studies among adolescents. The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence of addictive behaviors among Spanish adolescents and gender differences. The sample consisted of 810 Spanish adolescents from nine secondary schools, aged between 14 and 19 years old (M = 15.28; SD = 1.20). The evaluation was conducted through a multi-response addiction matrix measure (ever and past 30-day addiction categories). The categories were: cigarette smoking; alcohol drinking; marijuana use; other drugs (such as cocaine, stimulants, inhalants or others); eating; gambling; Internet browsing; Facebook, Twitter, Messenger, or other online social networking; online or offline videogames; online shopping; shopping at stores; love; sex; exercise; work; stealing; religions; self-mutation; gossip. Adolescents perceive more addiction to online social networking (50.6% ever; 39.1% past 30-day), and to exercise (37.9% ever; 29.1% past 30-day). Less perceived addictive activities were stealing (2.2% ever; 0.5% past 30-day), and online shopping (2.9% ever; 2.3% past 30-day). Online social networking correlated significantly with cigarette smoking (r = .19; p < .001), alcohol drinking (r = .34; p < .001), and other drug use (r = .540; p < .001). Exercise addictive behavior correlated significantly with cigarette smoking (r = .83; p < .05) and other drugs (r = .530; p < .001). This research was supported by the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness (PSI2011-26819).

Alcohol and tobacco consumption and peer group identification in a sample of Spanish adolescents

ABSTRACT. Adolescents tend to name and segregate themselves into different types of peer groups, which delineate lifestyle characteristics. Several studies have found that peer group identification is related to problem prone behaviors, such as substance use. One notable limitation is that group self-identification cannot operate the same way in all countries, but there are no studies that have been conducted in Spanish adolescents. The aim of the present study was to assess the universality of group self-identification and to explore the relation between self-identification and tobacco use. The sample consisted of 711 Spanish adolescents from nine secondary schools, aged between 14 and 19 years old (M = 15.28; SD = 1.20). The evaluation was conducted through a self-identification item with an open-ended response, and items to assess alcohol and tobacco consumption were included. Non-smoker´s (n = 494) highest percentage belonged to the Athletes (37.45%), and, to a lesser extent, to the Emos (0.4%). Regarding smokers (n =217), the highest percentage was identified with Regular group (38.7%), and lower identifying groups were Goths, Heavy metals (rockers), and Grunges (0.46%). Those who had never consumed alcohol (n = 183) were identified in a greater percentage with Athletes (34.25%), and a lower identifying group was Goths (0%). Those who have ever used alcohol (n = 528) were identified with Regular group (38.63%), and a lower identifying group was Grunges (0.37%). This study supports the use of group self-identification as a construct to understand adolescent risky behavior in Spain.

This research was supported by the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness (PSI2011-26819).

Relapse prevention of smoking: clinical predictors of outcome

ABSTRACT. Introduction. Relapse to smoking after initial successful abstinence remains a major treatment concern. Therefore, identifying predictor factors that determine whether or not successful quitters become long-term quitters is essential for improving treatments for smoking cessation. This study aimed to identify predictors of smoking relapse among individuals who successfully quit. Methods. This secondary data analysis combined data from two clinical trials for smoking cessation. Both studies involved cognitive–behavioral treatment for smoking cessation alone or combined with either contingency management (CBT + CM) or cue exposure treatment (CBT+CET). Participants (N=188) were followed up for 6 months post-cessation to measure their smoking status. Variables examined as potential predictors of smoking relapse were: (1) sociodemographic characteristics: gender, age, marital status, education level and employment status; (2) smoking-related characteristics: duration of daily smoking, cigarettes per day, previous quit attempts and severity of nicotine dependence; (3) psychological characteristics: depressive symptoms, impulsivity and anxiety. Multiple logistic regression analyses using stepwise method were conducted to detect predictors of smoking relapse. Results. Relapse to smoking was associated with younger age [odds ratio (OR): 0.9; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.94-0.99] (p = .025), higher scores on FTND (OR: 3.32; 95% CI: 1.59-6.90) (p = .001), more previous quit attempts (OR: 5.18; 95% CI: 1.15-23.41) (p = 0.03) and greater impulsivity (OR: 0.15; 95% CI: 0.30-0.78) (p= .025). Discussion.These results showed that successful quitters with certain characteristics are in higher risk of relapse, suggesting that those factors should be taken into account while conducting smoking cessation interventions.

One year prospective association between impulsivity and drug involvement among adolescents

ABSTRACT. Impulsivity is a key variable for risk behaviors which can be assessed through behavioral tasks or self-reports. As far as adolescence is a critical period in relation with substances use, to find early predictors of drug involvement is an important outcome for prevention. The aim of this study is to assess impulsivity as a predictor of drug involvement among adolescents. Sample was compound by 999 adolescents (mean age 13.11, SD = 0.57) without alcohol use from 22 Spanish High schools. They performed both behavioral task (Delay Discounting, DD) and self-reports (Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, BIS, and Impulsive Sensation Seeking, ImpSS) and were re-assessed one year later. Impulsivity measures were the Area Under the Curve (AUC) for the DD, and Total Scores for the BIS and ImpSS subscales. Drug involvement at the second wave was assessed through: last month prevalence of alcohol, tobacco and cannabis use, intoxication episodes and DSM-5 criteria for Alcohol Use Disorder. Logistic regressions were performed to assess the prospect association. Regarding DD, AUC predicted intoxication episodes (p < .05) and AUD criteria (p < .05). In relation with self-reports, BIS and SS predicted intoxication episodes (p < .05; p < .001) and AUD criteria (p < .05; p < .001). SS predicted also last month prevalence of tobacco and alcohol use (p < .001) and Imp last month prevalence of cannabis use (p < .05). In summary, self-reported impulsivity seems to be more useful to predict substance use than behavioral tasks. However, DD appears as a suitable task to predict intoxications episodes and AUD one year later among early adolescents who have not try alcohol yet. These results could be useful when designing strategies for preventing drug involvement among adolescents.

Attitudes towards alcohol prevention and presence of alcohol policies at Swedish student unions

ABSTRACT. Introduction: High alcohol consumption among young adults in Sweden is of great concern. About half of all young adults in Sweden are university students and a high alcohol consumption is common among this group. This makes the student unions a potentially important arena for alcohol prevention. Currently, not much is known about attitudes towards alcohol prevention and to what extent Swedish student unions have written alcohol policies. Aim: To explore attitudes regarding alcohol consumption and prevention among student union representatives, to investigate the presence of written alcohol policies at Swedish student unions, and explore factors possibly associated with the existence of such policies. Method: During November/December 2014, representatives from all student unions in Sweden (n=61) were invited to participate in a web questionnaire survey, and data were obtained from 51 student unions. Results: A majority (93%) reported positive attitudes towards alcohol prevention. 88% believed that alcohol consumption has positive aspects in the social life of students, while also recognizing that alcohol consumption can be a problem (92%). 81% of the student union representatives reported that they had a written alcohol policy. Unions that arranged pubs more often, were more likely to have a policy (p=<.004). Conclusion: The respondents were aware of the negative health impact of high alcohol consumption, and also reported positive attitudes towards alcohol prevention in the student union setting. Adding the fact that a majority of the student unions had written alcohol policies, this suggests that the student union setting is a promising arena for alcohol prevention.

'We don’t get taught enough.' Exploring the need for a new approach to drug education in schools.

ABSTRACT. Between 2011 and 2013, Mentor conducted two investigations that explored the views of young people and teachers on the provision of drug education in schools in England. These studies formed the basis for the development of the Alcohol and Drug Education and Prevention Service (ADEPIS), which was designed to address the needs identified by research participants. This paper synthesises the commonalities between experiences of teaching and learning, and also presents key learning from the practical implementation of ADEPIS; in doing so, it draws conclusions for policy and practice relating to school-based drug education and, more broadly, Physical, Social, Health and Economic (PSHE) education.

The paper incorporates two separate studies: a survey of 590 secondary school pupils in London that explored the collective experience among recipients of drug education; and a survey of 288 teachers in primary and secondary schools throughout England, which was supplemented by twenty in-depth interviews. The analysis thus provides professional insight on the current status of drug education provision, as well as fulfilling the need to represent the voices of young people in wider discussions around the subject.

In making recommendations for policy and practice, the paper also draws on learning from the practical implementation of ADEPIS. There is a need for more rigorous evaluation of outcomes in schools that have adopted ADEPIS, especially in comparison with schools that have developed drug education practice independently; however, initial findings suggest that, by providing a trusted source of evidence-based guidance, the service has provided a strong framework to address the gaps in support for teachers, enabling them to deliver quality drug education.

The paper highlights several key areas for improvement in school-based drug education, with implications for national policy, particularly in relation to the statutory status of PSHE, subject-specific teacher training and the need for central guidance. Further, by presenting initial findings from the implementation of ADEPIS, the paper presents a potential framework for addressing the lack of central guidance and equipping teachers with the knowledge and understanding to deliver quality drug education.

