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09:00-10:00 Session 4: Keynote Lecture 2: Advances in Structural Engineering and Emerging Research Directions, Prof. Abubakr A. Wahab and Prof. Jamal A. Abdalla

 Advances in Structural Engineering and Emerging Research Directions

Professor Abubakr A. Wahab and Professor Jamal A. Abdalla

Prof. Ahmed Eltayeb Ahmed Ibrahim (Sudan University of Science & Technology, Sudan)
10:00-10:30Coffee Break
10:30-12:30 Session 5A: Structural and Material Construction Management
Dr. Abdalla Khogali Ahmed (University of Khartoum, Sudan)
Dr. Fath Elrahman Nur Eldayem (alzaiem alazhari university, Sudan)
Mutasim Ahmedai (University of Nyala, Sudan, Sudan)
Salih Ahmed (Sudan University for Sciences and Technology, Sudan, Sudan)
Yousif Ahmed (University of Khartoum,Sudan, Sudan)
Sharif Ibrahim (University of Nyala Sudan, Sudan)
Characterization of Jebal Meidoub Volcanic Ash and Pumice as Cement Replacing Materials for Use in Blended Cements

ABSTRACT. The Volcanic ashes are found abundantly in volcanic areas in Sudan. The meaningful use of volcanic materials can not only transform them into natural resources to produce low cost construction materials but also lead to sustainable development of non-expensive and environmentally friendly with acceptable strength and durability characteristics can be extremely helpful in the development and rehabilitation of volcanic areas around. This paper aims to evaluate the pozzolanic characteristics of the volcanic ash and pumice obtained from Jebal Meidoub (Meidoub Mountains) in western Sudan as potential Supplementary Cementitious Materials for use in blended cement and concrete. Since volcanic ash do not require any further treatment apart from grinding, therefore to achieve desired fineness, two types of local mills have been developed with high efficiency, one is a ball mill for laboratory purposes and another is a grinding mill for commercial production. Three Pozzolanic samples, represent natural Pozzolana, were brought from Jebal Meidoub. Sample one (MVA) is volcanic ash powder, and sample two (MP) is pumice, and sample three (MVP) is a mixture of volcanic ash and pumice as found in the nature. The study investigated the chemical and physical characteristics of the samples and their pozzolanic activities with Ordinary Portland cement (OPC), different substitution levels of 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50% of Pozzolanas were used with an OPC. The results of the chemical analysis showed that the sum oxides of Silica, Alumina, and Iron were more than 75% for all samples. The strength activity indices of MVA, MP, and MVP were found to be 80.1, 90, and 90% respectively against 75% and 80% required by ASTM C-618 and IS: 1344, respectively. while the 28-days compressive strengths for the replacement level with cement 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, and 50% were 34.27, 32, 26.27, 23.6, and 14.8 Mpa respectively for MVA, 36, 36, 30.53, 26.93, and 22.27 Mpa respectively for MP, and 36, 36, 32, 24.93, and 18.3 Mpa respectively for MVP against 40 Mpa, for the control mix. These results indicated that the Jebal Meidoub Volcanic Ash and pumice possesses pozzolanic characteristics and are thus potential cementitious materials for use in blended cement.

Sharif Ibrahim (University of Nyala Sudan, Sudan)
Mutasim Ahmadai (University of Nyala Sudan, Sudan)
Pozzolanicity of Sudanese Groundnut Shell Ash

ABSTRACT. Considering the need for low-cost cementing materials especially in Darfur, the production, and the use of an alternative locally available materials, become of a very great importance. This paper focused on the evaluation of the Pozzolanic characteristics of the Sudanese Groundnut Shell Ash (GSA) as potential Supplementary Cementitious Materials for use in blended cement. The study investigated the chemical, physical, and mineralogical characteristics of the GSA and its reactivity toward lime and cement, in addition , the compressive strengths of blended mortar containing GSA in percentage addition were tested at 7, 28, and 90 days. X-Ray Fluorescence and X-ray diffraction techniques were used for chemical and mineralogical analysis respectively. To obtain amorphous silica in ash, XRD technique was used to achieve an optimal calcining temperature for the shell. The results of the chemical analysis showed that the sum oxides of Silica, Alumina and Iron were 58.66%, and 83.75% for raw shell and calcined ash respectively. The strength reactivity with lime was 3.7Mpa, against 4 MPa required by ASTM C-618 and IS: 1344, The strength activity index was found to be 73% against 75% and 80% required by ASTM C-618 and IS: 1344, respectively while the 28-days compressive strengths for the replacement level with cement 5%, 10%, 20%, and 30% were 41, 37, 26 and 21 Mpa, respectively, against 41.33Mpa, for the control mix. These results indicated that the GSA possesses low Pozzolanic activity and is thus the optimum substitution level obtained from the compressive strength is therefore up to 15% , and the optimum calcining temperature is 650 0C with heating time 2 hours.

Yousif Hummaida Ahmed (CIVIL ENG. DEPT, FACULTY OF ENG, Sudan)
Khalid Salaheldin Babikir Abunaouf (Ouf-Brothers for Construction Company, Sudan)
Proportioning Self Compacting Concrete in Hot Weather of the Sudan Utilizing Limestone Powder

ABSTRACT. ABSTRACT Self-compacting concrete (SCC) is a special type of concrete which is able to flow and compact under its self-weight. The SCC requires high powder content (mainly of cement) up to 600 Kg/m3 to achieve its properties. This will be problematic if all cement content in the powder exceeded 400 Kg/m3 used in the hot weather of the Sudan. This paper investigates partial replacement for cement by Sudanese limestone powder (LSP) in the range of 20 – 30 % (by cement weight). Six mixes have been prepared with maximum cement content of 380 Kg/m3 using empirical design method and dry batching utilizing two different types of mixers, namely, forced action and commercial tilted mixers. The results show that five trial mixes have achieved the self-compatibility tested by slump flow (SF), sieve segregation (SR), V -funnel (VF) and U-box (UB) tests. Compressive strength of these mixes has increased with the LSP dosage. Therefore, further investigations of shrinkage, creep and durability such as resistance to sulphate and chloride ingress are recommended for the successful mixes to be applied in real projects in the Sudan. Also it has been found that dry batching and forced action pan mixers are the most suitable for producing SCC with high homogeneity compared to commercial tilted-drum mixers.

Keywords: Self compacting concrete (SCC), Limestone powder (LSP), Slump flow (SF), Sieve segregation (SR), V -Funnel (VF), U –Box, Hot weather SCC mix design.

