ABSTRACT. The deployment of artificial intelligence (AI), particularly of systems
that learn from data and experience, is rapidly expanding in our society.
Verified artificial intelligence (AI) is the goal of designing AI-based
systems that have strong, verified assurances of correctness with
respect to mathematically-specified requirements. In this talk, I will
consider Verified AI from a formal methods perspective. I will describe five
challenges for achieving Verified AI, and five corresponding principles
for addressing these challenges. I will illustrate these challenges
and principles with examples and sample results from the domain of
intelligent cyber-physical systems, with a particular focus on
autonomous vehicles.

A Formally Verified Motion Planners for Autonomous Vehicles

ABSTRACT. Autonomous vehicles are safety-critical cyber-physical systems. To ensure their correctness, we use a proof assistant to prove safety properties deductively. This paper presents a formally verified motion planner based on manoeuvre automata in Isabelle/HOL. Two general properties which we ensure are numerical soundness (the absence of floating-point errors) and logical correctness (satisfying a plan specified in linear temporal logic). From these two properties, we obtain a motion planner whose correctness only depends on the validity of the models of the ego vehicle and its environment.

Quantitative Projection Coverage for Testing ML-enabled Autonomous Systems

ABSTRACT. Systematically testing models learned from neural networks remains a crucial unsolved barrier to successfully justify safety for autonomous vehicles engineered using data-driven approach. We propose quantitative k-projection coverage as a metric to mediate combinatorial explosion while guiding the data sampling process. By assuming that domain experts propose largely independent environment conditions and by associating elements in each condition with weights, the product of these conditions forms scenarios, and one may interpret weights associated with each equivalence class as relative importance. Achieving full k-projection coverage requires that the data set, when being projected to the hyperplane formed by arbitrarily selected k-conditions, covers each class with number of data points no less than the associated weight. For the general case where scenario composition is constrained by rules, precisely computing k-projection coverage remains in NP. In terms of finding minimum test cases to achieve full coverage, we present theoretical complexity for important sub-cases and an encoding to 0-1 integer programming. We have implemented a research prototype that generates test cases for a visual object detection unit in automated driving, demonstrating the technological feasibility of our proposed coverage criterion.

ABSTRACT. We introduce the State Classification Problem (SCP) for continuous and hybrid systems, and present Neural State Classification (NSC) as an efficient solution technique. SCP generalizes the model checking problem as it entails classifying each state s of a hybrid automaton as either positive or negative, depending on whether or not s satisfies a given time-bounded reachability specification. This is an interesting problem in its own right, which NSC solves using machine-learning techniques, Deep Neural Networks in particular. State classifiers produced by NSC tend to be very efficient (run in constant time and space), but may be subject to classification errors. To quantify and mitigate such errors, our approach comprises: i) techniques for certifying, with statistical guarantees, that an NSC classifier meets given accuracy levels; ii) tuning techniques, including a novel technique based on adversarial sampling, that can virtually eliminate false negatives (positive states classified as negative), thereby making the classifier more conservative. We have applied NSC to six nonlinear hybrid system benchmarks, achieving an accuracy of 99.25% to 99.98%, and a false-negative rate of 0.0033 to~0, which we further reduced to 0.0015 to~0 after tuning the classifier. We believe that this level of accuracy is acceptable in many practical applications, and that these results demonstrate the promise of the NSC approach.

What’s to come is still unsure: Synthesizing controllers resilient to delayed interaction

ABSTRACT. The possible interactions between a controller and its environment can naturally be modelled as the arena of a two-player game, and adding an appropriate winning condition permits to specify desirable behavior. The classical model here is the positional game, where both players can (fully or partially) observe the current position in the game graph, which in turn is indicative of their mutual current states. In practice, neither sensing or actuating the environment through physical devices nor data forwarding to and signal processing in the controller are instantaneous. The resultant delays force the controller to draw decisions before being aware of the recent history of a play. It is known that existence of a winning strategy for the controller in games with such delays is decidable over finite game graphs and with respect to ω-regular objectives. The underlying reduction, however, is impractical for non-trivial delays as it incurs a blow-up of the game graph which is exponential in the magnitude of the delay. For safety objectives, we propose a more practical incremental algorithm synthesizing a series of controllers handling increasing delays and reducing game-graph size in between. It is demonstrated using benchmark examples that even a simplistic explicit-state implementation of this algorithm outperforms state-of-the-art symbolic synthesis algorithms as soon as non-trivial delays have to be handled. We furthermore shed some light on the practically relevant case of non-order-preserving delays, as arising in actual networked control, thereby considerably extending the scope of regular game theory under delay pioneered by Klein and Zimmermann.