Prevention in the 21st century - Redefining the discourse of substance use in young people
SPEAKER: Viktor Watz

ABSTRACT. Evidence shows today that the traditional education programs targeting young people for substance use prevention are ineffective, often costly and sometime counterproductive. Behavioural psychology and other disciplins have shown that young people value more what they stand to “gain” from using harmful substances, than what they stand to lose due to consumption of those substances. In societies where the marketing of alcohol, to name just one substance, is so pervasive as in most Western countries, traditional prevention programs do not stand a chance to reach their goals of changing attitudes and behaviour of young people.

In this context we would like to present a different and innovative approach to substance use prevention. We call the approach Fake Free.

Fake Free is inspired by award-winning prevention programs from Sri Lanka and has been adapted to the Western culture and substance use norms in Europe. The Swedish Public Health Institute funded a pilot project to test and roll-out Fake Free and IOGT International is now spreading the approach to other countries.

The Fake Free approach starts from the premise that it is not the knowledge about harm associated with substance use that changes behaviour and prevents youth substance use. Fake Free starts the conversation by addressing why young people choose to use substances, what they hope to gain from it and how it makes them feel about themselves and others.

In this way, Fake Free increases the literacy of young people about commercial communication, and empowers them to think critically about the alcohol norm and the expectations associated with the use of substances like alcohol.

As our tools we use clinical research, empirical data, psychology, sociological observations and interactive social games. The Fake Free approach will fundamentally change the way young people think about substance use, the drunken comportment, prevention and party.

PSFP: a French adaptation of the Strengthening Families Program 6-11
SPEAKER: Marie Hamsany

ABSTRACT. Kumpfer’s Strengthening Families Program (SFP) has been identified by scientific literature reviews and scientific institutions as an effective family-based program to prevent alcohol, tobacco and drugs consumption as well as improving mental health in youth and family communication. Initially evaluated in USA, the program has been adapted and evaluated in many countries. The aim of this communication is to briefly introduce the adaptation, implementation and evaluation of SFP 6-11 in France. A French team has made a language and cultural adaptation of the SFP 6-11 for the general population and has developed a partnership with cities for its implementation. An evaluation of the acceptability and feasibility of SFP has been followed by a first pilot study in 4 towns of Southern France. A video on DVD has been created to help families with poor reading abilities and be used as booster sessions after the program. A working group with different scientific and professional backgrounds has been set up to evaluate the SFP program. A literature review on SFP and other prevention programs aimed at 6-11 years old children has been undertaken. The outcomes measures in the literature included social and psychological skills, parental competencies, family relationships and mental health indicators. Analysis of the pilot study’s data and qualitative interviews with parents and facilitators revealed other impacted factors such as relationships between parents and school or perceived social support. A cluster randomized controlled trial in 20 towns each including 20 families (approximatively 400 families) will be undertaken, the family being the unit of randomization. The families will be randomized in one of the two arms of the trial, SFP intervention group or control group. The trial’s primary outcome will be the children’s behavioral and emotional problems (using the SDQ scale). The evaluation measurement will take place before and after the program, with a follow-up at 6 and 12 months.

On-line System for Reporting School-based Prevention Interventions

ABSTRACT. In the Czech Republic, there is no integrated record-keeping system to account for prevention activities that are implemented in schools and educational facilities. We introduce an online system for reporting preventive activities carried out in a school as part of the Minimum Preventive Program (MPP) and other prevention-specific interventions during one academic year. The reporting system (RS) is an on-line working environment which provides the technical infrastructure required to enter and register information about school-based preventive activities. The data to be reported is divided into seven subject areas. The RS is primarily intended for school prevention specialist or other members of staff appointed to coordinate the prevention of risk behaviors in a school/educational facility. The rationale for this reporting system (RS) is to unify the content, scope, and method of record-keeping applied to preventive activities carried out in Czech schools, to introduce a standardized form for reporting preventive activities, to provide schools with a resource which can be helpful in (self-) evaluating their preventive activities, and to collect information about the state of school-based prevention which can be used to plan and promote the further development of preventive efforts at the national level. The RS could also be used while conducting experimental studies as part of monitoring intervention(s) fidelity, e.g., monitoring competing interventions that may have a major impact on the effectiveness of the intervention under study.

Staff training to prevent adolescent cannabis use

ABSTRACT. Introduction. In the beginning of the 2010s there was an increase of illicit drug use among adolescents in Stockholm, Sweden, and cannabis was the most frequently used drug. Consequently, the Ministry of Health and Social Affairs funded the social services in Stockholm to develop and implement prevention strategies to decrease cannabis use among adolescents. A cannabis information based training program targeting municipality staff working with adolescents was developed, consisting: today’s cannabis situation based on facts and trends; usual myths; harmful effects; prevention and policy work; and signs of intoxication. Aims & Method. To assess changes over time self-reported survey data were collected pre- (2012) and post- (2015) intervention, regarding staff’s ability to detect cannabis-intoxicated adolescents; awareness of policies/action plans of prevention and cannabis use; awareness of adolescents’ attitudes to cannabis use. Results. At both measurements, staff reported great concern regarding adolescents’ cannabis use, and increasing liberal attitudes towards cannabis. There was a significant increase in staff’s awareness of policies and action plans regarding cannabis use and prevention at follow-up. The proportion of staff expressing uncertainty in detecting cannabis intoxicated adolescents remained over time. Staff reported difficulties to counter adolescents with liberal attitudes towards cannabis use; however, staff reported that the training had empowered them in this matter. Conclusion. There is a great potential for cannabis prevention targeting adolescents, as social service staff regard cannabis use among adolescents as problematic. They also report a need for effective and structured interventions and are motivated to take an active part in preventive work.


ABSTRACT. Background: Many studies have analysed reasons to use drugs, but few of them have focused on the reasons why some adolescents decide to avoid using alcohol as well. Aim: The aim of this study is to analyze motives why some adolescents drink alcohol while others decide avoid drinking. Methods: 269 normalized adolescent students (69.3% girls) with a mean age of 15.90 years (SD 1.003) answered an online questionnaire (N=269) which included the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (Babor, Higgins-Biddle, Saunders & Monteiro, 2001) and the Interpersonal Risk Factors for Adolescent Drug Use [FRIDA] (Carballo et al., 2004). A total of 103 students (38.29 % of the sample) did not drink alcohol at all. We run classical and data mining models to observe the relationship between the reasons to use and to avoid using alcohol. Results: The majority of adolescents who drink alcohol say they use it to intensify dance and music (55.8%). Decision trees show that some motives to use alcohol can predict the audit total score of alcohol users. On the other hand, the most popular reasons between those adolescents who do not drink alcohol are for health (58.3% of the sample) and to avoid accidents (45.6%). Gender differences were found in some of the reasons to not use alcohol, showing that boys show more fear to alcohol consequences. Association rules show frequent motives that usually appear together. Conclusion: Motives to use or avoid using alcohol represent relevant information that should be taken into consideration to prevent high risk alcohol use profiles in adolescence.

Alcohol use and tobacco smoking initiation among the 6th grade Slovak schoolchildren and self-control
SPEAKER: Olga Orosova

ABSTRACT. This study is a part of larger research project, focused on studying effectiveness of the Unplugged prevention program, which has been adapted and implemented among Slovak school population (APVV-0253-11). Aim: The aims of this study were to examine alcohol use (AU) and tobacco smoking initiation (TS) among the 6th grade Slovak schoolchildren as well as to explore the role of self-control (SC) with regard to initiation of AU and TS. Methods: The research sample consisted of 1295 schoolchildren (53.4% girls, Mean age=11.52(SD=0.61) was obtained by a stratified random sampling based on the number of inhabitants including 60 elementary schools (experimental/n=634, control/n=661). The twelve-session program Unplugged was carried out (baseline testing prior to program implementation/September 2013 and a follow-up testing six month after the program/April 2014). The lifetime prevalence of AU and TS measures were used (dichotomised: 0 never, 1 AU/TS initiation) to assess the outcome variables. Two step binary logistic regression models were used for data analyses (SC was entered in step 1; gender, parents’ and best friend’s AU or TS, parental knowledge related to their children‘s behavior (PK), and group experimental/control were entered in step 2). Results: It was found that 13.6% and 11.0% of schoolchildren initiated their AU and TS during the explored time. Lower level of SC was associated with AU and TS initiation in the 1st step, but this association disappeared for AU in the 2nd step. Lower level of SC, PK and mother’s daily TS were associated with the initiation of TS, and lower level of PK and best friend’s AU were associated with AU initiation in the final models. Conclusions: This study has provided evidence for the need of family-based interventions and for the importance of SC with regard to TS initiation.