مُستَخلَص: الخرسانة ذاتية الدمك(SCC) هي نوع خاص من الخرسانة لها القدرة على الجريان والدمك تحت تاثير وزنها الذاتي. يتطلب الحصول على الخرسانة ذاتية الدمك كمية كبيرة من المواد الاسمنتية يصل الي 600 كجم/م3 وذلك لتحقيق خصائصها الطازجة والصلبة, ولكن إستخدام كمية عالية من الأسمنت (زيادة عن 400 كجم/م3) في أجواء السودان الحارة قد يسبب مشاكل في الخرسانة. هذه الورقة تتحرى استبدال الأسمنت جزئيا بمسحوق الحجر الجيري المحلي في النطاق بين (20 – 30) % من وزن الأسمنت و لقد تم تحضيرست خلطات بأقصى محتوى أسمنتي (380 كجم/م3) باستخدام الطريقة التجريبية والخلط الجاف مستعينين بنوعين من الخلاطات تحديداً خلاطة معملية ( Forced action Pan mixers) و اخرى تجارية ( Commercial tilted-drum mixers).وقد اثبتت النتائج ان خمس خلطات حققت خواص الخرسانة ذاتية الدمك بعد اجراء اختبارات الهبوط و الجريان ( ) ومقاومة الانفصال (SR) والقمع ذو الشكلV (VF) والصندوق ذو الشكلU (UB). وبعد إجراء إختبار قوة الضغط للعينات اتضح ان قوة الضغط تتناسب طردياً مع نسبة مسحوق الحجر الجيري في الخلطة. لذا نوصي باجراء دراسات على الانكماش و الزحف و الاستدامة مثل مقاومة الكلورايد و الكبريتات قبل التطبيق الفعلي لهذه الخلطات في مشاريع حقيقة سودانية. كما اتضح من خلال التجارب المعملية أن الخلط الجاف بإستخدام الخلاطة المعملية ينتج خلطات مناسبة وأكثر تجانساً مقارنة بالخلاطة التجارية.

Eltayeb Aabdellatif Ahmed Habib (University of Bahari - College of Engineering & Architecture, Sudan)
Ali Hussein Mohamed Bass (Kordofan University - College of Engineering & Technical Studies, Sudan)
Fath Elrahman Mohamed Adam (Nile Valley University - Faculty of Engineering Technology, Sudan)
Mohamed Yosri Mustafa (Nile Valley University - Faculty of Engineering Technology, Sudan)
The usage of Crushed Red Bricks as light weight Aggregate in Concrete

ABSTRACT. Lightweight aggregate is a type of coarse aggregate that is used in the production of lightweight concrete; such as concrete block, structural concrete, and pavement.Most lightweight aggregate is produced from materials such as clay, shale, or slate. Blast furnace slag, natural pumice, vermiculite, and perlite can be used as substitutes. The light weight aggregate has properties similar to natural aggregate, but is less density and therefore yields a lighter concrete product. The self weight of normal concrete is to more than 75% of the total dead load and more than 50% of the structure total load. So the use of light weight concrete will reduce the total load of structure which in turn leads to minimize the design cost. It can also be used as concrete block to reduce the self weight of partition walls. In this investigation samples of waste traditional red bricks was crushed to the sizes like the sizes of normal aggregate particles. Then same mix design was prepared for normal and crushed bricks aggregate to detect and compare the weigh and properties of fresh and hardened mixes. The results recorded were showed that the weight of concrete reduced by 31%, that is mean one third of the normal concrete, when crushed bricks used as light weight aggregate, while the strength is reduced also by 15% after 28days. Also the workability does not affected noticeably with light weight concrete due to using saturated and surface dry crushed bricks as light weight aggregate. The paper concluded is that the using of waste traditional red brick as crushed light weight aggregate will reduce the self weight of concrete by one third and it can be suitable in block manufacturing as well as low strength concrete.

Sara Abdullatief Ali Satti (Bahry University, Sudan)
Yousif Hummaida Ahmed (Khartoum University, Sudan)
Use of Gum Arabic (Acacia Seyal) as Concrete Admixture

ABSTRACT. This study aims at finding alternative indigenous Sudanese material for concrete admixtures that are necessary for casting concrete in hot weather of the Sudan. It investigates Gum Arabic (GA) namely, Acacia Seyal (known locally as Taleh Gum (TG)). The methodology of the study is based on identifying suitable dosages from literature review. Then the European standards BS EN 934 & BS EN 480 have been used as a paradigm to classify TG functionality as concrete admixture. The effect of TG dosages on concrete properties are investigated with nil or some water reduction compared to a reference concrete mix with water/cement ratio(W/C) of 0.58 and consistence (slump=70±10) mm. The 0.8%TG is found to the most appropriate dosage with water reduction levels of 11.5% and 7.5%to achieve similar consistence to reference concrete and mortar mixes respectively. Also TG has impaired the concrete compressive strength when used at equal water content of the reference mix. However, upon reducing water, the compressive strength has increased in mixes containing the TG. At 0.8%TG dosage, TG satisfied all criteria set by BS EN 934-2:2009 for a set accelerating water reducer (SA\WR) except those for 7 & 28 compressive strength criteria. KEY WORDS: Acacia Seyal, gum arabic as concrete admixture, Natural concrete water reducer المستخلص تهدف هذه الدراسة إلى إيجاد مواد سودانية أصلية بديلة للمضافات الضرورية لصب الخرسانة في الطقس الحار للسودان. وهي تقوم بالتحري عن الصمغ العربي (GA) ، وهو Acacia Seyal (المعروف محليًا باسم صمغ الطلحTaleh Gum (TG)). تستند منهجية الدراسة على تحديد الجرعات المناسبة من مراجعة الأدبيات. بعد ذلك ، تم استخدام المعايير و المقايسات الأوروبية BS EN 934 و BS EN 480 كنموذج لتصنيف وظيفة TGكمضاف للخرسانة. يتم دراسة تأثير جرعات TG على خواص الخرسانة مع عدم تقليل أو تقليل بعض المياه إلى خلطة خرسانة مرجعية تحتوي على الخرسانة مع نسبة الماء / الاسمنت (W / C) من 0.58 وهبوط (Slump = 70 ± 10) ملم. تم العثور على 0.8 ٪ TGكجرعة أنسب مع مستويات الحد من المياه من 11.5 ٪ و 7.5 ٪ لتحقيق الهبوط المماثل لخلطتي الخرسانة و المونة المرجعيتين على التوالي. كما أن TG قد ضعفت قوة انضغاط الخرسانة عند استخدامها مع عدم تقليل ماء خلطة الخرسانة المرجعية. ومع ذلك ، عند تقليل المياه ، زادت قوة الضغط في الخلطات المحتوية على TG. في الجرعات TG 0.8 ٪ ولقد حققTG جميع المعايير التي وضعتها BS EN 934-2: 2009 لمخفض المياه ومنشط للتصلد (SA\WR) باستثناء تلك المعايير لقوة الانضغاط في 7 و 28ايام. الكلمات الدالة:صمغ الطلح,الصمغ العربي كمضاف للخرسانة,مخفض طبيعي لمياه الخرسانة

Attaalmanan Ismail (University of Science and Technology, Sudan)
Muram Mohammed (University of Science and Technology, Sudan)
Mechanical Properties of High Performance Concrete Produced in Sudan

