09:00-10:00 Session 13: Invited talk by Frank Wolter (LPAR)
Ontology-based Data Access: A Study through Disjunctive Datalog, CSP, and MMSNP
SPEAKER: Frank Wolter

Ontology-based data access is concerned with querying incomplete data sources in the presence of domain specific knowledge provided by an ontology. A central notion in this setting is that of an ontology-mediated query, which is a database query coupled with an ontology. In this talk, I discuss  several classes of ontology-mediated queries, where the database queries are given as some form of conjunctive query and the ontologies are formulated in description logics or other relevant fragments of first-order logic, such as the guarded fragment and the unary-negation fragment. I will discuss three  contributions. First it is shown that popular ontology-mediated query languages have the same expressive power as natural fragments of disjunctive datalog. Second, we establish intimate connections between ontology-mediated queries and constraint satisfaction problems (CSPs) and their logical generalization, MMSNP formulas. Third, we exploit these connections to obtain new results regarding (i) first-order rewritability and datalog-rewritability of ontology-mediated queries, (ii) P/NP dichotomies for ontology-mediated queries, and (iii) the query containment problem for ontology-mediated queries.
The talk is based on joint work with M. Bienvenue, B. ten Cate, and C. Lutz.

10:00-10:30Coffee Break
10:30-12:00 Session 14 (LPAR)
Multi-Objective Discounted Reward Verification in Graphs and MDPs

We study the problem of achieving a given value in Markov decision processes (MDPs) with several independent discounted reward objectives. We consider a generalised version of discounted reward objectives, in which the amount of discounting depends on the states visited and on the objective. This definition extends the usual definition of discounted reward, and allows to capture the systems in which the value of different commodities diminish at different and variable rates.

We establish results for two prominent subclasses of the problem, namely state-discount models where the discount factors are only dependent on the state of the MDP (and independent of the objective), and reward-discount models where they are only dependent on the objective (but not on the state of the MDP). For the state-discount models we use a straightforward reduction to expected total reward objectives and show that the problem whether a value is achievable can be solved in polynomial time. For the reward-discount model we show that memory and randomisation of the strategies are required, but nevertheless that the problem is decidable and it is sufficient to consider strategies which after a certain number of steps behave in a memoryless way.

For the general case, we show that when restricted to graphs (i.e. MDPs with no randomisation), pure strategies and discount factors of the form $1/n$ where $n$ is an integer, the problem is in PSPACE and finite memory suffices for achieving a given value. We also show that when the discount factors are not of the form $1/n$, the memory required by a strategy can be infinite.

Conflict Resolution in Structured Argumentation

While several interesting argumentation-based semantics for defeasible logic programs have been proposed, to our best knowledge, none of these approaches is able to fully handle the closure under strict rules in a sufficient manner: they are either not closed, or they use workarounds such as transposition of rules which violates the desired directionality of logic programming rules.

We propose a novel argumentation-based semantics, in which the status of arguments is determined by attacks between newly introduced conflict resolutions instead of attacks between arguments. We show that the semantics is closed w.r.t. strict rules and respects the directionality of inference rules, as well as other desired properties previously published in the literature.

Towards Rational Closure for Fuzzy Logic: The Case of Propositional Gödel Logic

In the field of non-monotonic logics, the notion of \emph{rational closure} is acknowledged as a landmark and we are going to see whether such a construction can be adopted in the context of mathematical fuzzy logic, a so far (apparently) unexplored journey. As a first step, we will characterise rational closure in the context of Propositional G\"odel Logic.

Description Logics, Rules and Multi-Context Systems

The combination of rules and ontologies has been a fertile topic of research in the last years, with the proposal of several different systems that achieve this goal. In this paper, we look at two of these formalisms, Mdl-programs and multi-context systems, which address different aspects of this combination, and include different, incomparable programming constructs. Despite this, we show that every Mdl-program can be transformed in a multi-context system, and this transformation relates the different semantics for each paradigm in a natural way. As an application, we show how a set of design patterns for multi-context systems can be obtained from previous work on Mdl-programs.