Short term effectiveness of the Unplugged program in Slovakia: the mediational role of descriptive normative beliefs

ABSTRACT. The aim of this study is to examine short-term effect of the program Unplugged on lifetime prevalence of alcohol use and tobacco cigarette smoking among adolescents. Furthermore, the mediational role of normative beliefs is also explored. Methods: The data were collected at baseline (T1 - immediately before the program was implemented) and at 2 follow-ups (T2 - immediately after the program implementation; T3 – 3 months after the program implementation) in a representative sample of 1298 (52.3% females) primary school pupils (M=11.52, SD=0.61). Lifetime prevalence of alcohol use and smoking were used (dichotomised: 0-not used, 1-used) as outcome measures and a single item measure of descriptive normative beliefs regarding the number of friends who use alcohol and tobacco cigarettes was used to explore the effect of the mediational variable. Variables statistically controlled in the conducted analyses included gender, changes in social-economical status and changes in school connectedness. Linear and logistic regressions were used to test the mediational effect of program participation. Results: At T2, significant association was found between participation in the program Unplugged and normative beliefs about the number of friends who use tobacco cigarettes (β=0.5; p˂0.001). At T3, an indirect mediational effect of descriptive normative beliefs regarding number of friends who use tobacco cigarettes was found between Unplugged participation (0.066; p˂0.05) and lifetime prevalence of smoking cigarettes (95% C.I.for EXP(B)= 4.02 – 26.984). Further exploration will be conducted to examine the long-term effect of the program in relation to the selected indicators and expected mediators.


ABSTRACT. Background: Many risk factors have been studied to prevent alcohol use in adolescence. Some studies highlight the role families or personality traits have in the adolescent’s drinking behavior, others point out that peers are the most important source of coping at this age. Aim: The aim of this study is to analyze all together and quantify with data mining techniques the role of psychosocial and personality factors in the prediction of alcohol use problems in adolescence. Methods: 269 normalized adolescent students (69.3% girls) with a mean age of 15.90 years (SD 1.003) answered an online questionnaire (N=269) which included the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (Babor, Higgins-Biddle, Saunders & Monteiro, 2001), the Interpersonal Risk Factors for Adolescent Drug Use [FRIDA] (Carballo et al., 2004), the NEO-FFI personality questionnaire (Costa & McCrae, 1999). We run classical models and Random Forests (Breiman & Cutler, 2001) to observe if the mentioned factors could predict the AUDIT total score. Results: Regression model presents an adjusted R square of 0.40 and show that extroversion, friends, protective activities, age of onset of distilled alcohol use and gender are significant factors to predict AUDIT total score, whereas family factors were not significant. However, Random Forest highlights friends, family risk factors and extroversion as the most important variables. Decision tree show in a graphical way how these variables interact. Conclusions: Prevention models in adolescence should target the dynamics that take place in teenager context in order to decrease alcohol use problems in adolescence.

Burnout syndrome in mental health professionals: psychiatric hospital setting

ABSTRACT. Burnout syndrome in mental health professionals: psychiatric hospital setting

The aim of the project was to determent the level of stress in professionals working in psychiatric hospital, as well as to explore possible differences in stress level regarding the different characteristic of correspondents as sex, level of education, marital status, working hours etc. The Burnout Clinical Subtypes Questionnaire was used. Study was conducted from July to December 2014, and from April to May 2015. The sample of 141 participants who work in mental health professional are 39.9% male and 68.1% female, average age of 38.98 years. The aims of this poster is to explore level of stress in professionals working in psychiatric hospital and its different departments, and explore difference in three burnout subtypes – Frenetic, Under-challenged and Worn-out – regarding the sex of correspondent and level of education. The results show that there is no significant differences regarding the sex of correspondent and there is significant differences regarding the level of education. Results showed following: (1) there is no significant differences in subscale Frenetic regarding the level of education; (2) correspondents with lower level of education have higher result in subscale Under-challenged; (3) correspondents with the lowers level of education have the highest result on subscale Worn-out followed by correspondent with graduate level; the lower results in this subscale have correspondents who PH.D level of education. The results will be further discussed in the poster presentation.

The role of self-determination and personality in predicting the cannabinoids consumption among students in student dormitories in Zagreb

ABSTRACT. Self-determination theory presents a macro-theory of human motivation that has been applied to many risky behaviours. Nevertheless, there is a scarce literature on the role of this theory in predicting cannabinoids consumption.

The aim of this study was to determine how well some constructs of self-determination theory and personality (extraversion, consciousness and neuroticism) predict the cannabinoids consumption among male and female students that live in student dormitories in Zagreb.

In a sample of 438 students (37.9% males and 62.1% females) that live in student dormitories in Zagreb the following instruments were applied: The Learning Climate Questionnaire (Williams & Deci, 1996), Self-Determination Scale (Sheldon & Deci, 1993), adapted version of the General Causality Orientations Scale (Deci & Ryan, 1985), General Need Satisfaction Scale – autonomy subscale (Gagne, 2003), International Personality Item Pool (IPIP50) - extraversion, consciousness and neuroticism subscales; and the question on lifetime prevalence of cannabionids consumption (number of days).

Separate hierarchical regression analysis for men and women were conducted with a number of days person consumed cannabinoids in a lifetime as a criterion and personality, autonomous and control causality orientations, self-determination, need for autonomy and perception of autonomy support as predictors.

The proposed model failed to explain the cannabinoids consumption among men. Among women, the tested model explained 8.6% of variance of cannabinoids consumption. Significant predictors were extraversion, autonomous causality orientation, and the need for autonomy. Implications for prevention practise are considered.

Autonomous self-regulation of alcohol use and alcohol expectancies in relation to alcohol use among university students
SPEAKER: Jozef Benka

ABSTRACT. Background: Alcohol use among university students constitutes a relevant problem for researchers and practitioners in prevention. Subjective expectancy of the effect that alcohol consumption brings has been shown to be an important factor with regard to alcohol use of university students. This study uses the Self-determination theory and focuses on drinking behaviour exploring the link between alcohol-related expectancy, autonomous self-regulation of drinking behaviour and level of alcohol use. Methods: University students from Slovakia (n=697) participated in the study (mean age 21.28; SD=1.93; 60% female) and completed questionnaires on alcohol use (AUDIT), alcohol expectancies (AOES) and autonomous self-regulation of drinking behaviour (TSRQ-A). The data were analysed using linear regression analyses. Results The analyses showed that after controlling for relevant socio-demographic variables, autonomous self-regulation of drinking behaviour was negatively associated with alcohol use (β=-0.182; p˂0.001). Positive association was found between alcohol-related expectancies and alcohol use (β=0.269; β=0.149; p˂0.001). However, the pathway connecting the two explored constructs was less clear. Conclusions The results of our study show that autonomous self-regulatory processes of drinking behaviour as well as alcohol-related expectancies are important factors of alcohol use among university students. Prevention focussing on self-regulatory processes and autonomous self-regulation of drinking behaviour in particular, could be beneficial for prevention programs among university students.

DOPING PREVENTION IN SWEDISH FITNESS CENTRES – An evaluation study of the implementation of a community-based intervention

ABSTRACT. Introduction: Since 2008, 100 % Pure Hard Training, a community-based doping prevention method aimed at reducing doping use among fitness centre visitors has been used nationwide by Swedish municipalities. The method includes training staff in fitness centres, policy work, enforcement and cooperation between key stakeholders, i.e. staff in fitness centres, the police and municipal prevention coordinators.

Aim: To evaluate the implementation of 100 % Pure Hard Training in Stockholm County.

Method: Key stakeholders in Stockholm County were interviewed about their perceptions and experiences of working with the method. The interviews were analysed using thematic content analysis.

Results: The method was perceived as highly useful by the key stakeholders. The fitness centre staff reported that the method had given them an opportunity to work actively and systematically against doping. Furthermore, the implementation of the method has influenced and partly changed their regular work routines, as well as increasing their knowledge and awareness of doping.

Problematic aspects were also mentioned. Particularly the cooperation element tends to be difficult to maintain. In this respect, demography emerges both as a success factor and a risk factor. In a small community with few fitness centres it appears easier to implement and maintain the method, as well as keeping cooperation between the stakeholders going. In a large city, it is more difficult to initiate and maintain cooperation between stakeholders. To increase contextual fit, implementation in large cities would probably benefit from dividing project management into smaller units (e.g. city districts) instead of operating on municipality level.

Effects of a Web-Based Coping and Alcohol-Intervention Program for Adolescents Having Parents with Alcohol Problems: A Randomized Controlled Trial
SPEAKER: Tobias Elgan

ABSTRACT. Introduction: Approximately 20% of all Swedish children grow up with a problem-drinking parent which may affect children negatively. Most Swedish municipalities therefore provide resources for support. However, less than 2% of these children receive this support, mainly due to difficulties in identifying and recruiting children into support programs. Delivering intervention programs to this target group via the Internet is a promising strategy. Here, we report results from a study of a novel web-based prevention intervention program targeted to adolescents having parents with alcohol problems. The purpose of the program is to strengthen adolescents’ coping behavior, improve their mental health, and postponing the onset or decreasing risky alcohol consumption. Methods: To investigate the effects of the program, we use a two-armed RCT design including 204 15–19 year olds allocated into a treatment group or a waiting list control group. Participants are recruited via the Facebook and adolescents are screened using the Children of Alcoholics Screening Test (CAST-6). The assessment consists of a baseline measurement (t0) and two follow-ups after two (t1) and six months (t2). Measures include the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-DC), a coping behavior scale, the short version of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT-C), and the Ladder of Life. Results: About 2600 15-19-year olds completed the screening, whereof 204, out of 1274 eligible adolescents, gave informed consent and completed t0. Results reveal that about 35% of the participants have t0-scores indicating moderate depression and 43% have scores indicating severe depression; 43% have scores indicating dysfunctional coping behavior and 40% have risky alcohol consumption patterns. We are currently conducting analyses to investigate the effects of the program, and here we adopt both a per-protocol and intention-to-treat strategy. Results will be available during spring 2015. Conclusions: There is an urgent need for developing and evaluating web-based intervention programs targeting children having problem-drinking parents. This study therefore makes an important contribution to this novel field of research.