ABSTRACT. High-rise reinforced concrete multistory buildings are being increasingly used. The large loads in high rise buildings lead to the design of large sections when normal strength concrete is used, but when High performance concrete (HPC) is to be used, small cross sections can be obtained or for the same cross-section, the amount of steel reinforcement can be reduce. In tall building, there is an economic advantage because of an increased floor area for rental. In bridges, the use of high strength can reduce the number of beams. The aim of this paper is to produce High Performance Concrete (HPC) in Sudan, using materials which are available at the local markets. Different trial mixes are used to obtain a compressive strength exceeding 80 MPa. The research includes the use of mineral admixture (silica fume), Aggregates (Crushed stone, quartz sand). The effect of adding different amounts of silica fume replacement of cement by 0, 15, 20 and by 30%. on main Properties of HPC, i.e., compressive strength and slump was investigated the test results revealed that it is possible to produce HPC in Sudan, with Compressive strength in excess of 80 MPa using materials which are available at the local markets, if these are carefully selected and properly mixed in such a way to optimize grain Size distribution. Based on the results of this research, the optimum percentage of silica fume necessary for producing HPC is about 20 % of cement weigh.

Yousif Hummaida Ahmed (University of Khartoum, Sudan)
Radad Azhari Elsir Elnour (Sudanese Electricity Distribution company, Sudan)
Effect of Steam Curing Parameters on Concrete Strength and Durability

ABSTRACT. ABSTRACT Atmospheric pressure steam curing provides moisture and increases the temperature, which are important factors for accelerating concrete curing process. This research identifies and optimizes steam curing parameters for producing precast electrical poles in a Sudanese industrial entity. These parameters include a delay period after casting (DT) of 0, 2, 3, 4 & 6 hours, a maximum curing temperatures (T) of 50, 60 &70oC maintained for a specific curing period (CT) of 2, 3, 4 and 5 hrs. To attain this aim, several laboratory experiments have been carried out to measure compressive strengths after 7 days of the above curing regimes that are compared to values of specimens subjected to conventional water curing method. Then Taguchi methodology has been utilized to identify DT=3hrs, CT= 4hrs and T= 70oC as the optimum curing regime and DT as the most effective parameter. Furthermore, specimens cured under this optimum cycle have further tested for flexural strength and durability performance (sulphate and chloride ingress for periods up to 12 months) and compared with water-cured ones. The results show that the steam-curing provides better performance at 3 days for flexural strength and similar or superior long term durability of concrete compared for water-curing. Keywords: steam curing cycle, delaying time, curing time, curing temperatures, Taguchi Method, chloride permeability, sulphate attack مُـسْــتَخْـلـَص يوفر علاج بخار الهواء المضغوط الرطوبة ويزيد من درجة الحرارة ، والتي تعتبر عوامل مهمة لتسريع عملية معالجة الخرسانة. هذا البحث يحدد ويحسن معايير معالجة البخار لإنتاج اعمده التوصيل كهربائية مسبقة الصب والاجهاد في الشركه السودانيه لتوزيع الكهرباء. تتضمن هذه العوامل فترة تأخير بعد الصب (DT) من 0 ، 1، 2 ، 3 ، 4 و 6 ساعات ، درجة حرارة معالجة قصوى (T) من 50 ، 60 و 70 درجة مئوية للحفاظ على فترة معالجة معينة (CT) من 2 ، 3 ، 4 و 5 ساعات لتحقيق هذا الهدف ، تم إجراء العديد من التجارب المعملية لقياس مقاومة الانضغاط الخرسانيه بالمعالجة المذكورة أعلاه والتي تقارن بقيم العينات الخاضعة لطريقة معالجة المياه التقليدية. ثم تم استخدام منهجية ( Taguchi) لتحديد DT = 3hrs ، CT = 4hrs و T = 70oC كنظام معالجة مثالي و DT أكثر فعالية. علاوة على ذلك ، تم اختبار العينات التي تم معالجتها في هذه الدورة المثلى من أجل قوة الانثناء ومتانة الأداء (كبريتات وكلوريد لفترات تصل إلى 12 شهراً) ومقارنة مع تلك المعالجة بالماء. أظهرت النتائج أن المعالجة بالبخار توفر أداء أفضل في 3 أيام لقوة الانثناء ومتانة طويلة الأمد أو متشابهة للخرسانة بالمقارنة مع معالجة المياه. كلمات البحث: دورة معالجة البخار، تأخير الوقت، وقت المعالجة، درجات حرارة المعالجة، طريقة تاجوشي ، نفاذية الكلوريد ، هجوم الكبريتات

Yousif Hummaida Ahmed (University of Khartoum, Sudan)
Elsadig Hassan (Sudanese Thermal Power Generating Company, Sudan)

ABSTRACT. ABSTRACT This study compares properties of six locally produced ordinary Portland cement brands in the Sudan using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). It investigates their compliance with Sudanese and European standards. Furthermore, to examine consumers’ claims that certain brands outperforming others. Chemical, physical and mechanical cement properties have been collected from Quality Control Unit (QCU) of each factory. Also samples have been collected from local dealers for each factory and tested for same aforementioned properties. It has been observed that all brands comply with the Sudanese and European specifications for ordinary 42.5N Portland cement with regard to levels of chemical oxides, fineness & initial setting time. However, for compressive strength, according to both standards, three brands are classified as 42.5N, while the other are 42.5R, which should not be used in hot climates. However, one brand could also be dually classified as rapid hardening cement 42.5R or ordinary Portland cement 52.5N by the European Standard. The ANOVA has shown significant differences between these brands especially in compressive strength hence supporting preferences of consumers to certain brands. Keywords:Sudanese produced OPC cements, Quality control units in cement factories, ANOVA

مُـسْــتَخْـلـَص هذه الدراسة تقارن بين ست علامات من الأسمنت البورتلاندي العادي المنتج في السودان بإسخدام إختبار تحليل التباين(ANOVA) . ولتتحرى مطابقتها للمواصفة السودانيه والأوروبيه وبالإضافه إلي الإدعاءات المحلية بأن بعض العلامات تتفوق على الأخريات. جمعت بيانات الأسمنت الكميائية، الفيزيائية والميكانيكية من وحدات ضبط الجودة لكل مصنع و أيضا جمعت عينات من الوكلاء المحليين لكل مصنع ومن ثم أجريت عليها إختبارات لنفس الخصائص المذكورة آنفا. لقد لوحظ أن كل العلامات تتطابق مع المواصفتين السودانيه والأوروبيه للاسمنت البورتلاندي العادي 42.5N فيما يتعلق بمحتوى الأكاسيد الكيمائية ودرجة النعومه و زمن الشك الإبتدائي .و أما لمقاومه الضغط وفقا للمواصفتين فأن ثلاث علامات قد صنفت كأسمنت بورتلاندي عادي عيار 42.5N بينما صنفت الاخريات كأسمنت سريع التصلد عيار 42.5R والذي يجب ان لا يستخدم في الاجواء الحارة. بينما يمكن أن تصنف علامة واحده كاسمنت بورتلاندي عادي عيار 52.5N وفقا المواصفه الاروبية. ولقد أوضح تحليل التباين اختلافا ملحوظا بين هذه العلامات خصوصا في مقاومة الضغط ومن ثمَ تؤيد تفضيل المستهلكين لعلامات معينة. الكلمات المفتاحية:الأسمنت البورتلاندي العادي المنتج في السودان، وحدات ضبط الجودة في مصانع الأسمنت، تحليل التباين (ANOVA )

