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08:45-10:15 Session 62I: Contributed Talks: Uncertainty 1
Location: EI, EI 9
Nonmonotonic Reasoning as a Temporal Activity

ABSTRACT. A 'dynamic reasoning system' (DRS) is an adaptation of a conventional formal logical system that explicitly portrays reasoning as a temporal activity, with each extralogical input to the system and each inference rule application being viewed as occurring at a distinct time step. Every DRS incorporates some well-defined logic together with a controller that serves to guide the reasoning process in response to user inputs. Logics are generic, whereas controllers are application-specific. Every controller does, nonetheless, provide an algorithm for nonmonotonic belief revision. The general notion of a DRS comprises a framework within which one can formulate the logic and algorithms for a given application and prove that the algorithms are correct, i.e., that they serve to (i) derive all salient information and (ii) preserve the consistency of the belief set. This paper illustrates the idea with ordinary first-order predicate calculus, suitably modified for the present purpose, and an example. The example revisits some classic nonmonotonic reasoning puzzles (Opus the Penguin, Nixon Diamond) and shows how these can be resolved in the context of a DRS, using an expanded version of first-order logic that incorporates typed predicate symbols. All concepts are rigorously defined and effectively computable, thereby providing the foundation for a future software implementation.

Probabilistic Inductive Logic Programming based on Answer Set Programming
SPEAKER: unknown

ABSTRACT. We propose a new formal language for the expressive representation of probabilistic knowledge based on Answer Set Programming (ASP). It allows for the annotation of first-order formulas as well as ASP rules and facts with probabilities and for learning of such weights from data (parameter estimation). Weighted formulas are given a semantics in terms of soft and hard constraints which determine a probability distribution over answer sets. In contrast to related approaches, we approach inference by optionally utilizing so-called streamlining XOR constraints, in order to reduce the number of computed answer sets. Our approach is prototypically implemented. Examples illustrate the introduced concepts and point at issues and topics for future research.

A Plausibility Semantics for Abstract Argumentation Frameworks
SPEAKER: Emil Weydert

ABSTRACT. We propose and investigate a simple plausibility-based extension semantics for abstract argumentation frameworks based on their generic instantiation by default knowledge bases and the ranking construction paradigm for default reasoning.

10:15-10:45Coffee Break
10:45-12:15 Session 66BA: Contributed Talks: Declarative Programming 1
Location: EI, EI 9
An Approach to Forgetting in Disjunctive Logic Programs that Preserves Strong Equivalence
SPEAKER: unknown

ABSTRACT. In this paper we investigate forgetting in disjunctive logic programs, where forgetting an atom from a program amounts to a reduction in the signature of that program. The goal is to provide an approach that is syntax-independent, in that if two programs are strongly equivalent, then the results of forgetting an atom in each program should also be strongly equivalent. Our central definition of forgetting is impractical but satisfies this goal: Forgetting an atom is characterised by the set of SE consequences of the program that do not mention the atom to be forgotten. We then provide an equivalent, practical definition, wherein forgetting an atom $p$ is given by those rules in the program that don't mention $p$, together with rules obtained by a single inference step from rules that do mention $p$. Forgetting is shown to have appropriate properties; as well, the finite characterisation results in a modest (at worst quadratic) blowup. Finally we have also obtained a prototype implementation of this approach to forgetting.

Three Semantics for Modular Systems

ABSTRACT. IIn this paper, we further develop the framework of Modular Systems that lays model-theoretic foundations for combining different declarative languages, agents and solvers. We introduce a multi-language logic of modular systems. We define two novel semantics, a structural operational semantics, and an inference-based semantics. We prove the new semantics are equivalent to the original model-theoretic semantics and describe future research directions.

Generalising Modular Logic Programs
SPEAKER: unknown

ABSTRACT. Answer set programming is a prominent declarative rulebased programming paradigm. Even though modularity has been studied extensively in conventional logic programming, there are only few approaches on how to incorporate modularity into Answer set programming. A major approach is Oikarinnen and Janhunen’s Gaifman-Shapiro-style architecture of program modules, which provides the composition of program modules. Their module theorem properly strengthens Lifschitz and Turner’s splitting set theorem for normal logic programs. However, this approach is limited by module conditions that are imposed in order to ensure the compatibility of their module system with the answer set semantics, namely forcing output signatures of modules to be disjoint and disallowing positive cyclic dependencies between different modules. These conditions turn out to be too restrictive in practice. In this paper we discuss alternative ways of lifting both restrictions independently, widening the applicability of this framework and the scope of the module theorem.