Depressive symptoms and lifestyles: results from the behavioural risk factors surveillance system PASSI

ABSTRACT. Introduction Depression affects more than 350 million people worldwide and is one of the main factors determining both the global burden disease and social costs’ increasing. In Italy, the prevalence of depression is 3% among adults. Evidence shows depression increases the likelihood of adopting unhealthy behaviours.

Objectives To estimate the prevalence of some behavioural risk factors in people aged 18-69 living in Italy and association with depressive symptoms.

Methods PASSI data from 39.463 phone interviews in 2013 were analysed. Leisure time physical inactivity, tobacco smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, obesity were studied. Depressive symptoms were explored through Patient Health Questionnaire-2. Multivariate logistic analysis was used to study the associations between each risk factor (dependent variable) and depressive symptoms (independent variable), adjusting for socio-demographic characteristics and current chronic diseases.

Results In 2013 in Italy, 34% of adults engages in no leisure time physical activity, 26% smokes tobacco cigarettes, 11% drinks excessive amount of alcohol, 10% is obese and 6% shows depressive symptoms. Adjusting for socio-demographic characteristics and medical conditions, a statistically significant association is confirmed between depressive symptoms and risky behaviours. People with depressive symptoms are more likely than those without depressive symptoms to be: physical inactive in leisure time (Adjusted Prevalence Ratio (APR)=1,13; 95%CI 1,04-1,22), tobacco smokers (APR=1,34; 95%CI 1,21-1,48), excessive alcohol consumers (APR=1,43; 95%CI 1,17-1,74) and obese (APR=1,27; 95%CI 1,08-1,48).

Conclusions A bad mental status is associated with an increased risk of adopting unhealthy behaviours. Public health promotion strategies should include integrated interventions to modify attitudes effectively by enhancing both mental and physical health.

An overview of reviews of interventions to prevent cannabis use in young people

ABSTRACT. Background: Despite extensive political measures taken in Sweden since 2011 in order to decrease cannabis use among young people, the level of prevalence remains unchanged. Commissioned by the Government the Public Health Agency of Sweden has conducted a research overview of studies that have evaluated different strategies in preventing drug use in young people. Aim: To provide a current review of the research literature available in the field of cannabis prevention and early interventions targeting young people. Method: Studies were obtained from different databases, and involved reviews published after 2005. Inclusion criteria were methods aiming at preventing new recruitment as well as early initiation of drugs in general, and cannabis in particular. Additional criteria were: population 0-25 years, universal or selective interventions, randomized controlled trials, drug use (in particular cannabis use) as outcome measure, and at least 6-month follow-up. Results: Forty reviews were found, of which 13 met the inclusion criteria, and were subjects for further examination. From the 13 reviews a total of 41 different programs (22 universal and 19 selective) were selected on the basis of our inclusion criteria. Identification of beneficial components for a successful drug prevention will be the focus for further analysis and the result will be presented at the conference.

Impact of advertisements promoting candy-like flavoured e-cigarettes on appeal of tobacco smoking amongst children: an experimental study

ABSTRACT. Background: There are concerns that the marketing of e-cigarettes may increase the appeal of tobacco smoking in children. We examined this concern by assessing the impact on appeal of tobacco smoking after exposure to advertisements for e-cigarettes with and without candy-like flavours, i.e. bubble gum and milk chocolate.

Methods: We assigned 598 English school children (aged 11-16) to one of three different conditions corresponding to the adverts to which they were exposed: adverts for flavoured e-cigarettes, adverts for non-flavoured e-cigarettes, or a control condition in which no adverts were shown. The primary endpoint was appeal of tobacco smoking. Secondary endpoints were: appeal of using e-cigarettes, susceptibility to tobacco smoking, perceived harm of tobacco, appeal of e-cigarette adverts, and interest in buying and trying e-cigarettes.

Results: Children reporting smoking were excluded from the analyses (final sample = 471). Exposure to either set of adverts did not increase the appeal of tobacco smoking, the appeal of using e-cigarettes, or susceptibility to tobacco smoking. Nor did it reduce the perceived harm of tobacco smoking, which was high. Flavoured e-cigarette adverts were, however, more appealing than adverts for non-flavoured e-cigarettes and elicited greater interest in buying and trying e-cigarettes.

Conclusions: Exposure to adverts for e-cigarettes does not seem to increase the appeal of tobacco smoking in children. Flavoured, compared with non-flavoured, e-cigarette adverts did, however, elicit greater appeal and interest in buying and trying e-cigarettes. Replication of this study using stronger designs will increase the certainty that can be attached to these conclusions.

A neo-holistic medicalisation of sleep

ABSTRACT. Two decades ago, scholars from sociology of the body, sociology of emotions and sociology of medicine announced the emergence of a new sociology, through which the study of everyday life was completed with the ignored third occupied by sleep. A decade ago, these sociologists proposed the study of the management of sleep problems through processes like, medicalisation, pharmaceuticalisation, healthicisation, hygienisation or customization. In this presentation, based on a meta-narrative literature review and a nethnography, I argue that in recent years this trend is changing. The processes previously mentioned, tend to converge, and sleep is increasingly seen as a social and physiological fact, managed through a new type of medicalisation, a neo-holistic medicalisation.(This paper is a result of a research made possible by the financial support of the Sectoral Operational Programme for Human Resources Development 2007-2013, co-financed by the European Social Fund, under the project POSDRU/159/1.5/S/132400 - “Young successful researchers – professional development in an international and interdisciplinary environment”.)

Piloting PAX Good Behaviour Game in Estonia – short-term impact of the intervention on first grade students

ABSTRACT. Numerous studies have confirmed that Good Behaviour Game (GBG), a classroom-based behaviour management strategy has strong impact in protecting children from emotional and behavioural disorders. In 2014/15 a pilot study was carried out to test usability of PAX GBG in Estonia and measure its short-term impact. 20 Estonian schools with 718 first grade students from 30 classrooms took part of the study. Nonrandomized trial was carried out to test if students in classes implementing the intervention at least for 4 months will demonstrate decrease in emotional and behavioural problems and increase in prosocial behaviour. The project was conducted in two phases: 10 schools/classes started implementing GBG in October 2014 and 10 in February 2015. Additional 10 classes acted as a comparison group continuing practice as usual without receiving the intervention. Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire with impact supplement (SDQ; Goodman 1999) and classroom observations were used to assess the impact of the intervention. Results showed promising effects of the program: disruptive behaviours decreased in both intervention groups and slightly increased in control classes. In the second phase intervention group prosocial behavior increased and some decrease in hyperactive behavior was noticed. Findings suggest that the behavioural influence mechanisms within the program work despite the new cultural context. Better results were achieved among second phase intervention group, which could be explained with more experienced mentors having conducted training and mentoring already for the first group. Results of this study have encouraged continuing with the implementation of GBG and related research in Estonian schools.

Coping strategies according to sex and relapse time after quitting smoking

ABSTRACT. Introduction. Coping strategies can be defined as the way to deal with different problematic situations so they have a key role in the process of quitting smoking, maintaining abstinence and in relapse prevention. The aim of this study is to identify the use of different coping strategies in people who quit smoking and then relapsed, according to sex and time of relapse. Method. The sample was made up of 438 smokers of the general population (52.7% female; mean age = 42.39, S.D. = 10.32) who quit smoking at least one month and relapsed in the previous year or in the last 5 years but not in the previous one. The Brief-COPE was employed to assess coping strategies. Results. Participants who relapsed in the previous year used the strategy Humor more frequently, compared with those who relapsed in the previous 5 years. With regard to differences by gender it is more likely that men employed Humor and Substance Use coping strategies and, women Emotional Social Support, Instrumental Social Support, Denial and Religion strategies. Significant differences were found for the interaction between time of relapse and sex in Acceptance and Emotional Social Support strategies. Conclusion. Use of coping strategies vary according to sex and relapse time. Men and women use different coping strategies, both positive and negative, so those differences should be considered in smoking cessation treatments and for relapse prevention.