10:30-12:30 Session 5B: Road, Transportation and Geotechnical engineering
Prof. Sw Jacobsz (University of Pretoria, South Africa)
Dr. Magdi Zumrawi (University of Khartoum, Sudan)
Location: WRC Main Hall
Elfatih Osman Ahmed Khalid (Building and Road Research Institute, University of Khartoum, Sudan)
Ahmed Mohamed Elsharief (Building and Road Research Institute, University of Khartoum, Sudan)
Opportunities for Development in Testing and Research of Unsaturated Soils of Sudan

ABSTRACT. Sudan is a tropical county which is dominated by hot arid climate. The top soils are therefore unsaturated with low natural water content and consequently deep ground water. Large plains of desiccated highly plastic potentially expansive clays cover central and eastern Sudan. Nationally, geotechnical related research focused first on understanding the swelling phenomenon of the theses clay deposits and the design and performance of foundations on these soils. Theories of classical soil mechanics had been in use by practitioners for handling these geotechnical problems. With the development of unsaturated soil mechanics around the world researchers in the country started to focus on the field on experimental unsaturated soil mechanics.

This paper reviews the available research efforts on theoretical formulations and laboratory testing on Sudanese soils, excreted so far by international and national scholars in the field of unsaturated soils, with special attention to topics such as characterization of unsaturated soils, volume change behavior, shear strength and compressibility. Opportunities and challenges facing the research efforts are outlined and discussed.

Abdul Karim Zein (BRRI, University of Khartoum, Sudan)
Baraa Ahmed (Ministry of Infrastructures, North Kurdofan State, Sudan)

ABSTRACT. ABSTRACT This paper presents an experimental study to investigate the relationships between the grain size distributions, relative density and shear strength of compacted sand soils. Seven samples representing sand soil types having different gradation characteristics were considered. Laboratory tests were performed to determine the grain size distribution, minimum and maximum dry density and the shear strength by the direct shear box method. Each sample was prepared in three placement conditions representing the loose, medium dense and very dense compactness states. Analysis of the test results indicated that linear relationships exist between the mean and average grain size diameter and the minimum and maximum density on one hand on the other. However no definitive relationship seems to exist between the grain size characteristics and shear strength of the sand soils tested. The study results revealed that the shear strength is strongly and linearly related to the shear strength of well-graded and gap-graded sand soil samples but a rather poor relationship was noted for the poorly graded sand samples.

Khalid Yoesif (university of khartoum, Sudan)
Hussein Elarabi (Building and Road Research Institute, Sudan)

ABSTRACT. This research aims to study behavior of load-settlement and load sharing between piles and raft in combined piled raft foundation by using numerically three - dimensional finite element analysis represented by the commercially finite element package PLAXIS 3D FOUNDATION. A piled raft subjected to concentrated loading for 9 stories building with different configuration of number of piles, piles length and raft thickness and embedded in stiff CLAY. Using the embedded pile feature of Plaxis, pile loads are calculated and subtracted from the total applied load to find raft and pile load sharing. During the course of study, increasing each of the previously mentioned parameters showed a reduction in the average maximum settlement along (this reduction is limited in raft thickness parameter) with increasing in the load sharing by the piles. Also, it was deduced that the effect of increasing the length of piles outweighed the effect of increasing both the raft thickness and number of piles in term of reducing the average maximum settlement yet, there was an upper limit beyond which the thickness of raft reach 0.5m becomes adversely effect on reducing settlement, but increase load sharing by the piles to 40.1% (when number of piles was 14) from total load exposed to the foundation. All design parameters using in this study has no significant effect on reducing differential settlement in raft. Increasing in design parameters leads to increase in load sharing by piles. A few general trends in the behavior of piled raft have been studied during this work parametric study.

Magdi Zumrawi (University of Khartoum, Sudan)
Eman Abdalla (University of Khartoum, Sudan)
Stabilization of Expansive Soil using Marble Waste Powder
SPEAKER: Eman Abdalla

ABSTRACT. Expansive clay is a problematic soil when a structure is constructed on it. Recently many researchers used industrial ‎waste in soil stabilization as low cost materials and to save the environment. In this regard, an attempt is made to ‎evaluate the use of Marble Waste Powder (MWP) to stabilize expansive soil. Soil samples were mixed with different ‎proportions of MWP 0%, 10%, 15 % and 20% by dry weight. Sieve analysis, Atterberg's limits, Standard Proctor, ‎Unconfined Compression Strength (UCT) and Free Swell (FS) tests were performed on natural and stabilized soils. ‎The tests results revealed that the soil plasticity (i.e. liquid limit and plasticity index), free swell index (FSI) and ‎optimum moisture content reduced significantly with the addition of MWP, while the maximum dry density and ‎UCS of the stabilized soil greatly increased with increase in MWP amount. It’s concluded that the use of MWP will ‎improve the properties of expansive soil and it is beneficial for economical and environmental considerations.‎

Shaza Azhari (university of Khartoum, Malaysia)
Mubarak Gasm Elsid (university of Khartoum, Sudan)
Ahmed Abdelaziz Bellia (university of Khartoum, Sudan)
Mazin Mahgoub (university of Khartoum, Sudan)
Mohamed Osman (university of Khartoum, Sudan)
Samah Abd Elhaleim (university of Khartoum, Sudan)
Safety Assessment for Khartoum-Madani Highway

ABSTRACT. As vehicular traffic continues to increase in Sudan, the accidents also continued to threaten the safety of the road users causing more accidents and fatalities. Therefore, it is necessary to pay more attention to the road safety assessments, better geometric design and improving the level of service on the roads. This paper assesses and evaluates the safety of Khartoum-Madani Highway. A site visit was conducted to assess the safety of this highway. This visit evaluated the validity of the road focusing on the geometry design and safety. A traffic count was also conducted at the peak hour to determine the level of service of the road. Moreover, a questionnaire about traffic safety of this highway has been distributed and analysed using (SPSS) program. From the results of this study, it was found that this road contains many problems. Different solutions were suggested to deal with these issues.