A Symbolic Algorithm for Lazy Synthesis of Eager Strategies

ABSTRACT. We present an algorithm for solving two-player safety games that combines a mixed forward/backward search strategy with a symbolic representation of the state space. By combining forward and backward exploration, our algorithm can synthesize strategies that are eager in the sense that they try to prevent progress towards the error states as soon as possible, whereas standard backwards algorithms often produce permissive solutions that only react when absolutely necessary. We provide experimental results for two new sets of benchmarks, as well as the benchmark set of the Reactive Synthesis Competition (SYNTCOMP) 2017.
The results show that our algorithm can in many cases produce more eager strategies than a standard backwards algorithm, and even solves a number of benchmarks that are intractable for existing tools. Finally, we observe a connection between our algorithm and a recently proposed algorithm for the synthesis of controllers that are robust against disturbances, pointing to possible future applications.

ABSTRACT. We consider systems with unboundedly many processes that communicate through shared memory. In that context, simple verification questions have a high complexity or, in the case of pushdown processes, are even undecidable. Good algorithmic properties are recovered under round-bounded verification, which restricts the system behavior to a bounded number of round-robin schedules. In this paper, we extend this approach to a game-based setting. This allows one to solve synthesis and control problems, paves the way for branching-time model checking of parameterized systems, and constitutes a further step towards a theory of languages over infinite alphabets.

Optimal Proofs for Linear Temporal Logic on Lasso Words

ABSTRACT. Counterexamples produced by model checkers can be hard to grasp. Often it is not even evident why a trace violates a specification. We show how to provide easy-to-check evidence for the violation of a linear temporal logic (LTL) formula on a lasso word, based on a novel sound and complete proof system for LTL on lasso words. Valid proof trees in our proof system follow the syntactic structure of the formula and provide insight on why each Boolean or temporal operator is violated or satisfied. We introduce the notion of optimal proofs with respect to a user-specified preference order and identify sufficient conditions for efficiently computing optimal proofs. We design and evaluate an algorithm that performs this computation, demonstrating that it can produce optimal proofs for complex formulas in under a second.

A Fragment of Linear Temporal Logic for Universal Very Weak Automata

ABSTRACT. Many temporal specifications used in practical model checking can be represented as universal very weak automata (UVW). They are structurally simple and their states can be labeled by simple temporal logic formulas that they represent. For complex temporal properties, it can be hard to understand why a trace violates a property, so when employing UVWs in model checking, this information helps with interpreting the trace. At the same time, the simple structure of UVWs helps the model checker with finding short traces.

While a translation from computation tree logic (CTL) with only universal path quantifiers to UVWs has been described in earlier work, complex temporal properties that define sequences of allowed events along computations of a system are easier to describe in linear temporal logic (LTL). However, no direct translation from LTL to UVWs with little blow-up is known.

In this paper, we define a fragment of LTL that gives rise to a simple and efficient translation from it to UVW. The logic contains the most common shapes of safety and liveness properties, including all nestings of Until-subformulas. We give a translation from this fragment to UVWs that only has an exponential blow-up in the worst case, which we show to be unavoidable. We demonstrate that the simple shape of UVWs helps with understanding counter-examples in a case study.

ABSTRACT. We present EVE (Equilibrium Verification Environment), a formal verification tool for the automated analysis of temporal equilibrium properties of concurrent and multi-agent systems represented as multi-player games. Systems are modelled using the Simple Reactive Module Language (SRML) as a collection of independent system components (players/agents in a game), which are assumed to have goals expressed using Linear Temporal Logic (LTL) formulae. EVE can be used to check the existence of Nash equilibria in such systems and verify which temporal logic properties are satisfied in the equilibria.

MGHyper: Checking Satisfiability of HyperLTL formulas beyond the exists-forall Fragment

ABSTRACT. Hyperproperties are properties that refer to multiple computation traces. This includes many information-flow security policies, such as observational determinism, (generalized) noninterference, and noninference, and other system properties like symmetry or Hamming distances between in error-resistant codes. We introduce MGHyper, a tool for automatic satisfiability checking and model generation for hyperproperties expressed in HyperLTL. Unlike previous satisfiability checkers, MGHyper is not limited to the decidable exists-forall fragment of HyperLTL, but provides a semi-decisionprocedure for the full logic. An important application of MGHyper is to automatically check equivalences between different hyperproperties (and different formalizations of the same hyperproperty) and to build counterexamples that disprove a certain claimed implication. We describe the semi-decisionprocedure implemented in MGHyper and report on experimental results obtained both with typical hyperproperties from the literature and with randomly generated HyperLTL formulas.

ABSTRACT. We introduce a new logic called Signal Convolution Logic (SCL) that combines temporal
logic with convolutional filters from digital signal processing. SCL enables to reason about the percentage of time a formula is satisfied in a bounded interval.
We demonstrate that this new logic is a suitable formalism to effectively express non-functional requirements in Cyber-Physical Systems displaying noisy and irregular behaviours.
We define both a qualitative and quantitative semantics for it, providing an efficient monitoring procedure. Finally, we prove SCL at work to monitor the artificial pancreas controllers that are employed to automate the delivery of insulin for patients with type-1 diabetes.