Schools that Promote Bonding: A Multilevel Analysis of School Bonding and School Practices
SPEAKER: Darko Rovis

ABSTRACT. Risk behaviours represent a great challenge for the public health as they directly contribute to the leading causes of morbidity and mortality among adolescents. Good school bonding is related better academic achievements and better physical health but also fewer delinquency, drug addiction, school dropout, teen pregnancy and antisocial behaviour. The level of school bonding is known to vary across schools, which implies that the protective effect of school bonding also varies. Aim of this study is to examine the extent of school level variation in school bonding and to examine how individual and school level predictors related to school practices can explain these differences. The survey was carried on a random sample of 20% of students (1927 students, 89,5% response rate) in all secondary schools (30) in Primorsko-goranska County, Croatia. Scales for assessing school bonding, school were used as well as the school level variables (aggregated school means for school practices variables). Data analysis included multilevel modelling. A significant school level variation in risk behaviour and school bonding was found (ICC=.101) which is on the high end of similar reports. Multilevel analysis explained over 87% of school level variance and showed that a stimulating and rewarding surrounding where students do not fear of school and failure are the strongest predictors of good school bonding. Results support the idea that strong bonds to the school are more likely to flourish where students do not fear of the school marks, teachers and parents reactions, but in a supportive and reflective surrounding.

Sports-related concussion: what do coaches want to know?

ABSTRACT. Background: In Ireland, the Gaelic Athletic Association (GAA) is the largest sporting organisation. GAA sports are high contact and collision sports, leaving athletes at considerable risk for injury, including concussion. Although concussions will never be totally eliminated from sport, an increased understanding of concussion detection, assessment and management among coaches has been identified by researchers as the most important component of concussion recognition and prevention. Aim: The aim of this study is to identify the educational needs and desires of GAA coaches to aide in the development of a theory-driven concussion education and prevention programme. Methods: A needs assessment questionnaire was designed and pilot-tested. This questionnaire will capture data on coaches’ concussion training to date, preferred ways in which they would want to receive information about concussion, personal experience with concussion and demographic characteristics. Data will be collected in June-August 2015. Results: Data on coaches’ concussion education needs will be presented. This will include what information coaches want included in a concussion education programme and the preferred ways in which they would like to receive this information. Further data on perceived barriers to the implementation of concussion education programmes will be presented. Additional data will be presented on coaches’ communication about concussion and concussion reporting to their athletes. Conclusion: Findings from this needs assessment will be used to guide the development of a theory-driven concussion education and prevention programme for GAA coaches in the Republic of Ireland, and will support the knowledge and practice of primary and secondary concussion prevention.


ABSTRACT. Positive motives in prevention – the case of polish prevention program „ARS – how to take care for love”.

Young people appreciate the love and friendship as the most important values. This situation is rarely used in prevention programs. As part of the Polish - Swiss government project, a we have prepared the program whose goal is to promote healthy attitudes of women and their offspring. It happens that expectant mothers drink alcohol, smoke tobacco or use drugs during pregnancy and lactation. The aim of the program is to change this situation. The scenario includes 8 hours of classes conducted by 3000 trainers in the whole Poland, in 50% of all secondary schools in the country. Also we have prepared abundant materials in which it is proposed to emphasizing love as the supreme value in life, together with many useful health information. The program simultaneously applies to drinking, smoking and drug use. First reports indicate excellent reception of the script by young at the age of 17-20 years. Love theme present in the program fosters openness to suggestions, both among participants and leaders

Adolescent Problematic Internet Use: Externalizing or Internalizing Behavior?

ABSTRACT. Background. A number of research has shown that youth problematic internet use is associated with both externalizing behaviors like substance use, aggression and sensation seeking, and with internalizing problems like depression, social anxiety, social isolation and emotional difficulties. This study was conducted to determine whether youth problematic internet use fits into a structure of externalizing or internalizing behaviors, or both. Method. Middle school students from Warsaw (N=984) were anonymously assessed at age 15,5 (grade 9). All measures of internalizing and externalizing problems were based on previously validated items or scales including a Polish short version of K. Young Internet Addiction Test. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and structural equation modeling (SEM) with asymptotic distribution-free (ADF) estimation was conducted for the whole sample and for gender subgroups to determine how the problematic internet use relates to a structure of youth externalizing and internalizing problems. Results. Seven variables – substance use, aggressive behavior, truancy, delinquency, gambling, risk taking for fun, and problematic internet use – established a latent variable of externalizing behaviors. Six variables – depression, poor mental health, impaired usual activities, psychoactive medicines use, aches and pain, and problematic internet use – established a latent variable of internalizing problems. A structure of relations among these latent variables was modeled. Results - for the whole sample and the female subgroup - indicated that the problematic internet use had significant loading on the internalizing problem latent variable, and insignificant loading on the externalizing behaviors. For the male subgroup both loadings were significant. It suggests that problematic internet use for females relates directly to internalizing problems and indirectly to externalizing youth behaviors, The indirect relations between problematic internet use and a number of externalizing behaviors rest upon the correlation (0,35) of the externalizing latent variable with the internalizing latent variable. For male subgroup problematic internet use relates directly to both internalizing and externalizing problems. Conclusion. Results suggest that young problematic internet users do not represent homogenous group. Probably, two different groups of teenagers are involved: a group who use internet to compensate for (or cope with) their mental health problems, and a group who combines excessive internet use with risky or antisocial behaviors. Prevention measures should take into account a possible heterogenic structure of young problematic internet users.

Unplugged implementation in small community: Experience of Island Vis in Croatia

ABSTRACT. During the year 2014/2015 NGO “Svima – association for civil organization and civil initiative development”, Island of Vis, Faculty of Education Sciences and Rehabilitation, University of Zagreb, City of Vis and elementary school Vis collaborated on the project “Prevention on the Island”. The project was financed by Office for Combating Narcotic Drug Abuse of the Government of the Republic of Croatia. The overall goal of the project was promotion of positive and healthy development of children and youth by drug use prevention and creation of condition in the community for the positive development. The project had three specific goals: (1) Assessment of risk and protective factors in development of children and youth on Island of Vis, (2) Empowered children and youth for healthy choices – implementation of Unplugged program and (3) Enhanced condition for healthy and positive development of children and youth of Island of Vis by education of professional who work with children and youth, their networking and collaborative planning of preventive activities on the island of Vis. Unplugged program was delivered to the all students in 6th, 7th and 8th grade (N=38) in the (only) elementary school in the City of Vis. In the poster, experience of the implementation of Unplugged program in school in small community – City of Vis - will be showed.

The Moderating Effect of Problem Severity in ADHD on Program Effectiveness of Behavioural Parenting Programs

ABSTRACT. Purpose: Even though behavioural parenting programs are effective in reducing children’s ADHD symptoms, less is known about whether group-based behavioural parenting programs are effective for children with clinical levels of ADHD symptoms in particular. Thus, the current study aimed to examine whether three established behavioural parenting programs decrease problem behaviours in children with clinical levels of ADHD symptoms. Method: The data come from a national RCT evaluation study of the most commonly used group-based parenting programs in Sweden. Overall, 439 parents were randomly assigned to the Incredible Years, Cope, or Comet programs. ADHD symptoms and externalizing behaviour were assessed at baseline, post-test and one-year follow-up by the SNAP-IV and ECBI, respectively. Children with a score on SNAP-IV at or above the 95th percentile cut-off were considered having clinical levels of initial ADHD symptoms. Repeated-measures ANOVA models were used to analyse the data. Findings: Results suggested that initial level of ADHD symptoms moderated program effectiveness in reducing ADHD symptoms and externalizing behaviour problems on both short- and long-term. Effectiveness of all three programs was larger for the children with clinical levels of ADHD symptoms (Cohen’s d = 1.14 – 1.87) than the children with non-clinical levels of ADHD symptoms (Cohen’s d = .25 – 1.15). Conclusions/Implications: These findings suggest the feasibility of using group-based, behavioural parenting programs to help parents with children who display severe ADHD symptoms. Future research could include a multi-informant design, and test program effects for children with clinical diagnosis of ADHD.

Smoking reflection in the music scene

ABSTRACT. Background: Many young people create their identity through the genre of music they listen to and the concerts they go to, so the norms of the environment are essential for the creation of their identity. The importance of role models in the music scene seems huge, as they become a part of the identity creation and the behaviour in relation to smoking will influence on young people's perception of what is to strive for.

Aims: To prevent young people to start smoking we wish to encourage reflection in the Danish music scene, about how young people's smoking behaviour is affected by the music environment and to get established smokers to reflect on their smoking and how they affect others.

Methods: The deglorifying intervention comprises guidelines at all of Strøm’s music events by reducing the visibility of smoking in PR press-, promotion-, and communication material and not show cigarettes, smoking, smoke or any kind of symbols on smoking. To further spread this invisibility out in the Copenhagen music scene and change attitudes and behaviour through questions and reflections, 3 qualitative research interventions based on qualitative interviews will be carried out – one in the Strøm organisation, one through a greater audience survey at all of Strøm’s music events, and one among Strøm’s external network in the Danish music scene, approximately 300 people including Dj’s, bookers, stakeholders from record companies, industry associations, other music festivals etc.

Strøm Festival is considered the premier electronic music event in Scandinavia.

Authors: Maja Kring Schjørring, Kristian Gøtrik, Inge Haunstrup Clemmesen, Maria Stage and Camilla Kjærager.