Abubakr Ziedan (The University of Tennessee at Chattanooga, United States)
Mubarak Gasm Elsid (Ministry of Infrastructure and Transportation - Khartoum State, Sudan)
Using Bus Rapid Transit to Achieve Sustainable Development Goals in Sudan

ABSTRACT. Many countries all over the world, regardless of their location and whether it is a developed country or developing country face severe problems like congestion and environmental issues. These problems have many local impacts like accidents, delays and decreased economic activity, but also they have some global implications like destroying the ozone shield. Considering the continuing growth in vehicular use associated with depletion in resources will make these challenges even harder to face in the future, so sustainable transportation systems and sustainable development are needed urgently to ensure that current and next generations both will have a good quality of life. This paper provides an early assessment of using BRT to achieve sustainable development goals in Sudan. This study will evaluate a proposed BRT line in Khartoum from Ombada to Jackson station as a case study. The study will address the benefits occurred by using BRT in a developing country like Sudan to achieve many goals such as reduce the solo-dependency on private cars as well as travel time saving and emission saving. Some recommendations will be made to legislate more sustainable transport regulations that help to achieve sustainable transportation system and sustainable development in Sudan.

Lubna S. O. Mohamed (Sudanese Standards and Metrology Organisation (SSMO), Sudan)
Awadelkarim M. Mohamed (Building and Road Research Institute (BRRI), University of Khartoum, Sudan)
Hisham I. M. Abdel-Magid (Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, Saudi Arabia)
Assessment of Stormwater Drainage Systems: Case Study of Khartoum International Airport

ABSTRACT. The main objective of stormwater conveyance system is to provide for safe passage of vehicles or operation of the facility during the design storm event. Therefore, the stormwater drainage system should be given high first priority in the design and construction of airports. The aim of this research work is to assess the current status of the stormwater system in Khartoum International Airport as a specific area of interest; a long with the attempt of establishing a computer model for the subject area that enables future enhancement and assessment of the drainage system. Various sources of data were attempted, including Civil Aviation Authority of Khartoum Airport, Ministry of Infrastructure and Transport of Khartoum State, different consultancy firms and research institutions, as well as conducting site visits during rainfall events (which reflected spots of deteriorated parts of the Airport’s drainage system). Intensity-Duration-Frequency (IDF) relationship curve were collated and utilised for preparing a computer model using Storm Water Management Model (SWMM) which was developed by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The model helped in simulating the situation while taking in consideration various hydraulic parameters and simulation runs for a number of return periods (up to 10 years). Despite its ease of use and simplified interface, some difficulties were encountered in utilising EPA-SWMM due to the nature of input requirements with comparison with availed local datasets at the time of conducting the research. Therefore, the rational method was adopted in the hydrological study after dividing the study area into several zones. The open area is about 500 m wide and the grading are 0.1% - 0.2%, this area has been divided into nine (9) zones. The sub-areas adjacent to the runway were named Z2-1 to Z5-1 (150m wide), and at the east Z1, Z2, Z3, Z4 and Z5, Zone1 and Zone9 were at the South and west respectively. The velocities were found between 1.12m/s to 1.6m/s and the pipes diameters were found to be between 1.05m and 1.07m and the pipe culvert was 1.6m. In addition to engineering findings of the hydraulic design parameters; the need for establishing a suitable monitoring system with a computer-aided decision support system for rapid assessment, monitoring and maintenance scheduling is considered one of the main outcomes of this research work.

12:30-13:30Lunch Break
13:30-15:00 Session 6A: Structural and Material Construction Management
Dr. Mudathir Sulieman (University of Khartoum, Sudan)
Dr. Salma Mahmoud (University of science and technology, Sudan)
دراسة تحليلية لمعوقات صناعة التشييد في ولاية نهر النيل
SPEAKER: Mumdoh Habib

ABSTRACT. تكمن إشكالية مشاريع التشييد في ولاية نهر النيل في توقف الكثير من المشاريع أثناء تنفيذها لأسباب متعددة وفي التأخر في تسليم المشاريع في زمنها المحدد وفي ضعف الأداء بصورة عامة مع بروز مخاوف تتعلق بتضاؤل في رضا الزبائن وزيادة التكاليف على حساب الأرباح نتيجة لغياب ثقافة التطوير والتشجيع والتحفيز وضعف ونوعية التدريب وعدم وضوح الرؤية ونقص الخبرة الفنية والتخطيط غير الجيد ومشاكل التصميم والعمالة غير الماهرة ، كل هذا أدى إلى ضعف الإدارة الهندسية للمشروعات وانعكست سلبا على مدة التنفيذ والمواصفات الفنية للأعمال المنفذة كما وخلت التقارير والدراسات العلمية المختلفة من معلومات تحليلية أو بيانات كافية عن سبل تحسين صناعة التشييد بالولاية. تهدف هذه الورقة إلى تحديد وتحليل المعوقات المؤثرة على الأداء في المشاريع الإنشائية في ولاية نهر النيل. ركزت الدراسة على تجميع معلومات تخص صناعة التشييد بالولاية شملت كل الأطراف المشتركة في عملية التشييد وهم المالك والمقاول والاستشاري. من أجل ذلك تم تصميم استبيان شمل 72 عاملا تم توزيعها على 14 مجموعة وبلغت جملة المستهدفين الذين شاركوا بالفعل عدد 90 عينة. تم تحليل المعلومات التي تم الحصول عليها تحليلا إحصائيا باستخدام برنامج SPSS . خلصت نتيجة التحليل إلى ظهور توافق بين المشاركين في أن أهم المعوقات المؤثرة على أداء المشاريع الإنشائية بالولاية منها اقتصادية مثل مشاكل التضخم وتذبذب أسعار مواد البناء، ومنها الإدارية مثل ضعف الحوافز والأجور وعدم تطبيق نظام السلامة والصحة المهنية ومنها مشاكل تتعلق بالتنسيق بين أطراف عملية التشييد مثل مشاكل التعديلات التي تطرأ أثناء التنفيذ والتدخلات السلبية للمالك أثناء التنفيذ. تم عرض العوامل المؤثرة سلبا على صناعة التشييد بنسب مئوية حيث بلغ تأثير العوامل الاقتصادية على صناعة التشييد بمتوسط نسبة 91%، ونسبة العوامل الإدارية 85% ونسبة عوامل التنسيق بين الأطراف حوالي 82% وعوامل أخري متعلقة بالمواصفات ونظام العقود وضعف أنظمة ولوائح وقوانين الدولة بنسبة 77%. شملت الورقة عدة مقترحات وحلول للعديد من مشاكل التشييد بالولاية بهدف إزالة المعوقات وفي سبيل النهوض والارتقاء بصناعة التشييد بالولاية.