12:15-13:00 Session 73: Contributed Talks: Systems 1
Location: EI, EI 9
The Multi-engine ASP Solver ME-ASP: Progress Report
SPEAKER: unknown

ABSTRACT. ME-ASP is a multi-engine solver for ground ASP programs. It exploits algorithm selection techniques based on classification to select one among a set of out-of-the-box heterogeneous ASP solvers used as black-box engines. In this paper we report on (i) a new optimized implementation of ME-ASP; and (ii) an attempt of applying algorithm selection to non-ground programs. An experimental analysis reported in the paper shows that (i) the new implementation of ME-ASP is substantially faster than the previous version; and (ii) the multi-engine recipe can be applied to the evaluation of non-ground programs with some benefits.

Preliminary Report on WASP 2
SPEAKER: unknown

ABSTRACT. Answer Set Programming (ASP) is a declarative programming paradigm. The intrinsic complexity of the evaluation of ASP programs makes the development of more effective and faster systems a challenging research topic. This paper reports on the recent improvements of the ASP solver WASP. WASP is undergoing a refactoring process which will end up in the release of a new and more performant version of the software. In particular the paper focus on the improvements to the core evaluation algorithms working on normal programs. A preliminary experiment on benchmarks from the 3rd ASP competition belonging to the NP class is reported. The previous version of WASP was often not competitive with alternative solutions on this class. The new version of WASP shows a substantial increase in performance.

13:00-14:30Lunch Break
14:30-15:30 Session 75BB: Invited Talk
Location: EI, EI 9
Four Floors for the Theory of Theory Change
SPEAKER: Hans Rott

ABSTRACT. The theory of theory change due to Alchourrón, Gärdenfors, and Makinson ("AGM") has been widely known as being characterised by two packages of postulates. The basic package consists of six postulates and is very weak, the full package adds two further postulates and is very strong. Revisiting the three classic constructions of partial meet contraction, safe contraction and entrenchment-based construction and tracing the idea of limited discriminative powers in agents, I argue that four intermediate levels can be distinguished that play important roles within the AGM theory.

15:30-16:00 Session 78B: Contributed Talk: Declarative Programming 2
Location: EI, EI 9
On Strong and Default Negation in Logic Program Updates
SPEAKER: Joao Leite

ABSTRACT. Existing semantics for answer-set program updates fall into two categories: either they consider only strong negation in heads of rules, or they primarily rely on default negation in heads of rules and optionally provide support for strong negation by means of a syntactic transformation. In this paper we pinpoint the limitations of both these approaches and argue that both types of negation should be first-class citizens in the context of updates. We identify principles that plausibly constrain their interaction but are not simultaneously satisfied by any existing rule update semantics. Then we extend one of the most advanced semantics with direct support for strong negation and show that it satisfies the outlined principles as well as a variety of other desirable properties.

16:00-16:30Coffee Break
16:30-19:00 Session 79A: VSL Joint Award Ceremony 1
Location: MB, Kuppelsaal
Foundations and Technology Competitions Award Ceremony

ABSTRACT. The third round of the Kurt Gödel Research Prize Fellowships Program, under the title: Connecting Foundations and Technology, aims at supporting young scholars in early stages of their academic careers by offering highest fellowships in history of logic, kindly supported by the John Templeton Foundation. Young scholars being less or exactly 40 years old at the time of the commencement of the Vienna Summer of Logic (July 9, 2014) will be awarded one fellowship award in the amount of EUR 100,000, in each of the following categories:

  • Logical Foundations of Mathematics,
  • Logical Foundations of Computer Science, and
  • Logical Foundations of Artificial Intelligence

The following three Boards of Jurors were in charge of choosing the winners:

  • Logical Foundations of Mathematics: Jan Krajíček, Angus Macintyre, and Dana Scott (Chair).
  • Logical Foundations of Computer Science: Franz Baader, Johann Makowsky, and Wolfgang Thomas (Chair).
  • Logical Foundations of Artificial Intelligence: Luigia Carlucci Aiello, Georg Gottlob (Chair), and Bernhard Nebel.