Affiliations: Strøm festival, Enghavevej 80C, 4th floor, DK-2450 Copenhagen SV, Denmark. National Institute of Public Health, University of Southern Denmark, Øster Farimagsgade 5A 2nd floor, DK-1353 Copenhagen K, Denmark. The Danish Cancer Society, Strandboulevarden 49, DK-2100 Copenhagen Ø, Denmark. Smoke-free Copenhagen, Copenhagen Municipality, Sjællandsgade 40, DK-2200 Copenhagen N, Denmark.

Covariance of risky behaviours of university students

ABSTRACT. University students engage in a number of risky behaviours, including alcohol use, drug use, driving under the influence of alcohol, smoking, risky sexual behaviour etc. This is troubling because risky behaviours are associated with academic failure, sexually transmitted diseases, property damage and other personal adverse consequences. We have to state, that prevention scientists and practitioners are more focused on secondary schools and adolescents in their research and prevention interventions. A lot of research confirmed the covariance of adolescent risky behaviours (Jessor & Jessor, 1977; Monahan & Hawkins, 2009; Duberstein Lindberg etc., 2000). The aim of our study was to reveal the spreading and co-variation of risky behaviours in so called „emerging adulthood“ period. 664 university students from 8 Universities in Lithuania took part in the study (average age = 20,4 (SD=2,2): 76% female, 24% male. We used specially designed questionnaire to detect 12 types of risky behaviours: drug use, frequent alcohol use, binge drinking, smoking, driving under the influence of alcohol, riding with drunk driver, not using seat belts, SMS writing while driving, extreme sports, suicidal thoughts, sex without condom and ≥2 sex partners during one year period. Only 5,2 % of students are not involved in any risky behaviour. 11,3 % of students are involved in one type of risky behaviour, 49 % - 2-4 types, 34,5 % - 5+ types. The results revealed strong correlations between different types of students risky behaviours. Research data was used to develop recommendations on risky behaviours prevention for university students.

A cluster randomized controlled trial to evaluate the effectiveness of the "Unplugged" program in Nigeria: sample size and study design
SPEAKER: Marta Alesina

ABSTRACT. Background Unplugged is a Social Influence school-based curriculum developed and tested in the European Drug Addiction Prevention trial. It was shown to be effective in reducing cigarette smoking, drunkenness episodes and cannabis use among 12-14 years old adolescents. It has been largely adopted by schools of several countries in the world.

Methods In the framework of collaboration among the Nigeria Office of UNODC, the Federal Ministry of Education, the National Drug Law Enforcement Agency and the National Agency for Food and Drug Administration, a large scale project was funded by the European Union (project FED/2012/306-744) to promote healthy lifestyles in schools, families and communities in Nigeria. Unplugged was chosen as intervention to be implemented and evaluated in the school setting. The evaluation will follow a cluster randomized controlled trial design. Assuming alpha 0.05 (two-sided), power 0.80, prevalence in the control arm 14.6% and in the intervention arm 10.2%, 45 pupils per class, intraclass correlation coefficient 0.025, the estimated sample size needed per group is 1943 (overall 3886), corresponding to 14 schools in the intervention and 14 in the control arm. A pilot phase was conducted to pilot the program and the study instruments in 5 schools in Kwali (Abuja), Kaduna, Enugu, Ikot Ekpene, Yaba (Lagos) in Spring 2015.

Results The Federal Ministry of Education provided a list of 60 federal schools based in the 7 Zones of the country: 12 in North Central zone, 8 in North East, 10 in North West, 6 in South East, 10 in South South, 11 in South West, 3 in Abuja Federal Capital Territory. Thirty-two schools were randomized, 16 to the intervention arm and 16 to the control one. The randomization was performed at the central level, in OED Institute in Torino, and was stratified by zone taking into account the population size: 4 schools in North Central zone, 2 in Abuja Federal Territory, 4 in North East zone, 6 in North West zone, 4 in South East zone, 4 in South South zone, 8 in South West zone. Three classes per school will participate in the study. Pupils will be administered a baseline survey between November and December 2015, and a post-test survey between May and June 2016. 97 students of 2 classes participated in the pilot study of the questionnaire in Abuja. According to their comments, and the comments of the researchers administrating the questionnaire, the study questionnaire was modified to facilitate the students in filling it.

Conclusions This is the first experimental large scale study organized in Nigeria to evaluate the effectiveness of a school-based prevention program. Many cultural, political, and geographical critical issues in the country can threat the conduction of the study. However, all the involved Institutions were very enthusiastic about the project and were very collaborative in the pilot phase. We expect these premises will assure good outcomes from the study in 2016.

Piloting a questionnaire on knowledge, attitudes and behaviours on tobacco, alcohol and drugs among Nigerian students: difficulties and first results.
SPEAKER: Marta Alesina

ABSTRACT. Background The local Office of UNODC together with the Federal Ministry of Education, the National Drug Law Enforcement Agency and the National Agency for Food and Drug Administration coordinates in Nigeria a large scale project funded by the European Union (project FED/2012/306-744) to promote healthy lifestyles in schools, families and communities through the adoption of effective prevention programs. Unplugged has been chosen as effective intervention to be implemented and evaluated in the school setting. A pilot phase has been organized to test the program and the evaluation instruments. The results of the pilot phase will help to identify logistical, technical and other kind of problems to be addressed in the evaluation phase.

Methods For the pilot test, the Piedmont Centre for Drug Addiction Epidemiology staff, responsible for the evaluation of Unplugged in the Nigerian study, slightly modified the study questionnaire previously used in the EUDAP trials, in order to make it applicable to the Nigerian context. Some questions were deleted to shorten the questionnaire. The pilot was conducted in 2 classes (48 + 49 pupils), in a school of Abuja (Federal Capital Territory). The pupils were also requested to fill in a form listing the main problems they encountered in answering the questions. The data entry was conducted centrally in Piedmont Centre for Drug Addiction Epidemiology by using an online mask.

Results 97 pupils filled the questionnaire: 57.7% were males and 41.2% females; 8.2% were thirteen years old, 37.1% fourteen, 39.2% fifteen and 15.5% sixteen years old. More than 77% of the pupils lived with both parents. Only 13% declare his/her family did not have a car. Only 4.1% of students reported to have smoked cigarettes in their lifetime and 1.0% smoked during the last 30 days. The percentage of students who consumed alcohol during their lifetime was 23.7%, and 5.2% during the last 30 days. Five percent of students reported to have been drunk in their lifetime and 2.1% during the last 30 days. As regards drug use (excluding cannabis), the percentage of students who used it in their lifetime was 5.1%, 1.0% during the last 30 days. No students declared to have used cannabis in lifetime, nor in the last 30 days. The main problems in filling the questionnaire declared by the local researchers and by the pupils regarded the anonymous code. All the difficulties noticed have been taken into account to finalize the questionnaire. Specific notes have been added to make easier the completion of the anonymous code and the list of latin letters has been added to reduce the errors in the interpretation of the handwriting.

Conclusions From the preliminary results of the pilot phase the consumption of tobacco and drugs appear to be very little among Nigerian teenagers. Results of the pilot phase were taken into account to finalize the evaluation questionnaire and the study procedures.

The effectiveness of brief motivational interventions for preventing substance use among youth: a systematic review
SPEAKER: Marta Alesina

ABSTRACT. Introduction Brief Motivational Interventions are intervention shorter than traditional ones, derived from Motivational Interview approach and aimed to promote the motivation to change especially in substance abuse and addiction field.

Objectives The aim of this study is to conduct a systematic review of the literature to evaluate the effectiveness of Brief Motivational Interventions in preventing and reducing the use of drugs among youth at risk.

Materials and Methods The literature search was conducted on the biomedical databases EMBASE; PUBMED;EBSCO; THE COCHRANE LIBRARY applying the following keywords: motivational intervention; motivational enhancement; brief intervention; substance use; adolescents; youth; young adults. Titles were screened. Abstracts were read by two reviewers applying exclusion criteria. Full texts were examined by two reviewers to extract data from the included studies.

Results A total of 877 records were obtained from the literature search. Reading the titles, 523 articles were excluded. The remaining 354 abstracts were then read, and 261 were excluded. After reading the full texts, 66 studies were excluded with motivation. Fifteen studies met the inclusion criteria and were therefore included in the review. Each study administered one or two Motivational Interview sessions with duration ranging from 7 to 60 minutes. Most of the studies did not show statistically significant differences between the motivational intervention and the control arm, both at short and long follow-up, on the use of marijuana and other drugs, on frequency of use and most other outcomes.

Conclusions The results did not indicate significant efficacy of Brief Motivational Interventions in preventing substance use among youth at risk.