Yassir Daffalla (RBDC, Sudan)
Yousif Hummaida (UofK, Sudan)
Elkheir Abbas (Ministry of Planing, Sudan)
Standardizing Methods of Measurement for Earthworks and In situ concrete works in Sudanese Construction Industry

ABSTRACT. Abstract: In the Sudan, several construction industry projects are experiencing more claims and disputes related to bills of quantities. This is due to lack of standard method of measurement (SMM) that results in exceeding the initially estimated cost and schedule. Standardization Methods of Measurement (SMM) for Earthworks and In situ concrete works is important in preparation of Bill of Quantities (BOQ) in construction industry. This paper aims to addresses level of knowledge about the international SMM, raise awareness about it. Study the need for SMM in the Sudanese construction Industry SCI. Identifies and ranks the effects of adopting SMM in (SCI). Standardize and formulate a proposal for a method of measurement for earthwork and In situ concrete works according to local norms and terminology in the Sudan. To achieve these objectives four international standard methods of measurement were reviewed. Interviews and questionnaire survey tools were used for data collection. Interviews and questionnaire survey were conducted with fifty five participants (contractors, owners, consultants and others) in the SCI. Thirty one respondents gave their opinion and perception regarding the current practice of earthwork measurement and twenty seven for In situ concrete works. They also gave their suggestions to identify and write an earthwork and In situ concrete SMM that satisfy SCI stakeholder's requirements. The results show there is shortage in SMM awareness. Adopting SMM in the SCI will facilitate accurate cost estimating for projects. Items for earthworks and In situ concrete was categorized and organized. In addition to that Standard method of measurement for earthworks and in situ concrete in SCI was proposed according to the results of data analysis. These conclusions were followed by recommendations to standardize method of measurement for other works and modification for proposal standard should continue by involving all stockholders and according to construction industry development as other international standard.


ABSTRACT. The issues of the quality of the building has been given emphasis in the construction industry apart from the problems related to cost and time. According to project management institute, the quality is a degree to which the product or project or service fulfill the requirement. Also quality is defined as a measure of excellence or a state of being free from defects, deficiencies and significant variations. There are many disputes occurring between owners and contractors in the construction project in Sudan. Level of quality for completed works is one of the most important reasons that leads to dispute between parties. The aim of this study is to assess the level of quality of construction projects in Sudan. The objectives of the study are to study the various method of quality assessment of projects on site, to assess the perception of parties concern on the level of quality of construction projects in Sudan, to identify the factors that influence the quality of construction projects in Sudan and to evaluate the level of understanding of parties regarding the quality assessment method. This study focus on building projects carried out within the area of Khartoum, Sudan. A total of 80 questionnaires were distributed to the respondents and 50 questionnaires were returned answered. The data is analysed using Average Index. From the study, it was found that there are many ways to assess level of quality in construction projects namely by CONQUAS, QLASSIC and PASS. However, in Sudan there is no standard for the specification and it depends mainly on the consultant companies, so in Sudan there is big variation in the level of quality between building projects. The level of quality for structural, mechanical & electrical and finishing works in building projects in Sudan is considered at “normal level of quality”. The level of quality for plumbing works is considered “poor”. The main factors that affect the quality in building projects are design, financial, materials, labours and management factors. From the study, it was found that the respondents “understand” the assessment according to specifications and visually. The respondents “do not understand” the assessment according to CONQUAS and QLASSIC and that because lack of knowledge in Sudan and the level of understanding regarding modern quality assessment system is not good at all.

Ibrahim Mohammed Omer Awad (Sudan University of Science and Technology, Sudan)
Salah Abdalaziz Ajban (Sudan University of Science and Technology, Sudan)
Applying Lean Construction Concepts to Construction Industry in Sudan

ABSTRACT. The Sudanese construction industry faces numerous problems and obstacles that lead the projects to sink into troubles, and negatively affect the workflow. In order to overcome the defects which hinder the projects’ success, a new technique implemented successfully in many countries under name ‘Lean Construction’. Lean Construction (LC) in its simplest form means elimination of wastes from every aspect of the work process to get more optimum productivity, better usage of resources and better work condition. The main objectives of this study are to determine the awareness about Lean Construction within the engineers who work in the construction industry in Sudan, and to identify the factors that negatively affect the workflow of construction projects in Sudan. The main question of this study is about the challenges that may face the implementation of Lean Construction in Sudan. The methodology of the study adopted both qualitative and quantitative methods in identifying the problem statement, literature review, collection and analysis of data and discussion of the results. After results interpretation in the light of the theoretical part, the study ended with many results which are: The majority of the engineers who work in the construction industry in Sudan have no idea about Lean Construction; while they got high potential to work in a construction site uses new management concepts such as Lean Construction. The main factors that negatively affect the workflow of construction projects are the delays in financing the projects and in delivery of the materials, and the main two challenges may face the implementation of Lean Construction in Sudan are the resistance of the top management to adopt the concept, and the difficulties in understanding the concept itself. The study reached to a number of recommendations, the most important of which are: Ensuring that the top management actively adopts the culture of training and developing their staff about new managerial tools and techniques such as lean construction, Making steps toward enhancing workflow of Sudanese construction projects through deep study of the factors that affect the workflow negatively to overcome all stoppages causes and Hiring lean construction experts to play the role of directors to help actors who involved in the project establishing strong awareness to implement.

Elkhider Mohamed (University of science and technology, Sudan)
Salma Mahmoud (University of science and technology, Sudan)
Abubakr Ahmed (University of science and technology, Sudan)
المشكلات الاجرائية و الموضوعية التي تعيق عملية التحكيم الهندسي في السودان

ABSTRACT. شهد قطاع التشييد في السودان تطوراً في حجم الاستثمارات المالية و ظهور شركات مختلفة في مجال التشييد. هذا بدوره ادى الى ظهور اشكال تعاقدية غير نمطية لتلبي حاجة و طبيعة تلك المشاريع. مع اختلاف صيغ التعاقد تعددت مشاكلها المتعلقة بالصياغة وتناول الحقوق و الواجبات الخاصة باطراف العقد فظهرت بعض الخلافات والنزاعات بين اطراف المشروع الهندسي نتيجة لتضارب المصالح. بالرغم من وجود اليات مختلفة لفض النزاعات كما اشارت الدراسات السابقة يعد التحكيم الهندسي من انسب الخيارات التي يمكن الاستعانة بها. هدفت هذه الدراسة الي تناول التحكيم الهندسي بالسودان مع التركيز علي كيفية ممارستة الي اجراء مسح ميداني لتحديد المشكلات الاجرائية و الموضوعية التي تعيق هذه العملية. تمكن البحث من تقييم مستوى وعي المهندسين بالنواحي القانونية المتعلقة بمشاريع التشييد ومدى المامهم بمفهوم واسس التحكيم الهندسي. كما تطرق الى دراسة اسلوب صياغة العقود الي قياس تاثير اسلوب صياغة العقود علي نشوء النزاعات بين اطراف العقد. اظهرت النتائج ضعف مستوى وعي المهندسين بالنواحي القانونية علي وجه العموم واسس التحكيم الهندسي علي وجه الخصوص. و اوضحت النتائج عدم الالمام الجيد بالقوانين الاجرائية وقانون الاثبات والتثبيت. واتضح ايضاً تجنب الاطراف لذكر شرط التحكيم في كثير من العقود تفاديا لتكاليف عملية التحكيم. كما اوضحت بعض تعليقات المبحوثين الي اهمية حياد هيئات التحكيم في ممارستهم لعملية التحكيم. كما اتضح جليا وجود ضعف لدى المهندسين من ناحية صياغة العقود او من ناحية التقصير في قراة العقد جيداً قبل الموافقة علي اي بند من بنوده وعدم ادراكهم بالمشكلات الموْدية الي نزاعات وطرق تفاديها وعدم دراسة الظروف المحيطة بالمشروع قبل توقيع العقد.