HOL based First-order Modal Logic Provers

First-order modal logics (FMLs) can be modeled as natural fragments of classical higher-order logic (HOL). The FMLtoHOL tool exploits this fact and it enables the application of off-the-shelf HOL provers and model finders for reasoning within FMLs. The tool bridges between the qmf-syntax for FML and the TPTP thf-syntax for HOL. It currently supports logics K, K4, D, D4, T, S4, and S5 with respect to constant, varying and cumulative domain semantics. The approach is evaluated in combination with a meta-prover for HOL which sequentially schedules various HOL reasoners. The resulting system is very competitive.

14:00-15:30 Session 15 (LPAR)
Reachability Modules for the Description Logic SRIQ
SPEAKER: Riku Nortje

In this paper we investigate module extraction for the Description Logic SRIQ. We formulate modules in terms of the reachability problem for directed hypergraphs. Using inseperability relations, we investigate the module-theoretic properties of reachability modules and show by means of an empirical evaluation that these modules have the potential of being substantially smaller than syntactic locality modules.

Forgetting Concept and Role Symbols in ALCH-Ontologies

We develop a resolution-based method for forgetting concept and role symbols in ALCH ontologies, or for computing uniform interpolants in ALCH. Uniform interpolants use only a restricted set of symbols, while preserving consequences of the original ontology involving these symbols. While recent work towards practical methods for uniform interpolation in expressive description logics focuses on forgetting concept symbols, we believe most applications would benefit from the possibility to forget both role and concept symbols. We focus on the description logic ALCH, which allows for the formalisation of role hierarchies. Our approach is based on a recently developed resolution based-calculus for forgetting concept symbols in ALC ontologies, which we extend by redundancy elimination techniques to make it practical for larger ontologies. Experiments on ALCH fragments of real life ontologies suggest that our method is applicable in a lot of real-life applications.

Prediction and Explanation over DL-Lite Data Streams

Stream reasoning is an emerging research area focusing on the development of reasoning techniques applicable to streams of rapidly changing, semantically enhanced data. In this paper, we consider data represented in Description Logics from the popular DL-Lite family, and study the logic foundations of prediction and explanation over DL-Lite data streams, i.e., reasoning from finite segments of streaming data to conjectures about the content of the streams in the future or in the past. We propose a novel formalization of the problem based on temporal ``past-future'' rules, grounded in Temporal Query Language. Such rules can naturally accommodate complex data association patterns, which are typically discovered through data mining processes, with logical and temporal constraints of varying expressiveness. Further, we analyse the computational complexity of reasoning with rules expressed in different fragments of the temporal language. As a result, we draw precise demarcation lines between NP-, DP- and PSpace-complete variants of our setting and, consequently, suggest relevant restrictions rendering prediction and explanation more feasible in practice.

Practical Querying of Temporal Data via OWL 2 QL and SQL:2011

We develop a practical approach to querying temporal data stored in temporal SQL:2011 databases through the semantic layer of OWL 2 QL ontologies. An interval-based temporal query language (TQL), which we propose for this task, is defined via naturally characterizable combinations of temporal logic with conjunctive queries. This foundation warrants well-defined semantics and formal properties of TQL querying. In particular, we show that under certain mild restrictions the data complexity of query answering remains in AC$^0$, i.e., as in the usual, nontemporal case. On the practical side, TQL is tailored specifically to offer maximum expressivity while preserving the possibility of reusing standard first-order rewriting techniques and tools for OWL 2 QL.

An Algorithm for Enumerating Maximal Models of Horn Theories with an Application to Modal Logics

The fragment of propositional logic known as Horn theories plays a central role in automated reasoning. The problem of enumerating the maximal models of a Horn theory (MaxMod) has been proved to be computationally hard, unless P = NP. To the best of our knowledge, the only algorithm available for it is the one based on a brute-force approach. In this paper, we provide an algorithm for the problem of enumerating the maximal subsets of facts that do not entail a distinguished atomic proposition in a positive Horn theory (MaxNoEntail). We show that MaxMod is polynomially reducible to MaxNoEntail (and vice versa), making it possible to solve also the former problem using the proposed algorithm. Addressing MaxMod via MaxNoEntail opens, inter alia, the possibility of benefiting from the monotonicity of the notion of entailment. (The notion of model does not enjoy such a property.) We also discuss an application of MaxNoEntail to expressiveness issues for modal logics, which reveals the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