Immediate effects of alcohol marketing communications on consumption and cognition: A systematic review and meta-analysis of experimental studies
SPEAKER: Kaidy Stautz

ABSTRACT. Aims: To assess immediate effects of exposure to alcohol marketing on alcoholic beverage consumption and related cognitions. Methods: Electronic searches of nine databases, supplemented with reference list searches and forward citation tracking, were used to identify randomised, laboratory-based experimental studies assessing immediate effects of exposure to alcohol marketing communications on objective measures of alcohol consumption (primary outcome), explicit or implicit alcohol-related cognitions, or selection without purchasing (secondary outcomes). Study limitations were assessed using the Cochrane Risk of Bias tool. Random and fixed effects meta-analyses were conducted to estimate effect sizes. Results: Twenty studies met eligibility criteria. A meta-analysis integrating seven studies (758 participants, all undergraduates) found that viewing alcohol advertisements increased immediate alcohol consumption relative to viewing non-alcohol advertisements (SMD = 0.20, 95% C.I. = 0.05–0.34). A meta-analysis integrating five studies (477 participants, all undergraduates) did not find that viewing alcohol portrayals in television programmes or films increased consumption (SMD = 0.13, 95% C.I. = -0.18–0.44). Confidence in these estimates is diminished by underpowered analyses and unclear risk of bias. Two additional meta-analyses found that exposure to alcohol portrayals, but not alcohol advertisements, increased positively-valenced explicit alcohol-related cognitions. No eligible studies assessing other forms of alcohol marketing were found. Conclusions: Viewing alcohol advertisements (but not alcohol portrayals) may increase immediate alcohol consumption by small amounts, equivalent to between 0.39 and 2.85 alcohol units for males and between 0.25 and 1.81 units for females. The generalizability of this finding beyond undergraduates and to other marketing channels needs establishing.

Talking on school-based prevention with adolescents

ABSTRACT. Introduction: One of the key principles of evidence-based prevention is the relevance of the program to the participants’ needs. Thus, needs assessment is an important part of prevention program development. Aim: The study was aimed at identifying the students’ opinion on risky behaviour prevention activities conducted at Warsaw schools. Method: The study was based on focus group interviews. The project covered a number of students from 12 schools (2 middle schools and 10 high schools, including technical colleges and basic vocational schools). The number of participants in the focus groups fluctuated from 4 to 17 persons, together there were 100 students interviewed (45% girls). Results: Results showed that all interviewed students took part in prevention activities at some point of their school education. However, they expressed very critical opinions on these programs/activities. They raised following issues: boring and useless content, inadequate and unconvincing examples of risky behaviours, infantile examples of the possible threats associated with risk behaviors as well as excessive concentration on these dangers. Negative prevention measures based on moralizing and prohibiting were also criticized. Moreover, students formulated some propositions related to the desirable program content and eligible target population, for example: discussion during classroom sessions about their opinion on risky behaviours and involvement of parents in the program activities. Conclusion: Study participants perceived low competencies of prevention program deliverers and lack of high quality programs. These results are consistent with experts’ critical opinion on school–based prevention in Poland.

This presentation was prepared within a frame of research project supported by a grant from the Polish National Bureau for Drug Prevention (the Gambling Problem Solving Fund of the Ministry of Health)

CUIQ. A Theory of Planned Behavior questionnaire to measure cannabis use intentions amongst European teenagers
SPEAKER: Daniel Lloret

ABSTRACT. Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB, Ajzen, 1991) takes into account personal and social factors to explain intentional behaviors. This theory has been widely used to predict behavioral intentions in different contexts, such as drugs consumption. This research develops and validates CUIQ, Cannabis Use Intention Questionnaire, in four European countries: Italy, Portugal, Romania, and Spain. CUIQ consists of the following scales: attitude towards consumption (reliability – Cronbach's alpha: .86), subjective norms (α = .70), self-efficacy related to a responsible use (α = .82) and to abstinence (α = .86), and intention to use cannabis (α = .94). The sample comprises 4268 adolescents between 14 and 18 years old (M = 15.9; DT = 1.11), 50.9% female and 49% male (0.1% n.a.), from Italy (37.7%), Portugal (16.5%), Romania (18.7%), and Spain (27.1%). 26.9% of participants has used cannabis at least once in lifetime. 42.6% teenagers estimate that some of their friends use cannabis, while 11.7% report almost all their friends do. An exploratory factor analysis shows that the different factors according to subscales proposed explain 51.39% of the variance. The results of a regression analysis indicate that the three components of the TPB explain 47.5% of the variance of the intention to use cannabis. Self-efficacy related to a responsible use appears to be the most influential factor (β = .47, p = .000), followed by self-efficacy related to abstinence (β = -.23, p = .000), subjective norms (β = .21, p = .000), and attitude to consumption (β = .11, p = .000). This new questionnaire allows comparative studies that can lead to a better understanding of the psychological processes beneath adolescent´s decisions to use cannabis. It will be also useful for prevention programs evaluation and design.

Dinner is ready!! Relation between cannabis use among teens and family communication and family dinners.
SPEAKER: Daniel Lloret

ABSTRACT. There is sound evidence that a good family communication is related with less alcohol, tobacco and cannabis use by the offspring. Communication needs time, and sometimes a place, that is not always available in our busy family lives. Dinner is probably the best opportunity for parents and offspring to share time together and chat on a daily basis. The aim of this study is to analyze the relation between family communication, dinner frequency and teen cannabis use. Participants were 3887 adolescents aged 15 to 18 years from Spain, Romania, Italy and Portugal. The sample was divided in two groups. Group1: High cannabis use and Group2: No or low cannabis use. We compared the frequency of family dinner, satisfaction with dinner, importance of family dinner for parents, and communication with mother and father. Then, we created a predictive structural equation model (path analysis) including family dinner, attitudes of participants, their parents and close friends towards cannabis, intention of cannabis use, and cannabis use. Results show that Group1 has a lower frequency of family dinner and satisfaction with family dinner in Spain, Romania and Italy. In Portugal the higher differences were found in communication with father. Concerning the path analysis, a low but significant effect of family dinner on intention of cannabis was found in all countries. Findings support prevention interventions in family set.

Piloting Lions Quest Skills for Adolescence in Serbia: A Lions Club International Foundation– UNODC collaboration.
SPEAKER: Wadih Maalouf

ABSTRACT. Information on the adaptability, fidelity, affinity and effectiveness of evidence based programmes from low or middle income countries remains very limited. UNODC has been building capacity to provide effective interventions by adapting and piloting evidence based practices in low and middle income countries (per the International Standards on Drug Use Prevention).

The collaboration between UNODC and Lions Club International Foundation availed the opportunity to pilot Lions Quest (Skills for Adolescence) to the evidence based programmes piloted globally. Lions Quest is a evidence-based school based programme delivered by teachers to improve the social and life skills of students to prevent a variety of risky behaviors including substance use. The first country to benefit from this pilot was Serbia.

The pilot went between July 2014 and July 2015 to benefit around 1,400 students in 20 elementary schools in Belgrade municipalities (New Belgrade and Zvezdara) in partnership with the Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development. A pre-post questionnaire was used to assess: use, opportunities to use and intention to use of substances as well as normative belief, refusal skills, attitudes and perception of harm towards substances.

Significant changes have been noted particularly at the level of refusal skills of students. The results (pretest/posttest) documented in the beneficiary students will be presented. In addition to an analysis of process related data gathered through implementation that would benefit the expansion of this pilot nationally and regionally as well as enrich the international literature with evidence from a low and middle income country .

Tobacco advertising at points of sale in Switzerland

ABSTRACT. Switzerland is one of the few countries which did not ratify the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, and legislation on tobacco advertising is one of the least restrictive in Europe. At national level, only the advertisements on television, radio and explicitly directed to minors are banned. According to some studies, more than half of the tobacco industry’s marketing expenditures are linked to advertising at points of sale. We analysed the presence of tobacco products and of tobacco advertising in 400 tobacco points of sale in Switzerland. Tobacco advertisements were found in 52% of the points of sale, varying according to the type of point of sale, the canton and the surroundings of the point of sale. The number of advertising mediums varied from one to 27, with an average of 6.8 advertising mediums per point of sale. Astonishingly, advertisements at children’s eye level or underneath (1.20 m) were found in 35% of the points of sale, advertisements near sweets and chocolates in 34%. The aim of this study is to show the widespread and the characteristics of the phenomenon to the public health professionals, the policy-makers and to the public, in order to advocate for a comprehensive ban on tobacco advertising at points of sale. Published material is available at

Ethical aspects of the import and implementation process of drug abuse prevention programmes

ABSTRACT. The field of drug abuse in Brazil still is in process of maturing. It is common to find in the academic area as well as in the social assistance field reports related to prevention against drugs through lectures on information on drugs and with statements of former drug users and his/her relationship with drugs. It is also common the elaboration and distribution of flyers, strategies that provide information arousing fear, and implementation of punctual actions without community involvement. In the same way, we find many ways of understanding the issues related to drug use prevention. Considering this and due to the lack of evidence based structured projects, Brazil have been made an effort in the last two years to identify, analyze, import, culturally adapt, test, evaluate and validate three international evidence based programmes to prevent use and problematic use of alcohol and other drugs at schools and communities to be implemented with children, young people and families. Likewise, for 2015 is planned the implementation and scale up of these programmes throughout the country. This paper is part of a Bioethics PHD final research from University of Brasilia (Brazil) that intends to understand which ethical aspects are necessary to be considered to implement prevention programmes that were imported, as well as what would consist the uncritically aspects of the import process from the implementation of the programmes to testing and scale up.