Abdelaziz Fadoul (University of Nottingham, UK)
Walid Tizani (University of Nottingham, UK)
Christian Koch (Bauhaus-Universität Weimar, Germany)
Building Information Modelling for Constructability Assessment of Buildings Design

ABSTRACT. Implementation of constructability principles in the construction industry has a potential return on investment concerning time and money. Prior research shows that reviewing the design constructability at the early design stages provides benefits to owners, contractors and designers. Considering the complexity of current building design processes, there is a need to provide a decision support tool that can help designers in reviewing the design constructability based on embedded information within the design model. Such a tool would be most beneficial at the conceptual design stage so that constructability is factored into the design solution starting from its inception.

Therefore, this research investigates how contemporary process- and object-oriented models can be used to provide a mechanism that assesses the design constructability to inform the structural engineer’s building design decisions at an early stage that supports design optimization. Such framework will be implemented as a prototype using Application Programming Interface (API) in BIM extension, which will allow constructability to be embedded into the appraisal process of structural conceptual design options in BIM. The system can be used to explore what-if-scenarios in design iterations and appraise alternative design solutions using various construction methods.

13:30-15:00 Session 6B: Water Resources and Environmental Engineering
Prof. Thameur Chaibi (National Research Institute for Rural Engineering, Water, and Forestry (INRGREF), Tunisia)
Dr. Abubakr Bkhiet (Red Sea University, Sudan)
Location: WRC Main Hall
Michael Magdy Mounir Kamel (University Of Khartoum, Sudan)
Mohamed Ahmed Adam Khadam (University Of Khartoum, Sudan)
Study on water quality of River Nile in Khartoum State

ABSTRACT. Over the past few decades, water quality assessment and management became essential to insure the safety of human lives and the health of the ecosystems. In river waters, the level of dissolved oxygen is one of the most important indicators to water quality because of its influence on the organisms living within the body of river waters. This work presents a study on water quality of the White, Blue, and the River Nile within the area of Khartoum state in Sudan. Dissolved Oxygen (DO), Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD), Ammonia, Nitrate, Phosphate, water pH, and temperature were all measured and assessed with DO and BOD being the main parameters of importance in this study. Water samples were collected from 11 different locations covering the area that extends from Soba Bridge on the Blue Nile and Dabasin on the White Nile up to Halfaya Bridge on the River Nile. Water samples were collected every 14 days over a 3 months period starting from 29th August 2015 up to 9th January 2016. The results were analyzed based on WHO guidelines and Sudanese Standards Metrology Organization (SSMO). The results of the study indicated an overall good water quality in all locations except for the waters around the point source at Dabasin in White Nile (DO = 2.4 mg/l O2 and BOD = 450 mg/l) and the area between Manshiya and Kober in the Blue Nile (DO = 3.7 mg/l O2 and BOD = 45 mg/l). These results provide useful and effective information for the various authorities concerned with river water pollution control and management. It is highly recommended for further researches to be carried out especially during the summer season

Mustafa Mohammed (Red Sea University, Sudan)
Abubakr Bkhiet (Red Sea University, Sudan)
تقييم نوعية مياه الشرب لمدينة بورتسودان (المصدر خور أربعات)

ABSTRACT. مدينة بورتسودان تقع في منطقة شبة جافة ويبلغ تعداد السكان حوالي 926000 نسمة (اعتمادا على التعداد السكاني عام 2010م بمعدل نمو 5%) ويقدر الاستهلاك اليومي لمياه الشرب من 120-150ألف متر مكعب في اليوم والمياه المتوفرة من المصادر المختلفة (خور اربعات والمياه الجوفية) تتراوح من 60-30ألف متر مكعب بعجز مائي حوالي 66% وهذا يعطي صورة واضحة عما تعانيه مدينة بورتسودان من شح في مياه الشرب. تم انشاء ثلاثة سدود على خور اربعات بغرض حصاد المياه لتوفير مياه الشرب لمدينة بورتسودان والمناطق المحيطة، إحدى هذه السدود (سد الفاضلابى) امتلأ بالطمي بالكامل نتيجة للكميات الكبيرة الواردة منه في فترة الفيضان ونتيجة لذلك تمت إزالته فى آواخر العام 2012، أما سد أعلى البوابة العليا والذي يعتبر المصدر الرئيسي لمياه الشرب لمدينة بورتسودان بجانب الضخ من الآبار الجوفية حيث تبلغ سعته التصميمية 16 مليون متر مكعب، نقصت سعته الى حوالي النصف بفعل الطمي حيث لا يوجد تحديد دقيق لكمية الأطماء ببحيرة السد. أما السد الثالث وهو ما يعرف بالخزان الرابع وتم إنشاءه فى العام 1992 ويقع بالقرب من الدلتا حيث تبلغ سعته التصميمية حوالى 6 مليون متر مكعب يتم ضخ مياه اربعات بعد خلطها بالمياه الجوفية مباشرة دون معالجة مما يجعلها غير مطابقة للمواصفات وتتسبب في نقل كثير من الأمراض التى تؤثر على صحة الإنسان. وأيضا تحتوي على نسبة عالية من العكارة تفوق الحد المسموح به خاصة في فترة الفيضان. تهدف هذه الورقة الى تحديد جودة مياه المصادر المغذية لمدينة بورتسودان (خور اربعات والمياه الجوفية بالمنطقة)، حيث تم عمل زيارات ميدانية واخذ عدد 2 عينة مياه من بحيرة السد والخزان الرابع وعدد 3 عينات من الابار الجوفية و3 عينة من الاحياء السكنية وعدد 5 عينات من الخزانات الأرضية. وقد تم استخدام برنامج نظم المعلومات الجغرافية (Arc-Map) وباستخدام طريقة Kriging لدراسة توزع خصائص المياه بالاعتماد على الاحداثيات ونتائج العينات وقد تم انتاج عدد 2 خرائط رقمية تبين التوزيع المكاني لهذه الخصائص. وتساعد هذه النتائج في عمل التصميم الهيدروليكي لمحطة معالجة مياه الشرب لمدينة بورتسودان

Elham Baddor (Tashreen university, Syria)
Isam Abdel-Magid (Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal university, Saudi Arabia)
Nahid Farhood (Aleppo University, Syria)
دراسة كفاءة المعالجة البيولوجية باستخدام السرير الممدد الهوائي: حالة دراسة لمياه صرف من مذبح فني للدواجن
SPEAKER: Elham Baddor

ABSTRACT. نظراً للانتشار الواسع للمذابح الفنية للفروج؛ والتلوث الشديد الذي تسببه مياه مذابح الفروج المصرفة، ونتيجة للقيم المرتفعة للمواد المنحلة والعالقة وقيم مطلوب الأكسجين الكيميلئي COD ومطلوب الأكسجين الـحيوي BOD، فإن معالجة هذه المياه أصبحت ضرورة ملحة من أجل حماية البيئة من جهة؛ وترشيد استهلاك الماء من جهة أخرى؛ وذلك في ضوء العجز المائي، لذا وجد الباحثون أنه من الضروري المساهمة بإجراء دراسة للمشاكل التي تسببها هذه المذابح وإعطاء حلول عملية مناسبة لها. من ثم قام البحث بدراسة العوامل المؤثرة على كفاءة المعالجة البيولوجية لمياه مذبح فني للفروج، حيث درس تأثير كل من زمن المكوث وزيادة الحمل العضوي. ولاحظ الباحثون أن كفاءة المعالجة تزداد مع زيادة زمن المكوث حتى الوصل إلى أفضل زمن يحقق مواصفات للمياه المعالجة مطابقة للمواصفة القياسية لري الأراضي الزراعية، وهو 7 ساعات، على حين أن كفاءة المعالجة تناقصت مع ازدياد الحمل العضوي.