15:30-16:00Coffee Break
16:00-17:30 Session 16 (LPAR)
On QBF Proofs and Preprocessing

Quantified Boolean formulas (QBFs) elegantly extend propositional satisfiability providing us with a canonical representation for PSPACE problems. To overcome the inherent complexity of QBF, significant effort has been invested in developing QBF solvers as well as the underlying proof systems. At the same time, formula preprocessing is crucial for the application of QBF solvers. This paper focuses on a missing link in currently-available technology: How to obtain a proof for a formula that had been preprocessed before it was given to a solver? The paper targets a suite of commonly-used preprocessing techniques and shows how to reconstruct proofs for them. On the negative side, the paper discusses certain limitations of the currently-used proof systems in the light of preprocessing. The presented proof-construction techniques were implemented and evaluated in the state-of-the-art QBF preprocessor bloqqer.

Simulating Parity Reasoning
SPEAKER: Tero Laitinen

Propositional satisfiability (SAT) solvers, which typically operate using conjunctive normal form (CNF), have been successfully applied in many domains. However, in some application areas such as circuit verification, bounded model checking, and logical cryptanalysis, instances can have many parity (xor) constraints which may not be handled efficiently if translated to CNF. Thus, extensions to the CNF-driven search with various stronger parity reasoning engines ranging from equivalence reasoning to incremental Gaussian elimination have been proposed. This paper studies how stronger parity reasoning techniques in the DPLL(XOR) framework can be simulated by simpler systems: resolution, unit propagation, and parity explanations. Such simulations are interesting, for example, for developing the next generation SAT solvers capable of handling parity constraints efficiently.

BDI: A New Decidable First-order Clause Class

BDI (Bounded Depth Increase) is a new decidable first-order clause class. It strictly includes known classes such as PVD. The arity of function and predicate symbols as well as the shape of atoms is not restricted in BDI. Instead the shape of "cycles" in resolution inferences is restricted such that the depth of generated clauses may increase but is still finitely bound. The BDI class is motivated by real world problems where function terms are used to represent record structures.

We show that the hyper-resolution calculus modulo redundancy elimination terminates on BDI clause sets. Employing this result to the ordered resolution calculus, we can also prove termination of ordered resolution on BDI, yielding a more efficient decision procedure.

Blocked Clause Decomposition
SPEAKER: Marijn Heule

We demonstrate that it is fairly easy to decompose any propositional formula into two subsets such that both can be solved by blocked clause elimination. Such a blocked clause decomposition is useful to cheaply detect backbone variables and equivalent literals. Blocked clause decompositions are especially useful when they are unbalanced, i.e., the size of one subset is much larger in size than the other one. We present algorithms and heuristics to obtain unbalanced decompositions efficiently. Our techniques have been implemented in the state-of-the-art solver Lingeling. Experiments show that the performance of Lingeling is clearly improved due to these techniques on application benchmarks of the SAT Competition 2013.

Long-distance Resolution: Proof Generation and Strategy Extraction in Search-based QBF Solving

Strategies (and certificates) for quantified Boolean formulas (QBFs) are of high practical relevance as they facilitate the verification of results returned by QBF solvers and the generation of solutions to problems formulated as QBFs. State of the art approaches to obtain strategies require traversing a Q-resolution proof of a QBF, which for many real-life instances is too large to handle. In this work, we consider the long-distance Q-resolution (LDQ) calculus, which allows particular tautological resolvents. We show that for a family of QBFs using LDQ allows for exponentially shorter proofs compared to Q-resolution. We further show that an approach to strategy extraction originally presented for Q-resolution proofs can also be applied to LDQ-resolution proofs. As a practical application, we consider search-based QBF solvers which are able to learn tautological clauses based on resolution and the conflict-driven clause learning method. We prove that the resolution proofs produced by these solvers correspond to proofs in the LDQ calculus and can therefore be used as input for strategy extraction algorithms. Experimental results illustrate the potential of the LDQ calculus in search-based QBF solving.