Mediators of the effectiveness of a school-based HIV prevention intervention to increase consistent condom use after 2-years of its implementation

ABSTRACT. The aim of this study is to determinate the factors that mediate in the self-reported consistent condom use over the 24-months post-intervention period in adolescents who received COMPAS, a school-based HIV prevention intervention targeted to Spanish adolescents. Twelve high schools located in Spain were randomized to an intervention or a control group with baseline, immediate-post, 12 and 24-month post-intervention assessments. Self-reported consistent condom use by 24 months post-intervention was the primary outcome. Based on the theory of planned behavior, mediated effects of the intervention on consistent condom use were estimated - knowledge about STIs, attitudes towards condom use, sexual risk perception, self-efficacy, perceive norms and condom use intention. Serial multiple mediation analysis indicated that attitudes toward condom use when there are obstacles to use it and self-efficacy mediate the COMPAS’s effect in increasing consistent condom use. This is the first study that identifies the theoretical constructs that mediate the efficacy of a school-based intervention to promote sexual health in adolescents from Spain.

The Mediating Role of Parenting Stress in the Effectiveness of Parenting Programs

ABSTRACT. Purpose: Although it is known that parenting programs are effective in reducing problem behaviours in children, the mechanisms behind these changes are less well understood. This study examined the possible mediating role of parenting stress on the effectiveness of a behavioural-based parenting program, Comet, and an attachment-based parenting program, Connect. Method: The data came from an RCT on the effectiveness of commonly used parenting programs implemented in ordinary practice settings in Sweden. The current analyses were based on data from parents of 527 children who were randomly assigned to one of the two parenting programs or a waitlist condition. Parents rated the amount of problem behaviour and level of parenting stress before and shortly after the parenting programs. Parallel process latent change models (LCM) were used to test the mediating role of parenting stress. Findings: The results showed that both Comet and Connect programs reduced child problem behaviours significantly compared to the waitlist condition, and this reduction was explained by a reduction in parenting stress. For the Connect program, parenting stress fully mediated the program effect whereas there was a partial mediation for the Comet program. Conclusions/Implications: The findings suggested that parenting stress may be reduced when parents involve in group-based parenting programs, and the less stressed parents become the more child behaviours improved. These findings imply that a greater emphasis on reducing parenting stress in parenting programs may facilitate greater improvements in child problem behaviours.

Some aspects of motivation of participants of the training preparing for conducting the prevention programme «Taste of life – the debate on “designer drugs”».

ABSTRACT. The goal of the research was to explore to some extent the theme of motivation of participants of the training preparing for conducting the prevention programme «Taste of life – the debate on ‘designer drugs’» (in Polish «Smak życia, czyli debata o “dopalaczach”»). The programme belongs to the universal prevention and was developed for 15-18 year old students as a brief intervention in a group. It was projected to be conducted by teachers after some preparation. The main questions of the research concerned the following topics: to which extent participants declare they are determined to counteract using ‘designer drugs’ by youth; why participants want to realize such a goal (because of personal reasons or/and because of the benefit of youth); to which extent subjects have the will and the opportunity to carry out the programme; to which extent participants believe the goals of the programme can be achieved. The motivation was assessed by direct method, so the questionnaire contained direct questions about the topics mentioned above.

Peer and friend influences in predicting adolescents’ drug use

ABSTRACT. Adolescents’ perceptions of their friends’ and peers’ illicit drug behavior are important predictors of their own onset of marijuana use. These perceptions are important for users, non-users (have never tried), and vulnerable nonusers (have tried some time in the past, but not currently using), but in different ways. This study was designed to determine if user status interacted with these perceptions in predicting adolescents’ future use. A nationally representative U.S. sample of respondents (N=4,568) from the National Survey of Parents and Youth panel survey was used. Two logistic regressions (separately for resolute nonusers, N=3,458, and vulnerable nonusers, N= 340) examined the relationship between respondents’ Year 2 marijuana use onset with their Year 1 perceptions of the user status of peers and friends. When resolute nonusers thought their friends were users, but their peers were not, they were more likely to initiate use. However, when they thought their friends and peers both used, they were less likely to initiate use. For vulnerable non-users, however, perceived use by friends did not predict use; only perceived use by peers predicted future use. This is the first study that shows that perceptions of peer use can be more important than perceptions of friend use in predicting marijuana initiation. This was true for vulnerable, but not resolute nonusers. Different social norms may underlie the drug use of different user status groups, calling for different persuasive prevention appeals.

Experimental vs weekend alcohol use in adolescence: differences in psychosocial context

ABSTRACT. Background: Alcohol use in adolescence poses a real problem due to its negatives consequences in health and derived expenses. The aim of this study is to analyze the relationship between pattern of alcohol use (experimental vs weekly alcohol use) in adolescence and some measures of psychosocial adjustment.

Methods: 1031 High School students were selected by random sampling. Teenagers with experimental or weekend alcohol use (N=513) were selected to form the useful sample (58.8% girls, with a mean age of 15.92 years, SD 1.29). Adolescents answered an anonymous questionnaire which included the measurement of alcohol use and some psychosocial variables (gender, age, academic performance, friends’ alcohol use, etc) and personality (NEO-FFI, Costa & McCrae, 1999). We run descriptive statistics to define the profile of experimenters and weekend alcohol users.

Results: T test analysis showed that weekend alcohol users were older (t=-8.428, df=511, p<0,001), they scored higher in extraversion (t=-3.429, df=508, p=0.001) and lower in openness (t=2.669, df=508, p=0.007) and in Conscientiousness (t=3.928, df=508, p<0.001) in comparison with experimental alcohol users. At the same time, adolescents with weekend alcohol use showed more failed subjects ((t=-2.885, df=504.024, p=0.004) and class absences (t=-4.080, df=374.984, p<0.001). No statistically differences were found in age when they first consumed alcohol or in gender between the two groups.

Conclusion: Prevention models in adolescence should consider the patterns of alcohol use in teenagers since they seems associated with different psychosocial adjustment.

A Web-Based Group Course Intervention for 15-25 Year Olds Having Parents with Substance use or Mental Health Problems: Design of a Randomized Controlled Trial
SPEAKER: Tobias Elgan

ABSTRACT. Introduction: Approximately 20% of all Swedish children grow up with a problem-drinking parent which may affect children negatively. Most Swedish municipalities therefore provide resources for support. However, less than 2% of these children receive this support, mainly due to difficulties in identifying and recruiting children into support programs. Delivering intervention programs to this target group via the internet is a promising strategy. We have previously developed a 1 ½ hour long web-based self-help program “Alcohol & Coping” which has proven to be effective with regards to adolescent’s own alcohol consumption. However, there is a need of a more intense interventions to this target group. In the Netherlands a web-based group course intervention “Kopstoring” has been developed and is currently being evaluated in an RCT. We have translated and culturally adapted the Kopstoring program into a Swedish context. Here we describe the design of an RCT that will be initiated during fall 2015.

Methods: This study will use a two-armed RCT design including at least 184 15–25 year olds allocated into an intervention group or a control group. Participants will be recruited via the Facebook and also by existing support clinics that provide support to this target group. Inclusion criteria comprise having a parent with mental health and/or substance use problems. Those having symptoms of severe depression according to the Center for Epidemiological Depression Scale (CES-DC) will be excluded. The assessment consists of a baseline measurement (t0) and three follow-ups after six (t1), 12 (t2), and 24 months (t3). Measures include the YSR, CES-DC, the Ladder of Life, Brief-COPE, WHOQOL-BREF, and AUDIT-C.

Results: The Kopstoring manual have been translated into Swedish and culturally adapted. Previous research conducted in our group reveals that a great proportion of 15-19 year olds having parents with alcohol problems have an own risky alcohol consumption. We have therefore added a psychoeducative alcohol section to one of the Kopstoring modules. Chat group leaders have been trained and the program has been pilot tested. During late fall 2015, recruitment of participants will start.

Conclusions: There is an urgent need for developing and evaluating web-based interventions targeting adolescents having parents with substance use or mental health problems. This study therefore makes an important contribution to this novel field of research.

Weight and nicotine dependence in smoking cessation

ABSTRACT. Introduction. Body weight and nicotine dependence are two important variables that can interfere in the smoking cessation process. The aim is to analyze if people who quit smoking, through a psychological treatment, and remain abstinent after 3 months present weight differences regarding pretreatment nicotine dependence level.

Methods. The sample was composed by 65 participants who quit smoking and were abstinent after 3 months (56.1% women, mean age = 40.89, S. D. = 9.72). Nicotine dependence was assessed pretreatment (Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence, mean = 4.38, S. D. = 1.7) and body weight at pretreatment (mean = 74.74, S. D. = 17.40) and at 3 months follow-up. Abstinence was corroborated through carbon monoxide in expired air (CO > 10).

Results. According to the presence or absence of nicotine dependence at pretreatment, we did not find significant differences in body weight at pretreatment or at 3 months follow-up.

Conclusion. The presence or absence of nicotine dependence is not related to weight differences at pretreatment and at 3 months follow-up in people who quit smoking and remain abstinent. However, weight should be monitored throughout the follow-ups due to its relevance in relapse.