Mohamed Ahmed Adam Khadam (University of Khartoum, Sudan)
Management of wastewater Treatment Plants in Sudan

ABSTRACT. This paper presents the status of wastewater treatment plants in Sudan which have been subjected to major upgrading & replacement in various stages since 1960. Basically there are two centralized wastewater treatment plants in Khartoum State ( in Khartoum city & in Khartoum North ) . In other States of Sudan there are few decentralized wastewater treatment plants . The coverage of sewerage systems in Sudan is very low. Accordingly , the reuse practices of the treated wastewater vary with the relevant situation of the operating plants. In Khartoum State the two wastewater treatment plants are of capacities at present of 40000 m3/d & 17000 m3/d in Khartoum city & Khartoum North respectively . Previously, the plant in Khartoum city was a conventional attached growth process ( trickling filters ) which had been replaced by waste stabilization ponds with the treated effluent was being reused for restricted irrigation as a green belt in Khartoum South ( Eucolyptus Species ) . At present the green belt in Khartoum South is not in existence & the land was converted to residential areas . Treated effluent of the plant is at present partly directed to surface water creating potential environmental hazards. In Khartoum North , the plant has been upgraded to a conventional activated sludge process ( Sequential Batch Reactor ) & the treated effluent of 17000 m3/d is now reused for restricted irrigation in a sub-urban district in Khartoum North at a distance of about 20 Km ( Hattab district) . For the small decentralized wastewater plants in Khartoum State & other States of the country , the treated effluents are utilized locally for landscaping purposes. A sewerage master plan is recently launched in Khartoum State in order to put a strategy to improve the situation of this important infrastructure sector .

Abdul Rahim Mohemed Elhassan (ALMUGHTAREBEEN UNIVERSITY, Sudan)
Mojahid Eldouma (Al Mughtarebeen University, Sudan)
Environmental, Social and Economical Influences on Applying Waste Water Treatment Plants in Khartoum (Al Riyadh City-Case study)

ABSTRACT. Abstract :

Environmental health engineering is an important weapon in the fight against disease. Many of the dramatic improvements in public health in the developing countries over the last century or so are attributable to public health engineers, at least as much as to doctors. But these improvements have yet to reach the vast majority of the world’s poor, who still endure the high rate of death, disease and disability which have always been associated with poverty. The main aim of this paper is to develop an understanding of the main requirements for the effective development of water treatment systems in Khartoum cities. To achieve this aim, the methodologies used are field study in Riyadh city (as a case study) regarding the population, water consumption rate, soil topography. The results of these field studies showed that application of waste water treatment plants will improve the environmental health and human life style.

المستخلص : تعتبر الهندسة البيئية سلاح مهم في محاربة الأمراض. هنالك عدة تحسينات في صحة البيئة في الدول النامية خلال القرن الماضي تعزى إلى مهندس صحة البيئة أكثر من الأطباء، لكن هذه التحسينات لم تطال الدول الفقيرة والتي ما زالت تعاني من الوفيات، الامراض والاعاقة الجسدية التي دائماً تكون في المناطق الفقيرة. الهدف الرئيسي من هذه الورقة هو تطوير مفهوم للمتطلبات الرئيسية لإنشاء محطات معالجة فعالة وإنشاء شبكات صرف صحي بالعاصمة الخرطوم، للوصول لذلك الهدف تم اجراء دراسات ميدانية بمدينة الرياض (كدراسة حالة) من حيث عدد السكان وكمية المياه المستهلكة وطبيعة الارض. هذه الدراسة أثبتت أن إنشاء نظم معالجة مياه الصرف الصحي سيؤدي إلى تحسين الوضع الصحي والبيئي وكذلك تحسين مستوى الحياة بالنسبة للمجتمع.

Elfadil Azrag (Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Khartoum, Sudan)
Sadam H. Ahmed (University of Khartoum, Sudan)
A computer Aided Design New Techniques for Sewerage Networks
SPEAKER: Elfadil Azrag

ABSTRACT. The aim of this paper is to present a new computer aided design technique for the design of new sewers networks or rehabilitation and extensions of existing systems. The new software that embodies this new technique is entitled SewerGUI. The paper will also compare different design techniques for sewer network using a case study from Almanshiya area of Khartoum city, Sudan. Currently this area has no sewerage network and only relies on onsite systems, where septic tanks and disposal wells represents the major method of wastewater disposal. This is also typical for almost 90% of Khartoum state, a condition that makes this paper important in this time while we are moving to develop the state’s sewerage system. The comparison is needed now as currently there are several design techniques available to the engineer which yield variable designs and cost magnitudes. The design methods investigated and compared are namely; sewerCAD V8 (version 2014) upgraded and marketed by Bentley, USA, sewerGUI developed by Dr. Elfadil Azrag, University of Khartoum, Sudan, and manual spread sheet calculation. Almanshiya area which is similar to all none sewer areas in the capital as the majority of residents use on onsite wet disposal systems. Hence the collected wastewater is pre-settled in septic tanks and free from large objects, this condition encourages the use of low cleaning velocity of 0.4 m/s. The estimated number of resident in the district was 19,000 persons and the per capita water use was considered as 250 l/c/d. The total length of the network is approximately 24 km with 592 manholes. The configuration of the network was optimized to attain the minimum amounts of excavation and cost. The comparison revealed that while the total excavation needed by the two techniques, sewerCAD and manual calculations, gave similar volumes of excavations in the neighborhood of 64,000 m3 sewerGUI estimated a volume less than 50,000 m3. That was due to the estimated maximum pipe invert depth is 6.7 m by sewerCAD, and 9.66 by manual calculation and it is 4.87m by sewerGUI. The total bedding in sewerCAD was 10670m3, and 10930m3 by sewerGUI and 10480m3 by manual spread sheet calculation. This resulted in an estimate of the total cost of the project to be the highest of approximately 15,647,000 SDG when using the design by SewerCAD, the manual calculations yielded an estimated cost of 14,924,000 SDG, and as expected SewerGUI resulted in the minimum cost of 14,097,000 SDG.