FLoC Olympic Games Award Ceremony 1

ABSTRACT. The aim of the FLoC Olympic Games is to start a tradition in the spirit of the ancient Olympic Games, a Panhellenic sport festival held every four years in the sanctuary of Olympia in Greece, this time in the scientific community of computational logic. Every four years, as part of the Federated Logic Conference, the Games will gather together all the challenging disciplines from a variety of computational logic in the form of the solver competitions.

At the Award Ceremonies, the competition organizers will have the opportunity to present their competitions to the public and give away special prizes, the prestigious Kurt Gödel medals, to their successful competitors. This reinforces the main goal of the FLoC Olympic Games, that is, to facilitate the visibility of the competitions associated with the conferences and workshops of the Federated Logic Conference during the Vienna Summer of Logic.

This award ceremony will host the

  • 3rd Confluence Competition (CoCo 2014);
  • Configurable SAT Solver Challenge (CSSC 2014);
  • Ninth Max-SAT Evaluation (Max-SAT 2014);
  • QBF Gallery 2014; and
  • SAT Competition 2014 (SAT-COMP 2014).
FLoC Closing Week 1
SPEAKER: Helmut Veith
16:30-18:30 Session 80R: Contributed Talks: Belief Change
Location: EI, EI 9
Inference in the FO(C) Modelling Language
SPEAKER: Bart Bogaerts

ABSTRACT. Recently, FO(C), the integration of C-Log with classical logic, was introduced as a knowledge representation language. Up to this point, no systems exist that perform inference on FO(C), and very little is known about properties of inference in FO(C). In this paper, we study both of the above problems. We define normal forms for FO(C), one of which corresponds to FO(ID). We define transformations between these normal forms, and show that, using these transformations, several inference tasks for FO(C) can be reduced to inference tasks for FO(ID), for which solvers exist. We implemented a prototype of this transformation, and thus present the first system to perform inference in FO(C). We also provide results about the complexity of reasoning in FO(C).

FO(C) and Related Modelling Paradigms
SPEAKER: Bart Bogaerts

ABSTRACT. Recently, C-Log was introduced as a language for modelling causal processes. Its formal semantics has been defined together with introductory examples, but the study of this language is far from finished. In this paper, we compare C-Log to other declarative modelling languages. More specifically, we compare to first-order logic (FO), and argue that C-Log and FO are orthogonal and that their integration, FO(C), is a knowledge representation language that allows for clear and succinct models. We compare FO(C) to E-disjunctive logic programming with the stable semantics, and define a fragment on which both semantics coincide. Furthermore, we discuss object-creation in FO(C), relating it to mathematics, business rules systems, and data base systems.

Belief merging within fragments of propositional logic
SPEAKER: unknown

ABSTRACT. Recently, belief change within the framework of fragments of propositional logic has gained increasing attention. Previous works focused on belief contraction and belief revision on the Horn fragment. However, the problem of belief merging within fragments of propositional logic has been neglected so far. This paper presents a general approach to define new merging operators derived from existing ones such that the result of merging remains in the fragment under consideration. Our approach is not limited to the case of Horn fragment but applicable to any fragment of propositional logic characterized by a closure property on the sets of models of its formulae. We study the logical properties of the proposed operators in terms of satisfaction of merging postulates, considering in particular distance-based merging operators for Horn and Krom fragments.

Belief Revision and Trust
SPEAKER: Aaron Hunter

ABSTRACT. Belief revision is the process in which an agent incorporates a new piece of information together with a pre-existing set of beliefs. When the new information comes in the form of a report from another agent, then it is clear that we must first determine whether or not that agent should be trusted. In this paper, we provide a formal approach to modeling trust as a pre-processing step before belief revision. We emphasize that trust is not simply a relation between agents; the trust that one agent has in another is often restricted to a particular domain of expertise. We demonstrate that this form of trust can be captured by associating a state-partition with each agent, then relativizing all reports to this state partition before performing belief revision. In this manner, we incorporate only the part of a report that falls under the perceived domain of expertise of the reporting agent. Unfortunately, state partitions based on expertise do not allow us to compare the relative strength of trust held with respect to different agents. To address this problem, we introduce pseudometrics over states to represent differing degrees of trust. This allows us to incorporate simultaneous reports from multiple agents in a way that ensures the most trusted reports will be believed